To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.
... The booking visit within 14 th to 17 th week of gestation was associated with the highest percentage of good knowledge (51.9%). The percentage of pregnant women with good knowledge of pregnancy danger signs was fortyfour which is high compared to the study previously conducted in Iraq, in Baghdad city in 2017, 14 which revealed that less than ten percent of women had an acceptable or good level of knowledge. The most commonly recognized danger sign in this study was vaginal bleeding which was mentioned by 83% of women followed by severe abdominal pain and reduced or absent fetal movement with a percentage of (79% and 55.3%) for each, respectively. ...
... 7 Information factors (experience, knowledge, and media exposure) also affect the early detection of pregnancy warning signs. 8 A low level of knowledge regarding healthy pregnancy and a variety of risk factors of pregnancy disorders also cause inability of pregnant women to early identify the signs and symptoms of a high-risk pregnancy. 9 A study explained that women living in cities are 1.124 times more likely to better understand preeclampsia warning signs compared to their counterparts living in villages, and furthermore media exposure results in good literacy of women concerning warning signs of pregnancy. ...
Background: Health Literacy (HL) has an important role in early detection of Preeclampsia (PE) warning signs. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of health literacy on pregnant women behaviors in early detection of preeclampsia warning signs. Methods: This was a cross sectional study employed in 33 of public health centers in Tuban Regency of East Java Province, Indonesia. The subjects of the study were the normal pregnant women with a total number of 225 respondents. The employed sampling technique was stratified random sampling. Data collection was obtained via questionnaire. Data analysis was conducted using Smart PLS 3 with significant T-statistic value > T-table (1.96). Result: Socio-demographic variables significantly affected early detection behaviors of PE (4.688 > 1.96). Furthermore socio-demographic variables also significantly impacted the literacy of pregnant women (3.550 > 1.96). Health literacy significantly affected early detection behaviors of PE (3.947 > 1.96). Socio-demographic variables had both direct and indirect pathways (via health literacy) toward early detection behaviors of PE. The one having the highest pathway coefficient value (0.982) was the pathway of health literacy toward early detection behaviors of PE. Conclusion: Health literacy was closely related to early detection behaviors of PE, thus it could be utilized as a health promotional program to reduce both the numbers of morbidity and mortality due to preeclampsia complications.
health literacy, pregnant women behaviors, early detection, preeclampsia warning signs
... In Ethiopia, hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, abortion, and sepsis are the leading causes of maternal deaths, which can be averted through recognition of danger signs of these complications and skilled institutional care, according to the Ethiopian. 4 Severe vaginal bleeding, prolonged labor, convulsions, retained placenta, premature rupture of membrane, fetal malposition are the commonest danger signs during labor and childbirth. Raising awareness among pregnant women about danger signs improves early detection of problems and reduces delays in deciding to seek obstetric care. ...
Pregnancy complications are one of the most common health problems and causes of death among women in developing countries. Knowledge of obstetric danger signs during pregnancy, labor, and postnatal period is an essential first step for the appropriate and timely referral.
To assess knowledge of pregnancy danger signs and its associated factors among pregnant women at Debre Tabor Town Health Facilities, South Gondar Zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2019.
Methods and Materials
Facility-based cross-sectional study conducted from 30 December 2018 to 30 January 2019 among 340 pregnant women. Simple random sampling was used to select study subjects. Data entered to Epidata 4.2 and exported Statistical package for social science version 26 for analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of knowledge of pregnancy danger signs among pregnant women. Finally, a p-value less than 0.05 was used to identify the significant variables.
Overall women’s knowledge score on pregnancy danger signs was 74.4%. This finding is not satisfactory and affects pregnancy outcomes. Age, religion, women’s educational status, family size, educational status, and antenatal care follow-up were identified as predictors of knowledge of pregnancy danger signs.
Overall knowledge scores of pregnancy danger signs among women were satisfactory compared with different researches in Ethiopia and different countries. Age, mother’s occupation, and antenatal care visit were significant factors of knowledge of pregnancy danger signs among study participants.
... It is important to share information with women and their families about the early detection and recognition of danger signs and complications as part of birth and emergency planning. You need to discuss with them what the danger signs are and help them to think about and decide where they will go if they experience one or any of these . ...
Complications linked to postpartum & pregnancy are one of the major causes of female death. In order to understand the causes of complications and encourage women to take sufficient action in order to receive emergency treatment, a critical step should therefore be taken to minimize complications related to pregnancy, in order to ensure the safety of both women and newborns. Aim of the work: Evaluate the effectiveness of the education programs for pregnant women on obstetric danger signs in rural areas and help minimize the incidence of pregnancy loss and comorbidities. Methods: A quasi-experimental design on 70 women from a population of through 372 women in six-month in antenatal clinics recruited from the previously mentioned settings with pre- and post-test was conducted at antenatal clinics (M.C.H centers) affiliated to the available geographical health zones in EL-fayoum rural area including: Al-sheikh hassan at sanorse. We collected the data of women characteristics by a self-administered interview questionnaire & a structured reported knowledge and practices checklist to evaluate pregnant women practices and knowledge. Follow up was done to the studied groups & histopathology assessments of the product of conception in cases of abortion secondary to the complications to compare between effect of antenatal care program on the woman who followed the program and those who did not. Results: There is an improvement in 63% of pregnant women knowledge and practices after educational program in all aspects. The most common danger signs that may occur during pregnancy were miscarriage and vaginal bleeding, intrauterine fetal death as reported by women & confirmed by the histopathology reports. Conclusion: The educational program had an efficient improving women knowledge and practice regarding danger signs for pregnant women in rural areas, with highly statically significant differences in all the tested items between pre/post program implementation (P < 0.001). Recommendations: Establishment of in-service training programs and continuous supervision in rural areas to a raise women knowledge and practice regarding educational pregnant women and developing antenatal classes for all pregnant women about obstetric danger signs.
... This is proven by the low coverage of early detection of high risk by the community. Lack of community participation in early detection of high risk of pregnancy due to low levels of education and family knowledge, behavior that is less supportive such as social position, economic ability and thus causes families to experience powerlessness in carrying out early detection of high risk of pregnancy (Abas & Fakhredeen, 2017). The factors that influence individuals and families in behavior, among others: personal factors (general attitude, personality traits, life values, emotions and intelligence), social factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education, income and religion) and factors information (experience, knowledge, and media exposure) (Azjen, 2006). ...
Setiap kehamilan mempunyai kemungkinan terjadi komplikasi dapat membahayakan ibu atau bayi, baik pada kehamilan risiko rendah, maupun risiko tinggi. Salah satu upaya untuk mencegah kehamilan risiko tinggi ibu hamil adalah dengan melakukan deteksi dini risiko tinggi pada kehamilan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor apa yang berhubungan dengan perilaku ibu hamil dalam melakukan deteksi dini risiko tinggi kehamilan di PMB Ika Mardiyanti Desa Jedong Cangkring Prambon Sidoarjo.
Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan kuantitatif dengan desain penelitian cross sectional. Sampel dalam penelitian ini diambil dengan tehnik simple random sampling. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan data primer, dengan melakukan anamnesa terhadap perilaku ibu hamil dalam deteksi dini kehamilan risiko tinggi. Analisis data menggunakan uji statistik Regresi linier.
Hasil penelitian menunjukkan (56,7%) responden berusia risiko rendah (20-35 tahun), (83,3%) berpendidikan menengah, (80%) berpendapatan cukup, (60%) berpengalaman, (63,3%) berpengetahuan cukup, (40%) tidak pernah terpapar media, (60%) perilaku tidak tercapai. Analisis statistik dengan regresi linier didapatkan ρ>0,05 yang berarti faktor usia, pendidikan, pendapatan, pengalaman, pengetahuan, paparan media tidak berpengaruh terhadap perilaku.
Kesimpulan Tidak ada faktor yang berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap perilaku ibu hamil dalam melakukan deteksi dini risiko tinggi kehamilan di PMB Ika Mardiyanti Diharapkan bidan meningkatkan KIE tentang deteksi dini kehamilan risiko tinggi sehingga mampu menurunkan angka kejadian komplikasi kehamilan dan persalinan.
Background: Men have a lot of influence on their partners’ and children’s health. However, studies have shown their involvement in antenatal care (ANC) and postnatal care (PNC) is relatively low owing to several factors.
Aim: To explore the barriers to men’s involvement in ANC and PNC in Butula sub-county, western Kenya.
Setting: Butula sub-county, Busia county, western Kenya.
Methods: A mixed methods study design, descriptive in nature, was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 96 men were selected to participate in the surveys. Also, four focus group discussions and four key informant interviews were conducted.
Results: We found out that some men still participate in ANC and PNC despite the barriers. The perception that maternal health is a women’s domain and existence of alternative traditional maternal services were key cultural barriers. The men’s nature of work, low income and expenses incurred at ANC/PNC clinics were significant economic barriers. The lack of services targeting men, provider attitude, non-invitation to the clinic, time spent at the clinic and lack of privacy at the clinics were key facility-based barriers.
Conclusion: A myriad of cultural, economic and health-facility barriers hinder men from active involvement in ANC and PNC. Awareness creation among men on ANC and PNC services and creating a client-friendly environment at the clinics is key in enhancing their involvement. This should be a concerted effort of all stake holders in maternal health services, as male involvement is a strong influencer to their partners’ and children’s health outcomes.
In developing countries, pregnancy and child birth are one of the leading causes of death for women of reproductive age. The slogan for world health day 2005 "making every mother and child count" reflects the reality that today, government and the community need to make the health of women and children a higher priority. Every minute, at least one women dies from complications related to pregnancy and child birth that means 1,400 women die every day , more than half a million women die every year. Five direct complications account for more than 70% maternal deaths. Hemorrhage (25%), infection (15%), unsafe abortion (13%), eclampsia (12%) and obstructed labor (8%). The present study to assess the pre and posttest knowledge, practice and attitude of primi antenatal mothers regarding warning signs during pregnancy, to compare the pretest and posttest knowledge, practice and attitude scores among primi antenatal mothers regarding warning signs during pregnancy, to correlate the posttest knowledge score with attitude score regarding warning signs during pregnancy and to find out the association between knowledge and attitude scores with selected demographic variables. The research design used for the study was one group pretest posttest, pre experimental design. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 60 samples for the study. The tool used for the study was structured interview schedule and five point likert scale. The data gathered were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings showed that the structured teaching programme was effective in increasing the knowledge, knowledge on practice and attitude among primi antenatal mothers regarding warning signs during pregnancy. Thus structured teaching programme played an important role in improving the knowledge, knowledge on practice and attitude of primi antenatal mothers. The study findings revealed that there was a significant improvement in knowledge, knowledge on practice and attitude of primi antenatal mothers by STP. Based on the statistical findings ("t" value = 38.2, 60.52, and 19.9). It is evident that the structured teaching programme will motivate the primi antenatal mothers and help them to acquire knowledge about warning signs during pregnancy which will promote adequate practice in them to ensure maternal and fetal wellbeing.
Objective: Aim of study was to assess knowledge of key danger signs of pregnancy among clients of maternal health service in urban and rural primary health centres of southeast Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study design was used. Three stage sampling method was used to select 540 clients of maternal health service in18 of 440 primary health centres in Enugu state, southeast Nigeria. The clients were women who attended antenatal and postnatal care in the health centres. A minimum of four antenatal care visits qualified the women for inclusion in the study.
An exploratory descriptive study was conducted at two Maternal and Child Health Centers (MCH) selected randomly in Albeheira Governorate to assess women's awareness of danger signs of obstetric complications. The study subjects consisted of 200 pregnant women attending the previously mentioned setting for tetanus toxiod immunization during pregnancy was enrolled in the study. (100 from each) A structured interview schedule was developed by the researcher after reviewing of the relevant literature and used to collect the necessary data. It comprised the following parts: Part I: Socio-demographic data such as age, level of education, occupation and number of family members…etc Part II: Obstetric characteristics such as gravidity, parity, abortions, antenatal follow up and presence of any complications. etc. Part III: questions related to knowledge about signs of obstetric complications, complaining of any obstetric complication, what to do if the woman has any of these signs. The study revealed that slightly more than one quarter of the study subjects (26.5 %) were unaware of obstetric danger signs compared to almost the same proportion (26.0 %) that had good awareness about such signs, while 47.5 % of the study subjects exhibited fair awareness. Lack of awareness about obstetric danger signs was related younger age, low level of education, gravidity and parity, previous experiences with any obstetric complications and lack of antenatal care. This study reflects the need for strategic plane to increase the awareness to shape health seeking behavior of the public related to signs of obstetric complications.
The accurate measurement of blood pressure requires the use of a large cuff in subjects with a high mid-arm circumference (MAC). This prospective study examined the need for a large cuff during pregnancy and its correlation with maternal obesity.
Maternal body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and MAC were measured.
Of 179 women studied, 15.6% were obese. With a BMI of level 1 obesity, 44% needed a large cuff and with a BMI of level 2 obesity 100% needed a large cuff.
All women booking for antenatal care should have their MAC measured to avoid the overdiagnosis of pregnancy hypertension.
Delay in accessing emergency obstetric-care facilities during life-threatening obstetric complications is a significant determinant of high maternal mortality in developing countries. To examine the factors associated with delays in seeking care for episodes of serious illness and their possible implications for safe motherhood interventions in rural Bangladesh, a cross-sectional study was initiated in Matlab sub-district on the perceptions of household heads regarding delays in seeking care for episodes of serious illness among household members. Of 2,177 households in the study, 881 (40.5%) reported at least one household member who experienced an illness perceived to be serious enough to warrant care-seeking either from health facilities or from providers. Of these, 775 (88.0%) actually visited some providers for treatment, of whom 79.1% used transport. Overall, 69.3% perceived a delay in deciding to seek care, while 12.1% and 24.6% perceived a delay in accessing transport and in reaching the provider respectively. The median time required to make a decision to seek care was 72 minutes, while the same was 10 minutes to get transport and 80 minutes to reach a facility or a provider. Time to decide to seek care was shortest for pregnancy-related conditions and longest for illnesses classified as chronic, while time to reach a facility was longest for pregnancy-related illnesses and shortest for illnesses classified as acute. However, the perceived delay in seeking care did not differ significantly across socioeconomic levels or gender categories but differed significantly between those seeking care from informal providers compared to formal providers. Reasons for the delay included waiting time for results of informal treatment, inability to judge the graveness of disease, and lack of money. For pregnancy-related morbidities, 45% reported 'inability to judge the graveness of the situation' as a reason for delay in making decision. After controlling for possible confounders in multivariate analysis, type of illness and facility visited were the strongest determinants of delay in making decision to seek care. To reduce delays in making decision to seek care in rural Bangladesh, safe motherhood interventions should intensify behaviour change-communication efforts to educate communities to recognize pregnancy-danger signs for which a prompt action must be taken to save life. This strategy should be combined with efforts to train community-based skilled birth attendants, upgrading public facilities to provide emergency obstetric care, introduce voucher schemes to improve access by the poorest of the poor, and improve the quality of care at all levels.
To assess the level and determinants of awareness of the danger signs and symptoms of pregnancy complication among pregnant Jordanian women aged 15 years and older.
A descriptive cross-sectional study of 350 women attending prenatal care services was performed. Interviews were conducted at 4 public-health centers in Zarqa, Jordan, using a structured questionnaire. Awareness was defined as "knowing at least 4 danger signs and symptoms".
Overall, 84.8% of the women interviewed were not aware of danger signs and symptoms of pregnancy complication. Sociodemographic factors-including duration of education and current employment; husband's duration of education; family size; and whether women were given information about danger signs and symptoms-were associated with awareness in a binary analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that education level of study participants, their husbands' education level, and receiving information about danger signs and symptoms were all associated with awareness (P=0.02 for all associations).
Awareness of danger signs and symptoms of pregnancy complication among women in Jordan is low. A need exists to provide prenatal care that includes sufficient information about pregnancy-related danger signs and symptoms to meet the need for safe motherhood, as pointed out by the Millennium Development Goals.
Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure Measurement during Pregnancy Hypertension in Pregnancy Available from: The lancet journal Retrieved 6
Hogan J, Maguire P, Farah N, Kennelly M, Stuart B, Turner M. Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure Measurement during
Pregnancy. Hypertension in Pregnancy 2010. Available from: The lancet journal Retrieved 6/12/2016.
Okour A, Alkhateeb M, Amarin Z. Awareness of Danger Signs & Symptoms of Pregnancy Complication Among Women in Jordan
,2012. Available from: International Journal Gynecologic Obstetric. Retrieved 2/9/2016
Delivery complications and healthcare-seeking behaviour: the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey
HEALTH SOC CARE COMM
R I Chowdhury
M A Islam
Chowdhury, R. I., Islam, M. A., Gulshan, J., & Chakraborty, N. Delivery complications and healthcare-seeking behaviour: the
Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey, 2007,254-64, Available from:-Health Soc Care Community, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2524.2006.0068. Retrieved 8/11/2016.
Awareness of danger signs of pregnancy and its associated factors in Mekelle public hospitals
Gebrehiwot H., Bahta S., and Haile N. Awareness of danger signs of pregnancy and its associated factors in Mekelle public
hospitals, 2014. Department of Midwifery, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Ethiopia. Available from:American
Journal of Delivery.www.ajadd.co.uk.Retrieved 13/10/2016.
Knowledge about danger signs of pregnancy and associated factors among pregnant women in Debra Birhan town, public health institutions, central Ethiopia. Department of Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar
Solomon A, Amanta N, Chirkose E. Knowledge about danger signs of pregnancy and associated factors among pregnant women in
Debra Birhan town, public health institutions, central Ethiopia. Department of Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health
Sciences, University of Gondar. 2015. Available from:Published http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/sjph),Retrieval
knowledge of Danger Signs during Pregnancy and Subsequent Health Seeking Actions among Women in Kinondoni Municipality
Mwilike B. knowledge of Danger Signs during Pregnancy and Subsequent Health Seeking Actions among Women in Kinondoni
Municipality, Tanzania. 2013. Available from:http://imstpt.ap.nic.in/jcsr.pdf. Retrieved 4/9/2016.
Women's awareness of danger signs of obstetric complications in Egypt. University of Alexandria 2010 Available from
Rashad W, Essa R. Women's awareness of danger signs of obstetric complications in Egypt. University of Alexandria 2010.
Available from: Journal of American Science. Retrieved 2/11/2016
level of awareness on danger signs of pregnancy and associated factors among antenatal care attendant women in Debark Town
Mengesha E.,level of awareness on danger signs of pregnancy and associated factors among antenatal care attendant women in
Debark Town, North Gondar, Ethiopia 2012. Available from: Translational Latina medicine and biotechnology ISSN.Retrieved
Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practices of Obstetric Danger Signs among Mothers in Debre Birhan Debre Berhan City Administration
Nurgi S. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practices of Obstetric Danger Signs among Mothers in Debre Birhan Debre Berhan
City Administration, North Shoa zone, Amhara region, Ethiopia. Msc Thesis. College of Health Science, Department of Nursing
and Midwifery, Addis Ababa University, 2014. Available from: Journal of American Science. Retrieved 7/1/2017
Knowledge and practices of pregnant women regarding danger signs of obstetric complications in Egypt
Ebrahim A, Hassan M, El-SalamG, Knowledge and practices of pregnant women regarding danger signs of obstetric complications
in Egypt. 2017. Availablefrom:IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science. Retrieved 2/3/2017.
Knowledge about obstetric danger signs in Aleta Wondo district
Hailu M, Gebremariam A, Alemseged F. Knowledge about obstetric danger signs in Aleta Wondo district, Sidama Zone, South
Ethiopia.February 20, 2007. Available from: http:// www. ncbi. nlm.nih. gov Retrieved 6/8/2016.
Knowledge, attitude and perception of pregnancy danger signs among women of childbearing age in samaru community Northwestern Nigeria\ Archives of Medicine and Surgery
M B Sufiyan
A A Umar
J M Ibrahim
S S Bashir
Sufiyan MB, Adam N, Umar AA, Ibrahim JM, Bashir SS, Birukila G. Knowledge, attitude and perception of pregnancy danger
signs among women of childbearing age in samaru community Northwestern Nigeria\ Archives of Medicine and Surgery 2012,vol.1
1:24-9. Available from: http://www.archms.org/text.asp?2016/1/2/24/204801. Retrieved 11/4/2017