Conference Paper

Exploring the Hype: Investigating Technology Acceptance Factors of Pokémon Go

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Abstract

We investigate the technology acceptance factors of the AR smartphone game Pokémon Go with a PLS-SEM approach based on the UTAUT2 model by Venkatesh et al. [1]. Therefore, we conducted an online study in Germany with 683 users of the game. Many other studies rely on the users’ imagination of the application’s functionality or laboratory environments. In contrast, we asked a relatively large user base already interacting in the natural environment with the application. Not surprisingly, the strongest predictor of behavioral intention to play Pokémon Go is hedonic motivation, i.e. fun and pleasure due to playing the game. Additionaly, we find medium-sized effects of effort expectancy on behavioral intention, and of habit on behavioral intention and use behavior. These results imply that AR applications – besides needing to be easily integrable in the users’ daily life – should be designed in an intuitive and easily understandable way. We contribute to the understanding of the phenomenon of Pokémon Go by investigating established acceptance factors that potentially

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... With regard to the context of this study, the importance of perceived ease-of-use becomes a primary concern because implementing AR applications is a difficult issue to manage seamlessly. However, contemporary research has been inconsistent regarding the role of perceived ease-of-use in the adoption of mobile AR games [11,19], leaving a research gap to be addressed. Second, one of the most prominent issues is that the adoption of many technologies and media has been associated with societal controversies, especially as a result of the inclusion of AR technologies in mobile games, causing negative social consequences that lead to social non-acceptance by society [6,12,13]. ...
... With regard to the context of this study, an imperial study investigated the factors driving people to play mobile AR games, it was concluded that perceived ease-of-use was an important determinant in predicting behavioral intention to adopt mobile AR games [19]. Another study conducted to explore the technology acceptance factors of Pokémon Go reported the same findings [11]. Based on earlier findings, the following hypothesis is suggested. ...
... These results are in harmony with earlier studies conducted in the acceptance of AR applications [39,85]. Also, these findings are consistent with earlier empirical studies that examined factors driving the behavioral intention to adopt mobile AR games [11,19]. The results show that users will be extremely motivated to accept mobile AR games if they perceive it as easy to play. ...
Article
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Augmented reality (AR) has become a promising technology in the gaming industry. However, few research studies have examined users' perspectives towards mobile AR games. To address this issue, the present study proposed a research model to better understand the factors determining and shaping users' behavioral intention to adopt mobile AR games from a developing country environment. Based on a literature review, nine factors have been expected to determine and shape individuals' intention towards the acceptance and adoption of mobile AR games. Using WarpPLS software, the model was empirically tested with a survey of 240 non-adopter respondents collected via an online survey questionnaire. The model was found statistically robust in terms of measurement quality criteria: reliability, validity, multicollinearity, and goodness of fit. The analysis revealed that perceived ease-of-use, social norms, privacy, perceived enjoyment, perceived competition, perceived inspiration, perceived image, and perceived innovativeness affect users' behavioral intention to adopt mobile AR games. However, the hypothesized moderating impact of perceived physical risk on the relationships connecting perceived ease-of-use, perceived enjoyment, perceived competition, and perceived inspiration with the intention to adopt was found to have little statistical significance. The result showed that perceived innovativeness was the strongest criterion to affect intention, and perceived ease-of-use was found to be the least important criterion in impacting users' intention. Interestingly, the model explains 76% of the variance in behavioral intention to adopt mobile AR games. This study offers theoretical and practical implications for its findings.
... Others examined the spatial and visual components of AR, specifically looking at how it could alter and complicate people's perception of space and place (Graham et al., 2013;Liao & Humphreys, 2015;Sheller, 2013). Recently, business-focused research has studied headworn devices such as Google Glass (Harborth & Pape, 2017;Rauschnabel, Brem, & Ivens, 2015) and has shown a renewed interest in AR location-based gaming such as Pokémon GO (Colley et al., 2017;Hjorth & Richardson, 2017;Kari, 2016). ...
... Other statistics about user demographics, attitudes, and personality traits have come from large-scale surveys, particularly about games and apps such as Pokémon GO (Colley et al., 2017;Tabacchi et al., 2017). In terms of adoption, several researchers have explicitly taken technology adoption frameworks to examine the role of personality and social conformity in predicting behavioral intention to adopt AR (Harborth & Pape, 2017;Rauschnabel et al., 2015). As major technology companies release hardware that enables consumer AR applications, more work is necessary to understand the relationship between users and adoption of AR devices/applications. Continuing to understand individual differences amongst AR users is an area for future studies. ...
... Understanding nonusers, active resisters, and former users of AR is also important. Despite the substantial hype surrounding Google Glass, research into user perceptions of the device did not ultimately lead to adoption (Harborth & Pape, 2017). Another phenomenon that is understudied across media and technology has been that of users who leave/limit/quit certain technology (Baumer et al., 2013;Brubaker, Ananny, & Crawford, 2016). ...
Article
As the field of mobile media studies continues to grow, researchers are focusing on new developments and trends in mobile technologies. One of these areas that has been garnering interest is mobile augmented reality (AR) technologies. While much of the earliest research in AR was primarily focused on answering computer science and engineering related questions, social science and humanities scholars have started taking note of AR as perhaps the next major development in mobile media. Given that much of this research has been distributed across interdisciplinary lines and from many different theoretical perspectives, this piece identifies some early lines of media, communication, and social science research into AR and identifies key themes and areas of focus: AR users/nonusers, AR devices, AR content, and AR industry. By organizing these lines of research, this manuscript serves as a call for specific future areas of research, suggests new approaches that researchers could take to explore interrelationships between these areas, and advocates for the necessity of research that examines different levels (micro/meso/macro) of analysis within AR. The goal of this piece is to advance a framework that informs and motivates mobile scholars to consider and integrate AR into their research areas, at a moment where it is in the process of moving from science fiction to material reality, from blueprint to prototype, and from laboratory to homes, cars, workplaces, and pockets.
... AR systems integrate real and virtual objects into real environments and run them interactively. Examples of AR applications are navigation and projection-based AR on smartphones (Harborth and Pape, 2017). New markets could be created and existing markets could be disrupted by these technologies, including the mobile game industry (Rauschnabel et al., 2017). ...
... Research interests in AR 1 have grown in the past, but not many studies investigate why and how consumers play location-based AR games (Rauschnabel et al., 2017). Only a little research has explored technology acceptance factors of Pok emon Go (Harborth and Pape, 2017). ...
... Although there is some research investigating AR, most studies have sample bias towards young males with a high level of education (Harborth and Pape, 2017). The theme 'non-adoption ' has not yet been examined extensively (Maier et al., 2011). ...
Article
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This paper examines the influence of personal and game factors on gamers' perceived values, drawing from the Theory of Consumption Value (TCV), explores the impacts of values on the Pokémon Go (PG) adoption, and identifies differences between two consumer groups. A sample of 474 (215 PG non-players and 259 PG players) was collected and analysed. Game aesthetics increase all perceived values of both groups. Game aesthetics and innovativeness have no direct impact on gamers' intention to play. Emotional value and functional value are crucial for their behavioural intention. Social value is important for non-players, while conditional value influences players' intentions. This study contributes to the expansion of the TCV in mobile location-based AR game adoption and reveals the insights of players' and non-players’ value perceptions. It is one of the first studies investigating the TCV factors, antecedents, and consequence in the mobile AR game literature.
... Table 1 presents summary statistics for this data set. Further information with regard to the demographics can be found in the paper by Harborth and Pape [22]. ...
... Reply: We shortened this paragraph according to your suggestions, especially the privacy definitions. Potential privacy risks are already discussed in the Introduction, whereas the literature on this topic is relatively sparse [22]. ...
Conference Paper
We investigate privacy concerns and the privacy behavior of users of the AR smartphone game Pokémon Go. Pokémon Go accesses several functionalities of the smartphone and, in turn, collects a plethora of data of its users. For assessing the privacy concerns, we conduct an online study in Germany with 683 users of the game. The results indicate that the majority of the active players are concerned about the privacy practices of companies. This result hints towards the existence of a cognitive dissonance, i.e. the privacy paradox. Since this result is common in the privacy literature, we complement the first study with a second one with 199 users, which aims to assess the behavior of users with regard to which measures they undertake for protecting their privacy. The results are highly mixed and dependent on the measure, i.e. relatively many participants use privacy-preserving measures when interacting with their smartphone. This implies that many users know about risks and might take actions to protect their privacy, but deliberately trade-off their information privacy for the utility generated by playing the game.
... Table 1 presents summary statistics for this data set. Further information with regard to the demographics can be found in the paper by Harborth and Pape [22]. ...
... Reply: We shortened this paragraph according to your suggestions, especially the privacy definitions. Potential privacy risks are already discussed in the Introduction, whereas the literature on this topic is relatively sparse [22]. ...
Chapter
We investigate privacy concerns and the privacy behavior of users of the AR smartphone game Pokémon Go. Pokémon Go accesses several functionalities of the smartphone and, in turn, collects a plethora of data of its users. For assessing the privacy concerns, we conduct an online study in Germany with 683 users of the game. The results indicate that the majority of the active players are concerned about the privacy practices of companies. This result hints towards the existence of a cognitive dissonance, i.e. the privacy paradox. Since this result is common in the privacy literature, we complement the first study with a second one with 199 users, which aims to assess the behavior of users with regard to which measures they undertake for protecting their privacy. The results are highly mixed and dependent on the measure, i.e. relatively many participants use privacy-preserving measures when interacting with their smartphone. This implies that many users know about risks and might take actions to protect their privacy, but deliberately trade-off their information privacy for the utility generated by playing the game.
... Entertainment and gaming is also a huge application domain for AR technology as we saw from the success of Pokémon Go [50]. Although there were a few papers introducing or specifically targeting game applications for the second decade of ISMAR publications, we could not find highly cited papers among them. ...
... Another example is the paper by Bruder et al. [21], who evaluated and manipulated motion perception in AR. The social and cultural aspects of AR can be understood through studies such as the work of Harborth and Pape [50] who collected feedback about AR from 683 Pokémon Go users. There could be a lot more research in this area in the future. ...
Article
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In 2008, Zhou et al. presented a survey paper summarizing the previous ten years of ISMAR publications, which provided invaluable insights into the research challenges and trends associated with that time period. Ten years later, we review the research that has been presented at ISMAR conferences since the survey of Zhou et al., at a time when both academia and the AR industry are enjoying dramatic technological changes. Here we consider the research results and trends of the last decade of ISMAR by carefully reviewing the ISMAR publications from the period of 2008–2017, in the context of the first ten years. The numbers of papers for different research topics and their impacts by citations were analyzed while reviewing them-which reveals that there is a sharp increase in AR evaluation and rendering research. Based on this review we offer some observations related to potential future research areas or trends, which could be helpful to AR researchers and industry members looking ahead.
... While outdoor location-based AR games are not a new concept, Pokémon Go is among the very few commercialized examples that have enjoyed global success. The studies presented in [21,22] shed some light on different aspects of social acceptance, which is a largely unexplored yet important topic within AR research. ...
... Different application purposes impose varied precision and accuracy requirements on AR systems being developed. For instance, AR for displaying name labels of landmarks [29], visualizing location-based historical content [20] or rendering creatures for players to interact with [21,22] does not require the virtual content to be perfectly aligned with associated real world objects. On the other hand, stakeholders would be more interested in system inherent errors if AR tools are involved in revealing models of underground utilities related to a street for surveying [14] or measuring discrepancy between as-built and as-planned construction components [38]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Comprehensive user evaluations of outdoor augmented reality (AR) applications in the architecture, engineering, construction and facilities management (AEC/FM) industry are rarely reported in the literature. This paper presents an AR prototype system for infrared thermographic façade inspection and its evaluation. The system employs markerless tracking based on image registration using natural features and a third person perspective (TPP) augmented view displayed on a hand-held smart device. We focus on evaluating the system in user experiments with the task of designating positions of heat spots on an actual façade as if acquired through thermographic inspection. User and system performance were both assessed with respect to target designation errors. The main findings of this study show that positioning accuracy using this system is adequate for objects of the size of one decimeter. After ruling out the system inherent errors, which mainly stem from our application-specific image registration procedure, we find that errors due to a human’s limited visual-motoric and cognitive performance, which have a more general implication for using TPP AR for target designation, are only a few centimeters.
... The majority of papers surveyed (62%) tested their platform either solely on HMDs or supplementing the HMD with a smartphone. A comparatively small number (24%) [40,45,60,64,86] tested solely on smartphones, while 14% [39,63,80] tested on a custom platform. ...
... Playing AR games on smartphones becomes problematic when it is done while navigating traffic (e.g., as a pedestrian [7] or as a driver [1]). Interestingly, the simplicity of the game is what makes it so popular [8] (besides the technically improved immersive experience of course). However, playing these kinds of games on small form factor devices makes the experience like looking through a keyhole while concentrating the user's focus on a single spot. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Over the past few years, playing Augmented Reality (AR) games on smartphones has steadily been gaining in popularity (e.g., Pokémon Go). However, playing these games while navigating traffic is highly dangerous and has led to many accidents in the past. In our work, we aim to augment peripheral vision of pedestrians with low-cost glasses to support them in critical traffic encounters. Therefore, we developed a lo-fi prototype with peripheral displays. We technically improved the prototype with the experience of five usability experts. Afterwards, we conducted an experiment on a treadmill to evaluate the effectiveness of collision warnings in our prototype. During the experiment, we compared three different light stimuli (instant, pulsing and moving) with regard to response time, error rate, and subjective feedback. Overall, we could show that all light stimuli were suitable for shifting the users' attention (100% correct). However , moving light resulted in significantly faster response times and was subjectively perceived best.
... All items for the German questionnaire had to be translated into German since all of the constructs are adapted from English literature. To ensure content validity of the translation, we followed a rigorous translation process [19,20]. First, we translated the English questionnaire into German with the help of a certified translator (translators are standardized following the DIN EN 15038 norm). ...
... Their results show an increase in user-focused studies (e.g. [21,22]). However, to the best of our knowledge, there are also no specific articles dealing with privacy issues of AR technologies. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Augmented reality (AR) gained much public attention since the success of Poke ́mon Go in 2016. Technology companies like Apple or Google are currently focusing primarily on mobile AR (MAR) technologies, i.e. applications on mobile devices, like smartphones or tablets. Associated privacy issues have to be investigated early to foster market adoption. This is especially relevant since past research found several threats associated with the use of smartphone applications. Thus, we investigate two of the main privacy risks for MAR application users based on a sample of 19 of the most downloaded MAR applications for Android. First, we assess threats arising from bad privacy policies based on a machine-learning approach. Second, we investigate which smartphone data resources are accessed by the MAR applications. Third, we combine both approaches to evaluate whether privacy policies cover certain data accesses or not. We provide theoretical and practical implications and recommendations based on our results.
... Most of the existing user studies follow a quantitative research method and investigate one specific case of an AR technology using known theoretical models and construct operationalizations like technology acceptance models or privacy concerns (e.g. [11][12][13][14][15][16][17]). Partially, studies complemented quantitative approaches with qualitative methods. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Augmented reality (AR) greatly diffused into the public consciousness in the last years, especially due to the success of mobile applications like Pokémon Go. However, only few people experienced different forms of augmented reality like head-mounted displays (HMDs). Thus, people have only a limited actual experience with AR and form attitudes and perceptions towards this technology only partially based on actual use experiences, but mainly based on hearsay and narratives of others, like the media or friends. Thus, it is highly difficult for developers and product managers of AR solutions to address the needs of potential users. Therefore, we disentangle the perceptions of individuals with a focus on their concerns about AR. Perceived concerns are an important factor for the acceptance of new technologies. We address this research topic based on twelve intensive interviews with laymen as well as AR experts and analyze them with a qualitative research method.
... In contrast to other studies, we built our research on technology acceptance theories for investigating Pokémon Go, thereby contributing to a deeper understanding of relevant concepts for Pokémon Go (e.g. Harborth & Pape, 2017;Kaczmarek et al., 2017;Rasche, Schlomann, & Mertens, 2017;Rauschnabel et al., 2017;Yang & Liu, 2017;Zsila et al., 2017). ...
Article
The augmented reality smartphone game Pokémon Go is one of the biggest commercial successes in the last years, posing the question concerning the factors contributing to the game’s success. An apparent distinction to other games is the strong brand Pokémon. We derive a research model based on the established theory of technology acceptance, which includes an established construct for nostalgic feelings – childhood brand nostalgia – and theorise on how it is related to beliefs about technology characteristics and the intention to play the game. For this purpose, we adapt one of the most prominent technology acceptance models for the consumer context and for hedonic information systems, the UTAUT2 model. Based on our model, we conduct a study with 418 active German players aged between 18 and 35. Our results indicate that the effect of childhood brand nostalgia on behavioural intention is fully mediated by the belief constructs. Thus, nostalgic feelings about Pokémon influence the intention of users through altering beliefs concerning Pokémon. We include nostalgic feelings in a technology acceptance model for the first time, therefore contributing to the theoretical advance in the IS domain. The results can be used to enhance the technology acceptance of newly designed products.
... From the reviews, most studies had been conducted in Europe which is 15 studies [3][4][5][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19] followed by USA which is nine studies [2], [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27], Korea [28,29], and South East Asia [30][31][32][33] had been handled 3 studies respectively, while China has 2 studies [34,35] and Turkey [36] and Brazil [37] and Japan [38] had one paper respectively. The papers had been published in the early 2000s until the present. ...
... The majority of papers surveyed (62%) tested their platform either solely on HMDs or supplementing the HMD with a smartphone. A comparatively small number (24%) [40,45,60,64,86] tested solely on smartphones, while 14% [39,63,80] tested on a custom platform. ...
... The model was also used for different target groups, such as tourists, end consumers or students in various technological contexts (Tamilmani et al. 2019;Tamilmani et al. 2018). UTAUT2 is also used in new technologies such as mobile banking or augmented reality to measure acceptance and was able to achieve comparatively similar values for the explanatory variance concerning the intended use, as in the initial study by (Chaouali et al. 2016;Harborth and Pape 2017). However, many studies forego usage behavior in new technologies and are limited only to the intended use (Tamilmani et al. 2019). ...
Thesis
When Alan Turing formulated the Turing test in 1950, he certainly would not have thought that 70 years later, new trends and technology would change the way we experience our everyday life. Digital Voice Assistants are rapidly conquering the market and offering consumers simple, voice-based usability. Companies from various industries, such as the retail or the health sector, have recognized their potential and are already offering services digitally with the support of Digital Voice Assistants. It is only a matter of time that voice assistant will soon, at least to a certain extent, find their way into consumers' everyday lives. Against this background, the present thesis offers a good basis for better assessing the acceptance of Digital Voice Assistants and dealing more precisely with the influencing factors among the age cohorts - Millennials and older people. Three surveys of Millennials and one of older people were nearly examined under investigation of carefully selected technology acceptance models – the modified TAM and the modified UTAUT2. Those two models have proven to be reliable theories for testing the acceptance of new media. When analyzing the predictors among Millennials, Pastime is the most important aspect that influences the acceptance of Digital Voice Assistants. Moreover, Enjoyment, Image, Expediency, and Social Influence also positively impact the intention to use the system. Nonetheless, privacy concerns and the fear of being intercepted negatively affect Millennials' acceptance and the use of such new technologies. Within the second investigated group – older people, Performance Expectancy, Facilitating Conditions and Hedonic Motivation have the strongest influence on the acceptance of Digital Voice Assistants. Although, it should be noted that there are noticeable differences between individuals aged 55 to 64 years and those beyond the age of 65 years. The qualitative analysis shows that Digital Voice Assistants are very helpful while quickly looking for short information, navigating a car, traveling, or using a mobile phone, especially when manual input is impossible. People in both target groups mainly use their Digital Voice Assistants for time-saving and increase their image among friends and family, who strongly influence their decisions and behavior. Many users, especially those older ones, turn to Digital Voice Assistants when they feel lonely and need a conversation with somebody. Future studies should examine further age cohorts in different countries. A specific subdivision of older people will also be recommended. Another interesting aspect, which will certainly provide meaningful findings, is to examine differences between Behavioral Intention to Use and different education levels.
... From the reviews, most studies had been conducted in Europe which is 15 studies [3][4][5][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19] followed by USA which is nine studies [2], [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27], Korea [28,29], and South East Asia [30][31][32][33] had been handled 3 studies respectively, while China has 2 studies [34,35] and Turkey [36] and Brazil [37] and Japan [38] had one paper respectively. The papers had been published in the early 2000s until the present. ...
Article
Diabetes Users who encounter physical and motor impairment persist in struggle to archive the target of performance in the form of hand gesture improvement. Hand gestures are allowed people to give a sign as a communicate medium and to hold, grip and pinch the object. The low ability of hands makes the movement or gesture limited and difficult for them to do the routine activity. This review aim to evaluate the effect of whether the existing supportive technology can assist the hand motor-impairment user. A total of 31 papers were identified and only 10 papers were selected in this review. In this paper, the existing supportive technology tools in the field of motor rehabilitation which is focused on hand motor-impaired users are reviewed. The existing of supportive technology for hand motor-impaired user is not a new field as the paper reviewed from 2014 until 2019. There are few innovations or initiatives from the previous research and study that give a positive effect on the users were identified. Future research is needed to further appreciate and improved the desired role of people with hands motor-impaired in meaningful technology development.
... To account for this possibility, we include the notion of the privacy calculus in our model by adding a variable reflecting benefits of playing Pokémon Go. Perceived enjoyment reflects the fun players have when playing the game and prior research in the context of Pokémon Go shows that it has a significant effect on intentions to play the game [47]. We hypothesize: 5. Perceived enjoyment (PE) has a positive effect on the use behavior of Pokémon Go (USE). ...
Article
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Pokémon Go is one of the most successful mobile games of all time. Millions played and still play this mobile augmented reality (AR) application, although severe privacy issues are pervasive in the app due to its use of several sensors such as location data and camera. In general, individuals regularly use online services and mobile apps although they might know that the use is associated with high privacy risks. This seemingly contradictory behavior of users is analyzed from a variety of different perspectives in the information systems domain. One of these perspectives evaluates privacy-related decision making processes based on concepts from behavioral economics. We follow this line of work by empirically testing one exemplary extraneous factor within the "enhanced APCO model" (antecedents-privacy concerns-outcome). Specific empirical tests on such biases are rare in the literature which is why we propose and empirically analyze the extraneous influence of a positivity bias. In our case, we hypothesize that the bias is induced by childhood brand nostalgia towards the Pokémon franchise. We analyze our proposition in the context of an online survey with 418 active players of the game. Our results indicate that childhood brand nostalgia influences the privacy calculus by exerting a large effect on the benefits within the trade-off and, therefore, causing a higher use frequency. Our work shows two important implications. First, the behavioral economics perspective on privacy provides additional insights relative to previous research. However, the effects of several other biases and heuristics have to be tested in future work. Second, relying on nostalgia represents an important, but also double-edged, instrument for practitioners to market new services and applications.
... About half of the articles in our literature review investigate how the player's motivation and motives affect the attitude towards playing Pokémon Go and stopping to play the game. The motivation and motives for playing Pokémon Go include recreation and nostalgia motives [74]; enjoyment, physical activity, flow, nostalgia and social image [54,55,70,75]; having fun and getting exercise [37,52]; being social, experience immersion and experience achievement [61,76]; being fans of Pokémon (previous games or anime), enjoy collecting Pokémon, excuse to get exercise, and being curious and social [34,56,77]; comparing Pokédex with others, being a habit and attending special events [35]; health motivation operates in parallel with motives for gaming [43]; winning battles and catching Pokémon [3]; catching all Pokémon and reaching high levels [46,53]; previous exposure to Pokémon and social pressure [62]; spending time together and motivation to go outdoors [45]; recognition, ease of use, flow and competition [63,78]; gratification [79]; invitation from friends, family or social connections [64]; and personal needs, social needs, and recreation [65,80]. The reason people played less or stopped playing Pokémon Go was found to be that they caught all Pokémon, that the game required much physical activity, and the game consumed too much time and energy [56,75]; it was cumbersome to reach new levels, too high battery consumption, being less fun, having less time and technical malfunctions [35]; and boredom [45,80]. ...
Article
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Pokémon Go is one of the most successful mobile games of all time and has motivated its users to become physically active, socialize, and spend more time outdoors. There have been published some systematic literature reviews related to Pokémon Go, but few address health effects beyond the physical health of playing the game. This paper presents the results from a systematic literature review on how the game affects physical, mental, and social health and the players’ motivation for starting, keep on, and stop playing the game. The literature review identified fifty-nine studies related to the topic, which were accepted according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and the critical appraisal. The main conclusion is that Pokémon Go has an apparent positive effect on its player’s physical, mental, and social health, although this effect only lasts as long as the player plays the game. Further, the motivation and motives for playing the game include having a fun and immersive experience, getting physical exercise, social reasons, and nostalgia related to the Pokémon universe. The reasons for why people stopped playing the game included technical challenges, slow progress in the game that required more effort increasingly, and lack of variation and content.
... This study's empirical findings suggest that Performance Expectancy is the crucial factor for consumers to adopt AR for apparel shopping. In other words, different from other applications of AR, i.e., mobile games (Harborth & Pape, 2017;Ramírez-Correa et al., 2019), effectiveness and usefulness are the key motives driving consumer intention to use AR for apparel shopping purposes. Moreover, different from extant mobile commerce research (Kiseol & Forney, 2013;Shaw & Sergueeva, 2019;Tak & Panwar, 2017), this study data suggests that Hedonic Motivation plays no significant role in the consumer intention to use AR for mobile apparel shopping purposes. ...
Article
Some online retailers flourished during the COVID-19 pandemic time. Apparel retailers face the dilemma of how to adapt a considerable part of their businesses to mobile commerce. Augmented Reality (AR) applications offer the capability to try clothing and footwear items virtually. We address critical factors for consumers to adopt AR to shop apparel in general and footwear in particular. Based on a real-life pilot, we present six Research Propositions that can be addressed in future research and introduce a novel approach to evaluate the UTAUT2 constructs that result in a new way to view Habit and Price Value often ignored in extant research.
... For example, Söbke et al. (2017) were able to find out from the example of the AR game Ingress that the adaptation of the game to the user's abilities or the possibilities for social interaction plays a vital role for the user acceptance. Especially concerning the intuitive design and the ease of interaction between humans and the AR system, we want to gain insights into the design of industrial assistance systems, e.g., from the study of Harborth and Pape (2017), on user acceptance of Pokémon Go. In this context, incorporating gamification elements is also promising, as they can increase user acceptance of AR applications, as described in Section 2.1. ...
Article
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In the industrial work context, Augmented Reality (AR) can support work processes and employees’ cognitive relief through the location-specific and context-related superimposition of real objects with virtual information. The AR-based support of industrial work processes ranges over product development, manufacturing, assembly, maintenance, and training. In all these areas, numerous location-based AR support functions are being prototypically implemented, aiming to improve work efficiency, communication in mobile work situations, or employee qualification in the work process. In contrast to the increasing number of developed AR solutions in recent years, there is no widespread use of these solutions in industrial practice. AR systems’ successful introduction is closely related to user acceptance, which has not been comprehensively considered over the system development process. In addition to improving AR hardware ergonomic features, usability or user interface design play an essential role in user acceptance. Particularly in the context of employee qualification, increasing employee engagement can be named as a success factor. Previous user studies of industrial AR systems only include individual user acceptance aspects. The use of game elements has not been widely addressed in connection with manual tasks in production environments, including AR-based assistance systems. This paper aims to examine user acceptance of industrial AR systems and the relevant factors for investigating user acceptance, e.g., ease of use or enjoyment, based on a systematic literature review. An analysis of existing review articles on industrial AR systems elaborates the current state of the art and identifies the research gap. This review of 109 scientific articles from 2011 to 2020 provides an overview of the current state of research on the inclusion of user acceptance in industrial AR systems. The identified papers from the scientific databases, Scopus, Web of Science, IEEE Xplore Digital Library, ACM Digital Library, and Science Direct, are evaluated for their relevance and selected for further analysis based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, e.g., year of publication. This review presents the current challenges regarding user acceptance of industrial AR systems and future possibilities for the comprehensive integration of user acceptance factors into the development, evaluation, and implementation process.
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Training is a key resource for fostering knowledge as a competitive asset. As in other fields, in learning, innovation emerges with disruptive methods such as gamification. Serious games are a proven efficient training method based on the incorporation of traditional elements of games, such as entertainment, into learning. But as with any other innovation, people must be willing to use the new method. The use of even a proven serious game will not have any positive effect if students do not accept it. It is thus essential to analyze the intention to use serious games in management training contexts. This research uses an adapted CAN (Cognitive-Affective-Normative) model to explore the intention to use a serious game – Lego© Serious Play© – in a sample of higher-education students in their capacity as future professionals. The results show that the most critical factor influencing the intention to use serious games is expected learning performance. The proposed model opens a new methodology for studying the behavioral intention to use other innovative management-training methods and to enrich the deployment of serious game training strategies in management education.
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Pokémon Go might be considered to be one of the most successful exergames ever released. When the game was released in the summer of 2016, Pokémon Go players spent more time exercising, being outdoors, and socializing with the unknown, family, and friends. There have been many papers that report on how playing Pokémon Go affects the player’s health. However, few studies report how playing the game has different health and social impact on different groups of players. Specifically, the paper investigates how Pokémon Go has different health and social effects on gender, where the game is played, how much video games players play, their initial physical activity level, and occupation. The survey results of over two thousand active Pokémon Go players show that playing Pokémon Go has a statistically significant positive effect on physical and social activity. It was also found that the game had a different effect on various groups of players and that 50% of the players reported positive health benefits, including weight loss, loss in body fat, and gain in muscle mass. The paper’s most significant result is how Pokémon Go managed to motivate groups who are hard to motivate to be physically and socially active.
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Recent advances in mobile computing and augmented reality (AR) technology have lead to popularization of mobile AR applications. Touch screen input is common in mobile devices, and also widely used in mobile AR applications. However, due to unsteady camera view movement, it can be hard to carry out precise interactions in handheld AR environments, for tasks such as tracing physical objects. In this research, we investigate a Snap-To-Feature interaction method that helps users to perform more accurate touch screen interactions by attracting user input points to image features in the AR scene. A user experiment is performed using the method to trace a physical object, which is typical for modeling real objects within the AR scene. The results shows that the Snap-To-Feature method makes a significant difference in the accuracy of touch screen based AR interaction.
Conference Paper
With the advent of portable projectors (also embedded in a smart phone), projection based augmented reality (AR) will be an attractive form of AR as the augmentation is made directly in real space (instead of on the video screen). Several interaction methods for “Procam” systems, also applicable to projection based AR, have been developed, but their comparative usability has not been studied in depth. In this paper, we compare the usability of four representative interaction methods, applied to the menu selection task, for the hand-held projection based AR. The four menu selection methods studied are formed by combinations of two types of cursor control (projector cursor vs. on-device touch screen), and two types of item selection (explicit click vs. crossing). Experimental results have shown that the menu selection task was most efficient, usable and preferred when the projector cursor with the crossing widget was used. Furthermore, the task performance was not statistically different between using the dominant, non-dominant hand and even both hands.
Article
Despite recurring concerns about common method variance (CMV) in survey research, the information systems (IS) community remains largely uncertain of the extent of such potential biases. To address this uncertainty, this paper attempts to systematically examine the impact of CMV on the inferences drawn from survey research in the IS area. First, we describe the available approaches for assessing CMV and conduct an empirical study to compare them. From an actual survey involving 227 respondents, we find that although CMV is present in the research areas examined, such biases are not substantial. The results also suggest that few differences exist between the relatively new marker-variable technique and other well-established conventional tools in terms of their ability to detect CMV. Accordingly, the marker-variable technique was employed to infer the effect of CMV on correlations from previously published studies. Our findings, based on the reanalysis of 216 correlations, suggest that the inflated correlation caused by CMV may be expected to be on the order of 0.10 or less, and most of the originally significant correlations remain significant even after controlling for CMV. Finally, by extending the marker-variable technique, we examined the effect of CMV on structural relationships in past literature. Our reanalysis reveals that contrary to the concerns of some skeptics, CMV-adjusted structural relationships not only remain largely significant but also are not statistically differentiable from uncorrected estimates. In summary, this comprehensive and systematic analysis offers initial evidence that (1) the marker-variable technique can serve as a convenient, yet effective, tool for accounting for CMV, and (2) common method biases in the IS domain are not as serious as those found in other disciplines.