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Hydroalcoholic extract of Sargassum Oligocystum attenuates pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures by potentiating antioxidant activity in mice

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Sea algae are widely consumed in the world. There are several seaweeds including brown algae which are authorized for human consumption. These plants contain important phytochemical constituents and have various potential biological activities. The present study investigated the presence of phytochemical constituents and total phenolic quantity of the seaweeds Sargassum angustifolium, Sargassum oligocystum and Sargassum boveanum. Cytotoxicity of seaweeds was tested against HT-29, HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. Antioxidant potential of these 3 Sargassum species was also analyzed. Cytotoxicity was characterized by IC50 of human cancer cell lines using sulforhodamine assay. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazil. The analysis revealed that tannins, saponins, sterols and triterpenes were the most abundant compounds in these Sargassum species while cyanogenic and cardiac glycosides were the least ones. Sargassum angustifolium had the highest content of total phenolics (0.061 mg/g) and showed the highest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0.231). Cytotoxic results showed that all species could inhibit cell growth effectively, especially MCF-7 cell line (IC50 = 67.3, 56.9, 60.4 for S. oligocystum, S. angustifolium and S. boveanum respectively). Considerable phytochemicals and moderate cytotoxic activity of S. angustifolium, S. oligocystum and S. boveanum make them appropriate candidate for further studies and identification of their bioactive principles.
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Backgrounds: Oxidative stress can result from excessive free-radical production and it is likely implicated as a possible mechanism involved in the initiation and progression of epileptogenesis. Flavonoids can protect the brain from oxidative stress. In the central nervous system (CNS) several flavonoids bind to the benzodiazepine site on the GABAA-receptor resulting in anticonvulsive effects. Objective: This review provides an overview about the role of flavonoids in oxidative stress in epilepsy. The mechanism of action of flavonoids and its relation to the chemical structure is also discussed. Results/conclusions: There is evidence that suggests that flavonoids have potential for neuroprotection in epilepsy.
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Epilepsy is known as one of the most frequent neurological diseases, characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Oxidative stress is believed to directly participate in pathways leading to neurodegeneration, which serves as the most important propagating factor, leading to the epileptic condition and cognitive decline. Moreover, there is also a growing body of evidence showing the disturbance of antioxidant system balance and consequently increased production of reactive speciesin patients with epilepsy. A meta-analysis, conducted in the present review confirms an association between epilepsy and increased lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, it was also shown that some of the antiepileptic drugs could potentially be responsible for additionally increased lipid peroxidation. Therefore, it is reasonable to propose that during the epileptic process neuroprotective treatment with antioxidantscouldlead toless sever structural damages, reduced epileptogenesis and milder cognitive deterioration. To evaluate this hypothesis the studies investigating the neuroprotective therapeutic potential of various antioxidants in cell, animal seizure models and patients with epilepsy have been reviewed. Numerous beneficial effects of antioxidants on oxidative stress markers and in some cases also neuroprotective effects were observed in animal seizure models. However, despite these encouraging results, till now only a few antioxidants have been further applied to patients with epilepsy as an add-ontherapy. Based on the several positive findings in animal models, a strong need for more carefully planned, randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled clinical trials for the evaluation of antioxidants efficacy in patients with epilepsy is warranted. - See more at: http://www.eurekaselect.com/124853/article#sthash.tFjPP0Rg.dpuf
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Objective Epilepsy is a serious neural disease that affects around 50million people all over the world. Although for the majority patients with epilepsy, seizures are well controlled by currently available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), there are still >30% of patients suffered from medically refractory epilepsy and approximately 30-40% of all epileptic patients affected by numerous side effects and seizure resistance to the current AEDs. Therefore, many researchers try to develop novel approaches to treat epilepsy, for example, to discover new antiepileptic constituents from herbal medicines. Although there are already several reviews on phytotherapy in epilepsy, most of them placed emphasis on the plant crude extracts or their isolated fractions, not pure active compounds derived from herbal medicines. This article aims to review components in herbal medicines that have shown antiepileptic or anticonvulsant properties. Methods We searched online databases and identified articles using the preset searching syntax and inclusion criteria. The active medicinal compounds that have shown anticonvulsant or antiepileptic activity were included and classified according to structural types. ResultsWe have reviewed herein the active constituents including alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, and coumarins. The screening models, the seizures-inducing factors and response, the effective dose, the potential mechanisms, as well as the structure-activity relationships in some of these active components have also been discussed. SignificanceThe in vitro and in vivo experimental data reviewed in this paper would supply the basic science evidence for research and development of novel AEDs from medicinal plants.
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More than 150 years after bromide was introduced as the first antiepileptic drug, adverse effects remain a leading cause of treatment failure and a major determinant of impaired health-related quality of life in people with epilepsy. Adverse effects can develop acutely or many years after starting treatment and can affect any organ or structure. In the past two decades, many efforts have been made to reduce the burden of antiepileptic drug toxicity. Several methods to screen and quantify adverse effects have been developed. Patient profiles associated with increased risk of specific adverse effects have been uncovered through advances in the areas of epidemiology and pharmacogenomics. Several new-generation antiepileptic drugs with improved tolerability profiles and reduced potential for drug interaction have been added to the therapeutic armamentarium. Overall, these advances have expanded the opportunities to tailor treatment with antiepileptic drugs, to enhance effectiveness and minimise the risk of toxic effects.
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Melatonin was tested in an ongoing attempt to find the endogenous antagonists of quinolinic acid, an endogenous convulsant. Among a great number of metabolites that have been tried before, only a few were found (cerulein and quinaldic acid in mice and kynurenic acid in rats). In SHR (bred from Swiss) male mice, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) pretreatment with melatonin (1.25-10.0 microg) attenuated (in the descending order of potency) the convulsant effect of i.c.v. administered kainate, quinolinate, glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate, and pentylenetetrazole. Melatonin was ineffective against i.p. administered pentylenetetrazole. Systemically (intraperitoneal, i.p.) administered melatonin (12.5-100.0 mg/kg) attenuated the convulsant effect of quinolinate, while the action of other convulsants used remained unaltered. It is suggested that melatonin could be tried against grand mal seizures in epileptic patients.
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The plant Chodara (Anisomeles malabarica R.Br. Family: Lamiaceae) has numerous therapeutic utilities in folk medicine. To isolate and evaluate the anti-epileptic potential of fractions from the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) of Anisomeles malabarica leaves. The EA extract (2.12% w/w) of the leaves of Anisomeles malabarica was prepared and fractionated into total flavonoids fraction (AMFF) and tannins fraction (AMTF), which subsequently evaluated for the antiepileptic activity against PTZ- and MES model in wistar rats. Diazepam and phenytoin (2mg/kg and 25mg/kg, i.p., respectively), were used as a reference drugs. Further, the presence of flavonoid was confirmed by chemical test, TLC and HPTLC were done for the identification of the number of flavonoids with reference to standard. Single dose pretreatment with AMFF (25 and 50mg/kg, i.p.) has found to be effective against both MES and PTZ-convulsions, but associated with a marked decrease in locomotor activity and motor activity performance (i.e., neurotoxic effects), similar to that of diazepam treatment. Interestingly, chronic treatment with AMFF at lower doses (6.25 and 12.5mg/kg, i.p., 1 week) has also produced significant antiepileptic activity, but without causing neurotoxic effects. Thus, it may be concluded that the flavonoids fraction of the EA extract of Anisomeles malabarica leaves has antiepileptic potential against both MES and PTZ convulsion models. Acute treatment (25 and 50mg/kg, i.p.) is associated with neurotoxic activity. Whereas, chronic treatment (6.25 and 12.5mg/kg, i.p., 1 week) also shown significant antiepileptic effect without causing neurotoxic side effects. However, further research is in progress to determine the component(s) of the flavonoids fraction of Anisomeles malabarica involved and their mechanism of action in bringing about the desirable anti-epileptic effect.
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Epilepsy is one of the oldest neurological conditions known to humankind. It is known that oxidative stress and generation of reactive oxygen species are a cause and consequence of epileptic seizures. Although recent years have seen tremendous progress in the molecular biology and metabolism of selenium, we still know little about the cell type-specific and temporal pattern of selenium and its derivatives in the brain of epileptic humans and experimental animals. It has been suggested that some antiepileptic drug therapies such as valproic acid, deplete the total body selenium level and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity although therapy with a new epileptic drug, topiramate, activated GSH-Px activity in epileptic animals and humans. An observation of lower blood or tissue selenium level and GSH-Px activity in epileptic patients and animals compared to controls in recent publications may support the proposed crucial role of selenium level and GSH-Px activity in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Selenium is incorporated into an interesting class of molecules known as selenoproteins that contain the modified amino acid, selenocysteine. There are signs of selenium and selenoprotein deficiency in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. In conclusion, there is convincing evidence for the proposed crucial role of selenium and deficiency of GSH-Px enzyme activity in epilepsy pathogenesis. Blood GSH-Px activities could be a reliable indicator of selenium deficiency in patients with epilepsy.
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Vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol) has proven to be a useful adjunct to anticonvulsant drugs in clinical studies. Improvement has occurred even in patients with complex partial seizures, which are often resistant to drug therapy. In animals, vitamin E is effective against ferrous chloride seizures, hyperbaric oxygen seizures and penicillin-induced seizures. It has failed, however, to show anticonvulsant effects in the standard animal models used for drug screening--the maximal electroshock and threshold pentylenetetrazol tests. The present experiments were designed to further explore the anti-epileptic actions of vitamin E in animals. Three models related to complex partial epilepsy were used: 1) the development of amygdala-kindled seizures; 2) the development of electrically-induced status in kindled animals; and 3) the development of kainic-acid seizures. Vitamin E failed to produce significant effects in any of the models.
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The anticonvulsant effects of D-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied in 4 animal seizure models: the Metrazol threshold model (MET), the maximal electroshock model (MES), the kindling model (well-established seizures), and the ferrous chloride model. Vitamin E failed to antagonize seizures in the MES, MET, or the kindling models. It was, however, able to significantly delay the onset of electrographic seizures in the intracerebral ferrous chloride model. Thus, vitamin E shows activity in the ferrous chloride model, but not in the animal models commonly used to screen for anticonvulsant drug actions.
Article
Cerebral superoxide anion generation during bicuculline-induced seizures was measured in newborn pigs. Using two closed cranial windows inserted over the parietal cortices, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-inhibitable nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction was determined during 20 min of seizure activity induced by bicuculline, 5 mg/kg i.v. A modest increase in SOD-inhibitable NBT reduction was observed in piglets subjected to bicuculline-induced seizure activity (2.4 +/- 0.6 pmol/mm2 in 20 min) when compared to control piglets (0.4 +/- 0.3 pmol/mm2 in 20 min). Pretreatment with indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.v.) reduced SOD-inhibitable NBT reduction during seizures to the control level (0.5 +/- 0.4 pmol/mm2 in 20 min). We conclude that small quantities of superoxide anion radical are produced by newborn pig brain during bicuculline-induced seizures and that cyclooxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid appears to be a major source.
Article
Several indices of free radical generation were determined in limbic structures after kainate (KA)-induced seizure activity in adult and postnatal day (PND) 12 and 17 rats. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured in piriform cortex and hippocampal subfields at 8, 16, 48 h, and 5 days after KA injection in adults and pups, and also at 3 weeks postinjection in adults. KA-induced seizure activity had no significant effect on enzyme activities in PND 12 and 17 rats. In adults, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly increased at 5 days after KA administration, and returned to preinjection levels by 3 weeks. Glutathione peroxidase activity was also increased significantly at 5 days postinjection, but remained elevated at 3 weeks. Lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, exhibited an early significant increase at 8 and 16 h, followed at 48 h and 5 days by a significant decrease. At 3 weeks postinjection, MDA levels were still significantly decreased in CA3 and dentate gyrus. KA administration in PND 12 and 17 rats had no significant effect on MDA content. KA-induced seizure activity in adults also resulted in a large and sustained increase in protein oxidation in piriform cortex and hippocampus. The early increase in MDA and protein oxidation in adult rats strongly suggests the involvement of oxygen free radicals in the initial phases of KA-induced pathology, whereas the changes in scavenging enzyme activities and MDA content at 5 days and 3 weeks post KA injection possibly reflect glial proliferation subsequent to neuronal death.
Article
Marine algal polysaccharide, GIV-A from Sargassum thunbergii markedly inhibited the growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma at the dose of 20 mg/kg per day X10 with no sign of toxicity in mice. GIV-A is suggested to be a hexouronic acid containing L-fucan sulfate, fucoidan by the analyses of physicochemical properties and IR- and NMR-spectra. The results of carbon clearance activity with fucoidan demonstrated that it is acting as a so-called activator of the reticuloendothelial system. Fucoidan enhanced the phagocytosis and chemiluminescence of macrophages. By the immunofluorescent method, binding of the third component of complement (C3) cleavage product to macrophages and the proportion of C3 positive cells were increased. In crossed immunoelectrophoresis, human serum C3 was converted by fucoidan and appeared as the 3rd peak (converted C3). The height of the 3rd peak was directly proportional to the doses of fucoidan. The residual CH50 units of human serum decreased dose-dependently. These results suggest that the antitumor activity of fucoidan is related to the enhancement of immune responses. The present results indicate that fucoidan may open new perspectives in cancer chemotherapy.
Article
Adenosine has been shown to play a significant role as a modulator of neuronal activity in convulsion disorders, acting as an endogenous anticonvulsant agent. In the present study, we have investigated in mice the effect of acute tonic-clonic seizures induced by a single Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-injection (a) on the time development of adenosine uptake site binding after seizures in membranes of hippocampus, cortex, cerebellum, and striatum, and (b) on the regional distribution of adenosine uptake sites in the mouse brain by using "in vitro" quantitative autoradiography. As radioligand, the specific adenosine uptake blocker [3H]N-9-nitrobenzylthioinosine ([3H]NBI) was used. Acute seizures induced a rapid significant increase in [3H]NBI uptake site binding in hippocampus and cerebellum within 5 min, in cortex within 10 min after seizures, which reached a maximum level at 1 hr and reversed to control levels in about 150 min after seizures. On the contrary, in striatum a significant decrease of [3H]NBI uptake site binding was observed within 10 min after seizures, which reached its maximum at 1 hr and reversed to control levels at 150 min after seizures. With this single exception of striatum the "in vitro" quantitative autoradiography revealed a rather widespread upregulation of [3H]NBI uptake site density in the mouse brain, which was specifically enhanced in certain areas known to mediate seizure activity, such as hippocampus, specific thalamic nuclei, temporal cortex, and substantia nigra. The pattern of increases in [3H]NBI uptake site binding as they develop after acute seizures correlates well in time with the rapid enhancement of endogenous adenosine concentration released during epileptic activity. Since extracellular adenosine levels seem to be regulated by a rapid reuptake system, it seems likely that in our study, the [3H]NBI adenosine uptake system is acutely activated by seizures in order to compensate for the excess of endogenous adenosine. Furthermore, the upregulation of [3H]NBI uptake sites as revealed by the "in vitro" quantitative autoradiography seems to be organized in selective brain areas related to seizure propagation.
Article
The present study indicates that free radicals have been implicated in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure and kindling. In our experiments we used a method in which free hydroxyl radicals (* OH) are trapped by systemically applied salicylate in vivo, resulting in the stable and quantifiable products, 2, 3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 2,5-DHBA. We investigated the formation of both 2,3- and 2,5-DHBA in the whole brain (without cerebellum) of rats treated with an acute seizure-inducing dose of 48 mg/kg PTZ and in PTZ-kindled animals which were injected with the kindling dose of 37.5 mg/kg PTZ at different times after the last PTZ injection. An increase of * OH was observed in kindled rats compared with acutely convulsing animals when the PTZ application was performed 1 min after the salicylate treatment. The amount of DHBAs increased significantly in both convulsed groups 30 min after the application of PTZ compared with animals treated with NaCl instead of PTZ. Sixty minutes after PTZ the DHBA levels normalized to NaCl control values.
Article
Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jack (UR) and Gastrodia elata BI. (GE) are traditional Chinese herbs that are usually used in combination to treat convulsive disorders, such as epilepsy, in China. The aim of this study was to compare the anticonvulsive and free radical scavenging activities of UR alone and UR in combination with GE in rats. For the in vitro studies, brain tissues from 6 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated with 120 microg/ml kainic acid (KA), with or without varied concentrations of UR or UR plus GE. For the in vivo studies, male SD rats (6 per group) received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of KA 12 mg/kg to induce epileptic seizures and generation of free radicals, with or without oral administration of UR 1 g/kg alone or UR 1 g/kg plus GE 1 g/kg. Epileptic seizures were verified by behavioral observations, and electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) recordings. These results showed that UR alone decreased KA-induced lipid peroxide levels in vitro, whereas UR plus GE did not produce a greater effect than UR alone. UR significantly reduced counts of wet dog shakes (WDS), paw tremor (PT) and facial myoclonia (FM) in KA-treated rats and significantly delayed the onset time of WDS, from 27 min in the control group to 40 min in the UR group. UR plus GE did not inhibit seizures more effectively than UR alone, but did further prolong the onset time of WDS to 63 min (P < 0.05 vs. UR alone). UR alone reduced the levels of free radicals in vivo, as measured by lipid peroxidation in the brain and luminol-chemiluminescence (CL) counts and lucigenin-CL counts in the peripheral whole blood, but the combination of GE and UR did not reduce free radical levels more markedly than UR alone. In conclusion, our results indicate that UR has anticonvulsive and free radical scavenging activities, and UR combined with GE exhibit greater inhibition on the onset time of WDS than UR alone. These findings suggest that the anticonvulsive effects of UR and GE may be synergistic. However, the mechanism of interaction between UR and GE remains unknown.
Article
The role of oxidative stress in seizure-induced brain injury was investigated in a kainic acid model of experimental epilepsy. Kainic acid (12.5 mg/kg) or saline was injected intraperitoneally into 12-week-old male Fischer 344 rats and sacrificed by decapitation at 4 and 24 h after injection. Markers of oxidative stress including protein carbonyls, thiobarbituric acid reactive material (TBARs), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) were measured in hippocampus, cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia. Four hours after treatment, protein carbonyls were elevated by 103, 55, 52 and 32% in cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia and cerebellum, respectively. TBARs were increased by 30-45% in all areas. After 24 h, elevated protein and lipid oxidative markers persisted in the hippocampus and cerebellum; by contrast, in the cortex, TBARs almost normalized to control values and protein carbonyls trended downward by one-half compared with measurements at 4 h, although this reduction relative to the 4 h timepoint did not reach statistical significance. In the basal ganglia, protein carbonyls approached control values at 24 h. GSSG levels were only increased statistically in the cortex after 4 h, GSH levels in all the regions were unchanged after treatment with kainic acid. However, in cortex, GSH levels correlated negatively with increases in protein and lipid oxidation (r = -0.69, P < 0.002). In contrast, significant correlations between GSH, protein carbonyls and TBARs measured in the hippocampus or cerebellum were not observed. Our data suggests that kainic acid induced similar oxidative stress in all of the brain regions that were examined, and that GSH plays a major antioxidant role in the cerebral cortex but not the hippocampus.
Article
Dried flowers of Matricaria chamomilla L. are largely used to provide sedative as well as spasmolytic effects. In the present study, we examined in particular the pharmacological property of a fraction isolated from a methanolic extract of M. chamomilla, which was identified by HPLC-MS-MS analysis as apigenin. By radioreceptor binding assays, we demonstrated the ability of the flavone to displace a specific radioligand, [(3)H]Ro 15-1788, from the central benzodiazepine binding site. Electrophysiological studies performed on cultured cerebellar granule cells showed that apigenin reduced GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-activated Cl(-) currents in a dose-dependent fashion. The effect was blocked by co-application of Ro 15-1788, a specific benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Accordingly, apigenin reduced the latency in the onset of picrotoxin-induced convulsions. Moreover, apigenin injected i.p. in rats reduced locomotor activity, but did not demonstrate anxiolytic, myorelaxant, or anticonvulsant activities. The present results seem to suggest that the inhibitory activity of apigenin on locomotor behaviour in rats cannot be ascribed to an interaction with GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor but to other neurotransmission systems, since it is not blocked by Ro 15-1788.
Article
Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the development of seizures under pathological conditions and linked to seizure-induced neurodegeneration. There has been little direct evidence, however, of free radical production resulting from seizures. Using amygdala-kindled rats, we have examined the generation of reactive oxygen species following seizures, and their possible contribution to seizure development and seizure-induced neuronal loss. The concentrations of two products of free radical-induced lipid peroxidation, malonaldehyde and 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal, were measured using colorimetric assays. Lipid peroxidation was increased in both hemispheres of kindled rats as compared to sham-operated controls. Cell death was also significantly increased in all hippocampal areas. Antioxidants (vitamin E and glutathione) prevented the rise in lipid peroxides and hippocampal neuronal death during kindling, but did not arrest the development of seizures.Thus, epileptiform activity can result in free radical production which may be one of the factors leading to cell death.
Article
We briefly describe the Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) study, its goals, and some of its outcomes as related to neurologic and psychiatric disorders. The summary measure of population health DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) are described, as well as the implications for neuropsychiatric disorders of changing health indicators and the move from mortality toward disability indicators. The pressing need for new measures for health is answered by the new WHO Classification of Functioning Disability and Health, ICF, and a brief summary of its basic principles is provided. Although a better understanding of the physical, social, and economic burden of epilepsy has moved this disorder higher on the world's agenda, epilepsy still has problems to be recognized as a public health priority. The implications of a shift toward considering the disability of epilepsy, as outlined in the the WHO World Health Report 2001, are important. The burden of epilepsy is high and, for the year 2000, accounts for approximately 0.5% of the whole burden of diseases in the world.
Article
The whole brain free fatty acid (FFA) level, as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were determined in the frontal cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, and pons-medulla region of the single pentylenetetrazol (PZT)-treated and PZT-kindled Hannover-Wistar rats. PZT administration in the convulsive dose caused significant increase of the brain FFA content. Decreased SOD activity was detected in the frontal cortex of PZT-kindled rats, whereas decreased GPX activity was found in the frontal cortex and cerebellum of all treated rats, as well as in the hippocampus and pons-medulla of PZT-kindled rats. Kindling caused distinctive change of antioxidative defense in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and pons-medulla region.
Article
In this study we evaluated oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation) and thiol redox state [TRS: glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), cysteine (CSH), protein (P) thiols (PSH) and protein and non-protein (NP) mixed/symmetric disulfides (PSSR, NPSSR, NPSSC, PSSP)] in hippocampus after pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) administration at convulsive and subconvulsive dose. The significant decrease in PSH, CSH and NPSSC, as well as the increase in PSSP, NPSSR, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation levels after PTZ-induced seizure indicate increased oxidative damage in hippocampus, although the levels of GSH and GSSG do not change significantly.
Article
Previous experiments have shown that the generation of free hydroxyl radicals in rat brain homogenates is increased following pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling. The present study was performed in order to evaluate the involvement of endogeneous radical defence systems as the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the level of alpha-tocopherol, an important lipid-soluble and membrane-bound antioxidant in brain homogenate of rats after acute seizure and kindling induced by PTZ. The activities of the total SOD were significantly reduced after acute seizure and tend towards an enhancement in kindled animals. Western blot analysis shows an upregulation of Mn-SOD in rat brain homogenates after kindling. The level of the chain-breaking antioxidant alpha-tocopherol was reduced in acutely convulsing rats and was not modified in kindled rats. Second, we studied the influence of exogeneously supplied radical scavenger alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl-nitrone (PBN) on seizure and kindling following PTZ treatment. After a single injection of PTZ at a dose evoking clonic-tonic seizures, PBN did not modify either the formation of free hydroxyl radicals measured by the levels of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 2,5-DHBA or the susceptibility to PTZ. In the kindling group, subchronic treatment with PBN (over a period of 4 weeks) prevented the increase in the formation of free hydroxyl radicals, and the susceptibility to PTZ was transiently decreased during the development of kindling, but PBN did not influence the susceptibility to PTZ in fully kindled rats. Pretreatment with PBN increased the activities of total SOD and the protein content of Mn-SOD and decreased the level of alpha-tocopherol in comparison to saline controls. The results suggest that the formation of free hydroxyl radicals is not reflected by an enhanced susceptibility to PTZ classified according to the modified RACINE scale. Additionally, it may be assumed that the increased generation of hydroxyl radicals in kindled animals is not primary caused by an exhaustion of both the defence systems measured. Adaptive mechanisms, as the induction of Mn-SOD, may be taken into consideration to counteract oxidative stress-mediated free radical formation.
Article
In the present study we examined the effects of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) administration on the thiol redox state (TRS), lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in left and right mouse cerebral cortex in order (a) to quantitate the major components of the thiol redox state and relate them with oxidative stress and cortical laterality, and (b) to investigate whether neuronal activation without synchronization, induced by subconvulsive doses of PTZ, can cause similar qualitative effects on the thiol redox state. Specifically, we examined the TRS components [glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), cysteine (CSH), protein (P) thiols (PSH) and protein and non-protein (NP) mixed/symmetric disulfides (PSSR, NPSSR, NPSSC, PSSP)]. At 15 min after seizure, GSH, GSSG, CSH, NPSSC, PSSR and PSSC levels are decreased in left (14-50%) and right (11-53%) cortex while PSSP levels are increased in both left (1400%) and right (1600%) cortex. At 30 min after seizure, GSSG, CSH, NPSSC, PSSR and PSSC levels are decreased in left (14-51%) and right (18-56%) cortex while PSSP and protein carbonyl levels are increased in left (2300% and 20%, respectively) and right (2800% and 21%, respectively) cortex. At 24 h after seizure, the TRS components return to normal and protein carbonyl levels are decreased in left (16%) and right (20%) cortex. The significant decrease in GSH, GSSG, CSH, NPSSC, PSSR and PSSC, as well as the increase in protein carbonyl and the high increase in PSSP levels after PTZ-induced seizure indicate increased oxidative stress in cerebral cortex of mice, and of similar magnitude and TRS-component profiles between left and right cerebral cortex.
Article
To test the anticonvulsant activity of three preparations of American ginseng: whole root extract, whole leaves/stems extract, and a partially purified extract that concentrates the Rb ginsenosides (Rb extract). One hour after treatment with normal saline, or one of the three ginseng preparations, seizures were induced in adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats with kainic acid (KA; 10 mg/kg), pilocarpine (300 mg/kg, preceded by methylscopolamine, 1 mg/kg, s.c.), or pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 50 mg/kg). Time to onset of seizure activity, duration of seizure activity for PTZ, seizure severity, and weight change for KA and pilocarpine were determined for each animal. The brains from animals who had received KA or pilocarpine were examined for severe neuronal stress, by using immunoreactivity for heat-shock protein (HSP)72. The Rb extract had a dose-dependent anticonvulsant effect in all three models of chemically induced seizures: increasing the latency to the seizures; decreasing the seizure score, weight loss, and subsequent neuronal damage after pilocarpine; and shortening the seizure duration and reducing mortality after PTZ. The Rb extract also significantly reduced the effects of KA, including completely blocking behavioral seizures. The root preparation increased the mortality rate after administration of pilocarpine, but had no other significant effects. The leaves/stems preparation, at 120 mg/kg, reduced the weight loss after pilocarpine, but had no other significant effects. Ginseng extract made from either the root or leaves/stems is ineffective against chemically induced seizures. A partial purification of the whole extract that concentrates the Rb1 and Rb3 ginsenosides has significant anticonvulsant properties.
Article
Nigella sativa oil (NSO), a herbaceous plant, has been used for thousands of years for culinary and medical purposes. This study aimed to investigate the anticonvulsant and antioxidant activities of NSO on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling seizures in mice. Nigella sativa oil was tested for its ability (i) to suppress the convulsive and lethal effects of PTZ in kindled mice (anti-epileptogenic effect), (ii) to attenuate the PTZ-induced oxidative injury in the brain tissue (antioxidant effect) when given as a pretreatment prior to each PTZ injection during kindling acquisition. Valproate, a major antiepileptic drug, was also tested for comparison. Both substances studied significantly decreased oxidative injury in the mouse brain tissue in comparison with the PTZ-kindling group. Nigella sativa oil was found to be the most effective in preventing PTZ-induced seizures relative to valproate. Nigella sativa oil showed anti-epileptogenic properties as it reduced the sensitivity of kindled mice to the convulsive and lethal effects of PTZ; valproate was ineffective in preventing development of any of these effects. The data obtained support the hypothesis that neuroprotective action of NSO may correlate with its ability to inhibit not only excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation but also seizure generation.
Article
Methanolic extracts from the seagrass Zostera japonica were extracted successively using n-hexane (n-C(6)H(14)), dichloromethane (CH(2)Cl(2)), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and water to give the n-C(6)H(14) (16.8%), CH(2)Cl(2) (40.6%), EtOAc (34.1%), and H(2)O (8.5%) soluble fractions, respectively. We have demonstrated that the hexane fraction has the highest capacity to inhibit proIL-1beta expression as compared to other fractions in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated J774A.1 murine macrophages. Further analysis of the composition and antiinflammatory activity of the subfraction H5 from hexane fraction showed that it had the best antiinflammatory capacity and that it's major constituents were fatty acids, including palmitic acid methyl ester (21.5%), palmitic acid (24.02%), linoleic acid methyl ester (13.09%), oleic acid methyl ester (8.41%), and linoleic acid (7.93%), respectively. H5 inhibited LPS-induced TNFalpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that H5 is bioactive in antiinflammation in vitro. This study is the first to report the antiinflammatory activity of extracts obtained from the seagrass Z. japonica.
Article
Oxygen-free radicals, more generally known as reactive oxygen species (ROS) along with reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are well recognised for playing a dual role as both deleterious and beneficial species. The "two-faced" character of ROS is substantiated by growing body of evidence that ROS within cells act as secondary messengers in intracellular signalling cascades, which induce and maintain the oncogenic phenotype of cancer cells, however, ROS can also induce cellular senescence and apoptosis and can therefore function as anti-tumourigenic species. The cumulative production of ROS/RNS through either endogenous or exogenous insults is termed oxidative stress and is common for many types of cancer cell that are linked with altered redox regulation of cellular signalling pathways. Oxidative stress induces a cellular redox imbalance which has been found to be present in various cancer cells compared with normal cells; the redox imbalance thus may be related to oncogenic stimulation. DNA mutation is a critical step in carcinogenesis and elevated levels of oxidative DNA lesions (8-OH-G) have been noted in various tumours, strongly implicating such damage in the etiology of cancer. It appears that the DNA damage is predominantly linked with the initiation process. This review examines the evidence for involvement of the oxidative stress in the carcinogenesis process. Attention is focused on structural, chemical and biochemical aspects of free radicals, the endogenous and exogenous sources of their generation, the metal (iron, copper, chromium, cobalt, vanadium, cadmium, arsenic, nickel)-mediated formation of free radicals (e.g. Fenton chemistry), the DNA damage (both mitochondrial and nuclear), the damage to lipids and proteins by free radicals, the phenomenon of oxidative stress, cancer and the redox environment of a cell, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and the role of signalling cascades by ROS; in particular, ROS activation of AP-1 (activator protein) and NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappa B) signal transduction pathways, which in turn lead to the transcription of genes involved in cell growth regulatory pathways. The role of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (Vitamin C, Vitamin E, carotenoids, thiol antioxidants (glutathione, thioredoxin and lipoic acid), flavonoids, selenium and others) in the process of carcinogenesis as well as the antioxidant interactions with various regulatory factors, including Ref-1, NF-kappaB, AP-1 are also reviewed.
Article
: Oxidative stress has been implicated in a large number of human degenerative diseases, including epilepsy. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a new antiepileptic agent with broad-spectrum effects on seizures and animal models of epilepsy. Recently, it was demonstrated that the mechanism of LEV differs from that of conventional antiepileptic drugs. Objectifying to investigate if LEV mechanism of action involves antioxidant properties, lipid peroxidation levels, nitrite-nitrate formation, catalase activity, and glutathione (GSH) content were measured in adult mice brain. The neurochemical analyses were carried out in hippocampus of animals pretreated with LEV (200 mg/kg, i.p.) 60 min before pilocarpine-induced seizures (400 mg/kg, s.c.). The administration of alone pilocarpine, 400 mg/kg, s.c. (P400) produced a significant increase of lipid peroxidation level in hippocampus. LEV pretreatment was able to counteract this increase, preserving the lipid peroxidation level in normal value. P400 administration also produced increase in the nitrite-nitrate formation and catalase activity in hippocampus, beyond a decrease in GSH levels. LEV administration before P400 prevented the P400-induced alteration in nitrite-nitrate levels and preserved normal values of catalase activity in hippocampus. Moreover, LEV administration prevented the P400-induced loss of GSH in this cerebral area. The present data suggest that the protective effects of LEV against pilocarpine-induced seizures can be mediated, at least in part, by reduction of lipid peroxidation and hippocampal oxidative stress.
Article
Experimental manipulations suggest that in vivo administration of exogenous antioxidants agents decreases the concentration of free radical in the brain. Neurochemical studies have proposed a role for catalase in brain mechanisms responsible by development to status epilepticus (SE) induced by pilocarpine. The present study was aimed at was investigating the changes in catalase activities after pilocarpine-induced SE. Animals were treated with vitamin E (VIT E) 200 mg/kg (intraperitoneally (i.p.)) and, 30 min later, they received pilocarpine hydrochloride, 400 mg/kg, subcutaneous (s.c.) (P400). Other three groups received VIT E (200 mg/kg, i.p.), pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, s.c.) or 0.9% NaCl (control) alone. Animals were closely observed for behavioral changes, tremors, stereotyped movements, seizures, SE and death, for 24 h following the pilocarpine injection. The brains were dissected after decapitation. The results have shown that pilocarpine administration and resulting SE produced a significant increase in hippocampal catalase activity of (88%). In the group pre-treated which VIT E in hippocampal catalase activity was increase of 67% and 214% when compared with P400 and control group, respectively. Our results demonstrated a direct evidence of an increase in the activity of the hippocampal catalase of rat adults during seizure activity and after the pre-treated which VIT E that could be responsible by regulation of free radical levels during the establishment of SE.