ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

In an increasingly global landscape, NFP (not-for-profit) initiatives including those addressing animal protection, are increasingly operating cross-borders. Doing so without respect, local engagement, and a thorough understanding of the issues of concern is fraught with danger, and potentially wasteful of resources. To this purpose, we sought to understand attitudes to the importance of 13 major world social issues in relation to animal protection (including reducing poverty, racial, LGBT and gender equality, environmental protection, sustainable development, genetic engineering and capital punishment) by surveying 3433 students from at least 103 universities across 12 nations. The emergence of a ‘nature trifecta’ was suggested, with animal and environmental protection and sustainable development recurring as the most highly rated in importance across all countries, with these issues also consistently rating amongst the highest in each individual country. It is concluded that significant differences exist between attributed importance of world issues by nation, pointing towards the benefit of tailoring NFP (including animal protection) initiatives by country and region. It is also suggested that nation, or more specifically, sociopolitical and cultural region, is a vitally important demographic for consideration in social development.
This content is subject to copyright. Terms and conditions apply.
The Cross-Cultural Importance of Animal Protection
and Other World Social Issues
Michelle Sinclair
Clive J. C. Phillips
Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published online: 26 July 2017
!Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017
Abstract In an increasingly global landscape, NFP (not-for-profit) initiatives
including those addressing animal protection, are increasingly operating cross-
borders. Doing so without respect, local engagement, and a thorough understanding
of the issues of concern is fraught with danger, and potentially wasteful of
resources. To this purpose, we sought to understand attitudes to the importance of
13 major world social issues in relation to animal protection (including reducing
poverty, racial, LGBT and gender equality, environmental protection, sustainable
development, genetic engineering and capital punishment) by surveying 3433 stu-
dents from at least 103 universities across 12 nations. The emergence of a ‘nature
trifecta’ was suggested, with animal and environmental protection and sustainable
development recurring as the most highly rated in importance across all countries,
with these issues also consistently rating amongst the highest in each individual
country. It is concluded that significant differences exist between attributed
importance of world issues by nation, pointing towards the benefit of tailoring NFP
(including animal protection) initiatives by country and region. It is also suggested
that nation, or more specifically, sociopolitical and cultural region, is a vitally
important demographic for consideration in social development.
Keywords Animal welfare !Animal protection !Environmental protection !
Sustainability !Social issues !Not for profit !International
&Michelle Sinclair
Centre for Animal Welfare and Ethics, School of Veterinary Sciences, The University of
Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia
J Agric Environ Ethics (2017) 30:439–455
DOI 10.1007/s10806-017-9676-5
Knowledge about the attitudes of key stakeholders is of great value in the spheres of
politics and business, and equally in the endeavor of producing social change and
progress. Social activism and a person’s level of engagement with not-for-profit
organizations (NFPs) can be predicted by whether their attitude is that the issue of
focus is of high importance. For example, there is a strong correlation between
attitude intensity and self-reported environmental behavior and political activism in
environmental issues (Steel 1996). Similarly, perceived importance across a variety
of animal welfare and rights issues is positively correlated to engagement with
animal welfare NFPs (Phillips et al. 2012). With globalization increasing, the
importance of understanding cultures and social priorities is increasingly a
requirement for success, specifically within the aim of ‘thinking globally and
acting locally’.
Relevant cultural and social knowledge is of particular importance when
developing multinational policies and partnerships within a commercial ‘Corporate
Social Responsibility’ framework, and in the development and implementation of
NFP projects and initiatives in cross-cultural settings. In this context, understanding
the audience is the key to success (Andreasen and Kotler 2008). In addition to
benefits to NFP and social progress, understanding the attitudes and world social
issue priorities of varied cultures and nations is likely to have wide-reaching social
benefit. Gaining an understanding of the variability of attitudes and beliefs in
diverse groups can challenge the cognitive bias or ethnocentric tendency to believe
that one’s view—whether personal or culturally founded—is fact and solely
‘correct’ (Wiegand 1991). This tendency seems to be a common cause of
miscommunication, a barrier to successful co-operative relationships (business or
otherwise), and, in its worst form, the basis of conflict and discrimination (including
A recent study found that the importance placed on animal welfare and rights
across a variety of issues (the killing of animals, animal use in experimentation etc.)
and over a wide range of demographics, differs significantly between nations
(Phillips et al. 2012). No differences were identified between ethnic groups within
each country. Within the investigated Eurasian geographical region, respondents
from European countries expressed more concern for animal welfare than those
from Asian nations. The researchers postulated a relationship with affluence, this
was supported by a positive correlation between respondent expenditure and
concern for animal welfare and animal rights. The relationship between religion and
concern for animal welfare and rights was not found to be as significant as other
factors (Phillips et al. 2012).
Significant gender differences exist in attitudes in the literature (Davis 1983;
Phillips et al. 2010; Ling et al. 2016). Gender differences are most prominent in
relation to empathetic abilities and tendencies, with women usually more empathic
than men (Eisenberg and Lennon 1983; Davis 1983). Empathy seems to translate to
concern for environmental conservation too, with females having higher levels of
social responsibility in this area Zelezny et al. (2000). Gender differences are
440 M. Sinclair, C. J. C. Phillips
particularly prominent in relation to animal welfare (Phillips et al. 2010). Attitudes
to livestock slaughter and transport have been found to differ by gender and
nationality in Veterinary Science and Agricultural students in E and SE Asia (Ling
et al. 2016). Thai respondents found killing animals the least acceptable of the four
Asian nations that were assessed, and Malaysian respondents found that animals
experiencing pain and suffering during slaughter to be significantly less accept-
able than respondents from Vietnam and China. Female respondents were more
likely to find certain animal production processes unacceptable compared to their
male counterparts (Ling et al. 2016).
In a large cross-country sample of attitudes to corporate social responsibility,
differences were found between countries that depended on the social focus and
religion. Attitudes and social priorities across nations and culture remain largely
unexplored despite their importance to many diverse fields (Brammer et al. 2007).
In a study of the association between attitudes and engagement with not for profits,
people who considered animal issues important were more likely to engage with
animal protection organizations (Phillips et al. 2012). Respondents who rated
animal welfare highly were also more likely to be interested in world issues in
general but no comparisons of levels of action and engagement have been studied
for individual world issues.
Apart from this, the importance of world social issues has not yet been measured
or analyzed across nations, or compared with other individual social issues cross-
culturally. Knowledge of the importance of social issues in different geographical
regions and cultures can help NFP organizations tailor their initiatives to make them
more geographically and culturally relevant (Sinclair 2016). This is of considerable
importance as NFP initiatives have traditionally been limited by operational and
financial constraints in scope to certain geographical regions and it is vital that the
initiatives are tailored to the region of interest to improve relevance, local
engagement and success.
The research described in this paper was part of a cross-cultural study of attitudes
towards animals and other areas of concern in Eurasian students (Phillips et al.
2012; Izmirli and Phillips 2011; Meng et al. 2009). The objective of this paper is to
investigate the relationships between the importance of world social issues,
including animal protection, with nationality and gender.
The intended application of this study is to further inform NFPs’ understanding
of social priorities to enable them to develop locally meaningful campaigns,
programs and initiatives. To think globally and act locally requires an understanding
of attitudes in a variety of cultures and geopolitical regions, and understanding the
position of people of different nations and cultures on world issues is of paramount
importance in an increasingly globalised landscape.
Materials and Methods
Human ethics approval was granted by the University of Queensland Human Ethics
Committee. The survey method utilised responses to a survey focusing on attitudes
to animals from 3462 university students in 11 Eurasian countries. The survey
The Cross-Cultural Importance of Animal Protection and441
method and responses relating to food avoidance, nation and ethnic group,
differences between male and female respondents in attitudes to animal welfare and
rights and extent of support for animal protection organizations have been
documented previously. In brief, a call was distributed through relevant organiza-
tions (e.g. the International Society for Applied Ethology), for volunteer academic
collaborators to organise a survey of students’ attitudes to social issues, in particular
animal management, in their country. Suitable collaborators volunteered in 21
countries worldwide, but those in 9 countries dropped out over the course of the
project, leaving 12 countries as a convenience sample. Those remaining represented
a broad spectrum of cultures and geographical regions of Europe and Asia,
including the People’s Republic of China (hereafter referred to as China), Czech
Republic, United Kingdom, Islamic Republic of Iran (hereafter referred to as Iran),
Republic of Ireland (hereafter referred to as Ireland), Portuguese Republic (hereafter
referred to as Portugal), Republic of Korea (hereafter referred to as Korea),
Republic of Macedonia (hereafter referred to as Macedonia), Kingdom of Norway
(hereafter referred to as Norway), Republic of Serbia (hereafter referred to as
Serbia), Kingdom of Spain (hereafter referred to as Spain) and the Kingdom of
Sweden (hereafter referred to as Sweden).
In all cases except Norway and Sweden, where access by e-mail to the entire
student populations in the selected universities was possible, collaborators organised
a team of student volunteers to recruit respondents in a sample of universities in
their country. The universities were selected at random if possible, but in some
countries a convenience sample was used. The target number of respondents in each
country was related to the population. If they agreed, students were asked to give
their e-mail address to the volunteer, in order that a weblink to the survey could be
sent to them at a later date.
Student volunteers approached students at a central location in the university (not
related to any subject area) and asked them if they would take part in a social
survey. A pilot survey informed the development of the survey. The majority of
responses were received from students in 103 universities, providing a broad spread
of the tertiary education sector.
The survey format and content was discussed and agreed by all collaborators, and
the survey was then translated by the collaborators into each native language, since
these people were most familiar with the animal welfare terminology used. Where
possible the translated versions were translated back into English and changes made
in the case of discrepancies, and in all cases the survey meaning and translation
were checked by a third party for accuracy and consistency of meaning, in
conjunction with the collaborator.
For the study reported here, students were asked thirteen questions concerning
major world social issues, with students asked to give their opinion about how
important each was to them, on a scale of 1 (not important) to 7 (extremely
important), or to indicate that they were not familiar enough with the issue to
Students were also asked other demographic questions such as area of study,
religion and ethnicity, including nationality and gender as focus fields for this
present study.
442 M. Sinclair, C. J. C. Phillips
Statistical Analysis
Data were initially cleaned and examined for potential sources of bias. ANOVA of
issues included the following dependent variables entered into the model included
level of support for animal protection organizations, area of study, level of
education, nation, ethnic group (nested within nation), gender, place of residence,
religious affiliation, food avoidance and reasons why food was avoided. This paper
focuses on nationality, gender and their interaction as dominant influences in the
model. As well as actual attributed importance ratings, relative ratings within each
country were calculated to facilitate comparison of ratings within a country. The
following formula was developed and applied to this analysis:
Weighted rating for issue x by country y¼rating for issue #maximum rating xðÞ=ð
maximum difference in issue ratings for country yÞÞ þ 1'100:
A principal component analysis of the issues data, with Varimax rotation, was
used to identify common groups of issues. There were two components with Eigen
values greater than one, a commonly accepted criterion for when to stop extracting
factors, and included issues with loadings C0.20. A dendogram is presented that
describes an agglomerative hierarchical clustering method that begins with all
variables separate, each forming its own cluster using the complete linkaging
The issue given the highest importance rating overall was environmental protection,
followed by sustainable development, and then animal protection and peace and
security by order of ranking (Table 1). Less importance was attributed to women’s
rights, reducing poverty, racial equality and professional ethics. Lowest importance
was attributed to human cloning, capital punishment, LGBT equality and human
Differences Between Nations
Differences between nations were statistically significant for all issues (P\0.001).
Environmental protection was given a high rating in all countries, but the highest
possible rating only in China, Spain, Macedonia and Serbia. The lowest ratings were
given in South Korea and Sweden. Chinese and Spanish students also attributed the
highest level of importance to sustainable development, with all countries except
Iran giving this a high rating. Chinese students also attributed the highest possible
importance to animal protection, with only Swedish students giving it a relatively
low rating. Chinese students also ranked peace and security very high, with
relatively low ratings in Korea and to a lesser extent Sweden. Spanish students gave
the highest rating of any country to women’s rights, racial and LGBT equality.
The Cross-Cultural Importance of Animal Protection and443
Table 1 Least squared means for effects of country on importance value for 13 world social issues, rated from 1, not important, to 7, extremely important, in declining
order of overall mean importance
Environ. protection 7.00 6.68 7.00 6.50 6.62 6.18 7.00 6.38 6.81 6.21 7.00 6.58 0.0860 \0.001
Sustain. devel. 7.00 6.13 7.00 6.28 5.06 6.04 6.66 6.62 6.63 6.58 6.49 6.64 0.0974 \0.001
Animal protection 7.00 6.26 6.62 6.02 6.62 6.07 6.50 6.19 6.56 5.60 6.34 5.97 0.1051 \0.001
Peace and security 6.82 6.21 6.64 6.02 6.64 4.23 6.46 6.28 6.36 5.78 6.69 6.09 0.0865 \0.001
Women’s rights 6.34 5.46 6.90 5.77 6.47 5.03 6.64 5.94 6.29 5.84 6.37 5.55 0.1143 \0.001
Reducing poverty 6.44 5.49 6.60 6.01 6.16 4.95 6.72 5.77 6.44 5.48 6.19 6.00 0.1073 \0.001
Racial equality 6.35 5.48 6.49 6.08 6.34 5.46 5.93 6.08 6.40 5.55 6.00 5.80 0.1075 \0.001
Prof. ethics 6.56 5.27 6.00 5.46 4.89 4.99 5.85 5.44 5.83 4.33 6.24 5.85 0.1028 \0.001
Genetic engineering 5.62 5.16 5.37 4.25 4.86 5.03 5.65 4.41 5.05 3.37 5.50 4.48 0.1326 \0.001
Human euthanasia 4.08 4.92 5.05 4.22 5.53 4.09 4.44 4.27 5.21 3.53 4.91 5.26 0.1404 \0.001
LGBT equality 4.03 4.21 5.37 5.34 5.03 3.56 4.17 4.75 5.24 4.68 4.26 4.87 0.1510 \0.001
Capital punishment 4.81 4.97 5.43 4.59 5.47 3.55 4.80 4.41 5.46 2.37 4.97 4.37 0.1479 \0.001
Human cloning 4.36 4.89 4.72 3.85 4.56 4.67 5.19 4.45 5.33 3.21 5.10 4.69 0.1705 \0.001
CN People’s Republic of China, CZ Czech Republic, ES Spain, IE Ireland, IR Iran, SK South Korea, MK Macedonia, NO Norway, PT Portugal, SE Sweden, SR Serbia and
UK United Kingdom. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender equality’ is abbreviated to ‘LGBT equality’, ‘professional ethics’ to ‘prof. ethics’, ‘environmental protection’
to ‘environ. protection’ and ‘sustainable development’ to ‘sustain. devel.’
444 M. Sinclair, C. J. C. Phillips
Iranian students rated the issues of capital punishment and human euthanasia higher
than all other countries, Macedonian students rated reducing poverty higher than all
other countries, and Portuguese students rated human cloning higher than all other
countries. Swedish students generally attributed the lowest importance of any nation
to all of the world issues, except peace and security, women’s rights, racial equality,
and LBGT equality. South Korean students attributed the lowest importance of any
nation to LBGT equality, and Iranian students rated sustainable development
significantly lower than all other countries.
In terms of relative ranks of issues within countries (Table 2), the degree of
variation between countries increased as the mean importance across countries
decreased (Fig. 1). Hence there was a degree of concordance between countries on
the most important issues, especially the top eight, but not the four less important
A principal component analysis (Fig. 2) explored the linkages between
responses across countries to the 13 world issues. Two components with Eigen
values over 1 emerged, which are presented in graphical form. There were common
responses to the top eight issues, confirming the concordance between countries for
these issues. Of the remaining issues, LGBT equality had the most similar variation
to the top eight issues, even though the variation between countries for this variable
was the highest. Human cloning, however, had both very high variation between
countries and was also very dissimilar to the top eight issues.
A dendogram of clustered variation across the 13 world issues illustrates that four
of the five lowest rated issues, genetic engineering, human euthanasia, capital
punishment and human cloning, had some similarity in variation structure, whereas
LGBT equality was unrelated to this and only remotely related to variation in the
top eight issues. Of the top eight issues the closest were environmental protection
and sustainable development in terms of variation structure, but two other major
closely related pairs emerged, racial equality and women’s rights, and reducing
poverty and peace and security.
Gender Results
When assessing the importance of world issues by gender and country, the
differences between male and female rated importance in different countries were
significant for 7 of the 13 world issues (Table 3). Overall, women rated all issues as
of higher importance than did men, except Capital Punishment, to which men
attributed higher importance overall.
Women’s rights had the greatest gender disparity across countries, with women
rating the issue of much higher importance, most noticeably in South Korea,
followed by Czech Republic, and to the least extent in Iran and Sweden. LGBT
equality was also rated as more important by women in all countries except Ireland
and Spain, with the greatest disparity seen in Sweden, Czech Republic, Norway and
Macedonia. Animal protection had the biggest differences between men and women
in the UK, Sweden and Norway, where females rated it of more importance. Men
and women in Iran, Macedonia, China and Serbia rated the issue to be of similar
importance. Capital punishment showed the greatest disparity between the sexes in
The Cross-Cultural Importance of Animal Protection and445
Table 2 Least squared means for effects of country on importance value for 13 world social issues, weighted according to relative ratings within country, together with
coefficients of variation (CV) between countries for each issue
Environmental protection 100 100 100 100 99.0 100 100 89.78 100 91.2 100 99.97 3.8
Sustainable development 100 77.73 100 91.69 24.03 94.67 87.98 100 89.77 100 81.38 100 24.5
Animal protection 100 82.99 83.33 81.88 99.03 95.81 35.33 81.70 85.79 76.72 75.91 75.36 20.7
Peace and security 85.18 80.97 84.21 81.88 100 25.85 80.91 85.53 74.43 80.99 88.56 75.77 22.7
Women’s rights 77.77 86.23 95.51 72.45 91.82 56.27 87.27 71.06 70.45 82.42 77 51.98 17.3
Reducing poverty 81.14 51.82 82.45 81.50 76.92 53.23 90.10 63.82 78.97 73.97 70.43 71.8 16.0
Racial equality 78.11 51.41 77.63 84.15 85.57 72.62 35.33 77.02 76.70 73.87 63.50 62.99 20.8
Professional ethics 85.18 42.91 56.14 60.75 15.86 54.75 59.36 49.78 44.31 46.55 72.26 65.19 31.6
Genetic engineering 53.53 61.53 28.50 15.09 14.42 56.27 52.29 5.95 0 23.75 45.25 4.94 74.8
Human euthanasia 1.68 28.74 14.47 13.96 46.63 20.53 9.54 0 9.09 27.55 23.72 39.20 73.1
LGBT equality 0.67 0 28.50 56.22 22.59 0.38 0 20.42 10.79 54.86 0 22.02 113.5
Capital punishment 26.26 30.76 31.14 27.92 43.75 0 22.26 5.95 23.29 0 25.91 0 74.0
Human cloning 11.11 72.46 0 0 0 42.58 36.04 7.65 15.90 19.95 30.65 14.09 103.3
446 M. Sinclair, C. J. C. Phillips
Ireland, where it was rated more highly by men than women, and only in Czech and
Norway was it rated substantially higher by women than men. Racial equality was
only rated substantially higher by women than men in the UK and Sweden, and in
Fig. 1 Coefficients of variation related to importance ratings of 13 world social issues between students
in 12 countries, with line of best fit by linear regression
Fig. 2 First and second principal components in students’ ratings of the importance of world social issue,
across the 12 countries in the study
The Cross-Cultural Importance of Animal Protection and447
Table 3 Gender disparity for 12 countries for the least square mean importance values for 13 world social issues, presented as the difference in respondent importance
rating of females minus means for males, in declining order of overall gender disparity
Women’s rights 0.83 0.76 1.3 0.37 0.83 1.25 1.57 0.86 0.55 0.11 1.02 0.60 0.76 0.162 0.001
LGBT equality 0.64 0.55 1.34 -0.22 -0.39 0.39 0.22 1.2 1.25 1.03 1.50 0.06 0.83 0.217 0.008
Animal protection 0.49 0.31 0.7 0.21 0.59 -0.27 0.23 -0.16 0.97 0.70 1.00 0.46 1.18 0.148 0.04
Capital punishment -0.06 0.23 1.04 -0.65 -1.68 -0.14 -0.55 -0.16 1.20 -0.41 0 0.34 0.01 0.209 \0.001
Racial equality 0.23 0.18 0.58 -0.3 -0.67 -0.11 0.13 0.32 0.54 0.16 0.73 0.36 0.92 0.152 0.04
Peace and security 0.05 0.1 0.31 0.26 -0.84 0 -0.81 -0.08 0.21 0.45 0.41 0.40 0.28 0.122 0.001
Reducing poverty 0.03 0 0.47 -0.18 -0.32 0.32 -0.37 -0.19 0.30 0.11 0.09 0.13 0.01 0.152 0.04
SED and Pvalues refer to gender 9country interactions, with only world issues with a Pvalue \0.05 included
448 M. Sinclair, C. J. C. Phillips
Ireland men rated it higher than women. When considering peace and security, the
greatest disparity between the sexes was evident in Ireland and South Korea, with
men rating it considerably higher than women. Men and women in the Czech
Republic showed the only major gender difference for reducing poverty, it being
more highly rated by women than men.
The ‘Nature Trifecta’
As demonstrated in Tables 1,2, and Figs. 1,3, collectively across the countries
environmental protection was given the highest rating for importance and was
closely followed by sustainable development and then animal protection. Sustain-
able development received the highest possible rating by Chinese and Spanish
respondents, and animal protection received the highest possible level of importance
by Chinese respondents. Each of these highly rated world social issues are
collectively based around our relationship with the natural world, what will here be
referred to as the ‘nature trifecta’. The nature trifecta effect demonstrated in this
study is suggestive of a level of common understanding of the importance of these
issues between respondents in widely different political and geographical regions.
This may be indicative of a recognition that careful consideration of these issues and
stewardship is needed to achieve a benign relationship with the natural world in the
future, which is likely to be key to our species’ self-preservation. It may also be
Fig. 3 Dendogram of similarity of students’ ratings of the importance of 13 world social issues, across
the 12 countries in the study
The Cross-Cultural Importance of Animal Protection and449
indicative of an awareness of a current disconnect between a fabricated human
society and the natural world, and a willingness to support and engage in initiatives
to foster harmonious and nature protection and conservation projects. While this
perceived importance reported by respondents is often in contrast to governmental
and commercial priorities, which usually focus on economic progression, many
societal trends support and reflect these results. For example, the emergence of eco-
tourism (Cater 1993), the move towards organic foods (Harper and Makatouni
2002), support for animal protection (Phillips et al. 2012), the policy forums
addressing climate change (Lorenzoni and Pidgeon 2006), increasing condemnation
of animal abuse and animal focused media (Tonsor and Olynk 2011), and the steady
tightening of environmental protection policy in industrialised nations (Vogel 1997)
are prominent issues for citizens today. Within the nature trifecta, the dendogram
(Fig. 3) demonstrates that ‘environmental protection’ and ‘sustainable develop-
ment’ are the most closely related, which is probably due to their mutual roots in
Nation Effects
Despite the commonality observed in selection of the major issues by respondents in
all countries, the results of this study showed that the level of importance attributed
to each world issue varied more between countries than other demographic factors.
There were no consistently significant effects of religion, ethnicity or income on
importance ratings. Nationality therefore emerged as the key defining demographic
in relation to attitudes to the most important social issues.
The world issue ‘environmental protection’ rated highest both collectively across
all countries, and by individual country in all instances except UK, where
‘sustainable development’ scored slightly higher. This, as with other issues, may
reflect awareness of the importance of the issue, but also may indicate the extent to
which respondents believe it is being successfully addressed. The latter may be
different between nations. In some nations, such as China, respondents may have
been influenced in this choice by personally experiencing or being aware of a
deteriorating environment in their country.
The world social issue of human cloning received the least associated relevant
importance by the countries collectively, with Spanish, Irish and Iranian respondents
allocating the issue the lowest level of importance of all issues. This may reflect a
perceived inability or unlikely impact of the issue on respondents’ lives. Similarly, for
this reason capital punishment may have been perceived as being of low importance;
it was shown to be the second lowest in importance when measured collectively, and
the lowest in Sweden, UK and South Korea specifically. The death penalty has been
illegal throughout the European Union for all crimes, including in times of war, since
1996 (Sarat and Boulanger 2005) (and it was not practised for a considerable time
prior to that in both Sweden and UK). Although South Korea has not abolished the
death penalty, it has had a moratorium on the issue since 1998 (Cho 2008). This may
indicate that responses of low level associated importance are reflective of a perceived
lack of need to address the issue, or a perceived satisfactory addressing of the issue
nationally. This could also offer an explanation as to why respondents in nations that
450 M. Sinclair, C. J. C. Phillips
are believed to have more advanced policies for animal protection (in particularly UK,
Sweden and Norway) did not rate the issue as highly in importance as respondents in
other nations with less developed policies, such as China.
Human euthanasia, along with LGBT equality, received the third lowest
importance rating collectively, with respondents from China, Czech Republic,
Macedonia and Serbia all reporting it as the lowest in importance compared to other
issues. The low importance rating of LGBT equality may represent a lack of
acceptance, stigmatisation or cultural unacceptability of sexual preferences other
than heterosexual in these regions, suggesting less progress in social policy towards
minority groups than in countries such as the UK. However this is not totally
supported by international Human Rights records, which include considerations of
anti-discrimination legislation; Iran has the death penalty for same sex relations in
mature and ‘sane’ men (Itaborahy and Zhu 2012), yet students there reported the
issue to be of greater importance than those in the Czech Republic, which has a
good record on Human Rights. The discrepancy suggests a variation in the attitudes
of respondents and the governing regime pertaining in Iran. Rating of LGBT as
highly important by women and the extent of social progress in a country suggests a
link to gender empowerment: Swedish students, for example, reported the highest
difference in rates of importance for LGBT equality between gender groups, and
this country ranks second in the world on the Social Progress Index 2015 (Porter
et al. 2015).
One of the most unexpected results of this study comes from considering the
nations with the highest ranking of importance for the world social issues
collectively. Spanish respondents rated all of the collective world social issues with
the highest importance compared to the other nations in the study, followed by
respondents in Portugal, then China. When comparing the level of associated
importance reported in this study with the world ‘Social Progress Index 2015’
(Porter et al. 2015), both Spain and Portugal rate in the top 20, but are below nations
such as Norway (number 1), Sweden (number 2) and the UK (number 11) that were
also included in this study. This may indicate a rapidly developing social landscape,
with Spanish and Portuguese nationals seeing value in the major world social issues
coupled with a need to continue progression; thus the reported high levels of
reported importance. This could also relate to the extent of social change within
students of this nation. Compared with other nationals examined in this study,
Chinese nationals have seen great social change over the last 10 years (Bai et al.
2008). Similarly, Spain and Portugal have also been exposed to significant social
change within the last 40 years. Spain has developed rapidly from a nation governed
by fascist rule to one that is increasingly liberal (Solsten and Meditz 1990). Portugal
has also experienced a rapid change in this time, from rule by the dictator Salazar, to
becoming a democracy and membership of the Eurozone (Federal Research
Division 1993). Support for less developed nations following entry to the European
Union may have facilitated this rapid progression. These results may be in contrast
to the highest rating Social Progress Index countries of Norway and Sweden who
may see value in the world social issues but are not reporting them in this study to
be of such a high level of importance. This could be due to a naturally conservative
attitude or the belief it is already handled adequately in their home country.
The Cross-Cultural Importance of Animal Protection and451
In relation to China, a desire for change is evident from the high reported levels
of importance for all world social issues, and China’s rating on the Social Progress
Index, ranked 92nd out of 133 countries (Porter et al. 2015). If the findings of this
study are representative of the views of the people of China and the Social Progress
Index reflective of government policy, it represents a significant disparity between
priorities of the Chinese government and those of the Chinese people. The ‘nature
trifecta’ issues (animal protection, environmental protection and sustainable
development) were all rated the highest for China, as they were in the other
Overall major differences existed between nations on importance ranking of the
world social issues which was consistent with the hypothesis of this study. This
highlights the importance of understanding and tailoring social improvement
programs or initiatives to nations and avoiding standard cross-cultural policies by
not-for-profit organizations active in this area. It also highlights the need to consult
and understand local audiences before initiating operations. In some countries, such
as China, results demonstrate a disconnect between policy and respondent opinion,
suggesting significant concern for domestic social issues amongst younger adults,
some of whom may be future leaders. This could be seen as promising for not-for-
profit organizations in relation to societal engagement in those areas.
Gender Effects
Gender effects on attitudes have been previously reported (Phillips et al. 2010), with
females expressing greater associated importance for all social issues, except capital
punishment, which was generally rated higher by men. They are further discussed
here, in view of their importance to the relative rankings. Men are more frequently
charged with crimes that are punished by the death penalty (Cornell Law School
2015), and probably therefore feel more potentially impacted. Alternatively, it is
possible that the males rating capital punishment as ‘more important’ may have
done so from a position of ‘pro-Capital Punishment’. Violence to the person is
historically more culturally accepted by men as compared to women (Nisbett and
Cohen 1996). Women associated significantly more importance with the issues of
animal protection, equality for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender and women’s
rights than men (Phillips and McCulloch 2005). Women’s expression of concern for
animal protection is positively correlated with their level of empowerment in the
country (Phillips et al. 2010). When comparing the importance of issues to the
different genders by nation, women in the Czech Republic, Norway and Sweden
differed most from men by reporting greater importance of all issues. A significant
difference was also associated with gender on the issue of women’s rights across
nations, with the greatest gender disparity most evident in South Korea, followed by
Czech Republic, with least difference in Iran and Sweden; this is likely to be due to
the specific gender implications of the issue. The social progression index (Porter
et al. 2015) attributes ranks of 29, 22 and 95 (out of the 133 nations analyzed)
respectively for South Korea, Czech Republic and Iran, indicating that gender
equality is lacking in these nations as compared to others in this study such as
Norway, Sweden and UK (with rankings of 1, 2 and 11, respectively). When
452 M. Sinclair, C. J. C. Phillips
considering peace and security, the greatest disparity between the sexes was evident
in South Korea and Ireland, with men rating this issue of considerably higher
importance than women. One explanation for this could be the recent challenges to
peace and security within these nations (for example, the strained relations between
South and North Korea and the regional unrest in northern Ireland) and men being
more traditionally seen as responsible for maintaining peace and security (Carreiras
Overall, a gender effect is clear, most frequently seeing women reporting higher
levels of importance to social issues; however, this clearly varied by country. This
has implications for targeting audiences and eliciting engagement with NFPs, as
women in some cultures could be engaged as social ambassadors.
The major limitation of this study is that it was a convenience sample conducted
with respondents who were university students, and, as a consequence, predom-
inately fall within a highly educated and often younger demographic. Therefore, it is
possible that the results of this study may not be representative of the community as
a whole; the general population may not rate the importance of the reported world
issues in the same way and may have different levels of engagement with not-for-
profit causes. It is also of importance to note that a rating of ‘importance’ as offered
in this research, does not offer insight into how well the respondent feels the issue is
being currently addressed, and if the respondent is in support or standing against
world issues that have been presented as practices (such as genetic engineering and
capital punishment). While inferences can and have been made here in an attempt to
interpret the results, further research including a complete analysis of governmental
policy and NFP initiative saturation at the time of data collection is required.
This study has demonstrated that nation, and gender within nation, can be major
factors influencing rating of importance of world social issues (including: reducing
poverty; racial, LGBT and gender equality; animal and environmental protection;
sustainable development; genetic engineering; and capital punishment). The results
suggest that ‘nature trifecta’ exists which causes ‘environmental protection’,
‘sustainable development’ and ‘animal protection’ to be rated with the greatest
importance compared with other presented social issues across all surveyed nations
collectively. In addition, the study suggests that progression on world social issues
requires engagement based on understanding and respect of the different cultures,
social priorities and sociopolitical regions across the world.
Andreasen, A. R., & Kotler, P. (2008). Strategic marketing for nonprofit organizations (1st ed.). New
Jersey, USA: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
The Cross-Cultural Importance of Animal Protection and453
Bai, K., Zhou, S., & Lv, Y. (2008). The progress of social cultural geography in china in recent 10 years.
Acta Geologica Sinica, 69(8), 1190–1206.
Brammer, S., Williams, G., & Zinkin, J. (2007). Religion and attitudes to corporate social responsibility
in a large cross-country sample. Journal of Business Ethics, 71(3), 229–243. doi:10.1007/s10551-
Carreiras, H. (2006). Gender and the military: Women in the armed forces of western democracies. UK:
Cater, E. (1993) Ecotourism in the third world: Problems for sustainable tourism development. Tourism
Management 14(2), 85–90.
Cornell Law School. (2015). Death penalty worldwide: women. Retrieved December 5, 2015 from http://
Cho, K. (2008). Death penalty in Korea: From unofficial moratorium to abolition? Asian Journal of
Comparative Law. doi:10.1017/S2194607800000120.
Davis, M. H. (1983). Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional
approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44(1), 113. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.44.1.
Eisenberg, N., & Lennon, R. (1983). Sex differences in empathy and related capacities. Psychological
Bulletin, 94(1), 100. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.94.1.100.
Harper, G. C., & Makatouni, A. (2002). Consumer perception of organic food production and farm animal
welfare. British Food Journal., 104(3/4/5), 287–299. doi:10.1108/00070700210425723.
Itaborahy, L. P., & Zhu, J. (2012). State-sponsored homophobia: A world survey of laws criminalising
same-sex sexual acts between consenting adults. Brussels: The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual.
Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA).
Izmirli, S., & Phillips, C. J. (2011). The relationship between student consumption of animal products and
attitudes to animals in Europe and Asia. British Food Journal, 113(3), 436–450. doi:10.1108/
Library of Congress. Federal Research Division. (1993). Portugal: A country study. Washington, DC:
Library of Congress.
Ling, R. Z., Zulkifli, I., Lampang, P. N., Nhiem, D. V., Wang, Y., & Phillips, C. J. C. (2016). Attitudes of
students from southeast and east Asian countries to slaughter and transport of livestock. Animal
Welfare. In press
Lorenzoni, I., & Pidgeon, N. F. (2006). Public views on climate change: European and USA perspectives.
Climatic Change, 77(1), 73–95.
Meng, J., Hanlon, A., Handziska, A., Choe, B. I., Illmann, G., Lee, G. H., & Alonso, M. (2009). Attitudes
to animals in Eurasia: The identification of different types of animal protection through an
international survey. In Minding animals international conference (pp. 30–30). Minding Animals
Nisbett, R. E., & Cohen, D. (1996). Culture of honor: The psychology of violence in the south. Boulder,
USA: Westview Press.
Phillips, C., Izmirli, S., Aldavood, J., Alonso, M., Choe, B. I., Hanlon, A., et al. (2010). An international
comparison of female and male students’ attitudes to the use of animals. Animals, 1(1), 7–26. doi:10.
Phillips, C. J. C., Izmirli, S., Aldavood, S. J., Alonso, M., Choe, B. I., Hanlon, A., et al. (2012). Students’
attitudes to animal welfare and rights in Europe and Asia. Animal Welfare-The UFAW Journal,
21(1), 87.
Phillips, C. J., & McCulloch, S. (2005). Student attitudes on animal sentience and use of animals in
society. Journal of Biological Education, 40(1), 17–24. doi:10.1080/00219266.2005.9656004.
Porter, M. E., Stern, S., & Green, M. (2015). Social progress index 2015. Washington, DC: Social
Progress Imperativ.
Sarat, A., & Boulanger, C. (Eds.). (2005). The cultural lives of capital punishment: Comparative
perspectives. Palo Alto, USA: Stanford University Press.
Sinclair, M. (2016). Internationalization of animal welfare standards. Encyclopaedia of food and
agricultural ethics. New York City, USA: Springer.
Solsten, E., & Meditz, S. W. (Eds.). (1990). Spain: A country study. Washington, DC: Library of
Steel, B. S. (1996). Thinking globally and acting locally?: Environmental attitudes, behavior and
activism. Journal of Environmental Management, 47(1), 27–36. doi:10.1006/jema.1996.0033.
454 M. Sinclair, C. J. C. Phillips
Tonsor, G. T., & Olynk, N. J. (2011). Impacts of Animal Well-Being and Welfare Media on Meat
Demand. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 62(1), 59–72.
Vogel, D. (1997). Trading up and governing across: Transnational governance and environmental
protection. Journal of European Public Policy, 4(4), 556–571. doi:10.1080/135017697344064.
Vogel, D. (2009). Trading up: Consumer and environmental regulation in a global economy. Harvard
University Press.
Wiegand, P. (1991). Does travel broaden the mind? Education, 19(1), 54–58. doi:10.1080/
Zelezny, L. C., Chua, P. P., & Aldrich, C. (2000). New ways of thinking about environmentalism:
Elaborating on gender differences in environmentalism. Journal of Social Issues, 56(3), 443–457.
The Cross-Cultural Importance of Animal Protection and455
... It did not attract attention from the Chinese general public until the early years of this century [10]. Many factors are recognized as having an influence on the attitudes of people to animal welfare, including culture, religion and gender [23]. ...
... To date, the term "animal welfare" has no meaningful translation in the Chinese language [24,25]. A survey conducted in 2008 found that Chinese respondents had a less favourable attitude towards the importance of typical welfare issues than students in 11 European and other Asian countries [23]; however, in the same survey they had a very favourable attitude towards wildlife protection [23,26]. Student attitudes towards animal welfare are particularly benign in the UK, Sweden and Norway, with females giving higher ratings to animal protection than males [24,26], as well as being somewhat benign in the USA, Japan, France and Germany [27]. ...
... To date, the term "animal welfare" has no meaningful translation in the Chinese language [24,25]. A survey conducted in 2008 found that Chinese respondents had a less favourable attitude towards the importance of typical welfare issues than students in 11 European and other Asian countries [23]; however, in the same survey they had a very favourable attitude towards wildlife protection [23,26]. Student attitudes towards animal welfare are particularly benign in the UK, Sweden and Norway, with females giving higher ratings to animal protection than males [24,26], as well as being somewhat benign in the USA, Japan, France and Germany [27]. ...
Full-text available
Food‐producing animals make up the majority of animals that humans manage globally, and China has been a major producer and exporter of animal products since the late 1990s. The opinions of the population in China regarding animal welfare are not as well understood as those in Europe. In China, animal welfare as a societal concern is still at an early stage of development. This survey of Chinese attitudes aimed to understand consumer knowledge of and behaviour towards animal welfare, and to determine whether harnessing consumer interests may be a potential future influence on the development of high‐welfare agricultural production. Most participants were not aware of the meaning of animal welfare, but the number of those that were aware was higher than reported previously. The welfare of wild animals was rated particularly important compared to other animals. The links between welfare and the taste and/or safety of food were consid‐ ered to be important, and Chinese consumers reported a willingness to pay more for food from animals produced in good welfare conditions, although the quality of the food was considered more important than the animal suffering. A large majority of the respondents reported that there should be legislation protecting animals and certification of welfare on farms, that animals on farms should be provided with enjoyable experiences and that transportation times should be minimised. Furthermore, most respondents reported that animals should be stunned before slaughter. We conclude that animal welfare is of importance to the Chinese consumer, in particular because of its connection to food quality.
... Attitudes regarding animal welfare may differ according to religious and cultural beliefs, age, geographical location, and education. Earlier studies (Randler et al., 2019;Sinclair & Phillips, 2017) have identified personal characteristics (e.g. gender and pet ownership) that determine the likelihood of individuals supporting the welfare of animals. ...
... The high percentage of women participating in the boycott calls (Figure 1) is congruent with several studies (Sinclair & Phillips, 2017;Sødring et al., 2020), which have indicated that women are more likely to be concerned with animal abuse and involved with TOURISM RECREATION RESEARCH animal rights movements than men. The dominant participation of women in the animal welfare movement is well established in ecofeminist discussions (Adams & Gruen, 2014;Yudina & Fennell, 2013). ...
Destinations have faced boycotts for engaging in behaviour perceived by people to be unacceptable. People observe boycotts as a means to construct an ethical life through their travel purchase decisions. Despite the impacts of boycotts, few studies have been undertaken to understand destination boycotts, particularly the people who participate in boycotts. Framed in ecofeminist theory, this paper presents an analysis of Twitter users who have participated in destination boycott calls focused on China, South Africa, and Spain related to concerns about the welfare of animals. The profiles of 3493 Twitter users who participated in tourism boycott calls were analysed using content analysis. Twitter users’ profile descriptors align with the characteristics personified in ecofeminist philosophy. Thus, the findings suggest that ecofeminism can be a useful lens through which to understand activism triggered by values embodied in feminism striving towards justice in a tourism context. The findings indicate that the ecofeminist framework is applicable both as a theoretical and practical lens that aids understanding of the kinship between humans, animals, and the environment. The philosophy inherent in ecofeminism provides a strong argument that it is a political enterprise that seeks to empower human and non-human animals to address and change unacceptable practices/policies.
... The results also show that the animals value is empirically distinct from other refined values across countries and extend recent attempts to identify and validate concern for animals as a distinct value in samples from Australia and the USA (e.g., Lee et al., 2019;Sneddon et al., 2020) to other countries. The findings are compatible with the idea that concern for the welfare of animals is not limited to western countries (see Linzey, 2009;Sinclair & Phillips, 2017), despite Lee et al.'s (2019) suggestion that the animals value may be less distinct from other refined values in developing nations than in Western countries. However, the mean importance of the animals value differed between countries, with Eastern countries (i.e., Singapore, Malaysia, and China) having lower mean scores than Western countries (i.e., Australia, USA, and Canada). ...
... Cross-cultural differences found in the importance of the animals' values, and in the proportion of people donating to animal charities in this study, may reflect the relative maturity of the animal protection institutions in each country. Institutional transmission of the desirability of this valuein terms of the extent of legal protections for nonhuman animals, number of animal protection organizations, and norms around traditional uses of animals (see Sinclair & Phillips, 2017) is likely to impact its relative importance in society. For instance, in the USA, which had the highest mean animals value score, and one of the largest proportions of donors to this cause, the animal protection movement is relatively mature and well established. ...
Growing public concern for the welfare of animals is reflected in an increase in the number of animal charities around the world. However, little is known about the individuals who donate to these organizations. In this study, we examine relations between individual differences in personal values and sociodemographic characteristics and the decision to donate to animal charities. We do this in samples from nine different countries: the USA, Canada, Australia, the Netherlands, Italy, Poland, Malaysia, Singapore, and China. We show that the personal value expressing concern for the welfare of animals is empirically distinct from other refined values and that this value is positively associated with giving to animal charities in each country. These results extend recent attempts to identify and validate the animals value as a distinct value beyond western samples. Using logistic regression analysis, we also show, in all nine country samples, that the animals value is the most consistent predictor of donating to animal charities when compared with sociodemographic characteristics examined in previous studies. The results of this study can be used by organizations in the animal protection sector to inform their donor segmentation and targeting strategies both within and across borders.
... Chinese citizens have expressed increasing regard for the way animals are treated (Lu et al., 2013;Deng et al., 2016;Sinclair and Phillips, 2017;Jun, 2018;Zhang, 2018), and while interest in the welfare of farm animals is currently low, it is growing (Nielsen and Zhao, 2012). This can be, in part, attributed to factors including increased pet ownership, urbanization, media coverage (D'Silva and Turner, 2012;Carpenter and Song, 2016), and concerns for food safety and public disease (Littlefair, 2006). ...
Full-text available
As the world's largest livestock producer, China has made some progress to improve farm animal welfare in recent years. Recognizing the importance of locally led initiatives, this study aimed to engage the knowledge and perspectives of Chinese leaders in order to identify opportunities to further improve farm animal welfare in China. A team of Chinese field researchers engaged 100 senior stakeholders in the agriculture sector (livestock business leaders, agriculture strategists and intellectuals, government representatives, licensed veterinarians, agriculture lawyers, and national animal welfare advocates). Participants completed a Chinese questionnaire hosted on a national platform. The raw data responses were then translated and subjected to qualitative and quantitative analyses from which themes were built and resulting recommendations were made. The findings of this study urge emphasis on the ties between improved animal welfare with food safety, product quality, and profit, and demonstrate the existence of animal welfare opportunities outside of the immediate introduction of specific animal protection legislation. The resulting applications are anticipated to be of strategic use to stakeholders interested in improving farm animal welfare in China.
... Therefore, we will focus on gender differences with respect to different socioeconomic development. In another study, Sinclair and Phillips investigated 13 major world social issues in 12 nations and found that animal and environmental protection and sustainable development were the most highly rated in importance across all countries [22]. Thus, socioeconomic development must be considered. ...
Full-text available
Animal Welfare Attitudes (AWA) can be defined as the attitudes of humans towards the welfare of animals. Although AWA has been previously associated with demographic factors as gender, one of the main limitations is that few studies applied robust psychometric questionnaire scales. Moreover, some evidence of cross-cultural variations in AWA have been reported although limited by the reduced number of countries being examined. To overcome these limitations, a survey aimed at assessing the gender differences in AWA in university students living in 22 nations, based on a questionnaire having undergone psychometric testing (i.e., the Composite Respect for Animals Scale Short version, CRAS-S), was carried out. To this end, the CRAS-S was administered to 7914 people (5155 women, 2711 men, 48 diverse) alongside a questionnaire on demographic information and diet. Moreover, the gender inequality index, based on indicators as completion of secondary education, was computed. The main results showed that diet was significantly related to AWA; more in detail, higher AWA was observed in vegans compared to omnivores. Moreover, gender differences in AWA have been reported, with women referring higher AWA compared to men. In addition, to the decreasing of gender inequality, gender differences in AWA increased.
... This poses a challenge in the inclusion of such economic activities into the national income statistics. Activities including domestic animals rearing, small-scale agricultural produce are usually statistically ignored; therefore, they tend to be undervalued or even ignored, in contrast to under-reporting cases, which only seem to be unfair (Sinclair & Phillips, 2017). However, this excludes basic family activities like child care provision and upbringing. ...
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to determine factors contributing to gender disparity in Malaysia. Specifically, the researcher has assessed the regions in Malaysian society where the gender gap has been on the rise. In Malaysian, 50% of her population are women, but still, they are discriminated against and not considered in decision-making processes in the society. For example, in the education sector, leadership, politics, the corporate world, and entrepreneurship with women have taken backstage. The whole system has been designed to alienate women from being counted when it matters. With over thirty ethnic groups, Malaysian is termed as a multi-ethnic country and rich in culture. It is these cultural beliefs that have contributed to women falling behind. This study is based on readings from a book on Women, politics, and change in society. The author Lenore Manderson (1980) has tried to show how she was inspired to know more about the Malay women following assertions by a British journalist and other European visitors. Also, she tried to recon the remarkable feature of women in Malaysia attempting to fight for their existence in the society through rallies, demonstrating, and forming national movements during the late 40s and post-world war II. The journalist tried to describe the roles Malay women played in society and the discrimination, inequality in rights, and issues they went through in the community.
... participants eating experiences and purchasing behaviors as it was found in the present study. Chinese participants have previously ranked "animal protection" as the most important factor in their selection of products along with "environmental protection" and "sustainable development" (Sinclair & Phillips, 2017). ...
This research aimed to explore the effects of animal welfare information on consumers’ hedonic and emotional responses towards milk. Two studies were conducted. For Study 1, participants (N = 101) were asked to fill out a questionnaire on attitudes towards animal welfare, in which a variety of factors including raising methods, quality of life, emotions, quality of the product, nutrition, price, and environment, were tested. For Study 2, participants (N = 63) tasted a milk sample (2% fat, standardized and homogenized) in two different conditions: [1] blind (without any previous information), and [2] informed (with information stating that the milk was obtained from a farm with an animal welfare system in place). For Study 1, participants with higher milk consumption per week showed a higher agreement with positive animal welfare statements. For Study 2, the overall liking for the milk in the informed condition was significantly higher than that of the milk in the blind condition (7.4 vs. 6.8, using a 9-point hedonic scale). Participants had higher penalizations for the milk in the blind condition as they suggested that the milk’s flavor, sweetness, aroma, and mouthfeel were not enough in the product. This research showed that animal welfare is an essential extrinsic factor in the consumers’ hedonic and emotional responses towards milk. These findings can be useful for understanding consumers’ behaviors towards animal welfare.
... Today it is gaining more attention and generating more discussion in Chinese society [3]. As a similar concept, animal protection ranks amongst the most important social progress movements in China, according to Chinese university students, alongside environmental protection and sustainable development [4]. ...
Full-text available
Farm animal welfare in the People’s Republic of China (henceforth, China) is not well represented in the international scientific literature. This may lead researchers, advocates and those with agricultural partnerships in China to assume that animal welfare is not a field of interest there. This study reports a literature review of published pig and poultry welfare research in China using Chinese scientific databases. We aimed to determine which areas of welfare research have recently received academic attention in China. From an understanding of areas being studied, current and emerging priority areas for research could be determined. This study identified 854 academic publications citing pig or chicken welfare in China published between 2008 and 2018. Within these publications, two broader areas of significant attention were addressed in the context of animal welfare; yield and product quality, such as feeding, biosecurity and antimicrobial resistance, including immunity and second, the relationship of animal welfare with the Chinese philosophy of ‘ecological agriculture.’ Holistic systems were advocated to maximize sustainability and maintain a healthy environment, such as the creation of fermented bedding for pigs. Environmental enrichment was also a focus of attention, demonstrating an interest in animals’ mental welfare, which was usually conjectured from their behavior. Few of the articles were translated into English or other languages and therefore most were largely unavailable to the English-speaking global scientific community. This presents an opportunity to provide relevant animal welfare knowledge, which could improve animal welfare globally. China is a global animal trade leader and the home of the largest agricultural industries in the world. An increase in collaboration on animal welfare research and understanding of the advancements that have been made in China, as reviewed in this manuscript, could advance farm animal welfare from a global perspective.
Full-text available
Students educated in the juvenile justice system face acute challenges such as lack of motivation and negative attitudes toward school. Schools in the system are expected to provide rigorous, Common Core-standards-aligned instruction. Humane education—lessons that nurture kindness and empathy towards humans, animals, and the environment—has been shown to motivate students and encourage their pro-social sentiments. This randomized control trial (with constraints) study of 192 12- and 13-year-old students from New Jersey asked students to complete five standards-aligned reading passages with text-based questions. The experimental-group assessments contained humane education themes and the control-group assessments had non-animal related high interest topics. The passages were equated in reading level, word count, etc. Analyses of the results showed that not only did students who received humane education passages do better overall, but also did much better on questions addressing specific Common Core Reading for Information standards. This study can be a starting point for applying and researching the effectiveness of humane education on the juvenile justice population, specifically, because they are expected to learn standards-aligned curricula and are in particular need of academic motivation and pro-social encouragement.
The death penalty is one of the most contentious issues in Korea. In contrast to other Asian countries, the issue of whether the death penalty should be abolished has been actively debated and reviewed at governmental levels and in civil society. It is important to note that it is not just civic organizations that have begun to favor abolition of the death penalty but also state organizations including the National Assembly and the National Human Rights Commission. The Constitutional Court has invalidated some disproportionate provisions in relation to the death penalty. Since President Kim Dae-Jung took office in February 1998, there has been an “unofficial moratorium” on executions. This article provides an overview of the legal regime governing the death penalty and the ongoing debate on the death penalty in Korea. It begins by briefly reviewing international treaties that call for the abolition of the death penalty, contrasting them with the retentionist trend in most Asian countries. It then reviews the major decisions of the Korean Supreme Court and the Korean Constitutional Court. It also discusses recent moves in the National Assembly and the National Human Rights Commission to abolish the death penalty. It suggests that the Korean death penalty debate has potentially significant implications for its retentionist Asian neighbours grappling with similar issues.
Attitudes to animals have been extensively studied for people in developed countries, but not for those in developing countries. The attitudes of prospective stakeholders in the livestock sectors in south-east and east Asia toward transport and slaughter were examined by surveying university students studying veterinary medicine and animal science in Malaysia, Thailand, China and Vietnam, with a total of 739 students taking part. Students had greater acceptability of transport than slaughter issues for livestock, and female students found most transport and slaughter issues of greater concern than male students. Veterinary students were more accepting of several issues than animal science students, in particular killing animals that were injured or ill. Religion had a major effect on attitudes. Muslim students found using animals that died naturally for products least acceptable. Compared to them, Hindu students were less accepting of killing injured or ill animals and Buddhist students less accepting of euthanasing healthy pets. Students with more experience of pets were less accepting of both transport and slaughter issues. It is concluded that concern was exhibited by future stakeholders in the SE and E Asian livestock industries for slaughter and, to a lesser extent, transport issues, although attitudes were influenced by their religion, gender and experience of pet-keeping.
This is the first comparative, cross-national study of the participation of women in the armed forces of NATO countries. Along side an analysis of this key topic stands a critique of existing theoretical models and the proposal of a revised analytical framework. Unlike previous works this new study employs mixed-methodological research design combining quantitative and qualitative data - a large N-analysis based on general policies and statistical information concerning every country in the sample with more in-depth case-studies. This volume includes original empirical data regarding the presence of women in the armed forces of NATO countries, proposes an index of 'gender inclusiveness' and assesses the factors that affect women's military roles. The book also presents two new key case studies - Portugal and the Netherlands - based on both documentary sources and in-depth interviews of both men and women officers in the two countries. This book will be of great interest to all students and scholars of strategic studies, gender and women studies and military history.
Since the new millennium, Chinese society has underwent constant "differentiation" and "change", and typical social and cultural phenomena are emerging unceasingly. Social and cultural geography research has attracted sustained attention from scholars. Based on summary of the evolution of the theory of social cultural geography in foreign context, this paper reviews the concerns and hotspots to which Chinese social cultural geography scholars have been given attention in the past ten years. In addition, combining the current situation of development of China, this research also puts forward some other important research areas that should be concerned, such as social and cultural traits of the indigenous geography, the influence of rights and capital on spatial form of social and cultural and place construction, the phenomenon of mobility and scale effect caused by migration between urban and rural areas. In addition, this paper places emphasis of the dialectical unity between the universality of knowledge and China's own socio- cultural characteristics.
The aim of this study was to evaluate welfare status and the implementation of Regulation (EC) 1/2005 during the gathering and loading of deer (Cervus elaphus) bred for meat in Northern Italy. Four journeys overland along with related operations of 45 deer, destined for game farms, were observed over a period of four months. Planning, animal-management procedures, equipment and facilities, such as enclosures and corridors, influenced the success of the operations and affected the safety of animals and operators. Environmental factors, such as land inclination, were also extremely influential. Elements of the gathering technique led to stress and hyperventilation in a number of animals that were rounded up. Chemical restraint of deer was complicated by consequent physical manipulation and an inability to control withdrawal periods in game reserves. Where facilities were specific to deer, animals displayed no signs of distress and loading was carried out in the absence of stressful behaviour. Instances in which means of transport were nonspecific for deer were characterised by falls, escape and trauma during loading and unloading. Where operators had been trained and had extensive knowledge of deer physiology and behaviour, welfare and the safety of professionals were promoted along with an overall regard for the relevant legislation. This study demonstrates a number of the challenges associated with deer transport and related activities. The paucity of specific legislation regarding the management and transport of farmed deer and the absence of European standard procedures have created a lack of harmonisation in transport procedures, ultimately jeopardising the welfare of deer.
This paper is derived from a larger scale project investigating consumer attitudes towards organic food in the UK. Presents focus group results on consumer perceptions, attitudes and behaviour in relation to two key interrelated food trends: organic food and animal welfare. The results indicate that consumers often confuse organic and free-range products because they believe that “organic” is equivalent to “free-range” food. Focus group discussions were conducted to identify the main beliefs and attitudes towards organic food of both organic and non-organic food buyers. Results indicate that, although health and food safety concerns are the main motives for organic food purchases, ethical concerns, specifically in relation to standards of animal welfare, play a significant influencing role in the decision to purchase organic food. The results are consistent with parallel research into consumer concerns about animal welfare, which showed that consumers are primarily concerned about food safety issues. Furthermore, the research illustrates the central outcome that animal welfare is used by consumers as an indicator of other, more important product attributes, such as safety and the impact on health. Indeed, ethical considerations seem to motivate the purchase of organic food and free-range products and, therefore, may be viewed as interrelated. However, such ethical frameworks are closely related, if not contingent upon, the quality of the product, which includes perceptions of higher standards of safety and healthiness. Based on the qualitative data, suggests that the organic market could take advantage of research on consumer motivation to buy free-range products, by embodying ethical concerns as an indicator of product quality.