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About Face: The Essentials of Interaction Design, 4th Edition

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Abstract

Latest edition of the seminal publication on interaction design and user experience principles, processes, practices, and patterns for desktop, mobile, and web platforms.
... The case study presented in the article displays methods that are common in interaction design, more specifically goal-directed design as described by Cooper et al. (2014), which has earlier been used in a large number of media studies when implementing and testing new technical tools. In one such study, as described by Thurman, Dörr, and Kunert (2017), an automated news writing robot was introduced to British journalists. ...
... The method of goal-directed design (Cooper et al. 2014) entails that the users, in this case journalists and researchers, are engaged in the technical development of the tool. The main idea behind goal-directed design is to use the needs of the users as the starting point for developing the tool and then aim to build the tool in direct relation to the user needs. ...
... As the iterative development process of this case study is part of the study's results, a common structure in goal-directed design studies (Cooper et al. 2014), we will describe the process in this section. The theoretical starting point for the developmental process is a model for assessing news credibility based on previous research by Metzger et al. (2003). ...
Article
This article analyses and discusses attitudes and practices concerning verification among Swedish journalists. The research results are based on a survey of more than 800 Swedish journalists about their attitudes towards verification (Journalist 2018) and a design project where a prototype for verification in newsrooms – the Fact Check Assistant (FCA) – was developed and evaluated. The results of the survey show a lack of routines when it comes to verifying content from social media and blogs and considerable uncertainty among journalists about whether this kind of verification is possible. The development of the prototype initially created reactions of interest and curiosity from the newsroom staff. Gradually, however, the degree of scepticism about its usability increased. A lack of time and a lack of knowledge were two of the obstacles to introducing new verification routines. It is not enough to introduce new digital tools, according to the journalists. Management must also allocate time for training. The paper’s ultimate conclusion is that changing journalists’ and editors’ attitudes towards verification in this digital age appears to be guided by newsroom culture rather than technical solutions.
... GDD is a product and service design approach developed in Cooper, a design consulting from California, United States. The rationale of the method is that the best way to design a successful product is to focus on the goals of the user [3]. ...
... UCD and GDD are two methods that focus on the users, but GDD has more specific process compared to UCD. The process of GDD is divided into six phases: research, modeling, requirement definition, framework definition, design refinement, and design support [3]. ...
... Cooper et al. [3] wrote that in the process of GDD, users are modeled into a persona. Persona provides a way of thinking and communicating about how a group of users behaves, how they think, and what they want to accomplish and why. ...
Article
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A social question-and-answering (social Q&A) site is an online community where users can ask and answer questions to share their knowledge and all data are publicly accessible. The platform has caught its users' attention and given them a new way in getting information from other users. However, the growth of social Q&A sites is still followed by some problems faced by its users. This study aims to develop an interaction design of social Q&A using goal-directed design (GDD) method. The process accomplished in the development includes four phases: research, modelling, requirement definition, and framework definition. The series of phases resulted in personas, scenarios, requirements, and wireframes of the product. Social Q&A product developed in the study is one that is specialized for asking and sharing information about studying abroad.
... The relative place of an artifact's properties and user perceptions of those properties continues to drive debates about the meaning of affordance (Parchoma, 2014;Reed, 1996;Torenvliet, 2003;Turvey, 1992). While Gibson's conceptualization has been critiqued for granting artifacts too much efficacy (Chemero, 2003;Stoffregen, 2003), others have taken Norman's perceptual focus to the extreme, arguing that artifacts only afford what subjects perceive them to afford (e.g., A. Cooper et al., 1995Cooper et al., /2014. At the same time, critics note that researchers across disciplines have employed the term without providing any definition and/or neglecting to engage with ongoing definitional contentions (Hutchby, 2001;McGrenere & Ho, 2000;Parchoma, 2014;Torenvliet, 2003), prompting calls for both definitional precision and also, conceptual balance between technological efficacy and agentic subjectivity (Neff et al., 2012). ...
... The relative place of an artifact's properties and user perceptions of those properties continues to drive debates about the meaning of affordance (Parchoma, 2014;Reed, 1996;Torenvliet, 2003;Turvey, 1992). While Gibson's conceptualization has been critiqued for granting artifacts too much efficacy (Chemero, 2003;Stoffregen, 2003), others have taken Norman's perceptual focus to the extreme, arguing that artifacts only afford what subjects perceive them to afford (e.g., A. Cooper et al., 1995Cooper et al., /2014. At the same time, critics note that researchers across disciplines have employed the term without providing any definition and/or neglecting to engage with ongoing definitional contentions (Hutchby, 2001;McGrenere & Ho, 2000;Parchoma, 2014;Torenvliet, 2003), prompting calls for both definitional precision and also, conceptual balance between technological efficacy and agentic subjectivity (Neff et al., 2012). ...
... Indeed, features remain inert until subjects recognize the features' potentialities (A. Cooper et al., 1995Cooper et al., /2014. Thus, an artifact requests, allows, and encourages only in relation to those features of which a subject is aware. ...
Article
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As a concept, affordance is integral to scholarly analysis across multiple fields—including media studies, science and technology studies, communication studies, ecological psychology, and design studies among others. Critics, however, rightly point to the following shortcomings: definitional confusion, a false binary in which artifacts either afford or do not, and failure to account for diverse subject-artifact relations. Addressing these critiques, this article demarcates the mechanisms of affordance—as artifacts request, demand, allow, encourage, discourage, and refuse—which take shape through interrelated conditions: perception, dexterity, and cultural and institutional legitimacy. Together, the mechanisms and conditions constitute a dynamic and structurally situated model that addresses how artifacts afford, for whom and under what circumstances.
... A Figura 1 A técnica de Personas, por sua vez, é usada na análise de requisitos para extrair as necessidades do usuário. Segundo Cooper [7], uma persona é um personagem fictício criado para representar a definição do usuário típico de um sistema. Personas são úteis para identificar características comuns entre os potenciais usuários, ajudando a selecionar e definir o seu perfil comportamental. ...
... Para uma interface de desenvolvimento, só pode haver uma persona primária. Contudo, é possível que existam distintas personas primárias para versões diferentes de um mesmo produto com diferentes interfaces [7]. Nesse contexto, para a versão inicial do aplicativo, adotou-se apenas a persona de Sarah. ...
Conference Paper
Software requirements engineering is the process of discovering, analyzing, documenting and verifying information systems' requirements and restrictions. Traditionally, requirements identification is performed with the presence of end-users. Nevertheless, in the context of mobile applications, there may be difficulty in contacting future end-users. Requirements elicitation techniques such as personas and empathy map can be applied in such context, allowing analysts to better understand end-users. However, such techniques are criticized due to the lack of scientific basis, difficulty in application, and risks in describing false users. In order to improve the reliability of those techniques, this paper proposes the use of social networks as a source of information to support these requirements elicitation techniques. We developed an application for fighting depression from requirements that were derived based on personas and empathy map together with the analysis of data from social networks. Our results show a positive end-user validation regarding the representation of a persona that suffers from depression based on social network data. Also, requirements elicitation can be applied for identifying end-users' needs when developing such software applications.
... 11 We use this term in a very broad sense, describing not only the decoding of textual media but all the experiences with media forms, including interaction. What we perceive are very often not the actual implementation models of the systems but rather what we may call mental models ( Cooper et al., 2014 process, that is easy to follow and to simulate by most human readers. It is however a process that at the lower levels of implementation offers nothing too relevant to the reader's experience or understanding. ...
... ( Cooper et al., 2014;Krug, 2014). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes a user-driven innovation study conducted with teenagers of Madeira Island to probe their desires for technology aided experiences inside a natural history museum. After gathering the results of the sessions with 43 teens (15-17 years old), such results were shown to 17 students of museum curatorship course at the local university (average of 26 years of age). These students enrolled in the Master in Cultural Management were required to design an experience targeting the teenage audience desires and preferences. Subsequently, a comparison between the results found in both groups was made in order to assert if the curators of tomorrow are prepared to design meaningful experiences for the teens of today, who will be the future adult audience.
... These multiple interpretations of the term affordances has led to similar problems as the multiple meanings of value had for Gibson. Although affordances have been hotly debated in the scientific community, the fields of usability, design, and later user experience design (UXD) have made good use of the term while ignoring problems with the definition or the theoretical foundation [9,10]. ...
... The artefact needs to be designed to have the right properties, and make sure to convey its properties and functions in a way that informs the user about possible ways to use it. An important contribution of affordances in design was to direct the blame regarding incorrect usage from the users to the designers, since the designers in those cases had failed to inform the users through the design what the correct usage is [1,9]. The problem still remains in the sense that the artefact has a correct way of being used, and it is up to the designer to make sure that the user get the right information to use it correctly. ...
Chapter
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Functional tones is a concept that originates in theoretical biology and resembles how the concept ‘affordances’ is used. Both functional tones and affordances are concepts dealing with particularly salient features in an individual’s immediate environment. The concept of affordances has proven useful for practitioners of usability and design as it supports intuitive ways of classifying how action possibilities match between a person and an object [1]. Functional tones have, however, thus far remained obscure among practitioners, despite functional tones having a stronger theoretical foundation and facilitates a deeper and more human-centred analysis of interaction. The functional tones related to an object depend not only on the modes of sensation and action the perceiver is capable of, but also more subjective aspects such as experience, motivation and emotions. Using functional tones in design or analysis of interaction provides a fundamentally user experience centred perspective while avoiding the philosophical luggage of affordances.
... 11 We use this term in a very broad sense, describing not only the decoding of textual media but all the experiences with media forms, including interaction. What we perceive are very often not the actual implementation models of the systems but rather what we may call mental models ( Cooper et al., 2014 process, that is easy to follow and to simulate by most human readers. It is however a process that at the lower levels of implementation offers nothing too relevant to the reader's experience or understanding. ...
... ( Cooper et al., 2014;Krug, 2014). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Museums promote cultural experiences through the exhibits and the stories behind them. Nevertheless, museums are not always designed to engage and interest young audiences, especially the “net generation”. According to the Falk model of visitor user experience, the visitor uses their visit experience to improve and change their sense of identity and thoughts of the museum along with, in a small but significant way, how society understands their sense of identity and other museums. According to the above model, we see our target group, teenagers, as experience seekers since this typical visitor’s type is usually motivated to collect an experience. In order to verify if this hypothesis is true, we created a series of focus groups with a total of 130 teenagers (15-17 years old) to gather their thoughts about museums and what they could add to a museum to make their visit more enjoyable. Through the notes gathered from the focus group above mentioned, we then validated our assumption that teenagers of 15-17 of age could be related as experience seekers regarding a first tour to an interactive museum.
... To design display user interface, it is necessary to follow basic principles of user interfaces (Nielsen, 1995;Tidwell, 2011;Hoober a Berkman, 2012;Cooper, 2014;Mortensen, 2017 In our case, we design user interface for two different types of displays − small e-ink displays positioned at classrooms and large colourful displays at entrances and corridors. ...
Article
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Information panels are a common part of university or administrative buildings. We can see large panels with news or social media feeds as well as small displays on conference rooms with information about their occupancy. All these panels usually present general information without any relation to a present audience. Presentation of personalised information for a particular user can be very helpful; however, for such personalisation we must take into account many aspects: identification of users in the display vicinity, sharing of the screen among multiple users etc. This paper is focused on the architecture of such system that allows presenting customised information on information panels for users within university buildings. Our solution allows detection of a user via Bluetooth beacons. The selected close display then presents information related to the user. In case there are multiple users in the display vicinity, the system evaluates their requirements and decides how to share the display.
... Otherwise, such media cannot achievethegoals in thedesired way. The concern of this study is on learning experience, as recommended by Cooper, Reimann, Cronin, and Noessel (2014). Users tend to get frustrated when they experience difficulties in utilizing the learning materials (Preece, Sharp, & Rogers, 2015), hence they do not engage with the learning activities and the learning contents. ...
Article
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This study analyzes the impact of signaling principles upon the effective use of interactive learning media. Normally, designers just design and develop learning media for use in schools without considering the way it eases users’ tasks. Bearing in mind that signaling users while they are learning through interactive learning media is important, this study incorporates signaling principles while designing it. Thus, this paper aims to discuss the appropriate signaling principles for learning media from experts’ perspective. The Iterative Triangulation Methodology was applied to achieve the aim. Altogether, activities were carried out in three phases: requirement analysis, design and development of the prototype, and expert evaluation using a walkthrough. Results revealed that although the prototype was designed by involving users, experts still discovered a number of flaws in the exercises as a result of not properly applying the signaling principles.
... Visual literacy is related to many areas and many disciplines. , 2017a, 2021a, 2021bBodén and Stenliden 2019;Hollmann 2013;Hollman 2014;Pettersson et al. 1992;Rose 2008, Thornes 2004Trahorsch andBláha 2020 Graphic design Bennett 1989;Braden 1994;Dondis 1973;Dzokoto et al. 2018;Hardin 1983;Hoffman, White and Aquino 2006;Pettersson 1989;Strand 2006, 2018;Pettersson, Strand and Avgerinou 2009;Pruisner 2009Pruisner , 2010Pruisner , 2012Seidman 2009 Graphicacy Drucker 2014;Kazmierczak 2001;Stafford 2004History Aagard 2009Coventry et al. 2006;Eilam 2013;Fee and Fee 2012a;Leahy 1991;Schiller 1987 Human Bennett 1989;Dwyer 1972;Fredette 1994;Levie 1978 Instructional design Bamford 2003;Braden 1989;Dwyer 1972;Heinich, Molenda, and Russel 1982;Levie 1978;Sugar et al. 2012 Instructional technology Interaction Design Cooper, Reimann, and Cronin 2007;Cooper et al., 2014;Saffer 2010;Search 2012;Shedroff 1999 Journalism Barnhurst and Whitney 1991;Kędra 2016aKędra , 2016b Language Alter 2018; Furlong and Edwards 1993;Greenlaw 1976;Griffin and Whiteside 1984;Jahangard 2007;Larkin 2012;Liruso, Cad and Ojeda, 2019;McVicker 2005McVicker , 2018Myatt 2008;Sayer 2010;Seglem and Witte 2009;Sless 1981; Wilson 1988 Leadership Bintz 2016 ...
Book
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Traditionally the concept of “literacy” was restricted to the ability to read, write and use arithmetic. In a multicultural world with fast technological advances people in all societies need abilities and skills to manage many kinds of systems for communication and information provide in imag-es, symbols, and texts. We all have to learn to interpret visual messages accurately and to create such messages. Interpretation and creation in visual literacy can be said to parallel read-ing and writing in print literacy.
... Interaction designers may often work together with graphic designers and industrial designers. They are responsible for understanding and specifying how a product should behave in different contexts and circumstances (Cooper, Reimann, & Cronin, 2007;Cooper, Reimann, Cronin, & Noessel, 2014). ...
Chapter
Design is a process and also the result of that process. A design process includes both cognitive and practical activities. There are many design areas. In this chapter, we have focused upon design areas related to the communication of data, information, and instruction. All these design areas use words (printed or spoken), images (still pictures or video), and form (live or static). They deal with the design of messages. We have argued that information sets, and instruction sets, should always be both legible and readable, and they should also be well worth reading for the members of the intended audiences. The message designer must respect copyright as well as other laws and regulations related to design, production, distribution, and use of information sets. Furthermore, let us note that the rapid development of a number of advanced digital systems provides more people with new oppor- tunities to design their own documents and internet-based applications. Indeed, since the advent of Web 2.0 and the a#ordances of the participatory media (Avgerinou, 2009), we have experienced a prosumer culture, just as Tof- "er (1980) envisaged in his Third Wave book, where consumers would inter- fere with and change the design of a product – thus shifting from consumers to producers – that is, prosumers. Web 2.0 (and its successors) “has blurred the line between producers and consumers of content and has shifted attention from access to information toward access to other people” (Brown & Adler, 2008, p. 18). It is precisely owing to such technological developments and their ripple e#ect in all areas of knowledge that we are convinced that, in the near future, we will witness more trends and culture and paradigm shifts related to the use of words, images, and form, which in turn will have com- pelling implications for the design practices as we currently understand and implement them.
... Interaction designers are responsible for understanding and specifying how a product should behave in different situations (Cooper et al., 2007, Cooper et al., 2014). They often work together with graphical designers and industrial designers. ...
Book
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Message design is an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. It encompasses influences and facts from more than fifty established disciplines and areas of research. The main areas of research may be divided into six groups with “base disciplines” such as language, art and aesthetics, information, communication, behaviour and cognition, business and law, as well as media production technologies. The main components in message design are words, visuals and forms. These main components may be used in many different ways to produce, transmit and interpret messages of various kinds in different communication situations. Depending on the different objectives of the messages we can see different “message design genera.” These groups are graphic design, information design, instruction design, mass design, and persuasion design. Message design principles contribute to the design of effective and efficient messages. You can download the previous edition of this book from IIID Public Library < http://www.iiid.net/public-library/iiid-library/ > (almost at the bottom of the page). IIID will soon upload the new editions here./Rune Pettersson
... 4. Skeuomorphism is the intentional imitation of features from other materials or artefacts in the design of an artefact. Common examples can be found in the mimicking of physical controllers in user interfaces, "old-style mechanical representations in our new digital environments" (Cooper et al., 2014). 5. ...
Article
Computational media allow the development of very particular relationships with readers. Their nature allows them to register static information but also complex and contingent behaviours that they are capable to operationalise, thus becoming interactive and immersive. These media exist in a dual state between a surface layer and a subface layer. These two are inextricably connected, with the subface often becoming a black box that can only be peered at through surface effusions that both mediate and isolate it. The procedural layer of the subface can be discovered through a process of virtuosic interpretation that allows readers to form a theory of system, breeding empathy with it, and ultimately, transferring some of its processes to their minds. This paper focuses on how virtuosic interpretation is developed, and how from it stems the development of a unique kind of aesthetic experience. It explores how computational media, through anamorphosis and a dialectics of aporia and epiphany, become narrative games.
... The second assignment, Three-Generation Personas, introduced students to making three-generation personas to explore the impact of forces of change on intergenerational dynamics. The threegeneration personas were a significant departure from how personas are used in interaction design to synthesize design research (Cooper, Reimann, Cronin, & Noessel, 2014). Through the threegeneration personas students explored questions such as: how might extended families in the future organize themselves given the rise in healthcare costs, and decreases in public expenditures on social welfare programs? ...
Conference Paper
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New design courses are necessary to teach designers the integration of long-range strategic thinking with current human-centered design methods for addressing challenges and opportunities of societal-level sustainable futures. Lessons learned from DEXIGN THE FUTURE, the first course integrating "futures thinking" with "design thinking" taught at Carnegie Mellon University's School of Design in 2013, led to the design of a three-semester sequence of courses: first, DEXIGN FUTURES SEMINAR (online) provides students with: initial exposure to concepts; opportunities to analyze and deconstruct existing futures scenarios; practice constructing scenarios. Second, INTRODUCTION TO DEXIGN THE FUTURE provides students with a framework to: explore a variety of societal-level sustainable futures-based themes; develop proficiency with new design methods and research techniques. Third, DEXIGN THE FUTURE is a semester-long project where students take a deep-dive into an authentic, real-world context (i.e., Pittsburgh 2050). Data are leveraged to inform iterative refinements to each course and sequencing overall.
... Beyond this, the major differences arise from how this workflow has been implemented. iMosflm is notable in that the interface is particularly uncluttered as a result of the application of modern design principles [69,70]. ...
Article
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The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental processes involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements onto a common scale are discussed, with particular reference to the most commonly used software in the field.
... It's People interacting with products and services. The primary goal of interaction design is to meet people's needs and desires [4]. With the development of modern science and technology, there are more and more emerging products and interactive ways, and people have realized the importance of interactive experience. ...
Article
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In recent years, the phenomenon of “996” has attracted extensive concern from the society. The rapid enterprise development requires more time and work from employees, which cause conflict with their family life and lays a hidden danger to their physical and mental health. A lot of useful exploration on how to relieve the pressure of “996” have been conducted, but no convenient and effective methods have been found. In respect of the characteristics of the “996” group, the author utilizes the advantages of interactive art, integrates the sympathetic design concept of intelligent interactive equipment with the breathing decompression method by studying and applying Processing and Arduino, which enables people to actively apply the decompression device in a relaxed and natural state, release pressure anytime and anywhere. This is a new exploration of the integration of interactive art and daily life, aiming to provide new ideas for the integration of interactive art into the daily life of the public and problem solving.
... Bilandzic and Foth (2013b) conducted five months of ethnographic observations and semistructured interviews during different times of the day and week. Five design "personas" or composite user archetypes (Cooper et al., 2014) were created. Each archetype represented distinct attitudes, behavioral patterns, and motivations aligned with specific space design needs. ...
Article
Purpose-Libraries can be seen as the collective identity of its employees engaged in providing a myriad of services to a community of patrons. Libraries can also exist in virtual settings, defined with descriptive parameters, described by a wider user group external to the library environment. The diverse nature of what constitutes libraries is illustrated by researchers, such as Marino and Lapintie (2015), who use the term "meta-meeting place" when describing its environs. Whatever model is used to describe contemporary libraries, the library environment usually has numerous needs and demands coming from a variety of stakeholders, from administrators to patrons. This chapter examines how we, as librarians, with users, co-construct library as both space and place. Methodology/approach-We used a theoretical framework (social constructionism) to show how library identity is established by its users in the space planning process to address their needs and expectations and provided a case study of the main library at the University of South Florida. Findings-We found that libraries are reflective of the vision and values of a diverse community and the social-political milieu in which they are housed. Librarians used a number of innovative methods and frames to create best/evidence-based practice approaches in space planning, reenvisioning library functions, and conducting outcomes/programmatic assessment. For librarians to create that sense of place and space for our users requires effective and open conversations and examination of our own inherent (and often unacknowledged) contradictions as to what libraries are or should be as enduring structures with evolving uses and changing users. For example, only a few of the studies focused on the spatial use and feel of libraries using new technologies or methodologies, such as social network analysis, discourse analysis, or GPS, to map the use of physical and virtual space. Practical implications-First, new ways of working and engaging require reexamination of assessment and evaluation procedures and processes. To accomplish this, we must develop a more effective culture of assessment and to use innovative evaluation measures to determine use, user paths, and formal and informal groupings. Changes that affect patron and staff perceptions of library as place/third space may be difficult to assess using quantitative surveys, such as LibQual, that may not provide an opportunity for respondents to provide specifics of what "place" means to them. Second, it is important to have effective communication among all members of the library (patrons, library staff, and university administration) so that we design spaces/places that enhance the relationships among users, technology, pedagogy, and learning spaces, not just the latest "thing" in the literature. Originality/value-This value of this review is to provide a social constructionist perspective (frame) on how we plan library space. This approach provides opportunities to truly engage our patrons and administration in the co-construction of what "our library" should be since it provides insight to group, place, and social dynamics. © 2017 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.
... Text scenarios are very extensively used to capture user requirements. They are a very flexible and accessible design representation medium and so they are used widely for interaction design[7,19], and product design[22]. They can be created by design teams or even in collaboration with users and can be illustrated with sketches or even storyboards. ...
Chapter
This chapter discusses how to use video for prototyping interactivity during early phases of design. Advantages and limitations of video prototyping are discussed and related to other ways of representing early design concepts. The chapter traces the introduction and development of this method in the field of human computer interaction (HCI), moving on to discuss how video can help involve stakeholders in the design process and especially users. A range of techniques, methodological choices, and practical advice for future video prototype creators are discussed, and illustrated with examples.
... The second assignment, Three Generation Personas, introduced students to the potential impact of forces of change on intergenerational dynamics. The three-generation personas are a significant departure from how personas are typically used in interaction design to synthesize design research (Cooper, 2014). Students explored futures questions such as: how might extended families organize themselves given the rise in healthcare costs, decreases in welfare and social security expenditures? ...
Conference Paper
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This paper explores how we might redesign education to face the challenges and opportunities of a sustainable future. Increasingly, designers operate within ever-broader contexts (e.g., technological, social, political, environmental, global). Design for sustainable futures requires the ability to envision longtime horizon strategic scenarios driven by forces likely to shape change in broader contexts. Traditional pedagogy poorly equips designers to integrate long-range strategic thinking with current human-centered design methods. We present two interlocking projects: LEARN! 2050 and Dexign the Future. Please note the term dexign was introduced to indicate an experimental type of design. The LEARN! 2050 scenario describes design pathways from today to a new learning landscape in the year 2050. Dexign the Future, a course integrating Futures Thinking with Design Thinking, was introduced in the School of Design at Carnegie Mellon University in fall 2013 to a mix of third year undergraduate and graduate design students. Students learned to engage strategic longtime horizon scenarios from a generative design perspective. Lessons learned led to a three-semester sequence teaching design methods for longtime horizons aimed at transitioning towards sustainable societies. The sequence includes: Dexign Futures Seminar, Introduction to Dexign the Future, and Dexign the Future. The Dexign Futures Seminar is an online module that teaches students to critique and deconstruct existing futures scenarios. In the Introduction to Dexign the Future course students explore futures based themes, design methods, and research techniques. The Dexign the Future course deep-dives into a semester long project set in 2050. In summary, we provide here three contributions: first, an example of a future learning scenario set in 2050; second, a design course sequence that combines Futures Thinking with Design Thinking to create desirable design futures (what futurists refer to as Normative Scenarios); and third, lessons learned that lead to a pedagogy for designing for longtime horizon futures.
Book
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My thesis develops systematic methods in interaction design using three case studies. I am focusing on two systematic models – the conceptual model and the mental model. A conceptual model is the model that is given to the user through the interface of the product. It is the model in the designer’s mind. A mental model is the model that a user develops in his or her mind from the interface of the product. It is a model in the user’s mind. My thesis relates and combines these two models in the design process, exploring three questions : How can we designers find the right way and the most efficient way to find out a user’s mental model? How can we represent these models? How can we use these models in the design process?
Conference Paper
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Creating an empathic, holistic understanding of the user experience and communicating it within the design team is a constant challenge in UX design projects. This paper explores the potential of digital tools to support designers and researchers in this task. We explored the needs of different stakeholders in semi-structured interviews and hosted an ideation workshop to generate design ideas for suitable software tools. Based on the resulting insights and ideas, we implemented a first prototype that balances individual feedback visualizations with detailed user profiles, a user journey and a communication feature. The prototype was assessed in seven focus groups with a total of 26 participants and with the AttrakDiff questionnaire. We found out that the persona view, the user journey view and the flexible filters of our prototype allowed designers to gain a insightful picture of users' experiences. Future work is needed to better understand how digitally-mediated empathic relationships evolve over the long term.
Thesis
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After years of research and prototyping, audio search for non-musical files still does not incorporate content-based methods to enhance the search process. This thesis concentrates on exploring possibly novel methods to professional sound designers and will lead to an expansion of a user interface towards an united experience of sophisticated text-retrieval and novel audio content-analysis based data visualization methods in order to showcase the potential of a hybrid approach. Info: Reviewed until chapter 5, more still to come.
Article
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Database normalization theory offers formalized guidelines how to reduce data redundancy and thus problems that it causes in databases. More lately, researchers have started to formalize ideas that the problems caused by unwanted dependencies and redundancy can be observed in case of any modular system like software, hardware, or organization. To tackle these problems, they have proposed the theory of normalized systems that complete application frees systems of combinatorial effects and thus the impact of a change in a system does not depend on the system size. At the time of writing this paper, the explanations of the theory of normalized systems do not say much about database normalization. We think that the theories are deeply related. In this paper, we search a common ground of the database normalization theory and the theory of normalized systems.
Article
This article discusses the possibilities and potential issues with romantic and sexual interaction with virtual humans in virtual reality, using the design fiction Into thin air as a starting point for these reflections. Design fiction, a dramatized story by engineers/designers, speculate and critically reflect on advantages and risks with future technology. The primary purpose of the design fiction story utilized in this investigation is to highlight the advantages with air ship traveling (concerning climate impact), but since this was a concept that was difficult to dramatize, I choose to have that as a background setting, and instead foreground a bitter-sweet story about seeking love and sex in different virtual reality simulations during the time onboard an air ship. In most cases these attempts at sexual encounters are with actual women, but in one sequence I bring in the concept of virtual humans. The user wears a full-body haptic feedback suit, so he/she can see, hear and feel the virtual agent. In the design fiction and in this article, I speculate that such virtual agents could be created by including three agents to choose between (automatically generated by algorithms); A) a generic blend of celebrities, B) a recreation of the user’s high school love interest, and C) a recreation of a woman the user just had flirted with. In this article I compare this design fiction scenario with real-life VR applications, trying to explore the feasibility of different virtual human scenarios. Virtual reality developers have so far avoided sexual or romantic content in their experiences, possibly to a large extent because the major distribution platform – Oculus – is controlled by Facebook. Facebook have quite strict regulations concerning what is deemed as appropriate as content, and thus curates the available experiences quite strictly. Some experiences subtly hint at romantic encounters, such as the dating simulators Falling in love and Focus on you. I argue that these two experiences are highly limited and linear. In order to create a more complex and convincing romantic/sexual encounter, the virtual agents would need to be driven by a dialog system and AI. One attempt in that direction is the smartphone app Replika, a chat and voice based virtual agent that tries to give the impression of a caring friend (who can venture into text based sexual encounters). The conclusion is that it seems likely that the VR dating simulations will gradually evolve and become more convincing, primarily depending on Facebook’s control over the market, and the slow but steady progress in dialog systems. The possibility to physically/virtually interact with the beloved virtual agents and have satisfying intercourse seems possible, but not something to expect in the near future. Link to the design fiction: https://chalmersuniversity.box.com/s/xmo1dkihicfxgo6qo4zb2onez45m49fl
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The design and development of computer assistive technologies must be tied to the needs and goals of end users and must take into account their capabilities and preferences. In this paper, we present MeDeC@, a Methodology for the Development of Computer Assistive Technologies for people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), which relies heavily in our experience working with end users with ASD. The aim of this methodology is not to design for a broad group of users, but to design highly customizable tools so that they can be easily adapted to specific situations and small user groups. We also present two applications developed using MeDeC@ in order to test its suitability: EmoTraductor, a web application for emotion recognition for people with Asperger Syndrome, and ReadIt, a web browser plug-in to help people with ASD with written language understanding difficulties to navigate the Internet. The results of our evaluation with end users show that the use of MeDeC@ helps developers to successfully design computer assistive technologies taking into account the special requirements and scenarios that arise when developing this kind of assistive applications.
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Personas are considered a key method to induce empathy for users. However, they are also said to trigger stereotyping, e.g. by using photographs that convey information about gender, ethnicity, or age of the persona. To investigate this assumption, we conducted an eye-tracking study with 93 students from degree programs in computer science. The participants received an - otherwise identical - persona description with different visualizations in four experimental conditions: a) the photo of a dark-skinned woman, b) the photo of a light-skinned woman, c) a drawing (sketch) or d) no visualization. We examined the conditions with regard to their influence on perception in terms of the "stereotype content model" and other attributes of the persona. The results show that the type of visual representation had certain influence on the perception of the persona and could somewhat reduce stereotyping. Gender and cultural background of the participants had significant influences. We discuss the results against the backdrop of in-group/out-group phenomena and stereotypes.
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Die Digitalisierung im Gesundheitsmarkt verändert und erweitert die Möglichkeiten, Menschen mit chronischen Erkrankungen zu helfen, weshalb sie einen immer größeren Stellenwert für Diagnostik und Versorgung einnimmt. Dieses Herausgeberwerk gibt einen Überblick über akutelle und innovative mHealth-Lösungen, die als tägliche Begleiter bei Prävention, Diagnostik und Therapie zum Einsatz kommen. Praxisbeispiele zeigen Entwicklungen und die Inanspruchnahme von mHealth-Anwendungen durch Patienten und klinisches Personal auf und es werden zahlreiche für die Forschung relevante Fragen behandelt. Sowohl Ärzte, Patienten, Entwickler und weitere Praktiker, die Mobile-Health-Anwendungen nutzen und zur Weiterentwicklung beitragen als auch Wissenschaftler und Dozenten mit den Schwerpunktfächern Gesundheitsmanagement, Informationstechnologie und Medizin erhalten wertvolle Einsichten in das aktuelle Branchenthema. Der Inhalt • mHealth-Systeme in der Medizin • Chancen der Digitalisierung des Gesundheitswesens • Digitale Dienstleistungen, veränderte Geschäftsmodelle und Zielgruppen • Gebrauchstauglichkeit, Akzeptanz und Nutzungserlebnis von mHealth-Anwendungen • Verbesserung der ganzheitlichen Gesundheit mittels mHealth und Coaching • Qualitätsbewertung, Datenschutz und Informationssicherheit von mHealth-Anwendungen Die Herausgeber Prof. Dr. Mario A. Pfannstiel ist Professor für Betriebswirtschaft im Gesundheitswesen – insbesondere innovative Dienstleistungen und Services und Mitglied im Institut für Vernetzte Gesundheit an der Hochschule Neu-Ulm. Cand. Dr. Felix Holl ist wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter für den Bereich Digitalisierung Healthcare in der Fakultät Gesundheitsmanagement an der Hochschule Neu-Ulm. Prof. Dr. Walter Swoboda ist Forschungsprofessor der Fakultät Gesundheitsmanagement und Leiter der Arbeitsgruppe DigiHealth an der Hochschule Neu-Ulm (HNU).
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This research explores the value of airports upon arrivals by proposing a welcome service The Zabuton targeting passengers unfamiliar with the landing-place. The Zabuton service comprises of two systems; a local language information display (LLD) and a guiding passengers action app (GAA). LLD is placed in the baggage claim area displaying the written language and meanings of frequently used phrases, and its pronunciations in the local language. GAA supports the series of actions from the arrival gate to transportation consisting the following five components; (1) purchasing internet connection modules, (2) local transportation map and route search, (3) local transportation rules, (4) luggage service information, and (5) where the platform is to ride local transportation. An airport arrival lobby with The Zabuton lets passengers learn local language phrases through public displays and provides confidence in their forthcoming steps of transportation through a mobile app. This concept was constructed based on our research and illustrated accordingly based on scenario based design and user centered design process. This paper contributes to the redesigning of the airport arrival lobby by enhancing the local experience and supporting the travel procedures with the help of digital technologies.
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This article aims to extend the traditional Ecological Interface Design (EID) process. With the rapid pace of digitalization in technological systems, there is a need for a design process that can handle the systemic design goals and the experiential basis of interaction. Currently, the traditional EID is well‐positioned to address these challenges. However, methodologically, it needs to be substantiated to make it accessible for designers, designing for novel arenas, such as Industry 4.0. Further, substantiating the design process will help designers, engineers, and human factors researchers with an accessible pathway that links the design brief to the final interface form. Therefore, this article delves into the “design” basis in the work of the Risø group and other prominent EID researchers and practitioners. In addition, it draws from a variety of themes in the discipline of design that addresses methodology. In particular, key insights are drawn from the design methods movement (1960s—); design, communication, and complexity from the Ulm school of design, 1953–1968; cognitive research conducted on designers and design activities; and finally, interaction design and communication design processes and models. All of these insights have been used syncretically to create the new integrated EID (iEID) process. This new design process consists of nine stages divided into three phases of divergence, transformation, and convergence, converting the initial design brief to the final interface. The steps of iEID are demonstrated using the example of interface design for a “digital twin” in the manufacturing sector.
Conference Paper
Personas are valuable tools to help designers get to know their users and adopt their perspectives. Yet people are complex and multiple identities have to be considered in their interplay to account for a comprehensive representation-otherwise, personas might be superficial and prone to activate stereotypes. Therefore, the way users' identities are presented in a limited set of personas is crucial to account for diversity and highlight facets which otherwise would go unnoticed. In this paper, we introduce an approach to the development of personas informed by social identity theory. The effectiveness of this approach is investigated in a qualitative study in the context of the design process for an e-learning platform for women in tech. The results suggest that considering multiple identities in the construction of personas adds value when designing technologies.
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