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Functional Properties of Activated Carbon Treated Textile Material

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Functional textiles are mainly focused and developed for their performance in the particular field. Presently, Activated carbon is used in most of the field and it has the remarkable adsorption and odour control properties at low cost and better efficiency. In this study, Activated carbon is used as a functional material especially for Anti-Microbial and Odour control finishing on textile fabric. Regarding to this function, Activated charcoal is applied in the surface of the fabric by direct application and Micro encapsulation. Finished fabrics are assessed the effectiveness of the antimicrobial property through disc diffusion method which against the microorganisms of staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger. The odour measurement are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the anti odour property through organoleptic test (in house method). The carbon coated fabric shows the Good functional properties.
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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol. 5, Issue 04, 2017 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613
All rights reserved by www.ijsrd.com
1766
Functional Properties of Activated Carbon Treated Textile Material
R. Pragadheeswari1 Dr. K. Sangeetha2
1Assistant Professor (Fashion Design) 2Professor
2Department of Textile and Apparel Design
1School of Continuing Education, Tamil Nadu Open University, Chennai India
2Bharathiar University, Coimbatore
Abstract Functional textiles are mainly focused and
developed for their performance in the particular field.
Presently, Activated carbon is used in most of the field and it
has the remarkable adsorption and odour control properties at
low cost and better efficiency. In this study, Activated carbon
is used as a functional material especially for Anti-Microbial
and Odour control finishing on textile fabric. Regarding to
this function, Activated charcoal is applied in the surface of
the fabric by direct application and Micro encapsulation.
Finished fabrics are assessed the effectiveness of the anti-
microbial property through disc diffusion method which
against the microorganisms of staphylococcus aureus,
Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger. The odour
measurement are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of
the anti odour property through organoleptic test (in house
method). The carbon coated fabric shows the Good functional
properties.
Key words: Activated Carbon, Micro Encapsulation, Anti-
Microbial Property, Anti Odour, Absorbency
I. INTRODUCTION
Textile industry have move in the direction of producing
more innovative, functional fabrics with high quality
standards. The finishing process of textile is one of the main
factors which determine desired effects for the ultimate
consumer product (1). The consumers are now increasingly
aware of the hygienic life style and their necessity and
expectation of wide range of textile product [2]. Activated
charcoal having different functional groups on the surface can
be used for various applications. Charcoal, is generally
known by its excellent adsorbent by the wide range of
application. The recovery of solvents from gases, removable
of colouring matters from aqueous and excellent removable
of odour [3]. Activated charcoal having different functional
groups on the surface can be used for various applications.
The first recorded use of charcoal for medicinal purposes
comes from Egyptian papyri around 1500 B.C. The principal
use appears to have been to adsorb the unpleasant odors from
putrefying wounds and from within the intestinal tract(4).The
presences and growth of these micro-organisms can cause
health problems, odour and fabric deterioration(5). Novel
technologies in antimicrobial finishing are successfully
employed especially in medical textiles. peoples are looking
for solutions to odour and microbial problem and the unique
benefits provided by antimicrobial finish”(6).In this regard,
this study purposely designed to commercial activated carbon
purchased and it prepared in direct method and
Microencapsulated form then applied to the Cotton and
Bamboo knitted fabric and assessed the effectiveness of the
anti-microbial property through disc diffusion method which
against the micro-organisms of staphylococcus aureus,
Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger. Analyses the Anti
Odour efficiency by organoleptic test and moisture
absorbency test.
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
100% - Cotton and bamboo Non-woven fabric
Activated charcoal
A. Activated Carbon Finishing By Direct Method
The selected Activated Carbon were uptained from the
supplier in powder form, 20 % of the powder mixed 10% of
the binder 1:20 is taken as a material liquor ratio. Prepared
solution was taken in to the manual sprayer bottle, in the
spraying technique the Activated carbon solution is sprayed
the one surface of the fabric by even coating. Coated fabrics
were then dried and cured 100 degree for 5 -10 minutes.
B. Preparation of Microcapsules by Ionic Gelation Process
(Sumithra and Raja, 2014)
Either sodium alginate or gelatin was commonly used as a
wall material. Microcapsules containing activated charcoal
were prepared employing sodium alginate. About 3% Sodium
alginate was prepared separately, and then 5gms of activated
charcoal and 10ml of Tween20 were added to the polymer
solution and mixed thoroughly to form smooth viscous
dispersion. Microcapsules were formed by the addition of
sodium alginate followed by spraying into the calcium
chloride solution by means of a sprayer. This was sprayed
into calcium chloride solution by means of a sprayer .The
droplets were retained in calcium chloride for 15min. The
charcoal microcapsules were obtained by decantation and
repeated washing with Iso propyl alcohol followed by drying
at 45°C for 12h. The microcapsules were then used for
finishing the selected fabrics.
C. Activated Carbon Finishing by Microcapsules
The fabric samples Cotton and Bamboo knitted were finished
with the prepared charcoal microcapsules according to the
following recipe. About 1L solution containing 700g of
microcapsules was used to finish one meter of fabric. 5%
emulsion binder was used as cross-linking agent and ML ratio
1: 20. Prepared solution was taken in to the manual sprayer
bottle, in the spraying technique the Activated carbon
solution is sprayed the one surface of the fabric by even
coating. Coated fabrics were then dried and cured 100 degree
for 5 -10 minutes.
D. Antibacterial Assessment of Treated Sample
The antibacterial activities of the finished fabrics cotton and
Bamboo Non-woven, were tested according to
Staphylococcus aureus and Echaria coli. Nutrient agar plates
were prepared by pouring 15ml of media into sterile Petri
dishes. The plates were allowed to solidify for 5min and 0.1%
inoculum was swabbed uniformly and allowed to dry for
5min. The finished fabric with the diameter of 2.0 ± 0.1cm
Functional Properties of Activated Carbon Treated Textile Material
(IJSRD/Vol. 5/Issue 04/2017/432)
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1767
was placed on the surface of medium and the plates were kept
for incubation at 37ºC for 24h. At the end of incubation, the
zone of inhibition formed around the fabric was measured in
millimeters and recorded.
E. Antifungal Assessment by Aatcc 30 - 2003 Test Method
An inoculum of 1.0ml was evenly distributed over the surface
of the agar. The fabric discs were pre wetted (not rubbed or
squeezed) in water containing 0.05% of a non-ionic wetting
agent (triton X- 100) and placed on the agar surface. The
inoculum of 0.2 ml was distributed evenly over each disc by
means of a sterile pipette. All the specimens were incubated
at a temperature of 28ºC for seven days. At the end of the
incubation period the percentage of the surface area of the
disc covered with the growth of the fungus was reported by
observing visually and using a microscopic (40X) and
interpreted as follows:
1) No growth (If present, the size of the growth free zone in
mm was reported)
2) Microscopic growth (visible only under the microscope)
3) Macroscopic growth (visible to the naked eye).
F. Anti-Odour Measurements Test- Organoleptic
Evaluation (In House Method)
The male panellists were each given a control and treated
shoe insole daily during the test period. Each shoe insole was
to be worn on a specific foot. At the end of a two workdays,
panellists reported to the lab to remove the shoe insole for
analysis. Four odour judges made odour evaluations 14 hour
after removal of the shoe insole. The judges used individual
scoring sheets and new sheets were used every day of the
evaluation. The odour grading scale was 0 to 10 (“Repulsive”
to” Ideal”).
G. Absorbency Test - AATCC Test Method 39-1980
A drop of water is allowed to fall from a fixed height onto the
taut surface of a test specimen. The time required for the
specular reflection of the water drop to disappear is measured
and recorded as wetting time. Conduct the test in a standard
atmosphere as defined above. Mount the cloth (or smoothed-
out, thick portion of yarn) in the embroidery hoop so that the
surface is free of wrinkles, but without distorting the structure
of the material. Place the hoop about 10 ± 1 mm (0.375 in.)
below the tip of the burette, and allow one drop of distilled or
deionised water at 21 ± 3°C (70 ± 5°F) to fall on the cloth.
Using a stopwatch, measure the time required, up to 60 s
maximum, for the surface of the liquid to lose its specular
reflectance. This point is determined by having the hoop
between the observer and a source of light such as a window
or laboratory spotlight oat such an angle that the specular
reflectance of light from the surface of the flattened drop can
be plainly seen. As the drop is gradually absorbed, the area of
this tiny mirror diminishes and finally vanishes entirely,
leaving only a dull wet spot. At this instant the watch is
stopped and the elapsed time is recorded. When the wetting
time exceeds 60 s, 60+ s should be recorded. Take 5 readings.
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
A. Evaluation of Antibacterial Assessment of Treated Sample
The following result were obtained from the Anti-Bacterial
assessment .Table-I shows the Carbon finished fabrics of both
Cotton and bamboo gave good result, compared to Direct
application, Micro encapsulation shows the better activity.
Fabric
sample
Non-
Woven
Finishing
Zone of inhibition
(mm)
S.aureous
E.coli
Cotton
Direct
21
18
Micro-
encapsulation
25
23
Bamboo
Direct
23
20
Micro-
encapsulation
26
21
Table 1: Evaluation of Antibacterial Assessment of Treated
Sample
B. Valuation of Antifungal Assessment by AATCC 30 - 2003
Test Method
The following result were obtained from the Anti-Fungal
assessment .Table-II shows the Carbon finished fabrics of
both Cotton and bamboo gave good result.
Fabric
sample
Zone of
inhibition (mm)
Aspergillus niger
Cotton
46
52
Bamboo
49
54
Table 2: valuation of Antifungal Assessment by AATCC 30
- 2003 Test Method
C. Evaluation of Odour Control - After 48Hrs (in House
Method)
The following result were obtained from the Odour Control
assessment. Table 3 shows the Carbon finished fabrics of
both Cotton and bamboo gave good result.
Subjects Ht(cm) / Wt(Kg)
Samples
Judge 1
Judge 2
Judge 3
Judge 4
Average
Subject 01 (Female /38 yr)
175/62
CD
7
8
8
7
8
CM
8
8
8
8
8
Subject 02 (Male / 42 yr)
170/78
BD
7
8
7
8
8
BM
7
8
8
8
7
Table 3: E valuation of Odour Control - After 48Hrs (in House Method)
D. CD-Cotton directed Method, CM-Cotton
Microencapsulated, BD- Bamboo directed Method, BM-
Bamboo Microencapsulated.
Interpretation
0 Repulsive
1 Very Poor
2 Poor
3 Poorly Fair
4 Fair
5 Acceptable
6 Fairly Good
7 Good
Functional Properties of Activated Carbon Treated Textile Material
(IJSRD/Vol. 5/Issue 04/2017/432)
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1768
8 Very Good
9 Excellent
10 Ideal
E. Evaluation of Absorbency Test
Moisture absorbency of the activated carbon coated fabric
was studied and shows the best result of ≥ 2 sec. Hence, based
upon the test result activated carbon have a better moisture
absorbency character.
Fabric
sample
Finishing
Zone of inhibition (mm)
Aspergillus niger
Cotton
Direct
> 2 sec
Micro-
encapsulation
> 3 sec
Bamboo
Direct
> 2 sec
Micro-
encapsulation
> 2 sec
Table 4: Evaluation of Absorbency Test
IV. CONCLUSION
In this work, the activated carbon Microencapsulated and
coated cotton and bamboo Non-woven fabric. The
conclusions drawn from the study are summarized below: In
this result of Anti-bacterial, Anti- Fungal and Anti odour
assessment value (performed by men and women) is
maximum for coated fabric. Moisture absorbency also shows
the better result. Today, people having the growing awareness
among consumers, especially younger generations towards
the sustainability of product. All strategies, promoting more
environmentally, socially and ethically conscious production
and consumption of this sustainable industry. Technological
processing to be done in order to produce the desired
powdered form and it applied for several functional finishes
for further analysis.
REFERENCES
[1] Holmes,I, Innovative technologies for high performance
textiles.Coloration technology 123, Pp 59-73, April 2007
[2] Sathianarayanan, M P., Bhat, N .V., Kokate, S. S., and
Walunj, V.E., Antibacterial finish for cotton fabric from
herbalproducts, Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile
Research, 35:Pp.50-58.,2010.
[3] Thilagavathi, G., Krishna Bala, S., and Kannaian, T.,
Microencapsulation of herbal extracts for microbial
resistance in healthcare textiles, Indian Journal Fibre
Text Res, 32: Pp-150,2007,.
[4] http://www.mayoclinic.org/drugssupplements/charcoal-
activated-oral-route/description/drg-20070087
[5] Deepti,G, Antimicrobial treatment of Textiles,Indian
Journal of Fiber and Textile Research. Vol. 32 Pp254-
263. June2007.
[6] http://www.buyactivatedcharcoal.c(2007).om/activated
_charcoal_history
[7] Sumithra,M and Vasugi Raja,N.,(2012),Micro-
encapsulation and Nano-encapsulation of denim fabrics
with herbal extract, Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile
Research, vol. 37:December 2012 Pp.321-325.
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