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This study confirms that museums’ website features – content, made for the medium, ease of use, promotion, emotion and aesthetics – positively and significantly influence users’ intentions of revisiting the website and visiting of it physically. This research empirically tests a model in two museum’s websites, namely the Prado Museum and the Reina Sofia Museum. Using Partial Least Squares-based Multi-Group analysis (PLS-MGA), it was proved that satisfaction does not have a significant effect on intentions in the case of Prado Museum. The research confirmed that overall, website evaluation positively and significantly influences users’ perception of their control within the website and their intentions. The findings reveal significant academic and managerial contributions. The PLS-MGA results demonstrate that there are no significant differences between the two museums.
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Esic Market Economics and Business Journal
Vol. 48, Issue 2, May-August 2017, 369-392
* Corresponding author. Email:
ISSN 0212-1867 / e-ISSN 1989-3558
© ESIC Editorial, ESIC Business & Marketing School
DOI: 10.7200/esicm.157.0482.4i
This study confirms that museums’ website features – content, made for the medium, ease
of use, promotion, emotion and aesthetics – positively and significantly influence users’
intentions of revisiting the website and visiting of it physically.
This research empirically tests a model in two museum’s websites, namely the Prado
Museum and the Reina Sofia Museum. Using Partial Least Squares-based Multi-Group
analysis (PLS-MGA), it was proved that satisfaction does not have a significant effect on
intentions in the case of Prado Museum. The research confirmed that overall, website
evaluation positively and significantly influences users’ perception of their control within
the website and their intentions. The findings reveal significant academic and managerial
contributions. The PLS-MGA results demonstrate that there are no significant differences
between the two museums.
Keywords: museum, website, intentions, control, satisfaction.
JEL codes: Z33, M31, L83.
The influence of museums’
websites on users’ intentions
Jesús García-Madariaga*, Nuria Recuero Virto
and Francisca Blasco López
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
370 García-Madariaga et al.
1. Introduction
Worldwide museums are facing a funding crisis; in most of them that are pub-
licly funded, the drastic sector cuts have forced the museum managers to adopt the
measure of increasing their number of visitors to recover from their budget prob-
lems. This new paradigm presents a shift in their mission, which was initially pres-
ervation-oriented to be visitor-centered (Gürel & Kavak, 2010; Marty, 2008; Pallud
& Straub, 2014). Museums have become “entities of knowledge and leisure” by
combining the two objectives of educating and entertaining in their main role, called
“edutainment” (Addis, 2005; Pallud & Straub, 2014). In the so-called “experience
economy” (Camarero, Garrido, & Vicente, 2015), all museums are trying to boost
visitors’ loyalty by periodically re-designing the services they offer so as to delight
visitors with pleasant moments that increase their differentiation (Lin, Fernandez, &
Gregor, 2012).
Tourism websites that were traditionally presented as showcases for the promo-
tion of their services are currently displaying fascinating gadgets in order to make
users’ experiences more emotional (UX) and raise the purchases of travel-related
services (Hassenzahl & Tractinsky, 2013; López, Margapoti, Maragiano, & Bove,
2010; Sun, Fong, Law, & He, 2017). Inevitably, the rapid evolution of online travel
services has affected museums’ goals (Ali, 2016; Bai, Law, & Wen, 2008). Museums’
websites were originally designed to offer basic information such as opening hours,
location and prices. Nowadays, these websites present interactive tools, not just vir-
tual galleries and gamification resources, but also a wide range of assets to improve
users’ navigation experience (Capriotti, Carretón, & Castillo, 2016; Capriotti &
González-Herrero, 2013; López et al., 2010). The improvement of these websites has
raised the debate over whether the navigation of them imcreases visitors’ intentions
to visit the physical museum and revisit the website (Cunliffe; Kritou, & Tudhope,
Although many scholars have suggested the relevance of analysing the behav-
ioural intentions that appear once users visit museum websites (Deng, Turner,
Gehling, & Prince, 2010; Hassenzahl & Tractinsky, 2013; Pallud & Straub, 2014),
this subject still remains under-researched. However, some researchers have studied
related topics. Marty (2007) conducted an exploratory survey administered to more
than 1200 participants of nine online museums and concluded that online users
normally use these platforms to complement their physical visits. Padilla-Meléndez
and Águila-Obra (2013) examined how the forty most physically visited museums in
the world create online value and also affirmed that these websites are used to plan
future physical visits. Skov and Ingwersen (2014) suggested that the main motivation
for visiting a museum website is basically to plan a future visit. Pallud and Straub’s
findings (2014) showed that the website design of a museum positively influences
users’ attitudes, and these positive attitudes influence visitors’ intentions to visit the
physical museum. However, as aforementioned, no study has determined whether
museums’ websites directly influence visitors’ intentions.
The influence of museums’ websites on users’ intentions 371
The main objective of this research is to confirm whether museums’ websites
influence visitors’ intentions, not only toward visiting physical museums but also for
returning to the museums’ websites. To assess this the two most visited museums of
Madrid, namely Prado and Reina Sofia Museums, are compared by a multi-group
analysis. Hence, this research aims to analyse: (1) the impact of users’ satisfaction
within the museum website on their intentions (specifically, returning to the website
and visiting the physical museum); and (2) the effect of museums’ website evaluation
(which comprises content, made for the medium, ease of use, promotion, emotion
and aesthetics) on control and intentions.
2. Theoretical framework
2.1. Satisfaction as a driver of intentions
Satisfaction has been conceptualised as a cumulative experience that makes con-
sumers judge the level of pleasure from the consumption of the services offered by
certain organization (Campón-Cerro, Hernandez-Mogollón, & Alves, 2016; Filieri,
Alguezaui, & McLeay, 2015). In experiential paradigms such as the online context,
tourism scholars have measured satisfaction across cognitive and affective features
that define the travel experience (del Bosque & San Martin, 2008; Mason & Paggia-
ro, 2012). Digital platforms have some peculiarities, such as the absence of physical
interaction user-employee, which can lead to dissatisfaction if these are not well
managed (Pereira, Salgueiro, & Rita, 2016).
Behavioural intentions define the strength of the bond customer-organization.
In the case of museum, solid and long-lasting relations can be revealed thorough
the number of arrivals to the physical museums, and the revisits to the museums’
websites. Tourism scholars have defined tourists’ intentions in terms of loyalty, spe-
cifically, behavioural and attitudinal loyalty. Behavioural loyalty has been defined
across tourists repeated visits to a certain place (Lee, Graefe, & Burns, 2007; Yoon
& Uysal, 2005) and attitudinal loyalty has been referred as tourists’ future inten-
tions to visit the place (Bigné et al., 2001; Konecnik & Gartner, 2007). In relation
to online tourism loyalty, booking, purchase and recommendation intentions have
been widely analysed (e.g. Ali, 2016; Aluri, Slevitch, & Larzelere, 2015; Bai et al.,
2008; Dholakia & Zhao, 2010; Harrigan, Evers, Miles, & Daly, 2017; Ladhari &
Michaud, 2015; Litvin, Goldsmith, & Pan, 2008; Mindy & Jeong, 2017; Pappas,
Pateli, Giannakos, & Chrissikopoulos, 2014), while intentions of visiting the phys-
ical place and revisiting the website have been scarcely analysed (Pallud & Straub,
Tourism prior related studies have concluded that website features have a direct,
positive and significant effect on users’ intentions (Ali, 2016; Aluri et al., 2015; Bai
et al., 2008; Law & Bai, 2008), such as continued website usage intention regard-
ing e-tourism websites (Ku & Chen, 2014) or destination websites continued usage
372 García-Madariaga et al.
intentions (Chung, Lee, Lee, & Koo, 2015). Hence, it is reasonable to believe that
those online museums’ users that feel satisfied will have intentions to visit the phys-
ical museum and repeat their visit to the website. Thus, it is postulated:
H1. Users’ satisfaction within the museum’s website positively and significantly
influences their intentions.
2.2. Museum’s website as determinant of control and intentions
Website evaluation has been defined as higher order dimension (Agarwal &
Venkatesh, 2002; Pallud & Straub, 2014) that entails the following online related
concepts: aesthetics, content, ease of use, emotion, promotion, made for the medium.
Aesthetics describes the innovativeness of the website’s design and how it assists the
stimulation of different emotions (Eroglu, Karen, & Lenita, 2003). Content defines
the quality of textual and visual information (Pallud & Straub, 2014; Venkatesh,
2000). Ease of use addresses users’ perceptions of their navigation experience. Emo-
tion explains the affective replies that the website evokes (Agarwal & Venkatesh,
2002). Promotion involves all the advertising of a website (Agarwal & Venkatesh,
2002). Made for the medium ensures the capacity of personalizing the website
(Agarwal & Venkatesh, 2002; Pallud & Straub, 2014). Control, also mentioned as
perceived control, has been considered as a significant variable as it allows users feel
they manage their actions while navigating on a website (Rose, Clark, Samouel, &
Hair, 2012).
Several online studies have proved that those websites that have a high number of
interactive features can increase users’ sense of control (Hoffman & Novak, 1996)
and that ease of use and customization (which is very related to the variable made
for the medium) positively influence control in shopping websites (Rose et al., 2012).
Equally, it has been affirmed that favourable interactions with websites strength-
en behavioural effects, such as intentions to revisit websites (Huang, Hsieh, & Wu,
2014). Pallud and Straub (2014) examined the impact of website evaluation on atti-
tudes and attitudes on intentions, and all relationships were positive. Also, Marty
(2007) discussed that users may navigate museums’ websites to search information
and plan their physical visit, and visit them online when they cannot make an
in-person visit. Accordingly, website evaluation may denote continuance intentions,
precisely users’ future intentions of revisiting the website and visiting the physical
museum. Based on these reasons, the following hypotheses are proposed:
H2. Users’ evaluation of the museum’s website positively and significantly influences
their (a) perception of control; and (b) intentions.
The influence of museums’ websites on users’ intentions 373
3. Research method
3.1. Sampling procedure
The model presented in Figure 1 was tested using a free simulation experiment, as
it has been previously performed in related studies (Gefen & Straub, 2000; Pallud &
Straub, 2014). Prado and Reina Sofia Museums’ websites were chosen as platforms
to study, initially because both are the two most visited art museums of Madrid.
Besides, other website considerations were considered.
The content of both museums’ websites offers practical information (opening
hours, prices, and a map), a search engine, calendar of events, educative resources,
description of the cultural assets. The aesthetics of both websites is eye-catching but
Prado Museum’s website presents a more conventional aspect while Reina Sofia is
designed in a more modern appearance. This is related to their collections, as Prado
Museum is rich in paintings of European artists of the 16th to 19th centuries, and
the Reina Sofia Museum’s collection consists mainly of art pieces of the 20th century.
The ease of use of both websites is well organised and appealing. Regarding the eval-
uation of the personalization of these websites, it allows language selection, is aimed
at different target populations (such as groups, children, etc.), and contact informa-
tion is well displayed. But only the Prado Museum’s website offers a personalised
visit and even permits users to tailor-make their own itineraries and to share them.
Concerning emotion, the Prado Museum’s website offers more interactivity (online
games, videos, etc.) than the Reina Sofia Museum’s website. Moreover, it gives users
the option of navigating in its museum shop and even of purchasing products. How-
ever, both museums offer the possibility of planning and tailor-making users’ future
visit to the physical museum. Lastly, both websites are well promoted in social net-
works. The Reina Sofia Museum has a press section, a radio, and it collaborates in
the elaboration of several publications. The Prado Museum has a press section that
includes activities, videos, etc.
We selected the professional Internet market research agency Netquest as they are
devoted to online panels. Netquest has a database of more than 726,210 consumers
in 21 countries, which guarantees the scope of this study. The survey was admin-
istered from November 23 to 25, 2017. Quota sampling method was performed,
employing the public and official census data from each of the two museums to
calculate the appropriate numbers of visitors in each gender and age category (Table
1). In the Prado Museum, women represented 49.7% and men 50.3%. Comparably,
there was 49.4% of women of the Reina Sofia and 50.6% of men. The sample con-
sisted of 151 subjects for the Prado Museum, and 156 for the Reina Sofia Museum.
374 García-Madariaga et al.
Figure 1. Proposed model
Made for the
Ease of use
Revisting the
Visiting the
The influence of museums’ websites on users’ intentions 375
Table 1. Sample profile
Prado Museum (n= 151) n % Reina Sofia Museum (n= 156) n %
Female 75 49.7 77 49.4
Male 76 50.3 79 50.6
From 18 to 24 years old 18 11.9 18 11.5
From 25 to 30years old 17 11.3 16 10.3
From 31 to 34 years old 8 5.3 9 5.8
From 35 to 40 years old 21 13.9 20 12.8
From 41 to 44 years old 14 9.3 16 10.3
From 45 to 50 years old 19 12.6 21 13.5
From 51 to 54 years old 11 7.3 13 8.3
From 55 to 60 years old 22 14.6 21 13.5
From 61 to 65 years old 12 7.9 10 6.4
From 66 to 69 years old 5 3.3 8 5.1
More than 70 years old 4 2.6 4 2.6
Primary 4 2.6 1 0.6
Secondary 49 32.5 44 28.2
Undergraduate 24 15.9 25 16.0
Graduate 61 40.4 64 41.0
Postgraduate 13 8.6 22 14.1
Student 15 9.9 16 10.3
Employee 77 51.0 72 46.2
Housewife 6 4.0 9 5.8
Unemployed 21 13.9 22 14.1
Retired 17 11.3 20 12.8
Others 15 9.9 3 1.9
14 9.0
376 García-Madariaga et al.
Prado Museum (n= 151) n % Reina Sofia Museum (n= 156) n %
Home monthly income (in euros)
Less than 150071 47.0 60 38.5
Between 1500 and 250034 22.5 42 26.9
More than 250015 9.9 15 9.6
I don’t know/ I prefer not to
answer 31 20.5 39 25.0
National 147 97.4 154 98.7
Other 4 2.6 2 1.3
Country of residence
National 146 96.7 155 99.4
Other 5 3.3 1 0.6
3.2. Research instrument
All the constructs used in this research were adopted from previous studies, and
all were rated on a seven point Likert scale. Website evaluation entailed the first
order constructs: aesthetics, content, ease of use, emotion, made for the medium,
promotion by Pallud and Straub (2014). Control was adapted from Hsu, Chang, &
Chen (2012) and satisfaction by Sun et al. (2016). First order dimensions for inten-
tions, specifically visiting the physical museum, and revisiting the museum website,
were adapted from Pallud and Straub (2014).
Table 1. (continued)
The influence of museums’ websites on users’ intentions 377
Table 2. Measurement model
Factor Indicator Description
Content CON1 This museum website offers content that is relevant to the core
CON2 ... uses media appropriately and effectively to communicate the
CON3 ... provides the appropriate breadth and depth of content.
CON4 ... provides current and timely information.
Made for the medium MFM1 … offers you the opportunity to be part of an online group or
MFM2 ... treats you as a unique person and responds to your specific
MFM3 ... reflects the most current trend(s) and provides the most
current information.
Ease of use EOU1 … offers clear and understandable goals.
EOU2 ... is well structured and organized.
EOU3 ... provides clear and understandable results and feedback
regarding your progress.
Promotion PRO1 If I saw an advertisement of this website on the Internet
or other related media (e.g., newspaper, TV), I would be
stimulated to go to this website.
PRO2 … a promotion of this website on the Internet or other related
media (e.g, newspaper, TV), I would be motivated to go to this
Emotion EMO1 This museum website offers you an element of challenge.
EMO2 … provides an interesting story line.
EMO3 … ties to individuals, within and outside the organization, who
have credibility..
EMO4 … allows you to control the pace at which you can interact
with the presented information
Aesthetics AES1 I find that the design of this museum websitelooks pleasant.
AES2 The layout of this museum website is fascinating.
AES3 I find the design of this museum website to be creative.
AES4 ... that the design of this museum website looks aesthetic.
378 García-Madariaga et al.
Factor Indicator Description
Control CO1 I feel in control of what I am doing when I navigate in this
museum website.
CO2 I can easily control the information that is provided on this
museum website.
CO3 I feel I can control my use of information on this museum
CO4 The level of information provided by this museum website
makes me feel in control.
Revisiting the website RMW1 Given the chance, I intend to return to the website of this
RMW2 It is likely that I will actually return to the website of this
Visiting the physical
VPM1 … opportunity, I intend to visit the physical museum.
VPM2 It is likely that I will actually visit the physical museum.
Satisfaction SA1 As a whole, I am satisfied with this museum’s website.
SA2 I am satisfied with the overall service that this museum’s
website provided to me.
SA3 ... experience with this museum’s website.
4. Data analysis
4.1. The measurement model
Structural equation modelling, precisely Partial Least Squares Structural Equa-
tion Modelling (PLS-SEM) was employed to estimate the model proposed in Figure
1. PLS-SEM was the selected technique as preliminary tests showed the presence of
non-normal data and this method is less rigorous when operatizing with these types
of bias (Hair, Sarstedt, Hopkins, & Kuppelwieser, 2014).
Table 3 presents the results of measurement model reliability and convergent
validity tests for both samples. Cronbach’s alpha values fulfil the recommendation
of 0.60 (Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson, & Tatham, 2006). Composite reliability
indicates the shared variance among a set of observed items measuring a construct
(Fornell & Larcker, 1981), where the value of at least 0.60 is considered desirable
(Bagozzi & Yi, 1988). All factors accomplished this criterion. Average variance
extracted (AVE) for each construct was higher than 0.50 (Fornell & Larcker,
Table 2. (continued)
The influence of museums’ websites on users’ intentions 379
Concerning convergent validity, all items were significantly (p<.01) connected to
their hypothesized factors, and all standardized loadings are above 0.60 (Bagozzi
& Yi, 1988). Discriminant validity of measures was assessed determining that the
shared variance between pairs of constructs was lower than the corresponding AVE
(Fornell & Larcker, 1981) (Table 4). HTMT ratio method, recently proposed by
Henseler, Ringle, & Sarstedt (2015), was examined to test discriminant validity, and
all ratios were lower than 0.90 (Teo, Srivastava, & Jiang, 2008). Reliability and
convergent validity were verified both at the first and second order level for the two
second order constructs of the model.
380 García-Madariaga et al.
Table 3. Reliability and convergent validity of the final measurement model
Prado Museum Reina Sofia Museum
(bootstrap) CA rho_A CR AV E Standardized
(bootstrap) CA rho_A CR AV E
Aesthetics AES1 0.928 69.426 0.949 0.950 0.963 0.868 0.919 72.320 0.949 0.950 0.963 0.868
AES2 0.924 69.468 0.938 102.876
AES3 0.919 39.528 0.927 61.337
AES4 0.944 72.698 0.942 80.848
Content CON1 0.844 32.074 0.918 0.921 0.942 0.802 0.883 44.061 0.918 0.921 0.942 0.802
CON2 0.854 24.547 0.904 49.288
CON3 0.835 26.674 0.886 31.163
CON4 0.898 42.521 0.908 41.194
Control CO1 0.909 45.450 0.929 0.931 0.950 0.825 0.905 49.668 0.929 0.931 0.950 0.825
CO2 0.946 91.306 0.928 50.701
CO3 0.921 35.871 0.908 24.800
CO4 0.935 73.506 0.892 39.527
Emotion EMO1 0.722 13.653 0.902 0.903 0.939 0.836 0.752 12.758 0.902 0.903 0.939 0.836
EMO2 0.832 29.956 0.880 44.492
EMO3 0.869 45.195 0.878 34.094
EMO4 0.847 34.665 0.847 28.138
Ease of use EOU1 0.926 61.300 0.862 0.881 0.906 0.707 0.911 49.613 0.862 0.881 0.906 0.707
EOU2 0.932 61.594 0.927 64.459
EOU3 0.920 51.990 0.905 29.906
Visiting the
physical museum
VPM1 0.937 52.292 0.933 0.935 0.968 0.938 0.970 143.979 0.933 0.935 0.968 0.938
VPM2 0.941 45.266 0.967 109.766
Revisiting the
RMW1 0.982 218.851 0.971 0.972 0.986 0.972 0.986 314.177 0.971 0.972 0.986 0.972
RMW2 0.980 167.117 0.985 292.469
The influence of museums’ websites on users’ intentions 381
Prado Museum Reina Sofia Museum
(bootstrap) CA rho_A CR AV E Standardized
(bootstrap) CA rho_A CR AV E
Made for the
MFM1 0.849 21.865 0.800 0.813 0.881 0.712 0.835 23.393 0.800 0.813 0.881 0.712
MFM2 0.905 55.884 0.849 26.172
MFM3 0.888 49.951 0.849 28.595
Promotion PRO1 0.975 149.640 0.956 0.956 0.979 0.958 0.979 186.548 0.956 0.956 0.979 0.958
PRO2 0.977 171.248 0.979 183.082
Satisfaction SA1 0.971 134.208 0.973 0.973 0.982 0.948 0.965 106.474 0.973 0.973 0.982 0.948
SA2 0.978 194.087 0.979 180.897
SA3 0.970 149.602 0.976 178.822
Intentions Visi-
ting the
0.709 9.018 0.628 0.937 0.823 0.704 0.941 79.262 0.890 0.906 0.948 0.901
the website
0.952 64.104 0.957 144.026
Aesthetics 0.817 24.649 0.913 0.915 0.933 0.698 0.798 22.761 0.909 0.912 0.930 0.688
Content 0.854 35.036 0.828 30.421
Ease of use 0.840 24.520 0.822 18.799
Emotion 0.864 42.079 0.875 42.123
for the
0.862 30.509 0.825 25.185
Promotion 0.773 19.547 0.827 34.239
Table 3. (continuation)
Note: All loadings are significant at p < .01 level. CA = Cronbach’s alpha; CR = composite reliability; AVE = average variance extracted.
382 García-Madariaga et al.
Table 4. Discriminant validity of the measurement model
Prado Museum
Factor 1 2 3 4
1 Intentions 0.839 0.618 0.650 0.738
2 Control 0.526 0.928 0.765 0.813
3 Trust 0.576 0.736 0.973 0.882
4 Website Evaluation 0.629 0.760 0.831 0.836
Reina Sofia Museum
Factor 1 2 3 4
1 Intentions 0.949 0.711 0.816 0.844
2 Control 0.652 0.909 0.754 0.800
3 Trust 0.765 0.717 0.974 0.831
4 Website Evaluation 0.768 0.736 0.783 0.829
Note: Diagonal values are AVE square root, values below the diagonal are latent variable correlations
values above the diagonal are HTMT ratios.
4.2. The structural model
The results of the inner estimation for the model are presented in Tables 5 and
6. To determine parameters significance, bootstrapping with individual sign changes
of 500 samples was analysed (Hair, Sarstedt, Ringle, & Mena, 2012). All dependent
constructs, except for intentions of the Prado Museum’s sample, showed a R2 higher
than 0.50 (Falk & Miller, 1992). Positive Stone-Geisser’s Q2 were obtained using
blindfolding, and hence the predictive relevance of the model for both cases was
recognized (Henseler, Ringle, & Sinkovics, 2009).
The results prove that satisfaction has no influence on intentions (H1) in the case
of Prado Museum (β = 0.16), but significantly and positively influences in the case
of Reina Sofia Museum (β = 0.43; p < .01). Besides, it has been proved that there
are no significant differences between the two museums (MGA p-value = 0.91).
Besides, as hypothesised website evaluation significantly and positively influences
control (H2a; Prado Museum: β = 0.76; p < .01; Reina Sofia: β = 0.74; p < .01) and
it has been detected that there no significant differences between the two museums
(MGA p-value = 0.36). Finally, website evaluation also influences significantly and
positively intentions (H2b; Prado Museum: β = 0.5; p < .01; Reina Sofia: β = 0.43; p
< .01) and it has been detected that there no significant differences between the two
museums (MGA p-value = 0.4).
The influence of museums’ websites on users’ intentions 383
These results indicate two major findings: (1) website evaluation (that entails
content, ease of use, aesthetics, made for the medium, promotion and emotion)
influences significantly and positively the perceived control users have of the website;
and (2) this second order dimension also significantly and positively influences their
intentions (of revisiting the website and visiting the physical museum). Furthermore,
it is noteworthy to indicate that satisfaction of the website does not influence Prado
Museum visitors’ intentions.
Table 5. Evaluation of the estimated models
Concept Prado Museum Reina Sofia Museum
R2 Q2R2 Q2
Intentions 0.396 0.243 0.655 0.559
Control 0.575 0.462 0.539 0.419
Table 6. Hypotheses testing
Prado Museum Reina Sofia Museum Multigroup-
sis Path
(bootstrap) p-value Result
H1 Satisfaction
0.162 1.146 0.427 3.321*0.909 Prado =
H2a Website Evaluation
0.764 18.228*0.742 15.489*0.365 Prado =
H2b Website Evaluation
0.498 4.153*0.433 3.397*0.395 Prado =
5. Discussion
This research extends prior works in several ways, establishing the relationships
between website assessment, control and intentions, through the comparison of two
museum websites, thereby confirming previous results.
First, this study extends prior research by empirically verifying the influence
of users’ satisfaction and their evaluation of museum websites on their perceived
control and intentions. Second, PLS multi-group analysis (PLS-MGA) analysis has
revealed that users’ satisfaction does not always significantly influences their inten-
tions to revisit the website or visit the museum in person. A possible explanation for
384 García-Madariaga et al.
the non-significance of the relationship in the Prado Museum website users is that
these users perceive navigation in this website as a unique experience because of its
interactive tools. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that navigation the website and
visiting the museum could be considered totally dissimilar experiences. This situation
could be because the museum website designers could have focused more on design-
ing a personalized and interactive navigation experience rather than on thinking how
to influence visitors’ intentions. Third, results show that website assessment positive-
ly and significantly influences perceived control. This linkage was shown to be the
strongest among the hypotheses formulated. However, it is realistic to assume that
if users perceive that all website’s characteristics are well designed, they will have a
greater perception of control within the website.
To sum up, website evaluation has been revealed to be critical for determining
visitors’ intentions. Precisely, users who perceive all the website features as well
designed (aesthetics, content, ease of use, promotion, emotion and personalization)
will be more likely to revisit the website and to plan a visit to the museum than users
who have not found the characteristics as well designed. This is in line with some
studies that have pointed out that individuals who have enjoyed positive experiences
within tourism services are more likely to repeat them. Remarkably, all efforts to
improve users’ assessment of museum website features (specifically, aesthetics, con-
tent, ease of use, emotion, promotion, personalization) can be expected to increase
users’ intentions.
5.1. Theoretical contributions
Although the influence of websites on purchase intentions has been broadly stud-
ied, research concerning the impact of museums’ websites on visitors’ intentions is
still scarce. Hence, this study aimed to make some theoretical contributions to the
First, this work contributes both to museum management literature and to tour-
ism destination literature. The research model proposes a framework to identify
what drives users to revisit the website and visit the place in person.
Second, this research has compared two samples of users and two museum web-
sites through PLS-MGA. The findings found no significant differences between the
two museums. The bond between user satisfaction and intentions was non-signifi-
cant in the sample of the Prado Museum. This begs the question of why satisfaction
does not have significant impact on visitors’ intentions.
Third, this study contributes to our comprehension of hierarchical latent varia-
bles in studies of websites through a complex model that integrates two second-order
dimensions (website evaluation and intentions).
Finally, this work contributes to the literature on museum management and tour-
ism destination through a conceptual framework, by defininf the second order-di-
mension intentions that encompasses two related behavioural attitudes (revisiting
the website and visiting the place).
The influence of museums’ websites on users’ intentions 385
5.2. Management implications
The findings of this study are relevant for policy makers, museum managers and
museum digital media analysts who are involved in museum websites and visitor
engagement. As stated by Marty (2011), research to improve the understanding of
users’ perceptions is important because the development and maintenance of muse-
um digital systems is very expensive. This research aimed to fill the gap of studies
on the relationship between website evaluation and visitors’ intentions and, thus
contributes to the understanding of the features that increase visitors’ willingness to
revisit the website and to visit the “brick and mortar” museum.
Already in 2007, Marty indicated the importance for museum professionals to
know the particular characteristics that are likely to influence online museum users
to visit the physical museum. Website design (precisely, all the above-mentioned
characteristics; aesthetics, content, ease of use, emotion, made for the medium and
promotion) boost visitors’ intentions. Therefore, it can be stated that if museum
professionals include and enhance all these characteristics in museum websites, they
will likely influence users’ intentions.
However, it is interesting to note that the relationship between the Prado Muse-
um user satisfaction did not impact their intentions. Comparing the Prado’s website
and the Reina Sofia’s website, the navigation experience is different, and this may
be related to the objectives of each museum website. The Prado Museum’s website
offers more interactive tools than the Reina Sofia’s website. In this regard, it seems
that the Prado Museum’s website is so well designed that satisfies potential visitors’
needs and desires. Hence, it is reasonable to conclude that the Prado Museum users
feel so satisfied with their navigation experience within the museum’s website that
they do not need to visit the physical museum. Besides, the perception of the website
experience and the visit in person could be perceived by users as being very different.
5.3. Limitations and future research lines
This study has some limitations that create avenues for future research. First, the
study focuses on two websites and two different samples, which reveals the need
to confirm the significance of the relationship between users’ satisfaction and their
intentions. As mentioned above, in the Prado Museum, the results were non-sig-
nificant. Additionally, it would be interesting to analyse the relationship between
museum websites’ interactivity and user satisfaction, and the mediating effect of
interactivity in the association between users’ satisfaction and intentions (Capriotti
et al., 2016).
Second, selecting users of the two most visited museums of Madrid could have led
to bias. Future studies could replicate this research across different museums, other
cultures, or even destinations. Third, in the proposed model, website evaluation
and intentions are second-order dimensions that comprise related concepts so as to
386 García-Madariaga et al.
gain parsimony and analyse their relations with other variables. However, this has
implied that the separate effects of each of them were not measured (Marty, 2007),
which could be enlightening and enrich the literature on this topic.
Due to the consolidating trend of Internet’s role as a communication channel
for museums, it would be interesting to measure if there is an existing relationship
between the satisfaction of museums’ visitors and their willingness to return to the
destination. This relationship could be stronger in the case of worldwide known
museums, such as the Louvre, Moma, Prado or Reina Sofia Museum. Moreover, it
could be notable examining if the satisfaction of physical museum visitors influences
their intentions of visiting the website and of returning to the destination.
Also, it has been confirmed that high-experienced customers are more difficult to
be satisfied (Dholakia and Zhao, 2010; Pappas et al., 2014) so it would be revealing
to study whether the level of visitors’ loyalty toward the museum website influences
their intentions. Likewise, time spent navigating in the website could also be consid-
ered as a mediating variable in the link between satisfaction and users’ intentions.
Finally, it could be interesting to determine whether websites that promote inter-
action with users and multidirectional conversations reduce or increase visitors’
willingness to visit the place (Capriati & Pardon, 2012). We additionally encourage
scholars to analyse the impact of multisensory learning in museum websites and
users’ intentions (Lin et al., 2012).
The authors want to thank the Autonomous Community of Madrid for funding
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Notes on Contributors
Name: Jesús García-Madariaga Miranda
Position: Profesor Titular
University: Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Address: Departamento de Comercialización e Investigación de mercados. Facultad de Ciencias
Económicas y Empresariales. Campus de Somosaguas 28223 Madrid
Telephone: 913942532
Name: Nuria Recuero Virto
Position: PostDoctoral Researcher
University: Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Address: Departamento de Comercialización e Investigación de mercados. Facultad de Ciencias
Económicas y Empresariales. Campus de Somosaguas 28223 Madrid
Telephone: 913942532
Name: Francisca Blasco López
Position: Profesora Titular
University: Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Address: Departamento de Comercialización e Investigación de mercados. Facultad de Comercio y
Turismo. Avda. Filipinas 3. 28003 Madrid
Telephone: 913946748
... The taxonomy enables, for example, professionals in museums and in further institutions with cultural and educational missions such as theatres, libraries, or heritage centers to (a) be informed within the wide range of platform features to compare, refine and develop their online presence and (b) to make their services publicly accessible and participatory. Furthermore, the taxonomy can help to (c) improve marketing activities [5] and therefore to raise peoples' interest in visiting the institution [13] as well as to increase visitor numbers [14]-despite public sector cuts and financial pressure [14]. From a more societal view, disadvantaged individuals who cannot benefit from local cultural practices are supported in their cultural and educational participation. ...
... The taxonomy enables, for example, professionals in museums and in further institutions with cultural and educational missions such as theatres, libraries, or heritage centers to (a) be informed within the wide range of platform features to compare, refine and develop their online presence and (b) to make their services publicly accessible and participatory. Furthermore, the taxonomy can help to (c) improve marketing activities [5] and therefore to raise peoples' interest in visiting the institution [13] as well as to increase visitor numbers [14]-despite public sector cuts and financial pressure [14]. From a more societal view, disadvantaged individuals who cannot benefit from local cultural practices are supported in their cultural and educational participation. ...
... In addition, [16] indicated that the use of game-based features led to enjoyment and learning. Furthermore, by examining two sample museum websites, studies discovered a positive influence of website features on users' intention to return to the website and to visit the physical museum [13,14]. More general conclusions for museum websites are provided, however, the results are limited to the type of online platform. ...
Museums preserve the cultural heritage and aim at providing study and education as well as enjoyment for the general public. In pursuing their missions, museums are increasingly concerned with making these experiences digitally available. Therefore, they start to use online platforms that make cultural objects publicly accessible, and therefore allow discussing cultural issues and provide cultural and educational participation. However, as there is little consolidated knowledge on features of such platforms and limited resources of museums, they face challenges in achieving their missions through a platform. In order to overcome this, we (1) review and synthesize related literature and online platforms and (2) present a taxonomy of how online offers leverage cultural participation and education. In doing this, we seek to enable platform designers and museum professionals in making informed decisions in terms of how the ‘museum experience’ can be supported/complemented through online platforms.
... Attitudes are defined as the positive or negative feelings that an individual has when performing a behavior (Pallud & Straub, 2014). Behavioral intentions define the strength of the bond customer-organization (García-Madariaga et al., 2017). Before people make the intention of actual action, they first go through the process of rationalization of psychological consciousness. ...
... A large amount of evidence has shown that users' attitudes toward using products or services affect their behavioral intentions. Many researchers have carried out relevant research on users' behavioral intentions after visiting the museum website (García-Madariaga et al., 2017;Marty, 2008). Castaneda et al. (2007) indicated that attitudes toward using the museum website are a strong predictor of intentions to revisit the website. ...
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The French luxury brand, Balenciaga, recently faced its most important communication crisis. On November 16th 2022, the brand released its holiday gifting campaign featuring children surrounded by sadomasochism-inspired teddy bears/handbags and received immediate backlash from the public, who accused the brand of sexualizing children and promoting pedophilia. The outrage went viral on social media - mainly on Tiktok - with the hashtags #burnbalenciaga and #cancelbalenciaga, which have accumulated more than 300 million views. Balenciaga suffered an incalculable damage on its reputation, having two flagship stores vandalized and a viral online boycott. This investigation follows the case study methodology, by analyzing the timeline of events, the brand’s statements and response, the viral effect of the boycott on social media and the ultimate affectations that the brand underwent due to the crisis. The conclusions reveal that on one hand there are some social anethical boundaries that not even well-positioned and beloved brands can afford to cross, and that slow, unclear and unaccountable answers compose a terrible strategy of crisis management, and on the other hand, the power of consumers on social media has gained enough strength to damage brands like Balenciaga.
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This research project aims to investigate the symbolic and cultural meanings behind an underwear targeted to women in order to analyze the glamorous elements of a garment which is often presented in scenarios that allude to sexuality and transgression. The focus is on the underwear production of the last ten years, as the fashion world has lately been hit by discussions around the need to make fashion accessible for non-normative bodies. Now that fashion is called to play a role in terms of inclusivity on the symbolic as well as on the material level, the question behind this research is: what kind of relationship can be found between an inclusive underwear and glamour? The first part of this research will provide a complex definition of glamour, an ambiguous phenomenon that can either be conservative or subversive. The study will then proceed with an analysis on the relationship between glamour and underwear in the case of the two mainstream lingerie brands Victoria’s Secret and Calvin Klein. Finally, such relationship will be then investigated in the realm of a newborn inclusive lingerie brand named Chitè through an in situ ethnographic investigation.
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Purpose: This study aims to examine determinants of perceived website quality and associations among consequences of perceived website quality. Adopting the framework of loyalty development, causal links are investigated among the website quality, customers’ perceived service quality, their satisfaction, return intention and loyalty in the context of the lodging industry. Design/methodology/approach: An online field survey is conducted with internet bookers. A confirmatory factor analysis and a parameter estimate analysis using structural equation modeling are adopted to analyze the data. Findings: The progression of the phases of loyalty proceeds in a linear fashion on a lodging website. Mediation effects of customer satisfaction and return intention are detected. Moderation effects of gender were also detected in the relationships among website service quality and consequences of website service quality. Research limitations/implications: Caution is advised in generalizing findings of this study due to convenience sampling, although findings of the study do confirm results of previously conducted studies. Practical implications: This study provides practical tips for website development for hospitality management to understand the e-loyalty formation process so that appropriate marketing strategies can be established to accommodate the type and degree of individual customer’s loyalty as well as gender-specific expectations from prospective customers. Originality/value: This study demonstrates that customer loyalty formation in both physical and online environments has identical processes in the context of the lodging industry. The male group, compared to the female group, appears to be more sensitive in perceiving the effects of functionality of a lodging website, tends to develop customer satisfaction when perceiving website service quality and inclines to develop customer loyalty when having return intention.
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The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of four online purchase determinants (website image, routine, website knowledge and innovativeness) on customer loyalty and the mediating effect of customer satisfaction within the context of e-commerce. The research model is tested using data collected from 3188 regular buyers of the national leader in the sector being studied. The statistical analyses were conducted within the Structural Equation Modeling framework. Results show that there is a complete mediating effect of e-customer satisfaction in the relationship between three online purchase determinants (website image, online routine and website knowledge) and e-customer loyalty. The research results provide an important insight into how e-companies can pursuit and use delight to highlight customers' loyalty. These results allow for a better understanding of customer specificities, with practical actions aimed at their real needs and expectations.
Purpose This study aims to review published articles on website evaluation in hospitality and tourism for the period of 2000-2015 to provide a comprehensive updated review, as well as to offer implications for academic researchers and industry practitioners. Design/methodology/approach Content analysis was adopted by this study to review retrieved articles on website evaluation in hospitality and tourism. Articles were then analyzed from consumers’ perspective, suppliers’ perspective, and both consumers and suppliers’ perspectives using a systematic approach. Findings Major findings of this study showed that a majority of articles focused on either hospitality or tourism. Moreover, most of the articles generally discussed user interface, marketing effectiveness and website quality. However, these articles did not discuss in detail the implications of website evaluation and ignore the connections between suppliers and consumers to some extent. Research limitations/implications This study can be used as a reference for academic researchers to extend previous frameworks and for industry practitioners to reconstruct the traditional organizational chart and implementing e-strategic management strategies, including m-marketing. Originality/value This study updates website evaluation development in hospitality and tourism in the new millennium. The findings of this study provide significant implications for hospitality and tourism researchers and practitioners to encourage supplier-consumer engagement.
Purpose This study aims to examine the relationships between hotel website quality, perceived flow, customer satisfaction and purchase intentions. Furthermore, this study also examines if perceived flow mediates the relationships between hotel website quality, customer satisfaction and purchase intentions. Design/methodology/approach The stimulus-organism-response framework is used as the theoretical framework for this study. A total of 441 valid online questionnaires were collected to empirically test the measurement and structural model using partial least square path modeling approach. The study sample includes hotel guests who booked their hotels via online travel agencies and/or hotel websites. Findings The findings confirm that hotel website quality influences customers’ perceived flow, which in turn, influences their satisfaction and purchase intention. Moreover, perceived flow also mediates the relationships between hotel website quality, customer satisfaction and purchase intentions. Originality/value Hotel website quality, perceived flow, customer satisfaction and purchase intentions altogether are not well understood in current literature despite the important implication for managers, academicians and consumers alike. This study contributes to the field of e-commerce marketing, retailing and e-tourism research.