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Antioxidants in dermatology


Abstract and Figures

The skin cells continuously produce, through cellular respiration, metabolic processes or under external aggressions, highly reactive molecules oxidation products, generally called free radicals. These molecules are immediately neutralized by enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems in a physiological and dynamic balance. In situations where this balance is broken, various cellular structures, such as the cell membrane, nuclear or mitochondrial DNA may suffer structural modifications, triggering or worsening skin diseases. several substances with alleged antioxidant effects has been offered for topical or oral use, but little is known about their safety, possible associations and especially their mechanism of action. The management of topical and oral antioxidants can help dermatologist to intervene in the oxidative processes safely and effectively, since they know the mechanisms, limitations and potential risks of using these molecules as well as the potential benefits of available associations.
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An Bras Dermatol. 2017;92(3):356-62.
Antioxidants in dermatology*
Received on 15.02.2016
* Studyconductedatprivateclinic–SãoPaulo(SP),Brazil.
Financial support: none.
 Conictofinterest:none.
1 Privateclinic–SãoPaulo(SP),Brazil.
 ©2017byAnaisBrasileirosdeDermatologia
Skin and mucous membranes have a contact and defense
barrier role against chemical, physical and biological aggressions
Maintenanceof cellularintegrity,aswellasofallimmune
mechanisms,whetherinborn (cutaneous lipidsandplasma mem-
reactive oxygen species - highly reactive molecules that can rapidly
teins,lipids,orDNA.2 Endogenous or exogenous antioxidant mech-
ofthisneutralization has multiple consequences:freeradicals are
implicatedintheetiopathogenesis of variousdermatoses,as well
as in the aging process and in the onset of cutaneous neoplasias.3
Proper use of antioxidants should be considered in these sit-
the last decades.
Themainreactiveoxygen species (ROS)arethe hydroxyl
oxide (H2O2)and organicperoxides(ROOH).4 In addition to direct
damagetomoleculessuch as lipids, aminoacidsand DNA, ROS
the potential to modify other processes that end up interfering with
gene expression. 5
Antioxidantsare substancesthat combineto neutralizere-
active oxygen species preventing oxidative damage to cells and tis-
sues.6 Thecutaneousantioxidantsystemconsistsofenzymatic and
non-enzymaticsubstances.Among enzymatic antioxidants, gluta-
(SOD)canbehighlighted. 7
Non-enzymaticor lowmolecular weightantioxidantsalso
contribute to the maintenance of cellular redox balance. Here some
Figure1 summarizesthe mainoxidative sourcesandtheir
antioxidant systems; participating.9
of cellular functional integrity. These molecules generally induce
intracellular enzymatic processes via transcription factors (FoxO)
thatinducethe expressionof antioxidant enzymes,suchas SOD.9
Increased levels of FoxO reduce cell proliferation and induce apop-
entiation and longevity.10
Balance of antioxidant systems and the endogenous genera-
tion of ROS is dynamic and tenuous.
Abstract: Theskincellscontinuouslyproduce,throughcellularrespiration,metabolicprocessesorunderexternalaggres-
isbroken,variouscellularstructures,such as the cell membrane, nuclear or mitochondrialDNAmay suffer structural
The management of topical and oral antioxidants can help dermatologist to intervene in the oxidative processes safely and
Keywords: Antioxidants;Carotenoids;Dermatitis;DNAdamage;Freeradicals;Polypodium;Skinaging
Antioxidants in dermatology 357
An Bras Dermatol. 2017;92(3):356-62.
and resistance to stress.11
in healthy individuals.
cules is indicated in situations in which there is an inability to neu-
tralize,bothbytheROS excessandby thedeclineofendogenous
However,not all moleculesofantioxidantpotential, from
stress; an important example of this is the oral use of beta-carotene.
A randomized, controlled trial to determine whether the
impactofthe useofbeta-carotene supplementation,associatedor
notto sunscreens,coulddelaythesignsofphotoagingwas devel-
opedbetween1992and 1996; no signicanteffectof 30 mg daily
supplementationofbeta-carotenewasidentied.12 Likewise,anoth-
ercarotenoid,lycopene, does not presentaphotoprotective effect
However,there is evidence that these molecules can also
lead to deleterious effects when used indiscriminately. The risk of
hypervitaminosisin olderpatients,inwhomrenalexcretoryfunc-
Most emblematic, however, is the issue of vitamin E: to-
copherol and its esters are some of the most documented antiox-
idants and they are commonly used for their proven action on
induced ultraviolet damage. Its indiscriminate use, however, can
totoxic compounds related to tumorigenesis in the skin.15,16
Resveratrolitself,with its recognizedantioxidantandan-
ti-inammatoryactivities, hasconictingdataregardingitsdoses:
recent data demonstrate its bioactivity in nanometric doses when
derived from phytochemicals in food – and this demonstrates how
association between dietary components.17
Theadministrationofantioxidantsinsmaller doses,butin
VitaminE acts in synergy withvitaminC,which regenerates the
radicaltocopheryl,aproductofalpha-tocopheroloxidation. 18
Supplementation with beta-carotene, this time associated
with lycopene and a probiotic, promoted the preventionof poly-
A,C,E,selenium,pomegranateextract,quercetin,greentea, coen-
led to an improvement in the erythematous dose and absorption
levels of free radicals after 4 weeks of use.20
tiple antioxidant molecules allows not only to amplify the antioxi-
dantactionin severalsitesbut alsotoobtain anampliedaction,
comparableto amonotherapy inhigh doses.For thisreason, each
association should be ideally evaluated for its clinical effects.21
Currently,there isenough evidencetoassert thatallsolar
spectrum favors the generation of free radicals; this generation pos-
suppression and photocarcinogenesis. 22
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, in its UVB range (290-320 nm),
isresponsiblefor theimmediatedamages of solarradiation,acting
oxidase,generatingROSthatalter theproductionofkeratinocytic
Use of antioxidants in the prevention and repair of ultravio-
indication.Association ofantioxidant molecules,fromvitamins to
phytoextracts, in photoprotectors and moisturizers with appeal
againstaging,isfrequent. 25-27
sociation of antioxidants with trace elements and glycosaminogly-
signs of photoaging after 3 months of use. 28
Oral use of antioxidants does not dispense the use of sun-
such as Polypodium leucotomos. 29
Antioxidantaction ofthisphytoextractnotonlyoccursby
by activating natural antioxidant systems.
AlthoughtheindicationofPolypodium leucotomos in our sce-
of its use in other dermatoses as well as in photoaging.30
The combination of oral antioxidants at physiological doses
recommendeddailyintake(RDI)isalsoableto increaseminimum
Cell damage
Cell death
Change in proliferative response
Change in immune response
Cycle/ lipoxygenases
Nitric oxide synthase
Source: Pastore et al, 2010.9
FIgure 1: Diagram of the redox balance in the skin
358 Addor FAS
An Bras Dermatol. 2017;92(3):356-62.
of the total oxidative stress caused by sunlight. Reactive species
such as O2- * and * * OH CHR are generated by visible light.32
freeradicalsgeneratedbythisrange,hasnotyetbeenelucidated. 33
Lutein,acarotenoidalreadyusedinophthalmologyin the
A double blind, placebo-controlled study compared the
efcacyoforal supplementationwithtopical applicationof lutein
red radiation is also capable of generating free radicals in human
skin;its ambiguouseffect,sinceitisalsoused therapeutically,de-
pends on two distinct mechanisms: the NF-kB signaling pathway is
responsible for the pathological effects.29AP-1isresponsibleforthe
productionofmetalloproteinases thatpromotecollagen breakage,
clinically inducing wrinkles.36,37
The ability of infrared radiation to deeply penetrate favors
Some studies have been conducted with the objective of
investigatingwhichantioxidants would bethemost adequate for
use of known molecules; a topical combination of vitamins C, E,
ative study. 39
Concomitant with solar radiation and other environmental
tioxidant mechanisms.
phy,bythereductionofepidermis,but,mainly,bythe decreasein
the collagen content and other dermal elements.40
es cell aging and impairs protein proliferation.41
The theory of aging from free radicals was developed in the
1950s;later,it wasobserved thatthe cellularorganelleresponsible
ator of free radicals due to the cellular respiration that occurs in it.42
Q10 is the only soluble lipid antioxidant that animal cells can syn-
to regenerate it – which also declines over time.43 Finally,coenzyme
the synthesis of key cutaneous proteins and to inhibit the expression
collagen content of the skin.44
Inskinaging,there isaprogressiveaccumulation ofpro-
ROS and intrinsic aging.45
centralrolein the variety ofreactivemolecules it neutralizes.Al-
though there is still no direct correlation, animal models suggest
that the lack of SOD leads to degenerative changes with reduced
reduction states preventing atrophy due to collagen degradation.46
The most physiological protective effect against oxidative
stress seems to be the support to the endogenous system, using
antioxidantsnormallypresent intheskin. This strategy,however,
should not be confused with the permanent use of high non-physio-
InducedUV melanogenesisthatoccursinmelasmaisam-
plied by increasing the oxidation of dopaquinone; antioxidants
formation of free radicals.48
TheinducedUV inammatory processalsofavors thein-
crease of melanogenesis.49
enous antioxidant systems in patients with melasma demonstrat-
inga signicantconsumption ofsuperoxidedismutase(SOD)and
glutathione peroxidase. This result demonstrates the rupture of the
clusive use of antioxidants in its treatment does not seem to have a
relevanteffect.Antioxidant moleculesemployedthathaveproven
utility also have whitening action by inhibition of tyrosinase (for
example,ascorbicacid and ellagicacid)or anti-inammatory (for
Non-melanoma skin cancer
oxidative stress when it exceeds the ability of natural defense: the
molecular bonds; most of these breaks are repaired by enzymes
erate mutations that lead to neoplasia.55
The two main actions of defenses that antioxidants can pro-
vide are in relation to preventing the formation of free radicals or
Epidermal antioxidant capacity is much higher than the
systems were higher in the epidermis than in the dermis – both the
philicones(ascorbicacid and glutathione). Thestratumcorneum
Antioxidants in dermatology 359
An Bras Dermatol. 2017;92(3):356-62.
containsbothhydrophilic andlipophilicantioxidants. VitaminsC
lower concentrations in the outer layers and higher concentrations
toward the deeper layers of the stratum corneum. 57
Itisalsoconrmedthattheacute exposureofhumanskin
to solar radiation leading to oxidation can be prevented by previous
In contrast, there is evidence that treatment with topical
antioxidantsafterUVdamage can interfere with thecellcycleor
ing the damage.59
Therefore, endogenous photoprotection with antioxidants
iscomplementaryto photoprotectionwith sunscreens,andis cur-
rentlythe mostadequateformofphotocarcinogenesisprevention,
in addition to, of course, the photoprotection behavior (seeking
shadows,avoidinghoursofgreatersunshine,etc.). 60
There are consistent systemic signs of oxidative stress in
patients with active psoriasis: plasma levels of malonyldialdehyde
ralenzymaticandnon-enzymatic antioxidant systemsandconse-
and plasma lipid processes of circulating cells.61Similarly,SOD is
reduced in erythrocytes of psoriatic patients.62
the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.63
or methotrexate are also capable of generating ROS and RNS.
However,the eventual use of antioxidants should aim to
recovertheredox balance,leadingtoan anti-inammatory effect,
possibly by the activation of antiproliferative and proapoptotic
linked to systemic inammatory processes, but there is no direct
evidence of any oxidative mechanism directly linked to this tricose.
In alopecia areata, there is evidence of increased plasma
controversial. 64
Other dermatoses
Many inammation conditions demonstrate redox imbal-
ance and signicant consumption of their antioxidant systems in
localcells,such as atopicdermatitisor burned skin,aswell as in
Observational studies of melanoma patients demonstrate a
correlation between the lower incidence of the disease and the daily
consumptionof carotenoidandvitaminC-richtea andvegetables,
aswellasthehigh consumption(atleast threeportions/week) of
whether the antitumor mechanism involved would be antioxidant.66
Polypodium leucotomos extract has demonstrated a com-
plementaryeffecton the limitation of melanomacellgrowth,but
the impact of the antioxidant mechanism on this effect is unclear.67
There is also evidence of oxidative stress in dermatoses such as vit-
iligo,lichen planus,acne vulgaris,seborrheicdermatitisand pem-
impactoftheuse of antioxidantsinthecontrol of thesediseases,
both oral and topically.68-72
Use of oral or topical antioxidants in the treatment of derma-
tosesbasically seekstoneutralizeexcessfreeradicals,reducingor
the use of antioxidants should always be in line with treatments or
drug interaction with any drugs that the patient uses. Effects of an-
tioxidants can vary considerably depending on the concentrations.74
It is important to note that the use of oral or topical antioxi-
intomatopaste,ingested on theorderof 55 g/dayfor12weeks,
controlled study.75
Rich and varied diet should be encouraged in normal in-
elderly,andpeoplewithdietary restrictionsmayhave vitaminde-
ciencies,in whichrepositioninphysiological doseswouldbein-
Use of antioxidants in long-term pharmacological concen-
trations should only be considered in situations where there is a di-
agnosed need under strict medical supervision.76,77
Association of antioxidants with complementary mecha-
nisms allows a broader neutralizing action, with adequate safety
of use during the period of oxidative stress – which can be from a
simple sun exposure to extensive and acute phase dermatosis.78,79
doses, or even for a prolonged time can, in thesis, cause adverse
events precisely in the physiological antioxidative balance. Hence
the importance of medical monitoring.11
the actual effect on skin cell lines is varied.
Likewise, the proposed associations may have varied re-
sponses according to the concentrations and molecules involved.
The evaluation of clinical response should be made in order to better
understand the effects in relation to the proposed indication.
administration,level ofconcentrationinadministrationandtarget
cell, level of degradation etc. Chart 1 lists the major antioxidants
with action on the skin by oral or topical administration and their
mechanisms of action.
ized by exogenous or endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic
environment(characteristicof theintegumentarysystem),as well
asthepeculiarities of itscells,especially epidermal cells(ofgreat
metabolicand proliferativeactivity), islargelyresponsiblefor this
generationof reactivespecies.Anychangeinthisbalancemayin-
duce or aggravate dermatoses and the use of antioxidants may be of
nally. Each molecule with antioxidant action has actions in certain
sitesand,therefore,theassociationof these molecules,insmaller
ministeringconcentrationsclosertothe physiologicalones,which
reduces toxicological risks and even of aggravation of imbalance of
the antioxidant systems. q
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360 Addor FAS
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Molecule Mechanism of antioxidant action
VitaminE Neutralizationofsingletoxygeninthecellmembrane;involvementwithmembranestabilization,
VitaminC ExtensiveremovaloffreeradicalsandrepairofoxidizedvitaminEboundtothecellmembrane82
Polypodiumleucotomos InhibitionofUVinducedROSgeneration,includingsuperoxideanion30,83
Lycopene Carotenoidofgreaterbiologicalactionintheneutralizationofsingletoxygen84
Lutein CarotenoidthatprotectsthebroblastsfromUVA-inducedoxidativeaction,alsopreventingthe
Resveratrol InhibitionofUV-inducedoxidativeandmutagenicactiontoDNA87,88
Epigallocatechingallate(greentea) Flavonoidwithbroadscavengingactionoffreeradicals,inhibitingtheproductionofROSand
Lipoicacid Repairofendogenousantioxidantsystems,freeradicalneutralizer91
Delphinidin Inhibitionoflipidperoxidationandformationof8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine(8-OHdG),mark-
CoenzymeQ10 ReductionoftheproductionoffreeradicalsandregenerationofvitaminE;reductionofkeratino-
of mitochondrial oxidative damage43,93
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362 Addor FAS
An Bras Dermatol. 2017;92(3):356-62.
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... 9 Oxidative stress in atopic dermatitis is caused by Administration of antioxidants in small doses and in combination is the safest alternative use. 19 Vitamin E works synergistically with vitamin C to regenerate tocopheryl radicals, the oxidation product of alphatocopherol. 19 The relationship of vitamins A, C, E, selenium, pomegranate extract, quercetin, green tea, coenzyme q10, and carotenoids such as lutein, lycopene, and zeaxanthin gave improved results in erythematous lesions and absorbed free radical levels after 4 weeks of use. ...
... 19 Vitamin E works synergistically with vitamin C to regenerate tocopheryl radicals, the oxidation product of alphatocopherol. 19 The relationship of vitamins A, C, E, selenium, pomegranate extract, quercetin, green tea, coenzyme q10, and carotenoids such as lutein, lycopene, and zeaxanthin gave improved results in erythematous lesions and absorbed free radical levels after 4 weeks of use. 19 ...
... 19 The relationship of vitamins A, C, E, selenium, pomegranate extract, quercetin, green tea, coenzyme q10, and carotenoids such as lutein, lycopene, and zeaxanthin gave improved results in erythematous lesions and absorbed free radical levels after 4 weeks of use. 19 ...
Full-text available
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin inflammation found in children with a varied course caused by external and internal factors. The incidence of AD in industrialized countries is 10-20% in children and 1-3% in adults. The main etiopathogenesis of AD is genetic and skin barrier disorders, immunologic disorders, and environment. Oxidative stress (SO) is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that exceeds the defense capacity of the body's antioxidant system. Uncontrolled ROS production plays a major role in various skin diseases. Oxidative stress can damage the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of keratinocytes through lipid oxidation, as well as disrupt skin barrier function, increase the production of proinflammatory cytokines and worsen AD lesions. The main objectives of this literature review are to determine the role of oxidative stress in AD and antioxidants as adjunctive therapy.
... In addition, modern times have brought to everyone, women and men, young and old, more information, and therefore, better education in this regard. Another category of causes refers to the increase in the incidence of skin diseases, against the background of increased pollution, urbanism with its effects, lifestyle, work, rest, nutrition and general medication habits [1,2]. ...
... A multitude of factors in the current environment, together with modern lifestyle, with the omnipresence of medication, processed foods, smoking, etc., lead to an excess of free radicals in the body's skin, against which natural regulating mechanisms are overcome. The damage to the skin is due to the deterioration of the membrane lipids and proteins and the cellular genetic material [1,4]. ...
Full-text available
The increasing incidence of skin diseases, against the background of increased pollution, urbanism, poor habits in lifestyle, work, rest, diet and general medication, led to the development of products with a protective effect. These new types of dermatocosmetic preparations ensure maximum benefits with minimal formulation. Antioxidants are, nowadays, ingredients that stand out with a proven role in skin protection from oxidative stress and its effects. Thus, research has shown that light-textured formulas, quickly absorbed into the skin, with optimum hydration and protection against excessive free radicals, uphold the skin integrity and appearance. This article aims to evaluate essential criteria for a newly marketed product: stability, rheological properties and microbiological characteristics of oil-in-water emulsions based on a mixture of 3% resveratrol 0.5% ferulic acid and 1mL alcoholic extract of Saffron. The tests led to the conclusion that O / W dermatocosmetic emulsions, based on 3% resveratrol and 0.5% ferulic acid, or also 1mL alcoholic extract of Saffron, show resistance to microbiological contamination, good rheological properties (viscoelastic behavior, structural stability, acceptable shearing behavior) that reveal satisfactory texture and high physical stability during storage. These results encourage the transition to dermatological testing as the final stage in considering a new commercial product.
... These effects are mainly caused by an indirect mechanism known as radiolysis. In this process, the water molecule is broken by radiation, forming reactive oxygen species (ROS), which causes damage in a non-selective manner to DNA and other molecules of healthy tissue cells present in the irradiated area (Singh et al., 2016), and thereby triggering an inflammatory process (Vano-Galvan et al., 2013) In addition, exogenous antioxidant systems can be impaired in irradiated cells, and supplementation with exogenous antioxidants, or agents that stimulate endogenous antioxidants within cells, have shown promise in suppressing the harmful effects of radiation (Addor, 2017;Burke, 2019;Chen et al., 2012;Kodiyan and Amber, 2015;Singh et al., 2013;Yirmibesoglu et al., 2012). ...
... Studies regarding its prophylactic application for radiodermatitis are scarce in the literature (Bairati et al., 2005;Guo et al., 2022). However, numerous studies report its application for other skin conditions (Addor, 2017;Dattola et al., 2020;CHI et al., 2011;Pessoa et al., 2016). In this context, we hypothesized that topical administration of vitamin E could be employed for the prophylaxis of radiodermatitis. ...
Purpose Most topical agents for radiodermatitis prevention are not based on its pathophysiology, mainly caused by the indirect effects of radiation from reactive oxygen species release. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin E-containing nanoparticle cream as an antioxidant for radiodermatitis prevention. Method A randomized, triple-blind, parallel pilot study conducted in an Oncology Hospital including 40 adult women with breast cancer, and healthy skin, submitted to radiotherapy, divided into three groups: Intervention (12; 30%) receiving cream with nanoparticles containing vitamin E; Control 1 (14; 35%) cream without nanoparticles or vitamin E; Control 2 (14; 35%) cream with nanoparticles without vitamin E. Incidence, grade and time to onset of radiodermatitis were primary outcomes; quality of life, reported symptoms, and breast temperature were secondary outcomes. Results All patients were followed until the end of the study. All had radiodermatitis. There were no significant differences between the study groups regarding radiodermatitis grade, quality of life, and breast temperatures. A protective effect of vitamin E-containing nanoparticle cream was identified regarding the onset time of radiodermatitis in patients who did not receive a boosted radiation dose (p = .03) and the occurrence of mild inframammary erythema (p = .04). The itching was reported by 90% of the women. The definitive calculated sample is 108 volunteers. There were no identified side effects. Conclusions A potential protective effect of a cream containing vitamin E nanoparticles was observed. This pilot study presents initial evidence about the role of a nanoencapsulated antioxidant in preventing radiodermatitis. Trial registration No. RBR-784F3Y; UTN-U1111-1201-5923. Free download link
... In our body, this action occurs continuously and we need antioxidants to control this process [48,58]. It will not be beneficial for health when our body has to tolerate excess free radicals that are produced by endogenous and exogenous oxidant species such as solar radiation [57,59,60]. The latter is considered as the major source of free radical production that causes inflammation, acceleration of cellular aging, and initiation of skin cancer [61]. ...
Full-text available
In recent years, Polypodium leucotomos has emerged with a great interest for having medicinal and therapeutic potential. It is producing very promising results due to the presence of antioxidant and photoprotective properties. Electronic libraries and databases, including Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Web of Science were searched to identify relevant studies; 79 publications contributed to this review regarding Polypodium leucotomos botanical aspects, chemical composition, antioxidant and photoprotective activity. It is used in complementary and alternative therapies with various pharmaceutical dosage forms (systemic or topical). Thanks to the composition of phytochemical constituents present in the leaves and rhizomes which confer antioxidant and photoprotective activity that has clinical therapeutic potential to be used as systemic and topical sunscreen of natural origin for the prevention of different types of skin diseases caused by harmful ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B radiations. However, more studies are needed in the future to test the ability and enhance the capacity of sunscreen and sunblock in cosmetic formulations. To conclude, it is recommended to carry out scientific studies based on different analytical methods to evaluate the phytoconstituents potential and to develop stable pharmaceutical formulations according to the skin phototype.
... In the last decade, FF production has become an important biotechnology industry, given growing consumer interest in improving life expectancy and healthy due to raising of awareness about prevention of certain diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer's [1,2]. Antioxidants are commonly compounds added to other nutritional particles to promote synergism: e.g., vitamin C to regenerate the vitamin E tocopheryl radical after its oxidation [3]. Additionally, antioxidants are added to suppress lipid oxidation, increase products' shelf life, and reduce free radical concentrations generated in organisms [4]. ...
Full-text available
Currently, demand for functional foods is increasing in the public interest in order to improve life expectations and general health. Food matrices containing probiotic microorganisms and active compounds encapsulated into carrier agents are essential in this context. Encapsulation via the lyophilisation method is widely used because oxidation reactions that affect physicochemical and nutritional food properties are usually avoided. Encapsulated functional ingredients, such as quercetin and Bacillus clausii, using two carrier agents’ matrices—I [inulin (IN), lactose (L) and maltodextrin (MX)] and II [arabic (A), guar (G), and xanthan (X) gums)]—are presented in this work. A D-optimal procedure involving 59 experiments was designed to evaluate each matrix’s yield, viability, and antioxidant activity (AA). Matrix I (33.3 IN:33.3 L:33.3 MX) and matrix II (33.3 A:33.3 G:33.3 X) exhibited the best yield; viability of 9.7 log10 CFU/g and 9.73 log10 CFU/g was found in matrix I (using a ratio of 33.3 IN:33.3 L:33.3 MX) and matrix II (50 G:50 X), respectively. Results for the antioxidant capacity of matrix I (100 IN:0 L:0M X) and matrix II (0 A:50 G:50 X) were 58.75 and 55.54 (DPPH* scavenging activity (10 µg/mL)), respectively. Synergy between matrices I and II with use of 100IN:0L:OMX and 0A:50G:50X resulted in 55.4 log10 CFU/g viability values; the antioxidant capacity was 9. 52 (DPPH* scavenging activity (10 µg/mL). The present work proposes use of a carrier agent mixture to produce a functional ingredient with antioxidant and probiotic properties that exceed the minimum viability, 6.0 log10 CFU/g, recommended by the FAO/WHO (2002) to be probiotic, and that contributes to the recommended daily quercetin intake of 10–16 mg/day or inulin intake of 10–20 g/day and dietary fibre intake of 25–38 g per day.
... Efforts to prevent the harmful effects on the skin due to free radicals are with antioxidants. The use of antioxidants topically on the skin is useful to reduce or prevent damage to these cell structures [4]. Antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E are several types of natural antioxidants, both are found in plants or food. ...
The main cause of premature aging of the skin is the presence of free radicals which are created by UV rays. The use of antioxidants is a promising option for overcoming these problems. Duwet (Syzygium cumini) is a natural source of antioxidants. A peel-off mask is a cosmetic product which forms an easy to peel-off layer on the skin’s surface. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant activity, irritation effect, and stability of duwet leaf extract peel-off mask preparations. Duwet leaf extract was macerated by a methanol solvent and formulated into the peel-off masks with a concentration of 1%, 3%, and 5%. The results showed that the preparation produced good characteristics with a drying time of fewer than 30 minutes and showed significant antioxidant activity with the highest inhibition in the preparation with 3% duwet leaf extract. This preparation also had no irritating effect on CAM and was stable during storage using freeze-thaw and real-time methods. It can be concluded that duwet leaf extract can be used as an active agent for anti-aging peel-off masks. Keywords: duwet leaf extract, peel-off mask, physicochemical characteristics, stability test, antioxidant activity, irritation effect
... In addition, P. commune extract was demonstrated to have antioxidation potential that was strongly correlated with total phenolic contents found in the extract (Hanif et al. 2014). The antioxidants present in P. Commune were able to neutralize the reactive oxygen species and prevent oxidative damage to human cells and tissues, which in turn were able to help in the treatment of skin diseases (Addor 2017). There are a few reports on the antibacterial, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial activities of solvent extract of P. commune grown in different parts of the world including Turkey (Klavina et al. 2015;Nikolajeva et al. 2012;Sevim et al. 2017). ...
Mosses have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine due to the presence of secondary metabolites which have shown high biological activities. In particular, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated effective antibacterial activity against pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, the influence of different extraction solvents on the antibacterial activities of the Polytrichum commune was carried out using the disc diffusion method. Results showed that both 12.5 mg/mL of methanol moss extract and 6.25 mg/mL of ethanol moss extract were the most effective concentrations against Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Additionally, the P. commune extracts were included as an added ingredient in soap bases to produce antibacterial soap prototypes where the effectiveness of the soaps containing the extracts in removing microorganisms from actual test individuals was carried out. Results of the thumb impression test of test individuals showed that the growth of microbial reduced after washing hands with the usage of both liquid and solid soap with the addition of P. commune extracts. Moreover, the antibacterial soaps performed better in eliminating microorganisms in comparison to control soaps without P. commune extracts. Taken together, P. commune extract could be a good candidate as a value-added ingredient utilized to produce antibacterial soaps due to its antibacterial properties.
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Ultraviolet (UV) radiation promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS), resulting in skin damage. Cosmetic industries have adopted a strategy to incorporate antioxidants in sunscreen formulations to prevent or minimize UV-induced oxidative damage, boost photoprotection effectiveness, and mitigate skin photoaging. Many antioxidants are naturally derived, mainly from terrestrial plants; however, marine organisms have been increasingly explored as a source of new potent antioxidant molecules. This work aims to characterize the frequency of the use of antioxidants in commercial sunscreens. Photoprotective formulations currently marketed in parapharmacies and pharmacies were analyzed with respect to the composition described on the label. As a result, pure compounds with antioxidant activity were found. The majority of sunscreen formulations contained antioxidants, with vitamin E and its derivatives the most frequent. A more thorough analysis of these antioxidants is also provided, unveiling the top antioxidant ingredients found in sunscreens. A critical appraisal of the scientific evidence regarding their effectiveness is also performed. In conclusion, this work provides an up-to-date overview of the use of antioxidants in commercial sunscreens for a better understanding of the advantages associated with their use in photoprotective formulations.
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Many studies have investigated the Mediterranean diet as a risk factor for cancer, none of which has included cutaneous melanoma. The latter is usually fatal, rendering knowledge about prevention extremely important. We assessed the role of some food components of the Mediterranean diet and cutaneous melanoma. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in the inpatient wards of IDI-San Carlo Rome, Italy including 304 incident cases of cutaneous melanoma and 305 controls, frequency matched to cases. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, medical history, smoking, sun exposure, pigmentary characteristics and diet was collected. Logistic regression was the method used to estimated odds ratio and 95% CIs. After careful control for several sun exposure and pigmentary characteristics, we found a protective effect for weekly consumption of fish (OR, 0.65, 95%CI = 0.43-0.97), shellfish (OR, 0.53, 95%CI = 0.31-0.89), fish rich in n-3 fatty acids (OR, 0.52, 95%CI = 0.34-0.78), daily tea drinking (OR, 0.42, 95%CI, 0.18-0.95; P(trend) = 0.025) and high consumption of vegetables (OR, 0.50, 95%CI = 0.31-0.80, P(trend) = 0.005) in particular carrots, cruciferous and leafy vegetables and fruits (OR, 0.54, 95%CI =0.33-0.86, P(trend) = 0.013), in particular citrus fruits. No association was found for alcohol consumption and any other food items. Overall, our findings suggest that some dietary factors present in the Mediterranean diet might protect from cutaneous melanoma.
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Lycopene has been reported as the antioxidant most quickly depleted in skin upon UV irradiation, and thus it might play a protective role. Our goal was to investigate the effects of preexposure to lycopene on UV-B-irradiated skin cells. Cells were exposed for 24 h to 10 M lycopene, and subsequently irradiated and left to recover for another 24 h period. Thereafter, several parameters were analyzed by FCM and RT-PCR: genotoxicity/clastogenicity by assessing the cell cycle distribution; apoptosis by performing the Annexin-V assay and analyzing gene expression of apoptosis biomarkers; and oxidative stress by ROS quantification. Lycopene did not significantly affect the profile of apoptotic, necrotic and viable cells in nonirradiated cells neither showed cytostatic effects. However, irradiated cells previously treated with lycopene showed an increase in both dead and viable subpopulations compared to nonexposed irradiated cells. In irradiated cells, lycopene preexposure resulted in overexpression of BAX gene compared to nonexposed irradiated cells. This was accompanied by a cell cycle delay at S-phase transition and consequent decrease of cells in G0/G1 phase. Thus, lycopene seems to play a corrective role in irradiated cells depending on the level of photodamage. Thus, our findings may have implications for the management of skin cancer.
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In contrast to ultraviolet and infrared irradiation, which are known to facilitate cutaneous photoaging, immunosuppression, or tumour emergence due to formation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species, potentially similar effects of visible light on the human skin are still poorly characterized. Using a blue-violet light irradiation source and aiming to characterize its potential influence on the antioxidant status of the human skin, the cutaneous carotenoid concentration was measured noninvasively in nine healthy volunteers using resonance Raman spectroscopy following irradiation. The dose-dependent significant degradation of carotenoids was measured to be 13.5% and 21.2% directly after irradiation at 50 J/cm² and 100 J/cm² ( P < 0.05 ). The irradiation intensity was 100 mW/cm². This is above natural conditions; the achieved doses, though, are acquirable under natural conditions. The corresponding restoration lasted 2 and 24 hours, respectively. The degradation of cutaneous carotenoids indirectly shows the amount of generated free radicals and especially reactive oxygen species in human skin. In all volunteers the cutaneous carotenoid concentration dropped down in a manner similar to that caused by the infrared or ultraviolet irradiations, leading to the conclusion that also blue-violet light at high doses could represent a comparably adverse factor for human skin.
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Melasma is an acquired pigmentary disorder characterized by symmetrical hyperpigmented macules on the face. Its pathogenesis is complex and involves the interplay of various factors such as genetic predisposition, ultraviolet radiation, hormonal factors, and drugs. An insight into the pathogenesis is important to devise treatment modalities that accurately target the disease process and prevent relapses. Hydroquinone remains the gold standard of treatment though many newer drugs, especially plant extracts, have been developed in the last few years. In this article, we review the pathogenetic factors involved in melasma. We also describe the newer treatment options available and their efficacy. We carried out a PubMed search using the following terms "melasma, pathogenesis, etiology, diagnosis, treatment" and have included data of the last few years.
Background: The formation of free radicals in human skin by solar ultraviolet radiation is considered to be the main reason for extrinsic skin aging. The antioxidants in human tissue represent an efficient protection system against the destructive action of these reactive free radicals. In this study, the parameters of the skin, epidermal thickness, stratum corneum moisture, elasticity and wrinkle volume, were determined before and after the treatment with antioxidant- or placebo-containing tablets and creams. Methods: The study included 5 groups of 15 volunteers each, who were treated for 2 months with antioxidant-containing or placebo tablets, creams or a combination of antioxidant-containing tablets and cream. The skin parameters were measured at time point 0 and at week 8 utilizing ultrasound for the determination of epidermal thickness, a corneometer for stratum corneum moisture measurements, skin profilometry for quantifying the wrinkle volume and a cutometer for determining the elasticity. Results: The verum cream had a positive influence on epidermal thickness, elasticity and skin moisture, but the verum tablets improved the epidermal thickness only. The combined application of verum tablets and creams led to a significant improvement of all investigated skin parameters, whereas the application of placebo tablets or cream did not influence any parameters. Conclusion: The topical and oral supplementation of antioxidants can be an instrument to improve several skin parameters and potentially counteract or decelerate the process of extrinsic skin aging.
Introduction: UV light-induced photodamage is an acute precipitator of solar erythema, which is the phenomenon measured to assess the protection against the sun provided by a particular product. Objective: To investigate the ability of a dietary supplement containing antioxidants (carotenoids, trace elements/oligoelements, flaxseed oil, and vitamins E and C) to prevent photodamage, using as a parameter the minimum erythema dose level. Method: The minimum erythema dose level of 28 volunteers (Fitzpatrick skin types 2 and 3) was measured with a solar simulator, before and after 30 and 60 days of supplement use. Results: The daily use of the supplement was well tolerated. There was a significant increase in the minimum erythema dose level in the group evaluated (p = 0.017). Conclusion: The studied combination of antioxidants was demonstrated to increase the minimum erythema dose level with statistical significance, suggesting the presence of photoprotective activity.
Skin aging is defined by two skin phenotypes: photoaging-induced hypertrophy and intrinsic aging-associated atrophy. Accumulating evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in intrinsic aging of skin. Recently, we reported that genetic inactivation of Sod1 (CuZn-SOD), which a major superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the cytoplasm, resulted in significant skin atrophy accompanied by the degeneration of collagen and elastic fibers. The skin phenotypes in these mice resemble skin atrophy during physiological aging in humans. We investigated the effects of vitamin C derivatives on skin atrophy in Sod1-deficient (Sod1 –/– ) mice. We used three agents; vitamin C (VC), L-ascorbyl 2-phosphate trisodium salt (APS), which is conjugated to a phosphate group to improve stability, and L-ascorbyl 2-phosphate 6-palmitate trisodium salt (APPS), which is conjugated to a long hydrophobic chain to improve liposolubility. VC and its derivatives were transdermaly administered to Sod1 –/– mice once per day for 4 weeks. APPS significantly rescued the skin thinning of the Sod1 –/– mice, while VC and APS failed to produce any significant change. In in vitro experiments using primary dermal fibroblasts, Sod1 deficiency decreased cell viability due to increased apoptosis and superoxide \(({\text{O}}_{2}^{-})\) production. To estimate the antioxidant activity of APPS in vitro, intracellular \(\text{O}_{2}^{-}\) generation was detected by dihydroethidium in Sod1 –/– dermal fibroblasts treated with APPS. APPS strikingly repressed intracellular \(\text{O}_{2}^{-}\) generation in Sod1 –/– fibroblasts. Furthermore, the viability of Sod1 –/– fibroblasts was significantly improved by treatment with APPS. These results suggest that a novel VC derivative, APPS suppressed excess \(\text{O}_{2}^{-}\) production in skin cells, thus leading to prevention of skin atrophy in mice.
Carotenoids are endogenous antioxidant agents. It has been reported that oral lycopene reduces immediate erythema induced by ultraviolet B radiation. The objective was to evaluate and compare the photoprotective effect of lycopene in capsule and tomato paste. This was an interventional, randomized, comparative 10-week study that included 20 subjects, divided in two groups: 10 for capsule and 10 for tomato paste intake. Blood samples were collected for serum lycopene dosage by high-performance liquid chromatography. Chromatometer was used to measure minimal erythematous dose 24 h after only ultraviolet B irradiation and the variation of color a (maximum erythema, 24 h after irradiation compared to normal skin). Evaluations were made at baseline and after 4, 8, and 10 weeks. Data were analyzed by ANOVA with repeated measures. Three subjects dropped out after 4 weeks. Serum lycopene demonstrated great variability; significant, higher levels for tomato after 4 weeks (p = 0.027) as compared to capsule and significant increase along the study just for tomato (p = 0.044) were detected. No visual change for minimal erythematous dose was observed in all evaluations, for both groups. Chromatometer measures showed no difference in the mean of minimal erythematous dose at baseline between groups. Slight variation of color a after 10 weeks was observed [marginally significant (p = 0.054)], with a tendency to be greater for capsule use [marginally significant (p = 0.066)] and no adverse effects. Lycopene regular intake was safe and demonstrated no effect for systemic photoprotection against ultraviolet B; no correlation with serum lycopene was detected.
Anthocyanins represent water-soluble flavonoid species, commonly found in higher plants, the richest plant source representing berries. While all anthocyanins present with antioxidant activity, the delphinidins represent the most potent antioxidant anthocyanin species owed to largest number of hydroxyl groups in the B-ring. The richest known natural source of delphinidins is the maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) from which an extract Delphinol®, standardized to 25% delphinidin, is commercially available. Delphinol® significantly reduces oxidative stress (oxidized LDL and F2-isoprostane) and blood glucose in controlled clinical trials. In human umbilical vein endothelium delphinidins concentration-dependently decrease intracellular oxygen radicals. Furthermore, delphinidins increase endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and decreases expression of vaso-constrictory endothelin-1. Delphinidins inhibit the expression of cell adhesion molecules ICAM and VCAM, thus counteracting vascular inflammatory situations. Furthermore, delphinidins decrease platelet activity and may contribute to thrombosis prevention. Research on delphinidins showed improved endothelial function with elevated endothelial NO generation, lowered platelet aggregability and anti-inflammatory vascular effects. Delphinidins dose-dependently inhibit NF-κB-, activator protein-1- as well as COX-2 expression in UV-exposed epidermis. Delphinidins are found to be internalized into keratinocytes and pre-clinical investigations show significant UV-photo-protective 1effects with topical application of 40 nM delphinidin, both when applied prior to UV exposure as well as after exposure. Delphinidins may counteract skin-aging due to inhibition of UV-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase in fibroblasts. In a rodent osteoporosis model delphinidin was found to inhibit differentiation of osteoclasts, resulting in an inhibited bone demineralization, while other anthocyanins were ineffective. Future research on Delphinol® and delphinidins may be expected to identify further health benefits.