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Skills for the !
21st Century:
What Should Students Learn?
May 2015
!
Prepared by:
Maya Bialik
Charles Fadel
With many thanks to:
Bernie Trilling
Peter Nilsson
Jennifer Gro
for their contributions.
With sincere thanks for the generous support to the:
Center for Curriculum Redesign
Boston, Massachusetts
www.curriculumredesign.org
June 2015
Copyright © 2015 Center for Curriculum Redesign. All Rights Reserved.
Table of Contents
Center For Curriculum Redesign Overview ii .........................................................
Introduction 1 ...............................................................................................
Cognitive Science Justication 1 .........................................................................
Knowledge AND Skills 1 ...................................................................................
Business Justication 7 ....................................................................................
Skills
A. Creativity 4 ...........................................................................................
B. Critical Thinking 7 ...................................................................................
C. Communication 8 ...................................................................................
D. Collaboration 9 ......................................................................................
Conclusion 10 ...............................................................................................
i
About the Center For Curriculum Redesign
In#the#21st#century,#humanity#is#facing#severe#dif6iculties# at# the# societal,# economic,# and# personal# levels.#
Societally,#we#are# struggling# with# greed#manifested#in# 6inancial# instability,#climate# change,# and# personal#
privacy#invasions,#and#with#intolerance#manifested#in#religious#fundamentalism,#racial#crises,#and#political#
absolutism.#Economically,#globalization# and# innovation# are#rapidly#changing# our# paradigms# of# business.#
On# a# personal# level# we# are# struggling# with# 6inding# ful6illing# employment# opportunities# and# achieving#
happiness.# Technology’s# exponential# growth# is# rapidly# compounding# the# problems#via# automation# and#
offshoring,# which# are# producing# social# disruptions.# Educational# progress# is# falling# behind# the# curve# of#
technological#progress,#as#it#did#during#the#Industrial#Revolution,#resulting#in#social#pain.##
The# Center# for# Curriculum# Redesign# addresses# the# fundamental# question# of# "WHAT& should& students&
learn& for& the& 21st& century?"& and# openly# propagates# its# recommendations# and# frameworks# on# a#
worldwide# basis.# The# CCR# brings# together# nonHgovernmental# organizations,# jurisdictions,# academic#
institutions,#corporations,#and#nonHpro6it#organizations#including#foundations.##
Knowledge, Skills, Character, and Metacognition
CCR#seeks#a# holistic# approach# to# deeply# redesigning#the# curriculum,# by# offering# a# complete# framework#
across#the# four# dimensions#of#an#education:# knowledge,#skills,#character,#and#metacognition.#Knowledge#
must#strike#a#better#balance#between#traditional#and#modern#subjects,#as#well#as#interdisciplinarity.#Skills#
relate# to# the# use# of# knowledge,# and# engage# in# a# feedback# loop# with# knowledge.# Character# qualities#
describe# how# one# engages# with,# and# behaves# in,# the# world.# Metacognition# fosters# the# process# of# selfH
re6lection#and#learning#how#to#learn,#as#well#as#the#building#of#the#other#three#dimensions.
To learn more about the work and focus of the Center for Curriculum Redesign, please visit our website at
www.curriculumredesign.org/about/background!
ii
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INTRODUCTION
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Knowledge
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Skills:
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1 This document contains justification and summaries of the research literature, but excludes assessment. The subject of assessment is a large
and important undertaking, which will be addressed more deeply in future work.
2 Perkins, D. (2006). Constructivism and troublesome knowledge. Overcoming barriers to student understanding: Threshold concepts and
troublesome knowledge, 33-47.
3 Phillips, D. (1995). The good, the bad, and the ugly: The many faces of constructivism. Educational researcher, 5-12.
4 Bransford, J. & Schwartz, D. (1999). Rethinking transfer: A simple proposal with multiple implications. Review of research in education, 61-100.
5 De Corte, E. (2003). Transfer as the productive use of acquired knowledge, skills, and motivations. Current directions in psychological science,
12(4), 142-146.
6 ibid.
7 Perkins, D. (2006). Constructivism and troublesome knowledge. Overcoming barriers to student understanding: Threshold concepts and
troublesome knowledge, 33-47.
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Figure 1. Part of the framework offered by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills.
Business justification:
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8 http://www.p21.org/our-work/resources/for-educators#SkillsMaps
9 http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/21stcskillsmap_science.pdf
10 http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/FINAL_REPORT_PDF09-29-06.pdf
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P21.org
Skills Framework
ATC21S15
OECD Assessment
of Adult
Competencies
(PIACC)
OECD
Programme for
International
Student
Assessment
(PISA)
Education ministries,
departments, and
schools feedback to P21
= “focus on 4 C’s” for
Skills = CCR
Learning &
Innovation
Ways of Thinking
Creativity &
Innovation
Creativity and
innovation
Creative
Problem-solving
Creativity
Critical Thinking &
Problem Solving
Critical thinking,
problem solving,
decision making
(“Learning to learn”
is Metacognition,
not skills)
Problem Solving
Critical Thinking
Ways of Working
Communication
Communication
(Read Prose-Type
Texts
Read Document-Type
Texts
Write
Oral Presentation)
Communication
11 See the report,
http://www.shrm.org/research/surveyfindings/articles/documents/critical%20skills%20needs%20and%20resources%20for%20the%20changi
ng%20workforce%20survey%20report.pdf
12 OECD. (2013). OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. Paris, France: OECD Publishing.
13 Trilling, B. & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st Century Skills: Learning for Life in Our Times. Wiley.
14 Private communication from Ken Kay, CEO of P21 at the time, with Geoff Garin of Peter Hart Associates (pollster)
15 Represented in Binkley http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-007-2324-5_2#page-1
!
Character(Education(for(the(21st(Century(
!© CCR www.curriculumredesign.org(4!
Collaboration
Collaboration
(teamwork)
Teamwork
Collaboration
Information, Media
and ICT Literacy
Tools for Working
From here on, these map
onto other dimensions of
the framework (in
Knowledge, in Character,
and in Metacognition)
Information Literacy
Information literacy
Internet Use
Media Literacy
ICT Literacy
ICT Literacy
Computer Use
Life & Career Skills
Living in the World
Life and career
Flexibility &
Adaptability
Initiative & Self-
direction
Plan Own Time
Social & Cross-
cultural Skills
Citizenship local
and global
Cultural awareness
and competence
Productivity &
Accountability
(Gross Motor Skills)
(Fine Motor Skills)
Leadership &
Responsibility
Personal & social
responsibility
Influence Others
Plan Others’ Time
Table 1: Comparison of the main frameworks
!
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16 Runco, M. & Richards, R. (Eds.). (1997). Eminent creativity, everyday creativity, and health. Greenwood Publishing Group.
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17 Dunbar, K. (1997). How scientists think: On-line creativity and conceptual change in science. Creative thought: An investigation of conceptual
structures and processes, In T.B. Ward, S.M. Smith & J. Vaid (Eds.) Conceptual structures and processes: Emergence, discovery , and change.
Washington D.C: American Psychological Association Press
18 Sarri, K., Bakouros, I., & Petridou, E. (2010). Entrepreneur training for creativity and innovation. Journal of European Industrial Training, 34(3), 270-
288.
19 Dorst, K., & Cross, N. (2001). Creativity in the design process: co-evolution of problemsolution. Design Studies, 22(5), 425-437.
20 Sheffield, L. (2013). Creativity and school mathematics: some modest observations. ZDM, 45(2), 325332.
21 Capitalizing on Complexity: Insights from the Global Chief Executive Officer Study (2010)
http://public.dhe.ibm.com/common/ssi/ecm/gb/en/gbe03297usen/GBE03297USEN.PDF
22 Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Creativity: flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York: HarperCollins.
23 Bronson, P. & Merryman, A. (2010). The Creativity Crisis. Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/creativity-crisis-74665
24 McCreedy, A. (2004). The ‘creativity problem’ and the future of the Japanese workforce. Asia Program Special Report, 121, 1-3.
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Figure 3. Taxonomy for Creativity.
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25 Guilford, J. (1968). Intelligence, creativity, and their educational implications. San Diego, CA: Robert R. Kmapp.
26 Nilsson, P. (2012) Four Ways to Measure Creativity. Sense and Sensation Writing on Education, Creativity, and Cognitive Science.
http://www.senseandsensation.com/2012/03/assessing-creativity.html
27 Kim, K. (2008). Meta-Analyses of the Relationship of Creative Achievement to Both IQ and Divergent Thinking Test Scores. The Journal of
Creative Behavior, 42(2), 106130.
28 Ziv, A. (1983). The influence of humorous atmosphere on divergent thinking. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8(1), 6875.
29 Russ, S. (1998). Play, creativity, and adaptive functioning: Implications for play interventions Play , Creativity, and Adaptive Functioning:
Implications for Play Interventions. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27(4),469-480.
30 Nilsson, P. (2013) Taxonomy of Creative Design. Sense and Sensation Writing on Education, Creativity, and Cognitive Science.
http://www.senseandsensation.com/2012/03/taxonomy-of-creative-design.html?view=magazine
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Character(Education(for(the(21st(Century(
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Level of
Creativity
Definition
Classroom Example
Imitation
Creation by identical replication. This is a
foundational skill, and is often the starting point
for more creative tasks.
Memorize an excerpt of a piece of literature
and perform it aloud in class.
Variation
Creation by varying a particular aspect or aspects
of the work, and imitating the rest exactly.
Rewrite a sentence from a piece of literature
with the same grammatical structure, by
changing the subject matter and vocabulary.
Combination
Mixture of two or more works into one, new work.
Create a Rube Goldberg machine out of the
simple machines learned in class.
Transformation
Translation of an existing work into a different
medium or representation.
Create a timeline of historical events based on
class notes that separates political, social, and
economic threads.
Original Creation
Creation of a new piece of work that is only very
distantly, if at all, related to previous works.
Write a short story.
Table 2: Examples of Creativity at Different Levels
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31 “Defining Critical Thinking” https://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/defining-critical-thinking/766
32 Sumner, W. (1940). Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages, Manners, Customs, Mores, and Morals, New York: Ginn and
Co., pp. 632, 633.
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Taxonomies of Educational Objectives
Bloom (1956)
Anderson & Krathwohl (2001)
Marzano & Kendall (2006)
PISA (2000)
Evaluation
Synthesis
Analysis
Comprehension
Knowledge
Create
Evaluate
Analyze
Apply
Understand
Remember
Self-System Thinking
Metacognition
Knowledge Utilization
Analysis
Comprehension
Retrieval
Communicate
Construct
Evaluate
Integrate
Manage
Access
Table 3. Evolution of Taxonomies.
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33 Conley, D. (2007). Toward A More Comprehensive Conception of College Readiness. Eugene, OR: Educational Policy Improvement Center.
34 Greenstein, L. (2012). Assessing 21st century skills: A guide to evaluating mastery and authentic learning. Corwin Press.
35 Kuhn, D. (1999). A developmental model of critical thinking. Educational Researcher, 28(2), 16-46.
36 Salvo, V. Di, & Larsen, J. (1987). A Contingency Approach to Communication Skill Importance: The Impact of Occupation, Direction, and
Position. Journal of Business Communication 24(3), 3-22.
37 Morgan, E. & Winter, R. (1996). Teaching Communication Skills: An Essential Part of Residency Training. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine
150.
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38 Chase, C., Chin, D., Oppezzo, M., Schwartz, D., Chin, D., & Schwartz, D. (2015). Teachable Agents and the Protégé Effect": Increasing the Effort
Towards Learning Journal of Science Education Technology 18(4), 334352.
39 Education, S., Children, T., May, N., Paolo, D., Kerr, M., & Reitz, A. (2015). Peer tutoring among behaviorally disordered students: Academic and
social benefits to tutor and tutee. Education and Treatment of Children, 13(2), 109128.
40 Hobbs, R., & Frost, R. (2015). Measuring the Acquisition of Media-Literacy Skills. Reading Research Quarterly, 38(3), 330355.
41 Miller, C., & Ahmad, Y. (2000). Collaboration and partnership: an effective response to complexity and fragmentation or solution built on sand?
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 20(5/6), 1-38.
42 Surowiecki, J. (2005). The wisdom of crowds. Anchor Books: USA
43 Janis, I. (1971). Groupthink. Psychology Today, 5(6), 43-46.
44 Leahey, E. & Reikowsky, R. (2008). Research Specialization and Collaboration Patterns in Sociology. Social Studies of Science, 38(3), 425-440.
45 Collaboration. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collaboration
46 Alber, R. (2012). Deeper Learning: A Collaborative Classroom is Key. http://www.edutopia.org/blog/deeper-learning-collaboration-key-
rebecca-alber
47 Johnson, D., Johnson, R., & Stanne, M. (2000). Cooperative learning methods: A meta-analysis.
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48 Johnson, R, & Johnson, D. 1986). Cooperative learning in the science classroom. Science and Children, 24, 31-32.
49 Johnson, D., Johnson, R., & Stanne, M. (2000). Cooperative learning methods: A meta-analysis.
50 Johnson, D. & Johnson, R. (1990) Cooperative learning and achievement. In S. Sharan (Ed.), Cooperative Learning. San Juan Capistrano, CA:
Kagan Cooperative Learning
51 Gokhale, A. (1995). Collaborative Learning Enhances Critical Thinking. Journal of Technology Education, 7(1), 2225.
52 Uzzi, B., & Spiro, J. (2005). Collaboration and creativity: The small world Problem1. American Journal of Sociology, 111(2), 447-504.
!
Character(Education(for(the(21st(Century(
!© CCR www.curriculumredesign.org(11!
Appendix 1: Crosswalk of the 4C’s across several frameworks.
(Source: Charles Fadel & Bernie Trilling)
CCR
Creativity
Critical Thinking
Communication
Collaboration
Hewlett Foundation
Deeper Learning
Competencies
Think critically and
solve complex
problems
Communicate
effectively
Work collaboratively
OECD “Skills for
Innovation”
Critical faculties
Persuasion
Collaboration
OECD “New
millenium learners”
DeSeCo
Use language, symbols
and texts interactively
Relate well to others
Co-operate, work in
teams
Manage and resolve
conflicts
EU Reference
Framework Key
Competencies
Communication in the
mother tongue
UNESCO Global
Citizenship
Education
Think creatively
Think critically and
systematically
Communication
Networking
Act collaboratively
Asia Society/CCSSO
Communicate ideas
Act collaboratively
ACT WorkKeys (WK)-
NCRC Plus-CWRC
Skills Assessments
Creativity (Talent)
**Critical Thinking (WK)
**Problem-solving (WK)
*Applied Math (WK)
**Observation (WK)
*Reading for
Information (WK)
**Listening for
Understanding (WK)
Business Writing (WK)
+Teamwork (Talent)
CPS Employability
Assessment (EA)
Problem Solving
Oratory/Speaking
Verbal Communication
Active Listening
Feedback
Teamwork 2 People
AAC&U
Essential Learning
Outcomes (LEAP)
Creative Thinking
Inquiry & Analysis
Critical Thinking
Problem Solving
Quantitative Literacy
Written & Oral
Communication
Teamwork
CCSSO Innovation
Lab Network (ILN)
State Framework
Creativity &
Innovation
Critical Thinking
Problem Solving
Communicating
Effectively
Working
Collaboratively
National Work
Readiness Credential
Solve Problems
Make Decisions
Read with
Understanding
Cooperate with Others
Resolve Conflict &
!
Character(Education(for(the(21st(Century(
!© CCR www.curriculumredesign.org(12!
Solve Problems w.
Math
Observe Critically
Listen Actively
Negotiate
CAE College & Work
Ready (CWRA) &
Collegiate Learning
Assessments (CLA)
Critical Thinking
Analytic
Reasoning/Evaluation
Problem Solving
Writing Effectiveness
Writing Mechanics
EnGauge
Creativity
Higher-Order Thinking
and
Sound Reasoning
Interactive
Communication
Teaming,
Collaboration,
and Interpersonal Skills
!
Character(Education(for(the(21st(Century(
!© CCR www.curriculumredesign.org(13!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Please continue the conversation and join our mailing list at,
www.curriculumredesign.org/subscribe
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Maya Bialik With the generous support of:
Charles Fadel
Copyright © 2015 Center for Curriculum Redesign. All Rights Reserved.
Center for Curriculum Redesign
Boston, Massachusetts
www.curriculumredesign.org
... Skills refer to the way a person uses what he or she has learned (Bialik et al., 2015b). In general, a skill is defined as "an ability or proficiency acquired through training and practice" (VandenBos, 2015). ...
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Peer tutoring among behaviorally disordered students: Academic and social benefits to tutor and tutee. Education and Treatment of
  • S Education
  • T Children
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Education, S., Children, T., May, N., Paolo, D., Kerr, M., & Reitz, A. (2015). Peer tutoring among behaviorally disordered students: Academic and social benefits to tutor and tutee. Education and Treatment of Children, 13(2), 109-128.
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Surowiecki, J. (2005). The wisdom of crowds. Anchor Books: USA 43
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Janis, I. (1971). Groupthink. Psychology Today, 5(6), 43-46.
Deeper Learning: A Collaborative Classroom is Key
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Alber, R. (2012). Deeper Learning: A Collaborative Classroom is Key. http://www.edutopia.org/blog/deeper-learning-collaboration-keyrebecca-alber