Conference PaperPDF Available

Recognition of prior learning – outcome-oriented approaches to the recognition and assessment of MOOC-based digital learning scenarios

Authors:
  • Kiron Open Higher Education

Abstract and Figures

Recognition of prior learning is a key issue of the Bologna Process driving forward significant higher education reforms throughout Europe and beyond. Kiron Open Higher Education (Kiron) has developed an innovative academic model that uses well-established standards and good practices in the field to implement measures for outcome-oriented approaches to the recognition and assessment of MOOC-based digital learning. This paper will first summarize key aspects regarding Kiron's implementation of learning outcome-oriented curricula following Bologna standards and established quality assurance guidelines. Based upon this framework, the authors will present first learnings since the start of Kiron in 2015 with a special focus on developments achieved within the research & development project INTEGRAL². Challenges and potential solutions regarding recognition and examination will be outlined that could be relevant not only for Kiron and its very specific target group but also the overall higher education system and approaches to the recognition of prior learning acquired in digital settings.
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
Content may be subject to copyright.
RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING OUTCOME-ORIENTED
APPROACHES TO THE RECOGNITION AND ASSESSMENT OF
MOOC-BASED DIGITAL LEARNING SCENARIOS
Florian Rampelt, Renata Suter
Kiron Open Higher Education (GERMANY)
Abstract
Recognition of prior learning is a key issue of the Bologna Process driving forward significant higher
education reforms throughout Europe and beyond. Kiron Open Higher Education (Kiron) has
developed an innovative academic model that uses well-established standards and good practices in
the field to implement measures for outcome-oriented approaches to the recognition and assessment
of MOOC-based digital learning. This paper will first summarize key aspects regarding Kiron‘s
implementation of learning outcome-oriented curricula following Bologna standards and established
quality assurance guidelines. Based upon this framework, the authors will present first learnings since
the start of Kiron in 2015 with a special focus on developments achieved within the research &
development project INTEGRAL². Challenges and potential solutions regarding recognition and
examination will be outlined that could be relevant not only for Kiron and its very specific target group
but also the overall higher education system and approaches to the recognition of prior learning
acquired in digital settings.
Keywords: recognition of prior learning, higher education, MOOCs, innovation, INTEGRAL², Kiron,
MOOklet.
1 INTRODUCTION
With the Bologna process, aiming at better recognition and comparability in higher education, the
stakeholders signing the Bologna Declaration in 1999 have started a long lasting, incremental
development resulting in the implementation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) in 2010.
Following this first major step, it became clear in recent years that there are many Bologna issues still
to be resolved, such as developing policies and tools in order to substantially widening access to
higher education and with that potentially creating significant impact not only within the EHEA but on a
global level. The public focus on significant numbers of refugees entering EHEA member states in
recent years also put a new spotlight on challenges such as recognition of prior learning (RPL) and
more overall inclusion in higher education. As an example, compared to 34% of youth around the
world being able to attend university, only 1% of refugee youth go to university [1] representing one of
the most vulnerable target groups when it comes to access to formal education. Tools and solutions
developed as part of the Bologna implementation process can potentially serve as good practices
serving the needs not only of this target group but also many others seeking access to higher
education. In order to achieve this, well proven quality standards have to be combined with innovative
approaches such as those introduced in this paper.
2 DEVELOPING AN INNOVATIVE ACADEMIC MODEL
When Kiron Open Higher Education was founded in Berlin in 2015, many higher education institutions
in Germany and the EHEA had already started support programs for refugees offering an extensive
range of activities such as language courses, preparation classes or buddy program [2]. Yet, in most
programs in Germany it was impossible for refugees to participate in regular courses and gain ECTS
without formal registration. A major motivation for the establishment of Kiron was closing this gap as
recognition of credits appears to be of major importance for refugees seeking access to higher
education: “Those migrants/refugees who were specifically interested in higher education saw
recognition of credits and degrees as important” [3].
In order to overcome the barriers refugees face in formal settings, Kiron developed an innovative
academic model combining MOOC-based online learning in a non-formal digital learning environment
with a potential transfer to a regular study program (see fig. 1), thus allowing early access to higher
education for refugees through digital solutions. From the very beginning in 2015, Kiron aimed at
Proceedings of EDULEARN17 Conference
3rd-5th July 2017, Barcelona, Spain
ISBN: 978-84-697-3777-4
6645
ensuring high quality standards based on the Bologna tools, European and national qualification
frameworks and accreditation standards as well as good practices developed as regards recognition
of prior learning (see “2. Standards and Quality Assurance Guidelines”). As a non-profit organisation
providing higher education opportunities to a very vulnerable target group, Kiron also built up strong
partnerships with established universities, ensuring smooth pathways into higher education following
the Kiron model. Based upon these partnerships, Kiron has not just refined its approaches but also
implemented several joint research and development projects ensuring not only innovation but also
continuous evaluation and quality assurance.
Figure 1. Kiron Academic Model
A special focus of Kiron’s work is promoting the recognition of learning outcomes developed in digital
learning scenarios with a focus on so-called Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). With this
concept, Kiron has piloted a new approach to the recognition of prior learning in the form of “open
learning opportunities” [4] that mostly come from formally established higher education institutions
(HEIs). For European HEIs, MOOCs had so far generally been developed with a focus on
internationalization, not recognition: “Enhancing international visibility is by far the most common
motivation for setting up MOOCs” [5]. This being said, the recognition of MOOCs within formal settings
remains a much bigger task, as it raises many open questions such as quality assurance, examination
and user identification. Although some organisations and researchers have tried to frame challenges
and provide first solutions in recent years [68], the topic remains highly controversial. Kiron has
therefore partnered with more than 40 HEIs as well as independent higher education experts
throughout Europe in order to set an own framework allowing for the recognition of MOOCs with ECTS
credits. Based upon its first efforts in 2015, more evidence-based practices were developed in 2016,
with the research and development project INTEGRAL², financed by the German Federal Ministry of
Research and Development, providing a major push in this direction.1 Within this project, Kiron further
refined its MOOC-based modules, implemented new quality standards and tested two major
approaches to the recognition of MOOC-based learning.
3 STANDARDS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES
Since Kiron’s goal is to provide students with the opportunity to transfer to partner institutions, its
educational model aims matching at the standards and quality assurance guidelines defined for HEIs.
Thus, Kiron is taking into account the following international and national provisions to develop
suitable and credible procedures:
1 More general information is available on the project website: https://kiron.ngo/our-projects/integral2/
6646
Kiron Study Tracks fulfil most regulations stated in the Standards and Guidelines for Quality
Assurance in the European Higher Education Area 2015 (ESG 2015) concerning study
programs [9] - they cannot, however, directly provide students with degrees as Kiron is not an
accredited HEI itself but an external, non-profit educational provider. Modules of Kiron’s study
tracks consist of learning outcomes on the so-called first cycle defined in the European
Qualifications Framework (EQF) and its German equivalent (Deutscher
Qualifikationsrahmen/DQR). The five study tracks (Business and Economics, Mechanical
Engineering, Computer Science, Political Science and Social Work) are based on the outcomes
of a needs-analysis amongst potential Kiron students and a feasibility-study by Kiron.
Kiron Core Curricula are based on the guidelines defined in ESG 2015 and their national
specifications in the German “Common structural guidelines of the Länder for the accreditation
of Bachelor’s and Master’s study courses”. They have been designed with a focus on student-
centered learning and smooth student progression. Learning outcomes of Kiron’s core curricula
are described according to the knowledge and cognitive process dimensions of the revised
taxonomy of educational objectives by Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001 [10] and the guidelines
by Kennedy, 2006 [11] in order to define a common standard and “vocabulary”.
Kiron Campus, the learning platform developed by Kiron, has been programmed based on
these learning outcomes as key for the assignment of MOOCs to Kiron Modules.
Kiron Modules are designed in alignment with the EHEA regulations and workload is measured
as required in the ECTS Users’ Guide. The documentation of these modules in module
handbooks follows the standards defined in the German common structural guidelines to ensure
equivalency with HEI modules thus supporting the comparison of Kiron-modules and HEI
modules.
Matching processes and learning agreements as the core instrument of quality based
partnerships with HEIs and key for RPL fulfil the regulations from the European Recognition
Manual for HEIs [12]. By also using standards according to the Lisbon recognition convention it
encourages “the fact that, from a lifelong learning perspective, qualifications frameworks can
also facilitate the recognition of prior learning, since qualifications frameworks describe
qualifications in terms of learning outcomes independently from learning paths” [13].
Furthermore, Kiron uses guidelines of the German Accreditation Board, specifying European
guidelines for the German academic context, which is the main “proof of concept” context for the
global work of Kiron. By implementing these standards and guidelines, Kiron is also fulfilling quality
assurance dimensions previously defined in the German ANKOM project exploring approaches to the
recognition of prior learning with regards to vocational training [14].
Based on these guidelines and best practices, amongst the key processes of Kiron are so-called
equivalence analyses, providing information about the institution-specific matchings of Kiron modules
to HEI modules. So far, these analyses consisted of two main levels:
1 Kiron Modules as an outcome-oriented description of specific, meaningful units on the Kiron
platform. These modules provide a virtual framework setting standards for the assignment of the
actual content MOOCs and are precisely described in module handbooks attached to the
analyses.
2 MOOCs, clustered in these modules based on their learning outcomes and representing the
main content of the Kiron curricula. So far, through an equivalency analysis, basic information
with a focus on learning outcomes, content, workload, assessment and institution/lecturer was
collected.
Within its research and development project INTEGRAL², Kiron further developed its equivalency
standards seeking to adapt to the latest research regarding recognition of prior learning in digital
learning environments. A major influence on Kiron’s work in this regard was the open education
recognition traffic light model published by Witthaus et al. (2016) as part of a JRC report on the
“validation of non-formal MOOC-based learning[8].
6647
Figure 2. Open learning recognition traffic light model (Witthaus et. al., 2016) [8].
Reprinted with permission.
Although this model aims at information and data on MOOCs becoming more transparent,
standardized ways to provide all information on the dimensions recommended in this model,
especially in terms of recognition, credentialisation and examination, are currently non-existent. Thus,
Kiron started filling these gaps by self-collecting information throughout different platforms and HEIs.
This process is currently further elaborated by directly approaching institutions and lecturers and
connecting their information with public data. Kiron decided to include this in-depth information on the
course level in its equivalency analyses, developing a new model for documentation (see 4.2.2).
4 IMPROVING RECOGNITION AND EXAMINATION THROUGH JOINT
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES
Digital learning scenarios provide a challenging setting for young actors such as Kiron but also
established HEIs. Therefore, innovation has to be incrementally developed in strong networks making
the best use of synergies created through collaboration.
The challenges discussed in this paper are thus a focus of the joint research & development project
INTEGRAL² which in German is short for “Integration and Participation of Refugees in the Context of
Digital Teaching and Learning Scenarios”. In this project, Kiron collaborates with two prototypical
German HEIs, RWTH Aachen University and Lübeck University of Applied Sciences who have gained
significant expertise regarding the digitization of higher education and online assessment and
recognition in recent years.
4.1 Testing different approaches to examination within MOOC-based curricula
When Kiron is setting up cooperations with partner universities, the issue of examinations is mostly
described as the key barrier to the recognition of prior learning as examination does play a major role
in transforming workload into credits since it is used to validate the achievement of learning outcomes
[4]. This practical experience matches the outcomes of recent publications such as the OpenCred
study funded by the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies within the Joint Research Centre
of the European Commission [8].
The main challenges faced by Kiron in this regard are:
1 The different nature or subject cultures of Kiron’s study tracks demand examination models that
incorporate a variety of examination possibilities with some being easier, some more difficult to
adapt to digital settings.
2 Regarding potential offline examination, traditional open and distance learning universities often
implement examination models based on on-site proctoring and a large network of institutions
6648
that students can use to take their examination. Kiron’s target group is especially facing legal
and monetary obstacles in terms of mobility.
3 Online examination approaches are still highly controversial. Although some solutions such as
online proctoring have been developed and tested on several MOOC platforms, a „perceived
lower value of online assessment and proctoring“ [8] amongst HEIs and governments remains,
combined with „challenge[s] to existing HEI regulations“ [8].
4 Kiron's curricula and study plans are mainly based on self-paced MOOCs. Although
examinations are only taken on a module level (with usually only one examination per module),
the variety of MOOCs within the modules as well as their asynchronous nature makes it more
difficult to establish fixed exam periods than in traditional settings.
Within the INTEGRAL² project, Kiron and its partners tested two major approaches to the assessment
of MOOC-based prior learning seeking solutions for challenges 1 and 2.
1 The validation of RPL through module based offline assessments:
With Lübeck University of Applied Sciences, Kiron examined students on module level in a
mixture of offline written and oral assessments. These examinations were based on the
question whether the completion of MOOCs by external providers results in competencies
comparable to those achieved through equivalent modules taken at a university. In a first round,
14 Kiron students coming from Syria, Iran, Afghanistan, Gambia, and Egypt took exams in two
Computer Science modules. With 13 out of 19 successfully taken exams, these first
examinations indicate that taking MOOCs of external providers might indeed result in
achievements equivalent to those attained in offline university courses and modules.
2 Credentialisation of individual MOOCs in connection with offline exams jointly taken by learners
from the equivalent offline course and MOOC learners:
RWTH Aachen university provided a full-semester MOOC (EBWL MOOC) on edX that fully
matched the structure, content, language and pace of its on-campus equivalent for the
introduction to business administration. At RWTH Aachen University, Erasmus+ exchange
students had the opportunity to choose between either the offline course or the MOOC and a
small cohort of Kiron students was able to study online with the MOOC, limiting the target group
due to its German language content and examination. At the end of the winter term, Kiron
students were allowed to take the regular offline examination at RWTH Aachen University or its
partner TU Berlin with the regular ECTS granted to those passing this exam.
The experience with both approaches described above indicate first valid results, however, numbers
are still small and the pilot models have to be further refined within INTEGRAL² and further
collaborative projects.
The possibility for Kiron students to take the regular, on-campus examination guarantees immediate
recognition at the exam-providing university upon successful application and enrollment for a suitable
study program. Already in the first pilot, 5 out of 11 Kiron students successfully passed the offline
examinations. Kiron students, however, had the further obstacle of language proficiency.
Implementing such models thus need corresponding support mechanisms provided by Kiron,
mitigating the tentativeness of students and matching the exam preparation at traditional universities.
The second approach, has shown even more promising results with 13 out of 19 examinations
passed. Also in this case of offline examination, mobility was a moderating factor. Executing these
models was accompanied with high organisational demands with local authorities, enabling students
to travel to the on-site exam as well as the need for financial coverage of all costs.
Thus, Kiron does take university requirements and solutions into account that are more aligned with
traditional approaches, but aims at further developing a digital examination model that implements at
least one high standard online examination per module. A first step towards this is the current focus of
Kiron to assign at least one MOOC with an online-proctored final examination to each module. By May
2017, this has already been achieved in 47% of the Kiron modules (cf. table 1).
6649
Table 1. Proctored examination in Kiron modules
Business &
Economics
Computer
Science
Mechanical
Engineering
Modules with at least one proctored examination
11
9
2
Modules in total
14
19
13
4.2 Improving processes and documentation for better recognition
4.2.1 Recognition of non-formal learning at partner institutions
The final outcome of the 2017 curriculum matching revision at Kiron based on the equivalence
analyses is the Equivalence Module List. This list collects partner university modules on one side and
maps them onto Kiron core modules, including the assigned MOOCs, on the other side.
The partner university assesses the Equivalence Module List according to its standard procedures. By
signing a learning agreement (with the Equivalence Module List attached), both parties, Kiron and the
partner university, agree on the equivalence of Kiron’s online modules and the partner’s study
programs based on required learning outcomes, so that recognition can later be granted by the
partner university. Both parties agree to use the Equivalence Module List as the basis of their
cooperation.
The Equivalence Module List also allows Kiron to integrate the evaluation of the matching into its
curriculum design and enables a target-oriented preparation of our students tailored to the demands of
the university.
The examination board of the partner university responsible for the respective study program
assesses the Equivalence Module List, based on standard working routines of the HEI. It is requested
to provide feedback on the Equivalence Module List to Kiron in a reasonable amount of time and
provide an elaborated explanation for the refusal of modules because of substantial differences, thus
helping Kiron to improving its core curricula. Negotiated learning agreements are always provided with
a version number to ease the recognition process. Still, the learning agreements are formally not
legally binding for the university and universities do also have the possibility and authority to
additionally assess students based upon individual decisions.
So far, Kiron has been able to agree upon 12 learning agreements with German partner universities.
Besides these general agreements of recognition between Kiron and its respective partner universities
Kiron has been able to achieve the actual recognition for individual transfers of students that took
place even before learning agreements were signed. At Bard College Berlin, a Kiron student was able
to get 30 ECTS from his studies at Kiron recognized and therefore was able to skip one full semester
after having studied with Kiron for less than one year. At another partner university in Germany, a
Kiron student is about to receive the recognition of more than 90 ECTS with 37 credits coming from
his studies at Kiron and the remaining amount of credits being recognized from his previous studies in
Syria. This combination of Kiron credits and credits already received from a HEI at home is an
important development to be more substantially implemented in Kiron's study guidance in the future.
4.2.2 MOOklets as a tool for the standardized comparison of MOOCs used in RPL-oriented
digital curricula
In order to create a clear framework for its revised equivalence analysis making the two levels
module and MOOC even more clear, Kiron developed the new format of MOOklets (MOOC
booklets). Mooklets provide in-depth information on the MOOCs implemented on Kiron's platform.
With the focus still being learning outcomes, content, workload and types of assessments, information
on the providing institutions such as their accreditation-status and support structures has become a
significant add-on. Thus, Kiron aims at providing high transparency allowing universities to assess the
quality of its programs with a focus on the externally provided MOOCs.
The Equivalence Module List is a list agreed upon between Kiron and a partner university, which
includes details of the academic quality of the online course content, the required learning
outcomes, and the evaluation process for the recognition of online study and examination results.
6650
In detail, Kiron provides information on the following dimensions:
basic information on the MOOC (name, platform, providing HEI, course lecturers, session
starting dates)
workload (workload in hours, length in weeks)
information on course material (number of lecture videos, video time, additional material)
information on assessments and examination (course assignments, final exam, minimum
condition to pass, possibility to retake an exam, proctored examination, type of certificate, codes
and ID-verification)
information on existing recognition of individual courses (recognizing institutions, information on
recognizing Kiron partners)
accreditation-status of the MOOC-providing institution
QA standards in teaching / support-structures for online-teaching
affiliations of the institution
recent research and publications related to the institution’s work regarding MOOCs
Figure 3. Kiron MOOklet (Example)
By May 2017, Kiron has collected such information on more than 180 MOOCs that are used within the
Kiron curricula.
5 CONCLUSIONS
This paper has summarized major elements of the current approaches used by Kiron Open Higher
Education in order to ensure high quality standards in MOOC-based digital curricula and enable a
better recognition of MOOC-based prior learning within HEIs. The incremental development of quality
A MOOklet is a quality assurance tool standardizing the comparison of MOOCs from different
platforms and higher education institutions in order to support the assignment of MOOCs to
coherent digital curricula and the credentialisation and recognition of MOOCs or MOOC-based
modules within accredited study programs. The Kiron MOOklets visualize and structure key
information on several levels and dimensions relevant for quality assurance in educational settings
with information on the course and the course-providing institution being most important.
6651
assurance processes and especially innovative solutions for examination in digital settings remain a
key challenge for Kiron internally and externally.
The examination models tested in INTEGRAL² only address a smaller part of the needs and personal
circumstances of Kiron students. Thus, Kiron continues to work with partners on widening its
examination model to provide at least one recognized online examination per module. Amongst
others, the implementation of online-proctored exams is also planned to be accompanied by online
pilots regarding open-book-examinations as well as peer-reviewed essay writing on a Kiron module
level.
Additional offline examinations are planned to be available throughout Germany and potentially also in
Kirons other focus countries. For Germany, this model will most probably include an "examination
network" to be established with Kiron's partner institutions RWTH Aachen and Lübeck University of
Applied Sciences as well as other partner institutions and HEI networks in order to enable the
participation in on-site examinations despite students’ limited mobility.
So far, Kiron was able to prove the feasibility of combining innovative, digital learning scenarios with
the implementation and adaptation of standards and guidelines set within established, more formal
settings throughout the European Higher Education Area in order to not only open up higher education
but also ensure effectiveness and sustainability through high quality standards.
The examples within this paper show clearly that such developments and overall innovation can best
be achieved by focusing on smart partnerships including young and agile organizations, well-
established HEIs as well as committed experts and strong exchange platforms. By doing so,
innovative approaches such as those described in this paper can help redefining and expanding the
possibilities set by the Bologna process and in the overall higher education sector.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to thank all INTEGRAL² project team members as well as the whole Kiron team,
passionately moving forward innovation in higher education. As contributors to key outcomes of this
paper we especially are grateful towards Hannes Niedermerier, the Kiron quality assurance manager,
to the curriculum coordinators of all Kiron study tracks and to the academic partnership manager in
Germany. We would also like to thank our INTEGRAL² partner universities, RWTH Aachen University
and Lübeck University of Applied Sciences, whose commitment to joint innovation and evidence-
based development in higher education is outstanding. We also would like to thank the large group of
external experts and researchers continuously and selflessly supporting our mission by providing
invaluable expertise, guidance and critical feedback on the Kiron approaches. In this case, a special
thank you goes to Gabi Witthaus from the University of Leiceister.
The INTEGRAL² project is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.
REFERENCES
[1] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Missing out: Refugee Education in
Crisis. Geneva; 2017.
[2] Schammann H, Younso C. Studium nach der Flucht?: Angebote deutscher Hochschulen für
Studieninteressierte mit Fluchterfahrung. Hildesheim: Universitätsverlag Hildesheim; 2016.
[3] Colucci E, Smidt H, Devaux A, Vrasidas C, Safarjalani M, Castaño Muñoz J. Free Digital
Learning Opportunities for Migrants and Refugees: An Analysis of Current Initiatives and
Recommendations for their Further Use. Brussels; 2017.
[4] European Commission. ECTS users' guide. 2015th ed. Luxembourg: Publ. Office of the Europ.
Union; 2015.
[5] Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency. The European higher education area in
2015: Bologna process implementation report. Brussels; 2015.
[6] Arnold P, Kilian L. Handbuch E-Learning: Lehren und Lernen mit digitalen Medien. 4th ed.
Bielefeld: wbv; 2015.
[7] Bates T. Teaching in a digital age. 2015. https://opentextbc.ca/teachinginadigitalage/.
6652
[8] Witthaus G, Inamorato dos Santos A, Childs M, Tannhäuser A-C, Conole G, Nkuyubwatsi B,
Punie Y. Validation of non-formal MOOC-based learning: An analysis of assessment and
recognition practices in Europe (OpenCred). Luxembourg: Publications Office; 2016.
[9] Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG).
Brussels, Belgium; 2015.
[10] Anderson LW, Krathwohl DR, Airasian PW, editors. A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and
assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Longman;
2001.
[11] Kennedy D. Writing and using learning outcomes: a practical guide. Cork: University College
Cork; 2006.
[12] EP-Nuffic. The European Recognition Manual for Higher Education Institutions. 2016.
http://www.enic-
naric.net/fileusers/8220_European%20Recognition%20Manual%20Second%20Edition%20FIN.
pdf.
[13] Council of Europe, UNESCO. Recommendations on the use of qualifications frameworks in the
recognition of foreign qualifications. 2013. http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/highereducation/Recognition
/DGIIEDUHE(2012)14%20Rev09%20FINAL%20-%20LRC%20Supplementary%20Text%20
on%20the%20Use%20of%20QFs%20ENGLISH.asp. Accessed 27 May 2017.
[14] Schubert B, Narbei E, Ruge R, Zimmermann M. Die Etablierung individueller
Kompetenzanrechnung an der Mathias Hochschule Rheine unter dem Aspekt der nachhaltigen
Qualitätsentwicklung. Prozesse - Ergebnisse - Herausforderungen. In: Freitag W, Buhr R,
Danzeglocke E-M, Schröder S, editors. Übergänge gestalten. Durchlässigkeit zwischen
beruflicher und hochschulischer Bildung erhöhen. Münster [u.a.]: Waxmann; 2015. p. 365386.
6653
... Cloud-based integrated learning is a new thing in the world of education that combines the factors that support learning media in the digital era, namely integrated learning [36] and cloud-based learning or cloud computing [37] [38]. Cloud integrated learning was first published by El-Attar, et al. in 2019 [39] with the title "Integrated Learning Approaches based on Cloud Computing for Personalizing e-Learning Environment" to improve e-learning services on a broad scale and effectively the world. Education. ...
... This type of learning media was chosen in the practicum field because it supports a digital-based simulation environment with cloud computing to adjust the content, unique materials, and practicum experience, and focuses on reusability, interoperability, adaptation, and personalization to overcome the passive role of students in their transfer into interactive media. [39]. Several cloud-based integrated learning has been implemented, such as by Ruangvanich et al. in 2019 [40] regarding sustainable learning models in higher education institutions. ...
... Organisations providing online HE should hence conduct advocacy work with host country governments, work towards jointly developing blended approaches for subjects of interest to refugees and work towards a legal framework that recognises digital learning not only of blended programs but also of online modules or programs to increase access and affordability. Next to access, this could also enable students to save the relatively high tuition fees for these modules (Rampelt and Suter 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
The displacement of a large number of Syrians has resulted in interrupted and protracted education pathways for many young Syrians. Although access to higher education (HE) has been recognised as central to avoid creating a ‘lost generation’, refugees in host countries face considerable barriers to access HE, such as cost, capacity and lack of documents. Online and blended learning opportunities have been proposed as one solution in resource-constrained environments. However, refugees’ online learning capabilities and preferences remain poorly understood, as existing research has mainly relied on key stakeholders without involving refugees directly. This article presents results from a survey of 350 secondary level educated Syrian refugees in Jordan and Lebanon conducted in 2017. We assess their online learning capabilities and subject preferences, and show how adapting online learning materials to enable smartphone learning with low bandwidth would significantly increase the potential pool of online education students. We discuss how educational organisations can best adopt these findings to improve access to HE for refugees.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Future of Education is going to be Vocational, enhanced by Technology and RPL is going to be the main ingredient. This is coming from the various issues of the current educational system like cost, time, type of course, type of curriculum, unemployment, to name the major reasons.
Article
Full-text available
Açık ve uzaktan öğrenme günümüze kadar eğitimde açıklık felsefesi ekseninde evrilmiş ve bu düşünce ekseninde farklı yaklaşımlardan faydalanmıştır. Türkiye'de de bu gelişmelerin bir yansıması olarak farklı Kitlesel Açık Çevrimiçi Ders (KAÇD) platformları ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu düşünceler bağlamında bu çalışmanın genel amacı Türkiye'de sunulan KAÇD'leri Türk yükseköğretimi bağlamında incelemektir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda nitel tekli durum deseni benimsenmiş; Akadema, AtademiX ve Bilgeİş platformları incelenmiştir. Araştırma bulguları KAÇD'lerin eğitimde fırsat eşitliği, eğitimin demokratikleşmesi ve bilginin özgürleşmesi gibi evrensel kavramlara ülkemiz bağlamında hizmet ettiğini göstermektedir. Bunun yanında küreselleşen dünyada ve dijital bilgi çağında yaşanan dönüşümlere paralel olarak değişime uyum sağlamak; toplum, sektör ve üniversite arasında iletişim ve iş birliği kanallarını güçlendirmek; yükseköğretim kurumlarının operasyonel kabiliyetini farklı öğrenme alanlarında da attırarak kapsayıcı bir yaklaşımla sosyal adaleti sağlamak gibi rollerin güçlenmesine katkı sağladığı görülmektedir.
Article
Full-text available
Accessing higher education without having to overcome bureaucratic hurdles is a serious concern for refugees. Although empirical studies on the integration and success of refugees in higher education are scarce, the challenges related to this issue are becoming apparent. The Success and Opportunities for Refugees in Higher Education (SUCCESS) research project has been launched to investigate the effectiveness of new online study programs offered on the Kiron Open Higher Education (Kiron) platform that provides refugees with access to Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). SUCCESS measures the prior knowledge and skills of refugee students and investigates to what extent their study opportunities, learning processes, and chances of academic success can be improved effectively through different forms of support provided in Kiron. In this paper, we present the assessment framework and study design of the SUCCESS project as well as data on 1,376 students entering the study program in Kiron in summer 2017. As students’ language skills, intellectual abilities, and prior study-related knowledge play a significant role in their performance in higher education degree programs, we focus on the crucial introductory study phase and valid diagnostics of students’ study preconditions. We analyze refugee students’ socio-biographical and educational data such as gender, country of origin, highest level of education achieved etc. and examine their English language skills, intellectual abilities, and previous study domain related knowledge. We find extreme differences in levels of education and preconditions on starting to study in Kiron. Based on these results, we discuss implications for the effective and successful integration of refugee students in higher education. In this paper, we present the evidence-based model, assessment framework, and study design of the XXXXX project, as well as data on 1,376 students entering a study program through Kiron in summer 2017. Because students’ language skills, intellectual abilities, and prior study-related knowledge play a significant role in their performance in higher education degree programs, we focus on the crucial introductory study phase and valid diagnostics of students’ study preconditions. We analyze refugee students’ socio-biographical and educational data such as gender, country of origin, highest level of education achieved etc. and examine their English language skills, intellectual abilities, and previous study domain related knowledge. We find extreme differences in levels of education and preconditions on starting to study through Kiron. Based on these results, we discuss implications for the effective and successful integration of refugee students in higher education.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Kiron Open Higher Education (gGmbH) is an EdTech nonprofit organization which facilitates access to higher education. This is made possible through online study programmes and partnerships with higher education institutions and online education providers. However, Kiron's goal to get MOOC-based academic achievements recognized by higher education institutions requires quality assurance that offers the grade awarding institutions security in dealing with Kiron's learning offers. Kiron believes that a strong network of institutions that combine their quality processes can enable the equivalence of non-formal curricula with traditional quality-assured programmes. To define its own contribution to this process of joint quality assurance, Kiron developed four research-based principles that form the basis of its quality assurance: 1) Implementation of International Standards , 2) Cooperation and Partnerships, 3) Transparency and Communication and 4) Continuous Development. This handbook presents these principles and Kiron's processes for curriculum development and partnership with higher education institutions in order to share them transparently with external institutions and experts.
Book
Full-text available
Im Rahmen eines Projekts mit der Bertelsmann Stiftung haben Vertreter von Kiron Open Higher Education, CHE Consult und dem Stifterverband gemeinsam eine Überblicksstudie zur Anerkennung und Anrechnung von MOOCs verfasst. Sie skizziert und sortiert zahlreiche Beispiele guter Praxis und macht konkrete Handlungsempfehlungen an Hochschulen, Studierende, MOOC-Anbieter und die Bildungspolitik.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Im Verbundvorhaben „Integration und Teilhabe von Geflüchteten im Rahmen von digitalen Lehr- und Lernszenarien“ (kurz: INTEGRAL²) erprobten Kiron Open Higher Education, die RWTH Aachen und die FH Lübeck gemeinsam mit weiteren Akteuren von September 2016 bis September 2017 die forschungsbasierte Weiterentwicklung und Implementierung innovativer Ansätze zur Öffnung der Hochschulbildung durch digitale Lehr- und Lernszenarien. Neben einer besseren Integration von studierfähigen Geflüchteten in das Hochschulsystem war es Ziel des Projekts, generalisierbare Erkenntnisse und Handlungsmöglichkeiten im Kontext einer Förderung von Teilhabe durch die Nutzung von Chancen des digitalen Wandels und der Internationalisierung an Hochschulen in Deutschland herauszuarbeiten. Das Projekt adressierte diese Zielsetzungen in sechs Teilbereichen, die der forschungsgestützten Weiterentwicklung von vorwiegend digitalen Angeboten für Geflüchtete und weitere Zielgruppen dienten: Dem Ausbau eines Beratungsnetzwerks, der Einführung von Sprachförderangeboten, der Erprobung und Weiterentwicklung wissenschaftspropädeutischer Kurse, dem Ausbau digitaler Kerncurricula für die Studieneingangsphase inklusive der Entwicklung entsprechender Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), der Weiterentwicklung von Qualitätssicherungsprozessen und -instrumenten sowie dem Ausbau von Forschungskooperationen in Verbindung mit öffentlichkeitswirksamen Disseminationsmaßnahmen. Durch das Projekt konnten Pilotmaßnahmen agil entwickelt, erprobt und kritisch evaluiert werden; die Ergebnisse sowie erste Erfolge beim gleitenden Übergang Geflüchteter an Hochschulen belegen die grundsätzliche Passung vieler Ansätze aus INTEGRAL² für die Zielgruppe Geflüchteter im Speziellen und das Hochschulsystem im Allgemeinen. Die Ergebnisse und Erkenntnisse sind darüber hinaus in hohem Maße übertragbar auf andere nicht-traditionelle Zielgruppen und verdeutlichen die Chancen, die die Digitalisierung für Hochschulen bietet. Im Projekt konnten nicht nur alle gesetzten wesentlichen Ziele erreicht werden, sondern es sind auch vielfältige neue Lösungen entstanden, die die Partner im Rahmen von Folgemaßnahmen weiterentwickeln und in den übergreifenden Diskurs zur Digitalisierung, Internationalisierung und Öffnung von Hochschulbildung einbringen werden. Dieser Schlussbericht ist Bestandteil der abschließenden Berichterstattung zu dem Verbundvorhaben INTEGRAL² und fasst die Abschlussberichte der drei Teilvorhaben der Verbundpartner Kiron Open Higher Education (Kiron), RWTH Aachen und FH Lübeck zusammen.
Technical Report
Full-text available
This is the final report of MOOCs4inclusion project, which was designed and financed by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. The report summarises the research conducted between July-December 2016 on the efficiency and efficacy of free digital learning (FDL) for the integration, inclusion and further learning of migrants and refugees in Europe and in neighbouring regions in conflict. Drawing from a literature review, focus groups with migrants/refugees (third country nationals in Europe) and interviews with representatives of selected FDL initiatives, the report assesses the success factors and limitations of FDL and draws conclusions about how FDL’s efficiency and efficacy could be improved. The report also proposes a categorisation of FDL offers according to their design and purposes. Emphasis is placed on initiatives that take a ‘blended’ (online and face-to-face) and ‘facilitated’ (support services and mentoring) approach, as this was found to be optimal by both users of FDL and providers. General recommendations are provided about how the European Union and other interested actors can invest in this field, enhance synergies and design effective and efficient FDL offers for migrants/refugees in the future.
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report presents the outcomes of research, conducted between May 2014 and November 2015, into emerging practices in assessment, credentialisation and recognition in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Following extensive research on MOOCs in European Member States, it provides a snapshot of how European Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) recognise (or not) non-formal learning (particularly MOOC-based), and how some employers recognise open badges and MOOC certificates for continuing professional development. We analyse the relationship between forms of assessment used and credentials awarded, from badges for self-assessment to ECTS credits for on-site examinations, and consider the implications for recognition. Case studies provide deeper insights into existing practices. The report introduces a model which guides MOOC conveners in positioning and shaping their offers, and also helps institutions and employers to make recognition decisions. It concludes with a set of recommendations to European HEIs and policy makers to enable wider recognition of open learning in higher education and at the workplace.
Article
Full-text available
Given that one of the main features of the Bologna process is the need to improve the traditional ways of describing qualifications and qualification structures, all modules and programmes in third level institutions throughout the European Higher Education Area should be (re)written in terms of learning outcomes. Learning outcomes are used to express what learners are expected to achieve and how they are expected to demonstrate that achievement. This article presents a summary of developments in curriculum design in higher education in recent decades and, drawing on recent practical experience, suggests a user-friendly methodology for writing modules, courses and programmes in terms of learning outcomes.
Book
The book examines the underlying principles that guide effective teaching in an age when all of us, and in particular the students we are teaching, are using technology. A framework for making decisions about your teaching is provided, while understanding that every subject is different, and every instructor has something unique and special to bring to their teaching.The book enables teachers and instructors to help students develop the knowledge and skills they will need in a digital age: not so much the IT skills, but the thinking and attitudes to learning that will bring them success.
Lehren und Lernen mit digitalen Medien
  • P Arnold
  • L Kilian
  • E-Learning Handbuch
Arnold P, Kilian L. Handbuch E-Learning: Lehren und Lernen mit digitalen Medien. 4th ed. Bielefeld: wbv; 2015. [7]
Recommendations on the use of qualifications frameworks in the recognition of foreign qualifications
  • Unesco Council Of Europe
Council of Europe, UNESCO. Recommendations on the use of qualifications frameworks in the recognition of foreign qualifications. 2013. http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/highereducation/Recognition /DGIIEDUHE(2012)14%20Rev09%20FINAL%20-%20LRC%20Supplementary%20Text%20 on%20the%20Use%20of%20QFs%20ENGLISH.asp. Accessed 27 May 2017.
Die Etablierung individueller Kompetenzanrechnung an der Mathias Hochschule Rheine unter dem Aspekt der nachhaltigen Qualitätsentwicklung. Prozesse -Ergebnisse -Herausforderungen
  • B Schubert
  • E Narbei
  • R Ruge
  • M Zimmermann
Schubert B, Narbei E, Ruge R, Zimmermann M. Die Etablierung individueller Kompetenzanrechnung an der Mathias Hochschule Rheine unter dem Aspekt der nachhaltigen Qualitätsentwicklung. Prozesse -Ergebnisse -Herausforderungen. In: Freitag W, Buhr R, Danzeglocke E-M, Schröder S, editors. Übergänge gestalten. Durchlässigkeit zwischen beruflicher und hochschulischer Bildung erhöhen. Münster [u.a.]: Waxmann; 2015. p. 365-386.
The European Recognition Manual for Higher Education Institutions
  • Ep-Nuffic
EP-Nuffic. The European Recognition Manual for Higher Education Institutions. 2016. http://www.enicnaric.net/fileusers/8220_European%20Recognition%20Manual%20Second%20Edition%20FIN. pdf.