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Manual resistance training (MRT) has been widely used in the field of physical therapy. It has also been used as a strength training method due to the accommodating resistance nature of this modality. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of an 8-week MRT program on maximum strength and muscular endurance in comparison to conventional resistance training in recreationally trained men. Twenty healthy recreationally trained male subjects were recruited and divided into a MRT training group and a conventional training (CT) group. CT group performed bench press and lat pull-down exercises, and the MRT group performed similar movements with resistance provided by a personal trainer. Both groups completed similar training protocol and training load: 2 training sessions weekly for 3 sets of 8 repetitions at an intensity of 8 to 10 on the perceived exertion scale of 0-10. Initial maximum strength differences were not significant between the groups. Neither group showed significant changes in muscular strength or endurance. Despite the statistically non-significant pre-to post differences, a trend for improvement was observed and effect size (ES) calculations indicated greater magnitude of effects for strength and endurance changes in the MRT group in lat pulldown (g=0.84) compared to CT group. Effectiveness of MRT is similar to CT for improving muscular strength and endurance. MRT can be used as a supplemental or alternative strength training modality for recreationally trained subjects, or be considered by personal trainers especially in low equipped facility conditions.
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©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2017) 16, 343-349
Received: 09 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published (online): 01 September 2017
Manual Resistance versus Conventional Resistance Training: Impact on
Strength and Muscular Endurance in Recreationally Trained Men
Iván Chulvi-Medrano 1,2, Tamara Rial 3, Juan M. Cortell-Tormo 1, Yasser Alakhdar 4, Caue V. La
Scala Teixeira 5,6, Laura Masiá-Tortosa 2 and Sandor Dorgo 7
1 Department of General and Specific Didactics, University of Alicante, Alicante. Spain; 2 Benestar Wellness Center; 3
International Hypopressive & Physical Therapy Institute, Vigo, Spain; 4 Department of Physical Therapy, University of
Valencia. Valencia; Spain; 5 Department of Biosciences, Federal University of São Paulo, Santos, Brazil; 6 Faculty of
Physical Education, Praia Grande College, Praia Grande, Brazil; 7 Department of Kinesiology, University of Texas at El
Paso, El Paso, TX, USA
Manual resistance training (MRT) has been widely used in the
field of physical therapy. It has also been used as a strength
training method due to the accommodating resistance nature of
this modality. The aim of the present study was to compare the
effects of an 8-week MRT program on maximum strength and
muscular endurance in comparison to conventional resistance
training in recreationally trained men. Twenty healthy recrea-
tionally trained male subjects were recruited and divided into a
MRT training group and a conventional training (CT) group. CT
group performed bench press and lat pull-down exercises, and
the MRT group performed similar movements with resistance
provided by a personal trainer. Both groups completed similar
training protocol and training load: 2 training sessions weekly
for 3 sets of 8 repetitions at an intensity of 8 to 10 on the per-
ceived exertion scale of 0-10. Initial maximum strength differ-
ences were not significant between the groups. Neither group
showed significant changes in muscular strength or endurance.
Despite the statistically non-significant pre- to post differences,
a trend for improvement was observed and effect size (ES)
calculations indicated greater magnitude of effects for strength
and endurance changes in the MRT group in lat pulldown
(g=0.84) compared to CT group. Effectiveness of MRT is simi-
lar to CT for improving muscular strength and endurance. MRT
can be used as a supplemental or alternative strength training
modality for recreationally trained subjects, or be considered by
personal trainers especially in low equipped facility conditions.
Key words: Strength training, bench press, lat pull-down, max-
imum strength.
Training to increase muscular strength has been shown to
be effective in increasing athletic performance (McGui-
gan et al., 2012) as well as improving general health
(Garber et al., 2011; Pollock, et al., 2000). In fact, recent
scientific literature demonstrates that the adaptations
obtained through resistance training can include im-
provements in health related parameters, such as the neu-
romuscular system (increasing the transversal section of
skeletal muscle as well as its contractile capacity), the
skeletal system (increasing bone mineral density), the
cardiovascular system (assisting in the regulation of lipid
profiles as well as improving the cardiovascular system),
metabolic profile (improving muscular sensitivity and
increasing glucose consumption, as well as increasing
insulin response) and psychosocial well-being (Garber et
al., 2011; Pollock et al., 2000).
Conventional resistance training (CT) is typically
carried out by using external resistance that may come
from the use of dumbbells, barbells, inertial resistance or
hydraulic resistance (Chulvi-Medrano, 2012). Manual
resistance is a type of external resistance which requires a
partner or a trainer to provide and control the amount of
applied resistance throughout the entire range of move-
ment (Chulvi-Medrano, 2012; Teixeira, 2011; Williams,
2010). This training modality can be of great help to per-
sonal trainers, given that it is an economical type of train-
ing and allows for versatility and personalization of train-
ing loads, especially for professionals who work outside
of training facilities (ACSM, 2013; Teixeira, 2013). It has
been suggested that a major advantage of the MRT mo-
dality over CT is the accommodating nature of the applied
resistance as opposed to the constant external resistance
seen with the use of weights and machines (Dorgo et al.,
2009a). Accommodating resistance approaches (also
referred to as semi-isokinetic resistance) aim to control
the speed of movement through the full range of motion
(Haff and Triplett, 2016). This action, theoretically, com-
bats the changing mechanical advantages of joint move-
ments typically seen in constant external resistance exer-
cises by challenging the involved muscles for maximum
force exertion throughout the entire movement. However,
research has been sparse and inconclusive on accommo-
dating resistance training, and particularly scarce on the
MRT modality.
To date only a few studies have provided analysis
of manual resistance training within the literature. Studies
have demonstrated that manual resistance training (MRT)
is effective in increasing strength and muscular endurance
in the general untrained population (Teixeira, 2011;
Teixeira, 2013), and in special populations such as those
with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (Bohannon and Jones
1986), orthopedic therapy patients (Paine and Voight,
2013), elderly (Tokumaru et al., 2011), untrained adults
(Dorgo et al., 2009a) and youth (Dorgo et al., 2009b).
Nonetheless, there are few studies that compare the
efficacy of manual resistance training in relation to con-
ventional resistance training, and no existing studies have
Research article
Manual vs. conventional resistance training
used recreationally trained subjects for such comparison.
For this reason, the present study aimed to compare the
effects of manual resistance training and conventional
resistance training in trained men on maximum strength
and muscular endurance. Our initial hypothesis was that
an identical 8-week MRT and CT training program would
result in similar training adaptations.
Approach to the problem
The study was designed as a single training location,
longitudinal training intervention, in which recreationally
active and resistance-trained males participated in a 2
day/week MRT or CT program for 8 weeks. Muscular
strength and muscular endurance were assessed before
and immediately after the 8-week intervention, using
strength and endurance field tests.
Twenty healthy, young, and recreationally trained men
with at least 1 year of resistance training experience were
recruited for the study. All subjects provided written in-
formed consent, which explained the experimental proce-
dures of the study approved by the Ethics Committee of
the University of Alicante. Subjects were also surveyed to
determine if they had sufficient experience in performing
the target exercises (minimum 1 year of systematic re-
sistance training). A software (AleatorMetod.xls was
used to randomly divide subjects into two groups: manual
resistance training (MRT) (n = 10; mean ± SD: age, 23.60
± 2.06 years; height, 1.84 ± 0.09 m; body mass, 75.20 ±
10.86 kg; Body Mass Index (BMI), 22.47 ± 4.74; strength
training experience, 3.05 ± 1.56 years) and conventional
resistance training (CT) (n = 10; age, 24.20 ± 1.95 years;
height, 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass, 76.00 ± 16.40 kg; BMI,
23.25 ± 4.44; strength training experience, 3.30 ± 1.70
years). All subjects were free of any cardiovascular dis-
ease or orthopedic problems. Subjects were instructed to
continue with their usual resistance training regimen but
were asked to exclude any push or pull upper-body exer-
cises. Subjects were further instructed to maintain their
normal dietary habits throughout the study and were
asked not to use performance enhancing substances or
ergogenic aids.
Maximum muscular strength
All tests were carried out at the same time of day (approx-
imately 10:00 AM). All subjects were instructed to ab-
stain from exercise 48 hours prior to the tests, as well as
from ingestion of stimulant substances. After a standard-
ized warm up of 5 minutes including light jogging and
dynamic stretching exercises for the upper limbs, muscu-
lar strength was assessed by the 1 Repetition Maximum
(1RM) test for the target exercises. The order of exercise
tests was randomized among subjects. Maximal strength
was tested for the bench press and lat pull-down exercises
according to the procedures described by the National
Strength and Conditioning Association (Baechle and
Earle, 2007).
After a standard warm-up subjects were asked to
complete 5-10 repetitions with a light-to-moderate load.
After a 2.5-minute rest period, a load of 70% of the esti-
mated 1RM was utilized to perform three to five repeti-
tions. Subsequently, subjects were asked to complete their
first 1RM attempt. The load was gradually increased
between attempts and a 2.5-minute rest period was pro-
vided between each successful lift. All subjects’ 1RM was
successfully measured within five testing attempts. The
technical execution of each exercise was standardized
using NSCA’s proper technique guide (Baechle and Earle,
2007), and was continually monitored by the researchers
to ensure consistency in the testing protocol. For the
bench press, after assuming a supine five-point body
contact position on a bench, subjects grasped the bar with
a pronated grip. The downward movement was consid-
ered successful if the bar touched the chest at approxi-
mately nipple level. For the upward movement full exten-
sion of the elbows was required for a successful lift. For
the lat pull-down exercise proper technique began with
grasping the bar in a shoulder-width position with a pro-
nated grip. Only a slight backward lean was allowed and
subjects were required to pull the bar down toward the
upper chest, touching the sternum with the bar before
extending the elbows to starting position. 1RM for each
exercise was recorded for the heaviest weight subjects
were able to lift with correct form for one full repetition.
Fifteen minutes of rest was allowed between exercises to
allow full recovery. During testing the researchers provid-
ed verbal motivation for the subjects.
Muscular endurance
Muscular endurance was assessed for each subject using
the pull-up and push-up tests according to the American
College of Sports Medicine protocols (ACSM, 2008),
recording the maximum number of repetitions performed
consecutively without rest. For the push-up exercise, the
position was personalized by locating the hands just be-
low the shoulders (biacromial distance). Hand position
was determined prior to the push-up attempt with a mark
on the floor. A correct repetition was recorded as long as
the subject’s chin touched the floor while maintaining the
rest of their body in the correct position. For the pull-up
exercise, the subjects were instructed to grab the bar with
palms pronated at the biacromial distance that was previ-
ously recorded. The chin of the subject was required to
reach above the bar to be considered a full repetition.
Perceived exertion
The level of perceived exertion was evaluated by applying
a pictogram with descriptions of intensity (0 = no effort;
10 = maximum effort), known as OMNI-RES (Robertson
et al., 2003). Upon completing each training set, subjects
were asked to indicate the level of intensity they were
experiencing, referencing the scale. For both groups the
goal was to maintain a perceived exertion of 8 during all
sets and training sessions, a value equivalent to an exer-
cise with “hard” effort, which has been suggested appro-
priate for improving muscular fitness (Lagally et al.,
2009). This protocol has been used in previous studies
(Lagally et al., 2009; Naclerio et al., 2011).
Chulvi-Medrano et al.
Training protocol
Training for both groups was carried out 2 days per week
over the course of 8 weeks, based on the training protocol
used in a similar study by Staron et al. (1994) suggesting
that such protocol sufficiently elicited skeletal muscle
adaptations to observe strength gains in both men and
women. Training frequency and program duration rec-
ommendations from Tan (1999) were also taken into
consideration when designing the intervention protocol.
Each session began with a standardized warm-up
identical to the warm-up protocol of the testing sessions.
Training for the CT group consisted of the bench press
and lat pull-down exercises completing 3 sets of 8 repeti-
tions performed with a controlled intensity of level 8
(“hard”) on the 0-10 perceived exertion scale. A 60-
second rest interval was given between sets for passive
recovery. Exercise cadence was controlled using a metro-
nome programmed for 2-second concentric and 2-second
eccentric phases. The MRT group performed the same
movements with the same cadence and the same
set/repetition/rest time scheme, but with an experienced
and certified personal trainer applying manual resistance
(Figures 1 and 2). This protocol was similar to that carried
out by Vetter and Dorgo (2009) with highly fit dancers.
The perceived exertion for the MRT group also targeted 8
on the 0-10 scale. In both groups, the resistance was ad-
justed if the level of perceived exertion was below or
above 8.
Figure1. Lat pull-down exercise with a personal trainer
applying manual resistance.
Statistical analyses
Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS statistical
package (IBM SPSS Statistics 20). A ShapiroWilk test
was used to confirm normal distribution and a Mauchley
test of sphericity to verify homogeneity of variance. A
two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) on group (MRT
and CT) and time (baseline and post) was applied. When
a significant F-value was detected, pairwise comparisons
were performed using the DMS post-hoc procedure. Sta-
tistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Effect size was
estimated with Hedges g (Cooper et al., 2009). The fol-
lowing scale was used to categorize the magnitude of
effect: < 0.2 = trivial; 0.2-0.5 = small; 0.5-0.8 = medium;
0.8-1.3 = large, and > 1.3 = very large. All variables are
reported as mean ± Standard Deviation (SD).
Figure 2. Bench press exercise with a personal trainer apply-
ing manual resistance.
Data analysis of pre- and post-test data did not show sig-
nificant differences for any of the outcome variables (p >
0.05). Table 1 summarizes the changes in strength and
muscular endurance performance between the MRT and
CT groups. Figure 3 describes percent improvements after
the 8-week intervention for each testing variable for the
two groups. The magnitude of effect for the MRT group
was small for the 1RM bench press (g=0.41) test and the
push-up muscular endurance test (g=0.39). The effect size
for the lat pull-down strength (g=0.84) was large and for
the pull-up muscular endurance was moderate (g=0.59).
On the other hand, small effect sizes were observed for
the CT group for both strength measures (g=0.28) and the
push-up endurance test (g=0.21), while a moderate effect
size for the pull-up muscular endurance test (g=0.56)
(table 1).
Past studies have shown that MRT is effective in improv-
ing muscular strength and endurance in different popula-
tions. The effectiveness of MRT in therapeutic popula-
tions was noted by Bohannon and Jones (1986), with a
single case study carried out on a person affected by Du-
chenne muscular dystrophy. In their study, MRT was
applied to muscle groups in the lower limbs 3 days per
Manual vs. conventional resistance training
Table 1. Mean standard deviation) values for maximum strength and muscular endurance before and after the 8-weeks
training intervention.
Effect Size
1RM (kg)
79.00 (13.49)
84.50 (11.65)
77.50 (1637)
82.00 (14.18)
1RM (kg)
73.50 (7.83)
80.50 (7.97)
76.50 (13.55)
81.00 (11.25)
21.90 (6.04)
24.60 (7.16)
21.90 (7.89)
23.40 (6.14)
7.60 (3.53)
9.60 (2.87)
6.50 (2.83)
8.40 (3.56)
CI =Confidence Interval; MRT = manual resistance training group (n = 10); CT = conventional strength training group (n = 10); BP
= Bench Press; LP-D = Lat pull-down; PusU = Push-up; PullU = Pull-ups.
Figure 3. Percent of improvements after the 8-week intervention for each exercise. MRT = manual resistance training group
(n = 10); CT = Conventional strength training group (n = 10); BP = Bench Press; LP-D = Lat pull-down; PusU = Push-up; PullU = Pull-ups.
week for 12 weeks, obtaining an increased capacity
of 32.7% for the left leg and 28.5% for the right leg to
generate isometric extension force (Bohannon and Jones,
1986). MRT has also been extrapolated to the elderly
population in the study by Tokumaru et al. (2011) where
MRT was applied for 24 weeks, with one session per
week during the first 12 weeks and two sessions per week
in the last 12 weeks. During this period, older adult sub-
jects performed MRT consisting of one set of 10 repeti-
tions of leg extension. Each repetition consisted of a 7-
second concentric phase and a 6- to 8-second eccentric
phase, with resistance adjusted to accommodate at all
times. The results showed an increase in maximum volun-
tary contraction for leg extension of 13.2% and 29% after
12 and 24 weeks, respectively (Tokumaru et al., 2011).
Recently, La Scala Teixeira et al. (2016) has shown MRT
is a viable and safe alternative for application in hyperten-
sive men, reducing the need for expensive equipment.
However, there is a lack of information on the ef-
fects that MRT can have in younger populations and those
with recreational training experience, which is why the
aim of the present study was to compare the effects be-
tween manual resistance and conventional resistance-
training on maximum strength and muscular endurance in
young recreationally trained men. The main results of the
present study show that there were no significant im-
provements in either group, neither for maximum strength
nor muscular endurance, despite a tendency towards im-
provement in the MRT group. This is contrary to the
results demonstrated by Dorgo et al. (2009b), who ob-
served significant improvements in muscular endurance in
a group of 67 high school students. The discrepancy in the
results may be attributed primarily to two parameters:
first, the age and training status of the selected subjects;
while non-trained high school students were selected for
Dorgo’s study (2009b), our study involved young adults
with several years of strength training experience. Sec-
ondly, our study lasted 8 weeks while Dorgo’s interven-
tion was for 18 weeks. In another study led by the same
researcher (Dorgo et al., 2009a), it was observed that
MRT with a frequency of 3 days per week for 14 weeks,
with a range of 8-12 repetitions and a cadence of 3-second
eccentric and 3-second concentric movement resulted in
significant improvements of 7.37% for the 1RM bench
6.33 6.49
BP LP-D PusU PullU
% change
Chulvi-Medrano et al.
press test. The authors also included a maximum squat
strength test, where they observed more pronounced re-
sults of 20.55% improvement for the MRT group. Alt-
hough the MRT group obtained improvements in these
tests similar to the conventional training group, there were
no significant differences between the groups (Dorgo et
al., 2009a).
In the same study, the effects of MRT on muscular
endurance were measured (Dorgo et al., 2009a); unlike
our study, which evaluated this parameter with the total
number of repetitions in calisthenic exercises, these au-
thors opted to record the maximum number of repetitions
for the bench press and back squat with a load of 70%
1RM. In this case, authors also observed significant im-
provements, recording an increase of 43.14% for the
bench press, without finding statistical difference from
conventional training. Again, the importance of training
volume (duration and training frequency) in obtaining
improvements in the studied parameters is clear; while
our experimental design included 2 sessions per week for
8 weeks, Dorgo’s studies included 3 sessions per week for
14 weeks. It appears that MRT may be effective in trained
subjects only through a higher training frequency and
longer duration intervention.
In addition, the number of exercises included can
be considered a limitation in our study, given that we
selected two exercises, while in Dorgo’s studies six to
nine exercises were included for the major muscle groups
(Dorgo et al., 2009a; 2009b). Finally, a highly influential
variable is the experience of the subjects, since observed
improvements are more pronounced in subjects with little
strength training experience, as in the case of the study of
Vetter and Dorgo (2009), in which 10 dance athletes with
little or no experience in strength training obtained signif-
icant improvements in the 1RM test for bench press and
lat pull-down, with increases of 8.5% and 3.3%, respec-
tively. In the current study, the MRT group showed a
change of small to moderate ES in all variables, which
leads us to believe that the short duration of the interven-
tion did not allow significant differences.
It is important to note that the repetition protocol
used in this study was not performed until concentric
failure (perceived exertion of 8 on the 0-10 scale). Previ-
ously it was suggested that execution until concentric
failure is an essential condition for promoting adaptations
in trained subjects (Nóbrega and Libardi, 2016), although
some disagreements can also be found in the literature
(Davies et al., 2016). When using a perceived exertion
scale of 0-10, a recent study suggested that rating 8 repre-
sents the subject’s ability to complete about two more
repetitions to complete failure (Zourdos et al., 2016). It is
probable that with trained subjects repetitions to complete
failure (perceived rating of 10) are necessary to achieve
significant changes in muscular strength and endurance
and also that perceived exertion feedback should be solic-
ited from subjects during the completion of a given set.
Therefore, our study may have not presented a high
enough intensity protocol to elicit strength and endurance
adaptations from the trained subjects with a perceived
exertion rating of 8.
Resistance training with external variable re-
sistance (e.g. elastic bands and chains) can be beneficial
to increase strength when added to conventional external
resistance, therefore allows an adaptation to human
strength curves (McMaster et al., 2009). This situation
can be produced during MRT. It can be argued that if the
external resistance is correctly applied, with the appropri-
ate intensity provided by an experienced partner, varying
it according to the different mechanics of force production
over the trainee’s range of movement, it could have ad-
vantages over the conventional resistance training meth-
ods (constant external resistance training). In the present
study, although the results did not show significant differ-
ences between the two modalities, the ES was higher in
MRT than CT for all variables except number of repeti-
tions in pull-ups. Thus MRT offers a cost-effective, not
location-dependent tool for increasing muscular fitness.
These findings have practical implications for fitness
professionals such as personal trainers who offer at-home
training services. It appears that muscular fitness for both
trained and untrained clients may be improved using
MRT without the need for expensive fitness equipment.
Comparing the results of the present study with
previous studies, we can outline certain limitations to
keep in mind. One important limitation of the present
study is the duration of the intervention. It is possible that
future study protocols need to be longer than 8 weeks,
particularly when working with trained subjects. Also, for
this population the volume and frequency of training must
be higher. Another limitation was the performance of
repetitions not to failure, whereas execution until the
concentric failure is well recommended for subjects with
resistance training experience. Also, a limitation is the
dependence of MRT on the experience and strength of the
partner (trainer) providing the external resistance. Lack-
ing a partner with appropriate skills and level of strength
to properly challenge the trainee, effects of MRT might be
minimized, particularly for trained subjects. Nevertheless,
the results allow us to conclude that MRT and CT can
have statistically similar results when the volume and
intensity are similar. Future research is needed to quantify
the contribution of the partner (trainer) in the musculo-
skeletal adaptation providing resistance load, which could
be executed with studies applying manually held dyna-
mometers to determine the applied external resistance.
Also, related future studies should use longer training
interventions (> 8weeks) for trained subjects and monitor
the perceived exertion of the subjects for each repetition
until complete failure.
In conclusion, neither training modality showed signifi-
cant changes in the strength and muscular endurance
variables, but the ES analysis showed trends for im-
provement. The ES was higher for MRT than CT for the
lat pulldown and similar for the bench press, push-ups and
pull-ups, suggesting that MRT can be a viable alternative
for personal training in recreationally trained men.
Collectively, these findings provide information
Manual vs. conventional resistance training
for personal trainers or physical therapists, who could
apply MRT as an alternative tool to maintain levels of
maximum strength and muscular endurance in basic push-
ing and pulling movements. The results suggest that ap-
plying MRT in men with strength training experience may
be a viable tool. This information is relevant for personal
trainers who give training sessions at locations with a lack
of equipment or even based on the characteristics of the
target population. Additionally, a previous study (Teixei-
ra, 2013) noted that the acceptance of MRT modality
among personal trainer professionals was between “good”
and “very good” for 84% of trainers and their clients.
Consequently, MRT can be a simple and effective tool to
use for recreationally trained clients.
The training intervention and data collection procedures represented in
the current manuscript comply with the current laws of the country in
which they were performed. No funding was received for the current
study. No conflict of interest declared for any of the authors.
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Key points
Resistance training promotes improvement in mus-
cular strength and endurance
MRT is an effective alternative form of resistance
training for recreationally trained men.
MRT can be effective to improve muscular
strength and endurance
in recreationally trained
MRT should be considered as alternative form of
resistance training by personal trainers and coach-
Chulvi-Medrano et al.
Associate professor, Department of
General and Specific Didactics, Univer-
sity of Alicante, Alicante, Spain
Research interests
Resistance training physiology, exercise
physiology, clinical exercise
Tamara RIAL
Director International Hypopressive &
Physical Therapy Institute (Spain)
Research interests
Resistance training; women´s health
Full time Professor, Department of
General and Specific Didactics. Univer-
sity of Alicante, Spain.
Research interests
Strength and conditioning, measure-
ment and evaluation.
Professor of the Faculty of Physiother-
apy University of Valencia, Valencia,
Research interests
Tendons and genetic. ultrasound and
muscle changes.
Caue V. La Scala Teixeira
Professor of the Faculty of Physical
Education at Praia Grande College, and
Coordinator of the Physical Evaluation
Laboratory at County of Santos, Brazil.
Research interests
Resistance training; functional training
Benestar Wellness Center
Research interests
Resistance training physiology, exercise
Sandor DORGO
Department of Kinesiology. University
of Texas at El Paso
Research interests
Resistance training, strength and condi-
tioning, aging and exercise
Sandor Dorgo
Department of Kinesiology, University of Texas at El Paso,
1851 Wiggins St., El Paso, TX 79968, USA
... Esta estratégia implicou em uma nova rotina de vida, a começar por trabalhar em casa (Home Office) quando possível, gestão familiar e exercícios físicos, este último sendo o objeto de estudo desta investigação. Por um lado, de acordo com Chen et al. (2020) quem já praticava exercícios físicos regularmente apresentou empecilhos para dar continuidade as atividades, reduzindo os níveis de exercícios, algo bem preocupante, o que pode exacerbar ainda mais o comportamento sedentário, associado ao aumento do peso corporal em crianças (TANAKA et al., 2018), adolescentes (CUREAU et al., 2018), adultos e idosos (BANKS et al., 2011) e elevação do risco de mortalidade cardiovascular (PATTERSON, 2018). ...
... - Chen et al. (2020) Dar continuidade as atividades físicas em casa para manter um bom funcionamento do sistema imunológico. Essa manutenção física regular junto a exercício rotineiro em um ambiente doméstico seguro é uma estratégia importante para uma vida saudável durante a crise do coronavírus. ...
... Os achados deste estudo possibilitaram verificar as benesses que as pesquisas ressaltam sobre a prática de atividades físicas em período de pandemia. A maioria das pesquisas ressaltaram os benefícios para saúde física (ALECRIN, 2020;CHEN et al., 2020;FERREIRA et al., 2020;FILGUEIRAS;KOLEHMAINEN, 2020;HELMICH;BLOEM, 2020;OLIVEIRA NETO et al., 2020;RAIOL, 2020;WEYH;KRÜGER;STRASSER, 2020). ...
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quarentena causada pelo COVID-19 tem despertado o interesse da comunidade científica de diversas formas, desde relacionadas com abordagens de combate ao vírus para assegurar o retorno da normalidade a ações, que possam ser adotadas para reduzir os danos advindos do isolamento social, destacando-se a realização regular de exercícios físicos. Assim, propõe-se abordar as repercussões da prática regular de exercícios físicos durante a quarentena motivada pelo COVID-19 para a manutenção da saúde física e mental. Foi realizada uma Revisão Integrativa da Literatura, com buscas na Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS), Scientific Electronic Library Online, Google Acadêmico e na The Lancet Psychiatry. Inicialmente foram encontrados 53 artigos e após a utilização dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, se limitaram em oito publicações. Verificou-se, a partir dos achados, que os artigos relataram, majoritariamente, tanto benefícios físicos como mentais (62,5%; n=5). Embora a quarentena seja a principal arma no combate ao COVID-19, há várias consequências para a população caso não mantenham ou adquiram um estilo de vida mais ativo mesmo em casa, devendo haver estímulo para esta prática.
... It continues to be an essential life skill, in daily-life, as a form of communication, archiving, expression of creativity and knowledge. Therefore it is an essential skill one should possess in today's context and it forms an integral part of a student's life whether primary, secondary, or tertiary [1][2][3]. ...
... Many factors influence handwriting such as anatomy of extremity, general health, mental acuity, writing instrument and surface. During the process of handwriting most of the movements come from the forearm while shoulder provides the power with minimum movement occurring at fingers and wrist [1]. Strength and flexibility of the muscles and the overall posture of the writer affects the final output. ...
... Ini kegiatan dapat dilakukan terus menerus misalnya 30 menit terus menerus asalkan total akumulasi dalam minggu adalah 150 menit, seperti yang disarankan oleh ACSM, (Festiawan, 2020;Garber et al., 2011;Joy, 2020). Selain itu, latihan penerapan resistensi manual atau latihan ketahanan diri bisa menjadi alternatif seperti senam untuk memvariasikan rangsangan fisiologis serta untuk memecahkan monoton psikologis, (Chulvi-Medrano et al., 2017;Dorgo et al., 2009;Serrau et al., 2012). Sukses dalam olahraga meliputi dari program seleksi atlet, program latihan dan evaluasi kinerja atlet. ...
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Pembatasan kegiatan masyarakat akibat penyebaran virus covid-19 telah mengubah olahraga di Indonesia sehingga memaksa para atlet untuk melakukan latihan mandiri di tempat tinggalnya masing-masing dengan program latihan yang dibuat oleh para pelatihnya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membandingkan kapasitas aerobik, aspek kelincahan, dan daya tahan otot lokal atlet pencak silat sebelum dan sesudah masa latihan mandiri. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah deskritptif dengan melibatkan 12 atlet pencak silat putra kategori tanding Kabupaten Karawang. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa terjadi penurunan signifikan pada kapasitas aerobik (p= 0.025) dan performa kelincahan (0.042) namun pada daya tahan otot lokal tidak terdapat perbedaan. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah terjadi penurunan pada kapasitas aerobik dan aspek kelincahan pada atlet pencak silat Kabupaten Karawang setelah masa latihan di tempat tinggalnya masing-masing akibat dari pemberlakukan pembatasan kegiatan masyarakat (PPKM), namun pada komponen daya tahan otot-otot lokal tidak terdapat perubahan.The sports activity of badminton and responses to changes in blood uric acid at productive age AbstractThis study aims to determine whether there was a response to changes in uric acid levels due to the physical activity of badminton. The design of this study is a quasi-experimental. The sample used in this study was eight respondents with certain criteria. Treat physical activity twice on different days with 4 measurements of uric acid levels. The method of this study is repeated measure analysis. When subjects are measured repeatedly, requiring fewer subjects per experiment, then repeated measures analysis can be used. The results showed that the treatment of badminton had a significant effect on changes in uric acid levels with a probability value of 0,038. These results were obtained by using the Greenhouse-Geisser test where the assumptions of normality and homogeneity were satisfied. From the marginal test results using pairwise comparisons, there was a significant difference in the average uric acid levels at 15 minutes after exercise and 9 hours the following day, where there was a decrease of 1.169 mg/dl. Badminton can reduce uric acid levels, which is indicated by a decrease of 0.15 mg/dl at 09.00 the next day compared to before exercise. Marginally, this decrease is not statistically significant, but regular badminton can be an option for physical activity for those who want to reduce uric acid levels.
... A recomendação das entidades de saúde de se exercitar em casa apesar de parecer difícil de seguir e pouco eficiente, já é bem embasada na literatura científica. Exercícios que utilizam o peso corporal, o treinamento manual resistido e/ou faixas elásticas têm demonstrado ótimos resultados, inclusive comparáveis aos alcançados em academias tradicionais (BARBALHO et al., 2019;CHULVI-MEDRANO et al., 2017). Dessa forma, sacolas de mercados, mochilas com livros, garrafas de água e outros objetos podem ser utilizados como resistência. ...
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A pandemia da COVID-19 tem afetado de forma negativa diversos setores, como a economia, a política, a educação e principalmente os serviços de saúde no mundo. A estratégia de manter as pessoas em isolamento social contribui para impedir a disseminação acelerada da epidemia e evitar o colapso sanitário. Porém pode desencadear sérias repercussões psicológicas para a população. Nessa perspectiva, o presente trabalho tem como objetivo refletir acerca do processo psicológico vivenciado pelos brasileiros durante o isolamento social pela pandemia da COVID-19, a partir da experiência de Viktor Frankl nos campos de concentração, incluindo uma atualizando das informações acerca do desenvolvimento do isolamento nos meses de abril e maio de 2020. O procedimento de pesquisa adotado caracteriza-se como descritivo-reflexivo, com embasamento fenomenológico- existencial de Viktor Frankl e seu livro “Em Busca de Sentido: um psicólogo nos campos de concentração”, assim como literatura correlata nacional e internacional. Como reflexão sobre a experiência de Frankl e as reações atuais das pessoas em isolamento social, o estudo apresenta as três fases psicológicas: (1) Estado de Choque: É uma simples gripe, não será nada demais; (2) Adaptação: A experiência de estar em isolamento; e (3) Saída: e agora como será “o novo normal” Este estudo permitiu verificar que as reações psicológicas e comportamentais em estado de confinamento foram similares entre os campos de concentração e o atual isolamento social. O “novo normal” traz consigo o desafio da adoção de novos comportamentos condizentes com o atual cenário. Cabe, nesse contexto, a reflexão sobre a possibilidade do estabelecimento de relações mais densas e significativas, revisão de prioridades na vida, ressignificação da própria visão de mundo, com valores que considerem o bem comum, uma sociedade mais cidadã, fraterna, solidária, tolerante, acolhedora, justa e democrática.
... A recomendação das entidades de saúde de se exercitar em casa apesar de parecer difícil de seguir e pouco eficiente, já é bem embasada na literatura científica. Exercícios que utilizam o peso corporal, o treinamento manual resistido e/ou faixas elásticas têm demonstrado ótimos resultados, inclusive comparáveis aos alcançados em academias tradicionais (BARBALHO et al., 2019;CHULVI-MEDRANO et al., 2017). Dessa forma, sacolas de mercados, mochilas com livros, garrafas de água e outros objetos podem ser utilizados como resistência. ...
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Nesse capítulo abordo o cenário atual da pandemia da COVID-19 relacionando com os riscos para a saúde da inatividade física. Além disso, é abordado a importância da prática regular de exercícios físicos para a saúde física e mental durante o período de distanciamento social
... Além disso, exercícios baseados na aplicação de resistência manual [10,11] ou exercícios autorresistidos [12] podem ser alternativas para o treino, tanto para variar os estímulos fisiológicos quanto para quebrar a monotonia psicológica. ...
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O coronavírus faz parte de um grupo de vírus responsáveis por causar síndromes respira-tórias agudas sazonalmente que podem ser acompanhadas de sintomas leves a condições graves, com uma taxa de mortalidade significativa. Além dos cuidados de higiene, a dis-tância social é uma das estratégias mais eficientes para mitigar a disseminação do vírus e reduzir os impactos no mundo. Portanto, as estratégias do governo direcionaram esforços para garantir o isolamento em casa de grande parte da população mundial. Uma das es-tratégias que tem sido considerada uma ferramenta importante para facilitar a adesão ao isolamento é o incentivo ao exercício físico regular, principalmente devido à sua capaci-dade de reduzir sentimentos de ansiedade e estresse na população. Assim, paralelamente à expansão do coronavírus no mundo, a busca por exercícios em casa ganhou destaque na internet, demonstrando a necessidade emergente de pensar em estratégias que possam levar a uma prática de treino em domicilio eficaz na promoção da adesão a um estilo de vida fisicamente ativo. Por outro lado, algumas questões pertinentes podem surgir, como: como será realizada a prescrição e o acompanhamento da população durante esse período? Quais diretrizes devem ser seguidas para uma prescrição segura e eficiente? Que tipos de exercícios devem ser priorizados? Quais são os critérios para esta seleção? Com base nessas questões, este estudo teve como objetivo apresentar uma proposta, integrando os aspectos fisiológicos e psicobiológicos/comportamentais, de como o exercício físico pode ser pres-crito em casa, considerando as barreiras enfrentadas pela população diante do isolamento social em todo o mundo. Em resumo, aqui sugerimos um modelo de prescrição que estima o desempenho semanal de pelo menos 150 minutos de exercícios aeróbicos, bem como exercícios de força para os principais grupos musculares. Além disso, orientamos o uso de ferramentas que permitam avaliar o esforço físico e a satisfação pessoal no treinamento, com o objetivo de melhorar a adesão e a manutenção de um programa de exercícios físicos e, assim, contribuir para a promoção da saúde durante a pandemia do COVID-19.
... In addition, exercises based on the application of manual resistance [10,11] or self-resistance exercises [12] can be alternatives for calisthenics, both to vary physiological stimuli, as well as to break psychological monotony. ...
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Coronavirus is part of a group of viruses responsible for seasonally causing acute respiratory syndromes that can be accompanied from mild symptoms to severe conditions with a significant mortality rate. In addition to hygiene care, social distance is one of the most efficient strategies to mitigate the spread of the virus and reduce impacts on the world. Therefore, government strategies have directed efforts to ensure the isolation at home of much of the world’s population. One of the strategies that has been considered an important tool to facilitate adherence to isolation is the encouragement of regular physical exercise, especially due to its ability to reduce feelings of anxiety and stress in the population. Thus, in parallel with the expansion of coronavirus in the world, the search for exercise at home has gained prominence on the internet, demonstrating the emerging need to think of strategies that can lead to an effective home practice in promoting adherence to a physically active lifestyle. On the other hand, some pertinent questions may arise, such as: how will the exercise prescription and follow-up of the population be carried out during this period? What guidelines should be followed for a safe and efficient prescription? What types of exercises should be prioritized? What are the criteria for this selection? Based on these questions, this study aimed to present a proposal, integrating the physiological and psychobiological aspects, of how physical exercise could be prescribed at home, considering the barriers faced by the population in the face of social isolation worldwide. In summary, here we suggest a prescription model that estimates the weekly performance of at least 150 minutes of aerobic exercises, as well as strength exercises for the main muscle groups. In addition, we guide the use of tools that allow the assessment of physical effort and personal satisfaction in training, with the aim of improving adherence and maintenance to a physical exercise program and thus contributing to health promotion during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... In terms of manual and mechanical resistance exercises, the study results report that they both did not significantly affect change of arm volumes. This is congruent with a previous study by Chulvi-Medrano et al. [40] who compared the effects of an 8-week manual resistance exercise and conventional resistance exercise on maximum strength and muscular endurance in 20 recreationallytrained men. The results of the study reported that neither group showed significant changes in muscular strength or endurance. ...
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The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the effects of weight-lifting or resistance exercise on breast cancer-related lymphedema. Published articles written in English were retrieved from electronic databases, including ScienceDirect, PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL databases. Hand-searches for unpublished papers were also completed. Content analysis was used to examine articles that met the inclusion criteria. Among 525 searched papers, 15 papers met the inclusion criteria: 13 trials evaluated weight-lifting or resistance exercise alone and two trials evaluated weight-lifting or resistance exercise plus aerobic exercise. The results of the review showed that no arm volume change was observed for either exercise modality. In addition, six included studies showed that weight-lifting or resistance exercise did not cause lymphedema or adverse events in patients at risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema. For patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema, six studies reported that change of swelling outcome measures were not significantly different between the weight-lifting or resistance exercise group and the control group. However, three included studies reported that volume of arm was significantly more reduced in the weight-lifting or resistance exercise group than those in the control group. The findings suggest that supervised resistance exercise may be safe, feasible, and beneficial in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema or at risk for breast cancer-related lymphedema. However, the limitation of small sample size implies that further research is needed to confirm these findings. Keywords: Breast neoplasms, Lymphedema, Resistance training, Weight lifting
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Introduction: skilled hand writing is an essential activity for school age children. Handwriting is often judge and seen as reflection of an individual intelligence and capability. Aim: Aim of the study is to find out the effectiveness of hand therapy in improving hand writing and speed in school going children. Method: pre and post experimental study was conducted to find the effectiveness of hand therapy in improving handwriting and speed. 10 subject ages between 6-8yrs of both sexes were selected. Data collection: by using word per minute and hand writing legibility scale. Result: The mean score of word per minute test-pre test 19.3 and post test 32.8 and there was significant difference with t value 16.04. The mean score of hand writing legibility scale-pre test 4.8 and post test 12.6. Conclusion: The finding of the study revealed that hand therapy was effective in improving handwriting and speed in school going children. Keywords: hand writing and speed, hand therapy, word per minute test, hand writing legibility scale.
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A pandemia da COVID-19 causou uma grande mudança na rotina da maior parte da população mundial. Como a principal medida para enfrentamento do novo coronavírus foi o "Distanciamento Social", vários países do mundo todo optaram por restringir a circulação de pessoas e o funcionamento de empresas e áreas públicas culminando assim no fechamento de shoppings, bares, restaurantes e similares, praias, balneários, clubes e similares assim como instalações de esportes, lazer e academias de ginásticas. Essas medidas resultaram no aumento da inatividade física e sedentarismo por grande parte da população mundial fazendo com que casos patológicos de doenças crônica e de ordem psicológica sofressem agravos em consequência ao sedentarismo. O objetivo do estudo é analisar os resultados de alternativas de treinamento para indivíduos que possuem poucos ou nenhum recurso de treinamento para se manterem ativos no período de pandemia da COVID-19. Concluímos que mesmo em períodos de distanciamento social e com as pessoas confinadas em casa é possível se exercitar mantendo a saúde e condicionamento através de treinos com peso corporal, treinos com faixas elástica e treinamento manual resistido desde que estes treinos sejam adaptados as particularidades de cada indivíduo.
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Background: Manual resistance training (MRT) is a low cost and practically applicable alternative form of resistance training that is ideal for weight rooms with limited equipment. The aim of this study was to compare the acute and sub acute hemodynamic responses between MRT and free weight resistance training (FWRT) in normotensive (NT) and hypertensive (HT) men. Methods: Twenty-six untrained men performed a single bout of MRT and FWRT with a minimum 72-hour rest in between. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean blood pressure (MBP) were measured, and double product (DP) was calculated. Variables were assessed at different time points: SBP, DBP and MBP (pre- and 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes post-exercise); DP (half-time and post-intervention). Results: The blood pressure values (BP) were greater in HT men in all analyses and interventions. BP responses were similar between MRT and FWRT in both groups of men. In HT men, there was post-exercise hypotension (PEH) after 15, 30 and 60 minutes in MBP measured for both interventions. The DP was greater for the MRT intervention, but within the cardiovascular safety limits. Conclusions: MRT induces PEH in similar levels to FWRT in HT men. Therefore, MRT is a viable and safe alternative for application of FWRT in NT and HT men, reducing the need for expensive equipment.
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The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the adaptive responses (i.e., increases in strength and muscle mass) and motor unit (MU) recruitment resulting from resistance training (RT) to failure, providing rationale as to why RT to muscular failure might be unnecessary.
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Background It remains unclear whether repetitions leading to failure (failure training) or not leading to failure (non-failure training) lead to superior muscular strength gains during resistance exercise. Failure training may provide the stimulus needed to enhance muscular strength development. However, it is argued that non-failure training leads to similar increases in muscular strength without the need for high levels of discomfort and physical effort, which are associated with failure training. Objective We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of failure versus non-failure training on muscular strength. Methods Five electronic databases were searched using terms related to failure and non-failure training. Studies were deemed eligible for inclusion if they met the following criteria: (1) randomised and non-randomised studies; (2) resistance training intervention where repetitions were performed to failure; (3) a non-failure comparison group; (4) resistance training interventions with a total of ≥3 exercise sessions; and (5) muscular strength assessment pre- and post-training. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to pool the results of the included studies and generate a weighted mean effect size (ES). Results Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis (combined studies). Training volume was controlled in four studies (volume controlled), while the remaining four studies did not control for training volume (volume uncontrolled). Non-failure training resulted in a 0.6–1.3 % greater strength increase than failure training. A small pooled effect favouring non-failure training was found (ES = 0.34; p = 0.02). Significant small pooled effects on muscular strength were also found for non-failure versus failure training with compound exercises (ES = 0.37–0.38; p = 0.03) and trained participants (ES = 0.37; p = 0.049). A slightly larger pooled effect favouring non-failure training was observed when volume-uncontrolled studies were included (ES = 0.41; p = 0.047). No significant effect was found for the volume-controlled studies, although there was a trend favouring non-failure training. The methodological quality of the included studies in the review was found to be moderate. Exercise compliance was high for the studies where this was reported (n = 5), although limited information on adverse events was provided. Conclusion Overall, the results suggest that despite statistically significant effects on muscular strength being found for non-failure compared with failure training, the small percentage of improvement shown for non-failure training is unlikely to be meaningful. Therefore, it appears that similar increases in muscular strength can be achieved with failure and non-failure training. Furthermore, it seems unnecessary to perform failure training to maximise muscular strength; however, if incorporated into a programme, training to failure should be performed sparingly to limit the risks of injuries and overtraining.
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Este livro é o primeiro material publicado em língua portuguesa que aborda o assunto treinamento resistido manual. Apesar de parecer um conceito novo de treinamento, as primeiras publicações em língua inglesa datam do início da década de 1980. O treinamento resistido manual é uma metodologia que utiliza a resistência imposta por um parceiro de treino para a execução dos exercícios resistidos, ou seja, utiliza resistência manual. Em uma abordagem mais popular, é a musculação sem utilização de equipamentos. Diversos estudos internacionais observaram benefícios decorrentes dessa modalidade de treinamento, o que respalda sua utilização, sendo já bem-difundida nos Estados Unidos. Este livro traz aos leitores, em linguagem simples e agradável, uma análise dos estudos mais relevantes sobre o assunto, bem como sua aplicabilidade, vantagens, limitações, recomendações aos envolvidos, diretrizes para o treinamento e diversos exemplos de exercícios ilustrados.
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The primary aim of this study was to compare rating of perceived exertion (RPE) values measuring repetitions in reserve (RIR) at particular intensities of 1RM in experienced (ES) and novice squatters (NS). Further, this investigation compared average velocity between ES and NS at the same intensities. Twenty-nine individuals (24.0±3.4yrs.) performed a one-repetition maximum (1RM) squat followed by a single repetition with loads corresponding to 60, 75, and 90% of 1RM and an 8-repetition set at 70% 1RM. Average velocity was recorded at 60, 75, and 90% 1RM and on the first and last repetitions of the 8-repetition set. Subjects reported an RPE value that corresponded to an RIR value (RPE-10 = 0-RIR, RPE-9 = 1-RIR, and so forth). Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: 1) ES (n=15, training age: 5.2±3.5yrs.), 2) NS (n=14, training age: 0.4±0.6yrs.). The mean of the average velocities for ES were slower (P<0.05) than NS at 100% and 90% 1RM. However, there were no differences (P>0.05) between groups at 60%, 75%, or for the 1st and 8th repetitions at 70% 1RM. Additionally, ES recorded greater RPE at 1RM than NS (P=0.023). In ES there was a strong inverse relationship between average velocity and RPE at all percentages (r= -0.88, P<0.001), and a strong inverse correlation in NS between average velocity and RPE at all intensities (r=-0.77,P=0.001). Our findings demonstrate an inverse relationship between average velocity and RPE/RIR. ES exhibited slower average velocity and higher RPE at 1RM than NS, signaling greater efficiency at high intensities. The RIR-based RPE scale is a practical method to regulate daily training load and provide feedback during a 1RM test.
[Purpose] This study focused on the effects of Manual Resistance Training (MRT) performed by elderly people for their lower extremities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 53 elderly persons. The isometric strength of the right knee-extensor of the subjects in the intervention group was assessed after MRT once a week for 12 weeks followed by MRT, twice a week for 12 more weeks. Subjects in the control group only received the muscle strength measurement and did not perform MRT. [Results] From the baseline, the muscle strength of the intervention group significantly increased by 13.2% after 12 weeks, and 29% after 24 weeks. A significant difference was observed between the muscle strength of the intervention group and that of the control group. Those with greater muscle strength experienced relatively low muscle strength augmentation, compared with those with less muscle strength. [Conclusion]MRT resulted in improvements in muscle strength, similar to the results reported for a prior intervention with a resistance training method. The intensity of the MRT was inferred to be more than 70% of 1-repetition maximum. MRT may have less impact if it is performed by people with relatively high muscle strength.
The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of intensity on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during a multiple-set resistance exercise session. Fourteen men with previous experience in resistance training (22.9 ± 3.8 years) performed 2 experimental sessions in random order: resistance exercise at 50% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) (E50%) and resistance exercise at 70% of 1RM (E70%). In both sessions, 5 exercises (bench press, bent-over row, frontal raises, arm curl, and overhead triceps extension) were performed in 3 sets of 12, 9, and 6 repetitions, respectively. Active muscle RPEs were measured after each repetition using the OMNI-Resistance Exercise Scale (OMNI-RES). In the 3 sets of 5 exercises, the RPE was higher at E70% than that at E50%. The differences in RPE between intensities were observed in both the first and the sixth repetitions for each exercise. In the E70% session, the RPE increased between sets in all exercises, whereas it did not change in the E50% session. In conclusion, the RPE was higher at 70% of 1RM than that at 50% of 1RM. Moreover, in a multiple-set prescription, the RPE did not change between sets with 50% of 1RM, whereas the RPE increased between sets with 70% of 1RM. These findings suggest that RPE can be effectively used to prescribe and monitor resistance exercise intensity during an entire multiple-set exercise session in young men with previous experience in resistance training.