ArticlePDF Available

Microlearning an Evolving Elearning Trend


Abstract and Figures

This article is analyzing the meanings of the micro-learning trend, as they have emerged and developed over the last few years. Exploring how the term micro-learning is used to organize and order a set of pedagogical and technological phenomena and concepts in new and interesting ways, it is brought into focus the most popular and widely used learning management platforms that embrace this concept.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Scientific Bulletin
Vol. XXII No 1(43) 2017
Luminiţa GIURGIU
This article is analyzing the meanings of the micro-learning
trend, as they have emerged and developed over the last few years.
Exploring how the term micro-learning is used to organize and order
a set of pedagogical and technological phenomena and concepts in
new and interesting ways, it is brought into focus the most popular
and widely used learning management platforms that embrace this
Micro-learning, elearning, micro-content
1. Why micro-learning?
Social, economic and technological
everyday changes trigger new concepts and
strategies which support learning. Education
needs transformations in an appropriate
way in which we live, work and learn.
Recent studies indicate that a short content
may increase information retention by 20 %.
Researchers at Dresden University of
Technology in Germany have launched a
study to examine this issue.
It is well known that most e-learning
materials format is a piece of content,
followed by an evaluation question.
The study’s goal was to see if students
respond better to these questions when they
watched several small pieces of content
answering many appropriate questions, or
when they watched large amounts of
content with fewer evaluation sections.
So, the e-learning material was sixteen
chapters of content and the students were
divided into three groups, as following: the
first group responded to a question after
reading each of the 16 chapters; the second
group answered four questions after reading
each group of four chapters; group number
three received eight questions after each
half of the original text. Passing through
this first stage, in the second stage students
have supported the same test of multiple
choice items covering the whole course
Results demonstrated that smaller
slices content helped participants to better
retain information and better perform in
each of the two stages:
the first group took 28 % less time
to answer their assessment questions than
the third group, and did 20 % better;
the first group performed 8 %
better on the comprehensive test than the
students in the third group had to
read again more than three times the
number of sections than the first group did;
in the second stage of the study,
the first group accomplished 22.2 % better
DOI: 10.1515/bsaft-2017-0003
© 2017. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License.
Download Date | 7/24/17 2:34 PM
than the third group and 8.4 % better than
the second group.
Giving students a long content at once
leads to very little interaction between
information and the learner. This way, the
content may exceed the capacity of working
memory and drives to uncertainty in the
learning environment. Another facet of the
problem is that, knowing what is expected
with introduced information is crucial in an
easier retention.
So it has been proved that micro-
learning offers students the opportunity to
more easily absorb and retain the
information provided by the course lessons
and activities that are more manageable and
digestible. Micro-learning or Micro-
eLearning education is often referred to as
bite-sized because the entire educational
process is detached in small chunks that
usually last no longer than a few minutes.
The way micro-learning addresses
short size of learning content that is made
up of fine-grained, interconnected and
loosely-coupled short learning activities,
determines the focus on the individual
learning needs (Singh, 2014).
2. Micro-learning Associated Concepts
Influencing each other, micro-learning
is closely related to the following concepts:
Micro-content Micro-learning
and micro-content together define how to
deliver a quantity of knowledge and
information, structured in several short
chapters, fine-grained, well-defined and
interconnected. Micro-content refers to
information whose length is determined by
a single topic, content that covers a single
idea or concept and is accessible via a
single URL, being suitable for presentation
in handheld devices, emails, web-browsers.
Thus, micro-content is the part that
integrates into micro-learning.
Social software Through its main
feature to support social interaction, social
software brings together individuals with
different interests and different previous
knowledge via social networks, based on
collaboration. Micro-learning can be
supported by social software because it
allows on the one hand the rapid delivery of
content in short and flexible formats and,
on the other hand social interactions based
on that content.
Web 2.0 Since Web 2.0 encourages
the teaching and learning processes based
on personalization and collaboration with
students taking responsibility for learning,
currently, Web 2.0 platforms are used for
professional development, enhancing
education in the classroom. An important
aspect of Web 2.0 that micro-learning can
rely on is the active participation of
students in the process of co-creation and
distribution of content.
Informal learning One of the
challenges already launched in contemporary
society is the need for rethinking education,
by articulating three ways: formal, non-
formal and informal education. As a
permanent dimension of human existence,
education must have a global character,
effectively combining the formal education
with the non-formal and informal. Because
micro-learning does not require a long-term
involvement of the student's attention and
every day activities, it can be useful to
learning activities as needed, providing a
bridge between formal and informal
Personal Learning Environments
Personal Learning Environments (PLE),
especially in contrast to traditional learning
management systems, are particularly
successful and are about to change the
paradigm of learning and teaching. There
are some aspects where these changes are
more obvious or that seem most important.
In short, learning in PLE brings changes
concerning: (1) the role of student as the
creator of active and self-organized content,
(2) personalization thanks to the support
and data of community members, (3) learning
content is an unlimited collection, (4) the
crucial role of social participation, (5) the
significance of self-organized learning to
the pedagogical culture of the organization
Download Date | 7/24/17 2:34 PM
and (6) technological aspects of using
software tools and grouping of social
multiple sources.
Work-based learning The
contribution that work-based learning has in
sustaining economic competitiveness and
beyond is widely recognized, so
organizations that have training systems
well developed and, in particular, well
established systems of apprenticeship, tend
to achieve better performance. Following
this idea, the term micro-training could be
the micro-learning equivalent, related to the
work-based learning. The real added value
of micro-training in combination with Web
2.0 and social software is its ability to
integrate short formats with user-generated
content and social interaction.
3. Micro-learning Tools and Platforms
3.1. Grovo
The micro-learning approach used in
this learning management system is the
exposure of the information bit by bit, in a
concentrated form. For each theme are
presented the most important issues on the
one hand, and on the other hand, is exposed
the whole picture. The method is greeted by
students through a favorable response,
obtaining better results and retaining
information presented much easier. Lessons
or learning units, which are taken by students,
by watching short videos, cover a wide range
of topics such as market strategies online or
methods for the management of a project,
and other topics of interest such as social
networks dynamic. In the Grovo environment
videos between 60 and 90 seconds are
created every day, so teams within
corporations to be constantly updated with
the most useful technology on the market.
In addition to the over 4,500 existing
video in the platform, each company has the
opportunity to record their own videos, thus
projecting adaptability to the specific needs
of each environment separately. So, if the
intention is to deliver certain information to
employees of companies that were not
already covered by those conducting
educational materials, the situation is easily
remedied as Grovo platform is flexible in
this regard. Using the Create Training
option, managers can tailor content
provided by Grovo according to their needs.
Thus, they can reorder clips, edit titles,
descriptions or questions within them can
add chapters and can combine existing
elements with additional ones created by
The system can be configured so
users can be added, grouped or removed.
There are many tools available at the
instructor level that can monitor the
progress of each user, taking account also
of their strengths and weaknesses.
Depending on their level, each student can
advance to a higher level.
Not only individual progress, but that
of an entire team can be easily monitored
by the teacher using the Dashboard section.
As each student can scroll through lessons
at their own pace, the birth of discrepancies
between the levels attained by each is
inevitable. Therefore, the platform provides
the instructor a graph that presents an
overview of the learning situation. He can
see who carried out the activity and who is
not, who fell and who promoted and who
did not start at all the activity.
3.2. Coursmos platform
Coursmos is another online learning
platform that supports micro-learning.
It hosts several hundred micro-courses
online courses, which are divided into
smaller, more manageable units. These
lessons are characterized by minutes-long
duration that learners can do on their own
time, even using the smartphone.
Personalized learning experience perfectly
combined with any curriculum is a very
attractive way to educate.
The platform learning unit is the
micro-course, a format that has seven video
lessons, for three-five minutes each
(see Figure no. 1).
Download Date | 7/24/17 2:34 PM
Figure no. 1 Example of a Coursmos window
The predictions concerning the future
of learning, made by the Coursmos
platform, are quite simple and common
sense; given the environment where digital
technology will continue to grow, the facts
about learning are as following: “learning is
an added value and so people’s careers have
built-in learning”, “Learning ads value.
Time spent learning is regarded as a
positive boost to performance improvement”,
Learning will no longer be just an add-on
to corporate life; it will be the source of
power at work” (Kostochka, 2016). We
witness “the beginning of the learning
economy” and the “miniaturization of
everything”. That is why “learning has been
miniaturized to fit the bits and pieces in our
3.3. Yammer platform
Yammer is a closed circuit social
networking platform for companies. The
users of an organization can share
information, experiences and can work
together on projects, can comment, provide
feedback, etc. They can also create groups,
subgroups, communities, blogs, etc.
(see Figura no. 2).
As people are encouraged to engage
in conversation, but be sure that the
information remains within the
organization, Yammer is as Facebook for
business”. Yammer accelerates processes
just by this opportunity to discuss a
problem anywhere and anytime in an
informal manner, which stimulates
creativity, non invasive but still
controllable. Another interesting detail
related to Yammer is that users cannot
make accounts using generalist email
addresses, such Gmail or Yahoo,
(see Figure no. 3).
Yammer is a service available in
freemium mode (basic version is free,
premium version with money) and there are
applications for all mobile platforms
iPhone, Windows Phone, Android,
Download Date | 7/24/17 2:34 PM
Figure no. 2 groups
Figure no. 3 Yammer networking platform
4. Conclusion
In a globalized business world, with
expectations of increasingly large and
increasing influence of social media and
networking, organizations are in the
position to look for new ways to engage
employees in learning and organization
problem solving. The use of social media
and micro-learning offer many possibilities,
not only to draw attention to key messages,
but also to create a collaborative
environment focused on improving business.
Based on the facts and arguments
above, micro-learning can be described as a
pragmatic innovation for lifelong learning.
Pragmatic because it is congruent with
current information and communication
models and can be easily adapted to support
individual learning needs, especially in
informal learning contexts. Innovation
because it offers a new way to design and
organize learning, such as learning in small
steps and small units of content, structure
and sequencing based on the co-creation of
content, generation and use of content
through social interaction
(, 2017).
Also, as another conclusion, it is
interesting to compare the new micro-
learning option with the old one, the macro-
learning way. Speaking in terms of time
and scope, the differences between micro-
learning and macro-learning are condensed
in Figure no. 4.
Download Date | 7/24/17 2:34 PM
Figure no. 4 Comparison between micro and macro-learning
There is a general perception that the
new generation of employees will be more
technology oriented than previous ones.
They are self-confident, open, optimistic
and receptive to new ideas and work styles.
They are the first generation in history
always connectedand to keep them close,
employers will be forced to rethink their
learning and communication strategies.
Kostochka, R. (2016). What is the future of E-Learning?, available at:
Singh, R. P. (2014). 17 Awesome resources on micro-learning, available at:
Download Date | 7/24/17 2:34 PM
... While there have been a handful of successful research studies on the application of micro-learning to enhance teaching and learning experiences in the informal education sector (such as professional development, including on-job-training), there is limited literature on the application of microlearning in the formal education sector. Moreover, the majority of research focuses on its efficacy, ______________________________________________________________________________________ acceptability, course design as well as micro-learning architecture; and little has been done in the area of deployment; as such literature on micro-learning deployment approaches is limited (Ahmad, 2017;Giurgiu, 2017). Hence, knowledge of how to deploy micro-learning services and technologies is limited as well. ...
... Specifically, the African context is unique in terms of skills, budget, as well as infrastructure (Odumosu, 2017). In addition, while micro-learning, mobile learning, and eLearning are closely related, philosophically and technologically they are different; the design and development of eLearning and mLearning content and experience are tailored toward the use of computers and mobiles (smartphones, tablets) respectively, while microlearning is standardized to utilize both media (Giurgiu, 2017). Also, unlike eLearning and MLearning, micro-learning properties standardize the design and development of content and activities (Hug, 2005). ...
... Hence, a micro-learning course is made up of a multitude of micro-units (Bruck et al., 2012;Kadhem, 2017). Also, units of micro-learning content are simplified and shortened to be compatible with the size and capacity of mobiles (Giurgiu, 2017;TalentCards, 2019). The simplicity and specificity are essential for digestion, retention, as well as course completion (Kadhem, 2017). ...
Full-text available
Contextualizing Micro-Learning Deployment: An Evaluation of Platforms for the Higher Education Institutions in Tanzania Abstract Technology plays a significant role in any Micro-learning deployment. Micro-learning is a modern learning approach hailed for improved learners' completion and retention capability relies on technologies of various types to offer improved learning experiences to learners anywhere, anytime, and at any pace. Significantly, technology forms the backbone of all transactions that happens during the overall conduct of the course. Specifically, micro-learning platforms of various types offer course managers and educators features needed for managing lessons, collaborating with learners as well as monitoring their progress. Unfortunately, due to the novelty of the micro-learning research, there is scarce literature guiding institutions and decision-makers concerning technological choices for the right deployment. This paper proposes eleven platforms for micro-learning deployment in higher learning institutions in Tanzania. Building on the earlier situation analysis conducted in the HEIs in Tanzania by the scholar, it is discovered that the context is characterized by lacking key technical and pedagogical skills, limited budget as well as unfavorable policy environments towards technology-mediated learning of various types. Hence, influenced by the Design Science Research approach as well as Critical Theory of Technologies, and a stage-based methodology for software evaluation was used. Specifically, thirty-nine platforms from key industry trends were evaluated by involving providers’ websites as well as customer reviews and demos. The proposed eleven platforms are generically relevant for the Tanzanian context as they are affordable, customizable, and functionally able to offer quality micro-learning services. The decision to apply any of the recommended platforms depends on the availability of skills, budget, and policy directives as well as learners' context. Hence, the paper adds knowledge to the micro-learning deployment domain as well as offers practical guidance to those intending to deploy micro-learning services in their institutions. Keywords: Micro-Learning deployment, Micro-learning, Critical Theory of Technology, Design Science Research, Tanzania Higher Education Institutions, stage-based methodology
... The theoretical part of the research has shown that although micro-learning is an emerging trend in formal education, especially in higher school, there already exists a number of researches who state the convenience and time-efficiency of micro-learning strategy (Javorcik & Polasek, 2019) and prove the 18-20 % positive impact of micro content on information retention (Giurgiu, 2017;Mohammed et al., 2018). ...
... Its efficiency is determined by cognitive psychology which states that working memory capacity is limited, with human mind being able to focus for no more than 8-20 minutes. Therefore, small pieces of information are absorbed and digested more efficiently, while large amount of data lead to cognitive overload and reduces the interaction between information and the student hence frustrating the learning process (Giurgiu, 2017). It's particularly relevant with the reference to the millennial student's characteristics mentioned above (short attention span, perception fragmentation). ...
... A tendência mundial do ensino digital veio para ficar, e o celular é hoje um recurso acessível à grande parte da sociedade e aliado na educação dos alunos quando embasado em uma proposta pedagógica bem consolidada (SOUZA, 2015). O microlearning (do inglês, micro aprendizagem) é uma abordagem de ensino que transmite pequenas doses de conhecimentos em um curto espaço de tempo, utilizando recursos digitais tais como podcasts, vídeos, tutoriais, textos e jogos diversos (GIURGIU, 2017). Por meio do celular, utilizando o método microlearning, um conteúdo complexo é construído através de pequenas partes, em forma de sessões de aprendizagem. ...
Full-text available
Resumo: A gamificação propõe utilizar elementos de jogos em ambiente de não jogo. O desenvolvimento da trilha de gamificação denominada BIOtinga tem por objetivo promover o conhecimento sobre a biodiversidade da Caatinga e da região semiárida brasileira, de forma interativa. A trilha de gamificação elaborada é sobre uma criança sertaneja vivendo uma aventura em uma fazenda na Caatinga, onde contará com a ajuda de animais da região para combater um vilão que destrói o ambiente. A proposta pedagógica contribui para o uso de tecnologias no ambiente escolar, para favorecer a compreensão dos conteúdos sobre a biodiversidade da Caatinga, e para promover no processo educativo maior interatividade e dinâmica. Palavras-chave: Metodologia Ativa; Ensino Offline; Ensino Fundamental; Semiárido; Jogos. Abstract: Gamification proposes to use game elements in a non-game environment. The development of the gamification trail called BIOtinga aims to promote knowledge about the biodiversity of the Caatinga and the Brazilian semi-arid region, in an interactive way. The gamification trail elaborated is about a country boy living an adventure on a farm in the Caatinga, where he will count on the help of animals from the region to fight a villain who destroys the environment. The pedagogical proposal contributes to the use of technologies in the school environment, to favor the understanding of the contents about Caatinga biodiversity, and to promote greater interactivity and dynamics in the educational process.
... Acknowledging their learners' needs and limitations is important for HRD professionals (e.g. Generation Z's short attention span) while designing training and learning initiatives as sometimes lengthy regular courses, or even webinars that last a long time, may not provide the expected outcomes (Giurgiu 2017). Therefore, an alternative approach to overcome this problem is micro-learning. ...
Undoubtedly, we live in an era of global social, business and economic uncertainty due to the Covid-19 outbreak. The sudden lockdown of many businesses and educational institutions necessitated the need of e-learning more than ever before. E-learning is a well-known training and learning approach, and well-practiced, by many businesses globally to support and enhance their employees’ learning experience. E-learning represents the safest way to train in times of global crisis events, as it allows the trainers and the trainees to virtually interact through an online platform which serves as the e-classroom, free of the dangers entailed to physical interaction. Yet, it is debatable the extent to which this sudden shift to online learning represents the future of workplace training and learning or just being a temporary alteration for human resource development. By all means, the Covid-19 outbreak is expected to accelerate learning and work reinvention, resulting to multiple implications for businesses in relation to institutional resilience. Humankind could learn from its history to fight the pandemic, while HRD professionals could reflect on previous uncertain times to inform their current practices.
... The term "e-learning" was used in year 1999 as an alternative of the concepts "online learning" and "virtual learning". The new technologies of 21 st century and the globalization of the society enabled the transformation of e-learning to create new innovative forms as micro-learning (small steps for education in digital media environment forming separate sessions) [7], gamification (including gaming mechanism for developing educational content) [8], personalized learning (for supporting learners with specific needs) [9], etc. ...
Full-text available
The article deals with technological organization and functional features of a combined e-learning environment based on social and cloud computing. Two subsystems are determined for user access and requests processing with discussion of the principles of access regulation to different information resources. The role of the e-learning management system which supports procedures for correct registration, identification, authentication and authorization is determined. A summarization of possible security problems is made in the last section of the paper.
... Materi dalam e-learning disajikan berupa bagian-bagian. Sebagaimana hasil penelitian (Giurgiu, 2017) menunjukkan bahwa konten belajar yang berupa irisan-irisan materi terbukti membatu pebelajar untuk mengingat materi lebih baik. ...
Full-text available
The development of mobile device technology among High School (SMA) users and its equivalent has not been maximized maximally to support the achievement of effective and efficient learning goals. The purpose of this service activity is to provide training to high school / MA / SMK teachers in the form of the ability to recognize, understand and develop micro teaching materials (microlearning objects). Training activities are carried out by using a blended training model that is a combination of face-to-face training activities and online training. Face-to-face activities use lecture, discussion and online game methods, while online training is in the form of a study of training materials and independent training. The results obtained in the form of the ability of participants to understand, design and develop micro teaching materials using mobile devices they have. Perkembangan teknologi mobile device di kalangan pengguna Sekolah Menengah Atas (SMA) dan sederajat belum dioptimalkan secara maksimal untuk mendukung pencapaian tujuan pembelajaran yang efektif dan efisien. Tujuan dari kegiatan pengabdian ini yaitu memberikan pelatihan kepada para guru SMA/MA/SMK berupa kemampuan untuk mengenali, memahami dan mengembangkan bahan ajar mikro (microlearning object). Kegiatan pelatihan dilakukan dengan menggunakan model blended training yakni perpaduan antara kegiatan pelatihan secara tatap muka dan pelatihan secara online. Kegiatan tatap muka menggunakan metode ceramah, diskusi dan game online, sedangkan pelatihan online berupa kegiatan kajian bahan pelatihan dan latihan mandiri. Hasil yang diperoleh berupa kemampuan peserta dalam memahami, merancang dan mengembangkan bahan ajar mikro menggunakan perangkat mobile device yang dimilikinya.
Full-text available
Kebijakan dan manajemen Aparatur Sipil Negara berdasarkan merit system yang menekankan pada aspek kualifikasi, kompetensi, dan kinerja. Dalam rangka percepatan pengembangan kompetensi pegawai, BPSDM Hukum dan HAM telah menerapkan metode e-learning. Tulisan ini membahas strategi pengembangan pemanfaatan e-learning dalam peningkatan kompetensi pegawai Kementerian Hukum dan HAM. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian desk research dengan pendekatan kualitatif. Dari hasil analisis diketahui bahwa pemanfaatan e-learning menjadi alternatif pengembangan kompetensi dalam memberikan kesempatan diklat kepada seluruh pegawai untuk meningkatkan pengetahuannya, pihak penyelenggara harus melakukan berbagai strategi untuk mengembangkan pemanfaatan e-learning supaya tujuan pengembangan kompetensi dapat dicapai secara optimal berupa peningkatan keterampilan kerja. Adapun saran kebijakan antara lain: optimalisasi aplikasi CBHRIS untuk pemetaan kompetensi, menerapkan blended learning serta mengembangkan full e-learning untuk jenis kompetensi keahlian teknis, mengembangkan dan menerapkan modernisasi teknologi e-learning, menjadikan e-learning sebagai syarat mengikuti diklat klasikal, memperbanyak konten-konten pengetahuan dalam sistem e-learning.
This study investigated the impact of a chatbot-based micro-learning system on students’ learning motivation and performance. A quasi-experiment was conducted with 99 first-year students taking part in a basic computer course on number system conversion. The students were assigned to a traditional learning group or a chatbot-based micro-learning group. After the experiment, both groups achieved a comparable performance, suggesting that students are sufficiently competent to learn independently in the chatbot-based learning environment without the need for continuous face-to-face delivery. Moreover, students in the chatbot learning group attained significantly higher intrinsic motivation than the traditional learning group with perceived choice and perceived value as core predictors of intrinsic motivation. Further analysis with the Johnson-Neyman procedure revealed differences on interaction between the perceived choice and the learning environments. For students with a high initial perceived choice (>=5.1), chatbot-based learning further enhances their post choice motivation whereas for students with a low initial perceived choice (<=3.0), the traditional classroom is more suitable to enhance their post choice motivation. The implications of the findings can help instructors to incorporate chatbot-based learning in the classroom.
Background Skin cancer is the most common cancer; survival of the most serious skin cancers and malignant melanomas depends on early detection. Early detection relies on accessibility to clinical skin examination (CSE). Primary care nurse practitioners (PCNPs) are well-positioned to conduct CSEs; however, they require further education on CSE and have time constraints for continuing education. A digitally delivered intervention grounded in microlearning is a promising approach to deliver new information over a brief period. Objective Our objective was to develop and explore the feasibility of implementing a 1-week digital video intervention with content on CSE skills, defined as melanoma risk assessment, head-to-toe skin examination, and pigmented lesion assessment, for PCNPs. Specific aims were as follows: (1) Aim 1: to develop three microlearning-based melanoma videos with content on CSE that are suitable for digital delivery to PCNPs in various formats and (2) Aim 2: to assess the feasibility of the video intervention, including enrollment and retention rates, adherence, and acceptability and usability of the video intervention. Methods For Aim 1, the research team created storyboards for videos that addressed each CSE skill. An expert panel of three dermatologists reviewed the storyboards and videos for relevance, comprehension, and clarity using the content validity index (CVI). The panel evaluated the usability of the video intervention delivery by Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) and Vimeo using the System Usability Scale (SUS) and technical video production using Beaudin and Quick’s Quality Evaluation of Video (QEV). Aim 2 evaluated enrollment and retention rates of PCNPs, based on metrics from previous studies of CSE in the literature, and video intervention adherence. SUS and the Attitudes toward Web-based Continuing Learning Survey (AWCL) assessed usability and acceptability. Results CVI scores indicated relevance and clarity for each video: mean scores ranged from 3.79 to 4, where 4 indicated the video was highly relevant and very clear. The integration of REDCap and Vimeo was usable: the SUS score was 96, where 0 was the worst and 100 was the best. The digital delivery of the videos was rated as exceptional on all five technical items: the mean score was 5, where scores ranged from 1 (poor) to 5 (exceptional). Of the 32 PCNPs who were sent emails, 12 enrolled (38%) and, out of these 12, 10 (83%) completed the intervention and the surveys. Video intervention adherence was ≤50%. Participants rated the usability as better (mean 85.8, SD 10.6; better=70-90) and favorably ranked the acceptability of the AWCL’s constructs of perceived usefulness (mean 5.26, SD 0.08), perceived ease of use (mean 5.40, SD 0.41), behavior (mean 5.53, SD 0.12), and affection (mean 5.77, SD 0.04), where scores ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). Conclusions The video intervention was feasible to deliver to PCNPs using a digital, microlearning approach. The findings provide support for using the videos as an intervention in a future pilot randomized trial targeting behavioral CSE outcomes among PCNPs and other primary care providers.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper presents the results of research on the incorporation of microlearning courses into the education of future teachers at the Pedagogical Faculty of the University of Ostrava. It compares the effectiveness of microlearning and eLearning courses. It also provides additional information on student activity in differently designed courses and their motivation to study a particular e-course. In order to determine the effectiveness of the two approaches, both full-time and distance students participated in the project.
17 Awesome resources on micro-learning
  • R P Singh
Singh, R. P. (2014). 17 Awesome resources on micro-learning, available at:
What is the future of E-Learning?
  • R Kostochka
Kostochka, R. (2016). What is the future of E-Learning?, available at:
What is the future of E-Learning?, available at: 17 Awesome resources on micro-learning, available at:
  • R Kostochka
  • R P Singh
Kostochka, R. (2016). What is the future of E-Learning?, available at: Singh, R. P. (2014). 17 Awesome resources on micro-learning, available at: