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Abstract

S-phenylpiracetam is an optical isomer of phenotropil, which is a clinically used nootropic drug that improves physical condition and cognition. Recently, it was shown that S-phenylpiracetam is a selective dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor that does not influence norepinephrine (NE) or serotonin (5-HT) receptors. The aim of the present study was to study the effects of S-phenylpiracetam treatment on body weight gain, blood glucose and leptin levels, and locomotor activity. Western diet (WD)-fed mice and obese Zucker rats were treated daily with peroral administration of S-phenylpiracetam for 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Weight gain and plasma metabolites reflecting glucose metabolism were measured. Locomotor activity was detected in an open-field test. S-phenylpiracetam treatment significantly decreased body weight gain and fat mass increase in the obese Zucker rats and in the WD-fed mice. In addition, S-phenylpiracetam reduced the plasma glucose and leptin concentration and lowered hyperglycemia in a glucose tolerance test in both the mice and the rats. S-phenylpiracetam did not influence locomotor activity in the obese Zucker rats or in the WD-fed mice. The results demonstrate that S-phenylpiracetam reduces body weight gain and improves adaptation to hyperglycemia without stimulating locomotor activity. Our findings suggest that selective DAT inhibitors, such as S-phenylpiracetam, could be potentially useful for treating obesity in patients with metabolic syndrome with fewer adverse health consequences compared to other anorectic agents.

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... In our previous experiments, we showed that the antidepressant effects and the increased locomotor activity induced by phenotropil were observed for both isomers and were more pronounced with R-PhP (Zvejniece et al. 2011). R-PhP inhibits dopamine (DA) uptake and reuptake (Sommer et al. 2014), and R-PhP is 3.5 times more active than S-phenylpiracetam (S-PhP) in in vitro assays of DAT binding (Zvejniece et al. 2017). ...
... For the first time, we showed that a reasonable amount of R-PhP could be detected in the brain 15 min after a single po administration, while about 20% of maximal concentration (estimated brain concentration about at 10 µM) was present in the brain even after 6 h. The target profiling screening pointed at DAT as the only significant molecular target for R-PhP at 10 µM, which is consistent with previously published results that R-PhP binds to DAT with 16 µM calculated Ki value (Zvejniece et al. 2017). Taken together, R-PhP at a dose of 50 mg/kg can reach brain tissue in concentrations that are sufficient to target DAT even 6 h after administration. ...
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R-phenylpiracetam (R-PhP, (4R)-2-(4-phenyl-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide) is an optical isomer of phenotropil, a clinically-used nootropic drug that improves physical condition and cognition. Recently, R-PhP was shown to bind to the dopamine transporter (DAT). Since growing evidence suggests that dysfunction of the dopaminergic system is associated with persistent neuroinflammation, the aim of this study was to determine whether R-PhP, an inhibitor of DAT, has neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in male mice. The pharmacokinetic profiles of R-PhP in mouse plasma and its bioavailability in brain tissue were assessed. To study possible molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of R-PhP, target profiling was performed using radioligand binding and enzymatic activity assays. To clarify the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of R-PhP, we used a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxaemia model characterized by reduced body temperature and overexpression of inflammatory genes in the brain. In addition, the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of R-PhP were tested using carrageenan-induced paw oedema and formalin-induced paw-licking tests. R-PhP (50 mg/kg) reached the brain tissue 15 min after intraperitoneal (ip) and peroral (po) injections. The maximal concentration of R-PhP in the brain tissues was 28 µg/g and 18 µg/g tissue after ip and po administration, respectively. In radioligand binding assays, DAT was the only significant molecular target found for R-PhP. A single ip injection of R-PhP significantly attenuated the LPS-induced body temperature reduction and the overexpression of inflammatory genes, such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Seven-day po pretreatment with R-PhP dose-dependently reduced paw oedema and the antinociceptive response, as shown by the carrageenan-induced paw oedema test. In addition, R-PhP decreased the nociceptive response during the inflammatory phase in the formalin-induced paw-licking test. Our study showed that R-PhP possesses neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects, demonstrating the potential of DAT inhibitors as effective therapeutics.
... All previously published works on carphedon were performed with the racemate of this drug. It has only recently been published [16] that the differences exist in the biological effects of both stereoisomers. The aim of the study was to compare stereoselective pharmacological activities of the R-and S-enantiomers of carphedon in various behavioral tests. ...
... The results demonstrate that this compound reduces body weight gain and improves adaptation to hyperglycemia without stimulating locomotor activity. S-Carphedon could be potentially useful for treating obesity in patients with metabolic syndrome with fewer adverse health consequences compared to other anorectic agents [16]. ...
Article
Carphedon is a phenyl derivative of the nootropic drug piracetam (Nootropil) and is effective in increasing physical endurance and cold resistance and is used for amnesia treatment. It was developed in Russia as a stimulant to keep astronauts awake on long missions, and occasionally used in Russia as a nootropic prescription for various types of neurological disease. It became well known a couple years ago when a leading nootropic supplier in California started selling it on the Internet as a supplement and a bunch of athletes got kicked out of the Olympics for illegal using it. Carphedon was found to activate the operant behavior more powerfully, to remove psychodepressant effects of diazepam, to inhibit post-rotational nystagmus, and to prevent the development of retrograde amnesia. Unlike piracetam, carphedon exhibits a specific anticonvulsant action. When given in high doses, produces psychodepressant effects. It is also claimed to increase physical stamina and provide improved tolerance to cold. As a result, it appears on the lists of banned substances issued by the World Anti-Doping Agency.
... To detect the locomotor activity of the mice at 2, 10, and 13 months of age, the openfield test was performed as described previously [34]. In addition, time spent by mice in the center zone was recorded as a measure of anxiety-like behavior. ...
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Sigma-1 receptor (Sig1R) has been proposed as a therapeutic target for neurological, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety. Identifying metabolites that are affected by Sig1R absence and cross-referencing them with specific mood-related behaviors would be helpful for the development of new therapies for Sig1R-associated disorders. Here, we examined metabolic profiles in the blood and brains of male CD-1 background Sig1R knockout (KO) mice in adulthood and old age and correlated them with the assessment of depression- and anxiety-related behaviors. The most pronounced changes in the metabolic profile were observed in the plasma of adult Sig1R KO mice. In adult mice, the absence of Sig1R significantly influenced the amino acid, sphingolipid (sphingomyelin and ceramide (18:1)), and serotonin metabolic pathways. There were higher serotonin levels in plasma and brain tissue and higher histamine levels in the plasma of Sig1R KO mice than in their age-matched wild-type counterparts. This increase correlated with the reduced behavioral despair in the tail suspension test and lack of anhedonia in the sucrose preference test. Overall, these results suggest that Sig1R regulates behavior by altering serotonergic and histaminergic systems and the sphingolipid metabolic pathway.
... В экспериментальном исследовании пероральное введение S-фенилпирацетама в течение 8 и 12 недель мышам, находящимся на «западной диете», и крысам линии Zucker, страдающим ожирением, соответственно приводило к значительному уменьшению веса и жировой массы у животных. Кроме того, у них отмечалось снижение уровня глюкозы при проведении ПГТТ [28]. ...
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2-[(Diphenylmethyl) sulfinyl]acetamide (modafinil), prescribed principally to treat narcolepsy, is undergoing assessment for other neuropsychiatric disorders and medical conditions. The neurochemical substrates of modafinil are unresolved. We postulated that modafinil enhances wakefulness by modulating dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET), or serotonin (SERT) transporter activities. In vivo, we determined DAT and NET occupancy by modafinil by positron emission tomography imaging; in vitro, we determined modafinil activity at the DAT, NET, SERT, and rhesus monkey trace amine receptor 1 (TA1). In rhesus monkey, modafinil occupancy of striatal DAT was detected by [(11)C]2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-4-(fluorophenyl)tropane and of thalamic NET by [(11)C](S,S)-2-(alpha-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-benzyl)morpholine. In vitro, modafinil effects in DAT-human embryonic kidney (HEK), NET-HEK, and SERT-HEK cells were investigated alone or combined with the TA1 receptor. Modafinil (i.v.) occupied striatal DAT sites (5 mg/kg: 35 +/- 12%, n = 4; 8 mg/kg: 54 +/- 3%, n = 3). In thalamus, modafinil occupied NET sites (5 mg/kg: 16 +/- 7.8%, n = 6; 8 mg/kg: 44 +/- 12%; n = 2). In vitro, modafinil inhibited [(3)H]dopamine (IC(50) = 6.4 microM), [(3)H]norepinephrine (IC(50) = 35.6 microM), and [(3)H]serotonin (IC(50) > 500 microM) transport via the human DAT, NET, and SERT. Modafinil did not activate the TA1 receptor in TA1-HEK cells, but it augmented a monoamine transporter-dependent enhancement of phenethylamine activation of TA1 in TA1-DAT and TA1-NET cells, but not in TA1-SERT cells. The present data provide compelling evidence that modafinil occupies the DAT and NET in living brain of rhesus monkeys and raise the possibility that modafinil affects wakefulness by interacting with catecholamine transporters in brain.
Article
This study investigated the potential of glucosamine (GlcN) to affect body weight gain and insulin sensitivity in mice normal and at risk for developing diabetes.Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either chow diet (CD) or a high fat diet (HFD) and the half of mice from CD and HFD provided with a solution of 10% (w/v) GlcN. Total cholesterol and nonesterified free fatty acid levels were determined. Glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test were performed. HepG2 human hepatoma cells or differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were stimulated with insulin under normal (5 mM) or high glucose (25 mM) conditions. Effect of GlcN on 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake was determined. JNK and Akt phosphorylation and nucleocytoplasmic protein O-GlcNAcylation were assayed by Western blotting.ResultsGlcN administration stimulated body weight gain (6.58 ± 0.82g vs. 11.1 ± 0.42g), increased white adipose tissue fat mass (percentage of bodyweight, 3.7 ± 0.32g vs. 5.61 ± 0.34g), and impaired the insulin response in livers of mice fed CD. However, GlcN treatment in mice fed HFD led to reduction of body weight gain (18.02 ± 0.66g vs. 16.22 ± 0.96g) and liver weight (2.27 ± 0.1 vs. 1.85 ± 0.12g). Furthermore, obesity-induced insulin resistance and impaired Akt insulin signaling in the liver were alleviated by GlcN administration. GlcN inhibited the insulin response under low (5mM) glucose conditions, whereas it restored the insulin response for Akt phosphorylation under high (25mM) glucose conditions in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells. Uptake of 2-DG increased upon GlcN treatment under 5 mM glucose compared to control, whereas insulin-stimulated 2-DG uptake decreased under 5 mM and increased under 25 mM glucose in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells.Conclusion Our results show that GlcN increased body weight gain and reduced the insulin response for glucose maintenance when fed to normal CD mice, whereas it alleviated body weight gain and insulin resistance in HFD mice. Therefore, the current data support the integrative function of the HBP reflecting the nutrient status of lipids or glucose and further implicate the importance of the pathway in insulin signaling for the regulation of metabolism.
Article
As many diseases have been shown to have several or indirect causes (i.e. are multifactorial) the question is what is the relative importance of each factor in a given disease? Also, what happens when some diseases, although apparently disparate, share causative factors and/or tissue pathologies? Host inflammation response mechanisms are largely shared by the body's different tissues and systems and only recently has special attention been paid to the possible linkages among chronic periodontitis and other chronic systemic diseases. The aim of this review was to consider and discuss the mounting evidence that the basis for the inter-relationships between chronic periodontitis and atheromatous disease and diabetes lie at a fundamental intracellular level, namely oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, as a meeting background among such chronic diseases and periodontitis.
Article
Tesofensine (TE) is a novel triple monoamine re-uptake inhibitor inducing a potent inhibition of the re-uptake process in the synaptic cleft of the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. In recent preclinical and clinical evaluations TE showed a robust anti-obesity effect, but the specific mechanism of this triple monoamine re-uptake inhibitor still needs to be further elucidated. This positron emission tomography (PET) study, using [(11)C]βCIT-FE, aimed to assess the degree of the dopamine transporter (DAT) occupancy, at constant TE plasma levels, following different oral, multiple doses of TE during totally 8-12 days. In addition, the relationships between DAT occupancy and TE plasma concentrations, or doses, were investigated to enable assessment of DAT occupancies in subsequent clinical trials. The results demonstrated that TE induced a dose-dependent blockade of DAT following multiple doses of 0.125-1mg TE at anticipated steady-state conditions. The mean striatal DAT occupancy varied dose-dependently between 18% and 77%. A sigmoid Emax model well described the relationship between striatal DAT occupancy and TE plasma concentrations or doses. It was estimated that the maximum achievable DAT occupancy was about 80% and that half of this effect was accomplished by approximately 0.25mg TE and a plasma drug concentration of 4ng/ml. The results indicated an important mechanism of action of TE on DAT. Further, these results suggest that the previously reported dose-dependent weight loss, in TE treated subjects, was in part mediated by an up-regulation of dopaminergic pathways due to enhanced amounts of synaptic dopamine after blockade of DAT.
Article
Regulation of body weight is organized by distributed brain circuits that use a variety of neuropeptides and transmitters, and that are responsive to endocrine and metabolic signals. Targeting of these circuits with novel pharmaceutical drugs would be helpful additions to lifestyle interventions for the treatment of obesity. The recent FDA approval of two anti-obesity drugs holds promise in a field in which previous drugs were removed from clinical use because of unacceptable psychiatric and cardiovascular side effects. Here, the modes of action of anti-obesity drugs are reviewed.
Article
Pharmacological inhibition of monoamine reuptake transporters has been known for many years as an effective therapy to reduce food intake and body weight in obese subjects. However, most of the marketed drugs failed after a distinct period in clinical use and had to be withdrawn because of serious adverse effects resulting in a negative benefit–risk profile. The most common side effects for this drug class included increases in systemic or pulmonary blood pressure and/or heart rate, cardiac valvulopathies, higher cardiovascular event rates, psychiatric disorders, or high abuse potential. The recent withdrawal of sibutramine as result of its adverse actions on the cardiovascular system highlighted again the problems with this drug class in antiobesity therapy. Recent developments to combine reuptake inhibitors with other drug classes, for example, opioid antagonists seem to be a promising approach to improve the benefit–risk profile of these compounds. This chapter will discuss the history of this drug class in appetite control, its mechanism of action, and the clinical effects of selected drugs from this class.
Article
Phenotropil [N-carbamoylmethyl-4-aryl-2-pyrrolidone (2-(2-oxo-4-phenyl-pyrrolidin-1-yl) acetamide; carphedon)] is clinically used in its racemic form as a nootropic drug that improves physical condition and cognition. The aim of this study was to compare the stereoselective pharmacological activity of R- and S-enantiomers of phenotropil in different behavioural tests. Racemic phenotropil and its enantiomers were tested for locomotor, antidepressant and memory-improving activity and influence on the central nervous system (CNS) using general pharmacological tests in mice. After a single administration, the amount of compound in brain tissue extracts was determined using an ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method in a positive ion electrospray mode. In the open-field test, a significant increase in locomotor activity was observed after a single administration of R-phenotropil at doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg and S-phenotropil at a dose of 50 mg/kg. In the forced swim test, R-phenotropil induced an antidepressant effect at doses of 100 and 50 mg/kg, and S-phenotropil was active at a dose of 100 mg/kg. R-phenotropil significantly enhanced memory function in a passive avoidance response test at a dose of 1 mg/kg; the S-enantiomer did not show any activity in this test. However, the concentrations of R- and S-phenotropils in brain tissue were similar. In conclusion, the antidepressant and increased locomotor activity relies on both R- and S-phenotropils, but the memory-improving activity is only characteristic of R-phenotropil. These results may be important for the clinical use of optically pure isomers of phenotropil.
Article
Morton GJ, Schwartz MW. Leptin and the Central Nervous System Control of Glucose Metabolism. Physiol Rev 91: 389-411, 2011; doi:10.1152/physrev.00007.2010.-The regulation of body fat stores and blood glucose levels is critical for survival. This review highlights growing evidence that leptin action in the central nervous system plays a key role in both processes. Investigation into underlying mechanisms has begun to clarify the physiological role of leptin in the control of glucose metabolism and raises interesting new possibilities for the treatment of diabetes and related disorders.
Article
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and motor hyperactivity. Several lines of research support a crucial role for the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene in this psychiatric disease. Consistently, the most commonly prescribed medications in ADHD treatment are stimulant drugs, known to preferentially act on DAT. Recently, a knock-in mouse [DAT-cocaine insensitive (DAT-CI)] has been generated carrying a cocaine-insensitive DAT that is functional but with reduced dopamine uptake function. DAT-CI mutants display enhanced striatal extracellular dopamine levels and basal motor hyperactivity. Herein, we showed that DAT-CI animals present higher striatal dopamine turnover, altered basal phosphorylation state of dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein 32 kDa (DARPP32) at Thr75 residue, but preserved D(2) receptor (D(2)R) function. However, although we demonstrated that striatal D(1) receptor (D(1)R) is physiologically responsive under basal conditions, its stimulus-induced activation strikingly resulted in paradoxical electrophysiological, behavioral, and biochemical responses. Indeed, in DAT-CI animals, (1) striatal LTP was completely disrupted, (2) R-(+)-6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrobromide (SKF 81297) treatment induced paradoxical motor calming effects, and (3) SKF 81297 administration failed to increase cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)/DARPP32 signaling. Such biochemical alteration selectively affected dopamine D(1)Rs since haloperidol, by blocking the tonic inhibition of D(2)R, unmasked a normal activation of striatal adenosine A(2A) receptor-mediated cAMP/PKA/DARPP32 cascade in mutants. Most importantly, our studies highlighted that amphetamine, nomifensine, and bupropion, through increased striatal dopaminergic transmission, are able to revert motor hyperactivity of DAT-CI animals. Overall, our results suggest that the paradoxical motor calming effect induced by these drugs in DAT-CI mutants depends on selective aberrant phasic activation of D(1)R/cAMP/PKA/DARPP32 signaling in response to increased striatal extracellular dopamine levels.
Article
British Journal of Pharmacology (BJP) is pleased to publish a new set of guidelines for reporting research involving animals, simultaneously with several other journals; the 'ARRIVE' guidelines (Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments). This editorial summarizes the background to the guidelines, gives our view of their significance, considers aspects of specific relevance to pharmacology, re-states BJP's guidelines for authors on animal experiments and indicates our commitment to carrying on discussion of this important topic. We also invite feedback via the British Pharmacological Society website.
Article
There is an increasing interest in nootropic drugs for the treatment of CNS disorders. Since the last meta-analysis of the clinical efficacy of piracetam, more information has accumulated. The primary objective of this systematic survey is to evaluate the clinical outcomes as well as the scientific literature relating to the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, mechanism of action, dosing, toxicology and adverse effects of marketed and investigational drugs. The major focus of the literature search was on articles demonstrating evidence-based clinical investigations during the past 10 years for the following therapeutic categories of CNS disorders: (i) cognition/memory; (ii) epilepsy and seizure; (iii) neurodegenerative diseases; (iv) stroke/ischaemia; and (v) stress and anxiety. In this article, piracetam-like compounds are divided into three subgroups based on their chemical structures, known efficacy and intended clinical uses. Subgroup 1 drugs include piracetam, oxiracetam, aniracetam, pramiracetam and phenylpiracetam, which have been used in humans and some of which are available as dietary supplements. Of these, oxiracetam and aniracetam are no longer in clinical use. Pramiracetam reportedly improved cognitive deficits associated with traumatic brain injuries. Although piracetam exhibited no long-term benefits for the treatment of mild cognitive impairments, recent studies demonstrated its neuroprotective effect when used during coronary bypass surgery. It was also effective in the treatment of cognitive disorders of cerebrovascular and traumatic origins; however, its overall effect on lowering depression and anxiety was higher than improving memory. As add-on therapy, it appears to benefit individuals with myoclonus epilepsy and tardive dyskinesia. Phenylpiracetam is more potent than piracetam and is used for a wider range of indications. In combination with a vasodilator drug, piracetam appeared to have an additive beneficial effect on various cognitive disabilities. Subgroup 2 drugs include levetiracetam, seletracetam and brivaracetam, which demonstrate antiepileptic activity, although their cognitive effects are unclear. Subgroup 3 includes piracetam derivatives with unknown clinical efficacies, and of these nefiracetam failed to improve cognition in post-stroke patients and rolipram is currently in clinical trials as an antidepressant. The remaining compounds of this subgroup are at various preclinical stages of research. The modes of action of piracetam and most of its derivatives remain an enigma. Differential effects on subtypes of glutamate receptors, but not the GABAergic actions, have been implicated. Piracetam seems to activate calcium influx into neuronal cells; however, this function is questionable in the light of findings that a persistent calcium inflow may have deleterious impact on neuronal cells. Although subgroup 2 compounds act via binding to another neuronal receptor (synaptic vesicle 2A), some of the subgroup 3 compounds, such as nefiracetam, are similar to those of subgroup 1. Based on calculations of the efficacy rates, our assessments indicate notable improvements in clinical outcomes with some of these agents.
Article
Obesity is recognized as a worldwide health problem. Overconsumption of fatty foods contributes significantly to this phenomenon. Rodents, like humans, display preferences for lipid-rich foods. Rodents thus provide useful models to explore the mechanisms responsible for this complex feeding behavior resulting from the integration of multiple oral and postoral signals. Over the last decades, the lipid-mediated regulation of food intake has received considerable attention. By contrast, orosensory lipid perception was long thought to involve only textural and olfactory cues. Recent findings have challenged this limited viewpoint. These recent data strongly suggest that the sense of taste also plays significant roles in the spontaneous preference for fatty foods. This paper provides a brief overview of postoral regulation of food intake by lipids and then highlights recent data suggesting the existence of a "fatty taste" which might contribute to lipid overeating and hence to the risk of obesity.
Article
The Zucker (fatty) rat is one of a group of animals that inherit obesity as an autosomal Mendelian recessive trait. These rats are obese, hyperphagic, and hyperinsulinemic, but blood glucose remains at normal levels. Although these rats eat more than normal rats, their response to the addition of adulterants to the food or after exposure to the cold is more like that of normal rats than rats with hypothalamic obesity. The hypertriglyceridemia which characterized these animals is due to the increased hepatic production of a very low density lipoproteins. Adipocytes are increased in size and in number with the subcutaneous fat depot showing the largest increase in the number of fat cells. Lipogenesis from glucose is brisk in the young animals but declines with age. Enzymatic patterns of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis appear to reflect the altered internal milieu rather than specific defects. Endocrine changes in the fatty rat include hyperinsulinemia, reduced levels of glucagon, hypothyroidis, and impaired reproductive function. A model is presented in which the features of the genetically obese (Zucker) fatty rat are compared with those of animals with hypothalamic obesity.
Article
The effects on feeding of perifornical hypothalamic injection of catecholamines, amphetamines and mazindol were examined in hungry rats. In pargyline-pretreated subjects, both dopamine and epinephrine significantly suppressed food intake, at doses as low as 31 ng for dopamine and 150 ng for epinephrine (the latter injected with an alpha-adrenoceptor blocker). This effect was reliably strengthened by inhibiting catecholamine deamination or presynaptic catecholamine uptake. Perifornical injections of amphetamine, mazindol, methamphetamine, and phenmetrazine also suppressed feeding. The magnitude of this effect in individual animals was positively correlated with the effect produced by catecholamine agonists. Moreover, this effect of mazindol was partially antagonized by perifornical injection of dopaminergic and beta-adrenoceptor blockers. The effects of amphetamine and epinephrine were abolished by these drugs, while dopamine's effect was selectively inhibited by the dopaminergic antagonist. Serotonergic antagonists produced no change. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that perifornical hypothalamic catecholamine neurons, through dopaminergic receptors and beta-adrenoceptors, are involved in inhibiting feeding behavior, as well as in mediating the anorexic action of the amphetamines and mazindol.
Article
Phenylpropanolamine (PPA, d,l-norephedrine), available in many over-the-counter nasal decongestants and appetite suppressants, is a racemic mixture of the enantiomers d- and l-norephedrine. The present study evaluates the effects of the individual PPA enantiomers on a variety of nondrug (food deprivation) and drug-induced hyperphagias (2-deoxyglucose and insulin). Racemic PPA has been shown to significantly suppress food intake in these hyperphagic models. Both l-norephedrine (5-50 mg/kg) and d-norephedrine (5-150 mg/kg), administered intraperitoneally, significantly suppressed feeding after a 4-hr fast during the dark cycle. During the light period, l-norephedrine (7.5, 10, 15 mg/kg) and d-norephedrine (75, 100, 150 mg/kg) significantly reduced food intake at the 1-hr and 3-hr time intervals in the 24-hr food deprivation-, insulin- and 2-deoxyglucose-induced hyperphagic models. Only 7.5 mg/kg l-norephedrine in the insulin-induced hyperphagia at 3 hr failed to significantly suppress feeding. These results indicate that each individual PPA enantiomer possesses the ability to suppress food intake in rats made hyperphagic by various stimuli.
Article
Inhibitor constants (Ki's) for blocking uptake of [3H]norepinephrine, [3H]serotonin, and [3H]dopamine into synaptosomal preparations of rat brain were determined for 25 antidepressants and putative antidepressants, some neuroleptics, stimulants, antihistamines and other monoamines. With Ki's we could directly and definitively compare the relative potencies of a drug at the three processes. Eighteen or 72% of the antidepressants (including tertiary amine tricyclics) were more potent at blocking uptake of norepinephrine than at blocking uptake of serotonin. Considering all three biogenic amines, 17 antidepressants were selective for blocking [3H]norepinephrine uptake, one (bupropion) was selective although weak for blocking [3H]dopamine uptake, and the remainder were selective for blocking [3H]serotonin uptake. The neuroleptics chlorpromazine and promazine were relatively potent at blocking uptake of [3H]norepinephrine and some tricyclic antidepressants (notably, trimipramine and butriptyline) were very weak at blocking any biogenic amine uptake.
Article
In rats, modafinil, an alpha1 adrenergic receptor dependent, that has been shown to increase wakefulness without subsequent rebound effect, decreases feeding and reduces body weight. However, modafinil does not show a monotonic dose-related decrease in food intake. The dose-response curve for modafinil is U-shaped; feeding decreases after doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg, but no effects were seen after doses of 10 and 80 mg/kg. When feeding is resumed, no compensatory effect is seen, and body weight remains lower during the 24-h session. The drinking-to-feeding ratio remains unchanged, showing that modafinil has no effect on water intake. These results are discussed with reference to the possible mechanisms underlying the relation between sleep, feeding, and metabolism.
Article
Recently, a cluster of patients was observed in France in whom primary pulmonary hypertension developed in patients exposed to derivatives of fenfluramine in appetite suppressants (anorexic agents), which are used for weight control. We investigated the potential role of anorexic agents and other suspected risk factors for primary pulmonary hypertension. In a case-control study, we assessed 95 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension from 35 centers in France, Belgium, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands and 355 controls recruited from general practices and matched to the patients' sex and age. The use of anorexic drugs (mainly derivatives of fenfluramine) was associated with an increased risk of primary pulmonary hypertension (odds ratio with any anorexic-drug use, 6.3; 95 percent confidence interval, 3.0 to 13.2). For the use of anorexic agents in the preceding year, the odds ratio was 10.1 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.4 to 29.9). When anorexic drugs were used to a total of more than three months, the odds ratio was 23.1 (95 percent confidence interval, 6.9 to 77.7). We also confirmed an association with several previously identified risk factors: a family history of pulmonary hypertension, infection with the human immunodeficiency virus, cirrhosis, and use of cocaine or intravenous drugs. The use of anorexic drugs was associated with the development of primary pulmonary hypertension. Active surveillance for this disease should be considered, particularly since their use is expected to increase in the near future.
Article
3-Phenyltropane analogues of cocaine are useful neurobiologic tools for examining mechanisms of neurotransmitter transporters and psychostimulant drugs. They are also potential substitute medications for psychostimulant abuse. In this study, 18 3-phenyltropane analogues were characterized in uptake and binding studies at dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin (SERT) transporters from the rat, and in binding at DAT in rat, rhesus monkey, and human brain tissue. In rat brain tissue, potency in inhibiting uptake generally correlated with the potency in inhibiting binding at all three transporters suggesting that none of these compounds have antagonist properties. At the DAT, there was a significant correlation of inhibitory potencies between the rat and monkey, the monkey and human, and the rat and human transporters although some compounds showed some species difference. These findings suggest that with regard to the 3-phenyltropane series, there is generally little pharmacologic difference between DATs from the three species examined, although binding data from rat may not be a perfect predictor of uptake inhibition in human.
Article
The cerebral mechanisms underlying the behaviours that lead to pathological overeating and obesity are poorly understood. Dopamine, a neurotransmitter that modulates rewarding properties of food, is likely to be involved. To test the hypothesis that obese individuals have abnormalities in brain dopamine activity we measured the availability of dopamine D2 receptors in brain. Brain dopamine D2 receptor availability was measured with positron emission tomography (PET) and [C-11]raclopride (a radioligand for the dopamine D2 receptor). Bmax/Kd (ratio of the distribution volumes in striatum to that in cerebellum minus 1) was used as a measure of dopamine D2 receptor availability. Brain glucose metabolism was also assessed with 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG). Striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability was significantly lower in the ten obese individuals (2.47 [SD 0.36]) than in controls (2.99 [0.41]; p < or = 0.0075). In the obese individuals body mass index (BMI) correlated negatively with the measures of D2 receptors (r=0.84; p < or = 0.002); the individuals with the lowest D2 values had the largest BMI. By contrast, neither whole brain nor striatal metabolism differed between obese individuals and controls, indicating that striatal reductions in D2 receptors were not due to a systematic reduction in radiotracer delivery. The availability of dopamine D2 receptor was decreased in obese individuals in proportion to their BMI. Dopamine modulates motivation and reward circuits and hence dopamine deficiency in obese individuals may perpetuate pathological eating as a means to compensate for decreased activation of these circuits. Strategies aimed at improving dopamine function may be beneficial in the treatment of obese individuals.
Article
The mechanisms by which fenfluramine suppresses food intake and body weight have been linked to its ability to enhance transmission across serotonin synapses in brain. This drug initially lowers body weight and suppresses food intake, yet after repeated administration food intake soon returns to normal and body weight no longer decreases. Fenfluramine also causes rapid and prolonged reductions in brain serotonin concentrations, which might account for its loss of appetite suppression. This possibility has been evaluated in rats by assessing if intermittent, chronic fenfluramine administration could suppress food intake during each treatment period, and if so, whether such an effect occurs in the presence of reduced brain serotonin levels. Rats were injected once daily with 10 mg/kg D,L-fenfluramine for 5 days, and then received no injections for the next 5 days. Control rats received only vehicle injections. This 10-day sequence was repeated five more times. During each period of fenfluramine administration, daily food intake dropped markedly the first 1-2 days of treatment, but returned to pretreatment values by day 5. Daily food intake was normal or slightly above normal during non-injection periods. Body weight dropped modestly during each period of fenfluramine administration, and rose during each subsequent period when injections had ceased. Serotonin concentrations and synthesis rates in several brain regions were markedly reduced at early, middle, and late periods of the experiment. Despite the long-term reduction in brain serotonin pools produced by fenfluramine, the drug continues to reduce food intake and body weight. Several possible interpretations of these findings are considered, based on the multiple mechanisms through which this drug has been proposed to modify synaptic serotonin transmission.
Article
To examine the effect of moderate intensity physical activity on the interactions between central abdominal adiposity, myocyte lipid content, and insulin action in overweight and obese, sedentary men. Myocyte lipid (biochemical triglyceride and long-chain acyl CoA [LCAC] from vastus lateralis biopsy and soleus and tibialis anterior intramyocellular lipid by (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy), regional body and abdominal fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging), serum lipids, insulin action (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp), and substrate oxidation were measured in 18 nondiabetic, sedentary, and overweight to obese men (aged 37.4 +/- 1.3 years and BMI 30.9 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2), range 26.4-37.6) at baseline, after the first two to four bouts of aerobic exercise (55-70% of VO(2max) for 40 min/session), and at completion of 4.1 +/- 0.2 exercise sessions/week for 9.7 +/- 0.5 weeks (postexercise measurements performed 24-36 h after the last exercise bout). Mean whole body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and basal fat oxidation rate increased 16 and 41%, respectively, after two to four bouts of exercise, without further increase at program end. Mean aerobic capacity increased 11%, and central abdominal fat decreased 5% at program end, but myocyte lipid levels were not significantly changed. Posttraining increases in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake were predicted by increase in aerobic capacity (r = 0.726, P = 0.001) and magnitude of reduction in visceral fat (r = -0.544, P = 0.02) and not by changes in myocyte lipid or LCAC levels. These results suggest that in overweight and obese sedentary men, increase in insulin sensitivity with moderate intensity exercise is predicted by improvement in aerobic capacity and reduction in visceral fat but is independent of myocyte triglyceride or LCAC levels.
Article
Despite efforts to achieve a desirable weight, two-thirds of the population has an elevated body weight. Medications are useful in supporting weight loss, but produce adverse effects. This study compared the effects of amphetamine and modafinil on food intake and cardiovascular activity in healthy men and women. Participants (n = 11) completed 11 sessions. In random order, participants received placebo on five separate sessions and single oral doses of modafinil (1.75, 3.5, or 7.0 mg/kg) and amphetamine (0.035, 0.07, 0.14 mg/kg). Free time between hourly performance testing intervals gave participants the opportunity to eat. Like amphetamine, modafinil reduced the amount of food consumed and decreased energy intake, without altering the proportion of macronutrients consumed. Although both medications significantly increase heart rate and blood pressure at higher doses, the dose of modafinil that was efficacious in decreasing food intake did not significantly increase heart rate. Modafinil may be well suited for the treatment of obesity, although further studies with repeated dosing in overweight populations are warranted. Modafinil may have less adverse health consequences than some anorectic agents and greater treatment efficacy.
Article
Previous research has shown that individual differences in response to novelty predict self-administration and the locomotor response to psychostimulant drugs of abuse. The aim of the present study was to determine if individual differences in response to novelty based on inescapable or free-choice novelty tests predict dopamine transporter (DAT) function and trafficking as well as nicotine-induced modulation of DAT. Results show that the maximal velocity (Vmax) of [3H]dopamine uptake into prefrontal cortex (PFC) synaptosomes correlated negatively with the locomotor response to inescapable novelty. In contrast, Vmax correlated positively with novelty place preference in the free-choice novelty test. The divergent correlations between DAT and the two behavioral phenotypes suggest a differential contribution of DAT in these phenotypes, which are known not to be isomorphic. Furthermore, rats categorized as high responders to inescapable novelty had lower Vmax values, which were accompanied by less DAT expression at the cell surface in PFC compared with low responders, suggesting that inherent individual differences in DAT cellular localization may underlie the differential response to novelty. Compared with the saline control, nicotine increased Vmax and cell surface DAT immunoreactivity in PFC from high responders but not from low responders. Similarly, nicotine increased Vmax and cell surface DAT in PFC in rats classified as low in novelty place preference but not in rats classified as high in novelty place preference. Thus, despite the different behavioral phenotypes, the pharmacological effect of nicotine to increase DAT function and cell surface expression was apparent, such that rats with inherently lower DAT function show a greater sensitivity to the neurochemical effect of nicotine.