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What's Going on in There? : How the Brain and Mind Develop in the First Five Years of Life / L. Eliot.

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... It can be seen that similar criteria are found in lyrics and melody such as (simple) rhythm, shortness, and repetition, which are some of the features found in cross-cultural studies about children's songs (Brailoiu, 1954;Campbell & Wiggins, 2013;Clifton, 2009;Eliot, 2000;Forrester, 2020;Herzog, 1944;Mihelač et al., 2021;Trehub, 2003). Especially, repetition has a crucial role in children's songs, where smaller or larger parts (one tone/vowel/consonant, motifs/words, phrases, periods/sentences, etc.) in lyrics or melody are very frequently repeated, creating the feeling of predictability (Mihelač et al., 2021), which in turn can be soothing for children (Levitin, 2009), and stimulate brain growth (Eliot, 2000). ...
... It can be seen that similar criteria are found in lyrics and melody such as (simple) rhythm, shortness, and repetition, which are some of the features found in cross-cultural studies about children's songs (Brailoiu, 1954;Campbell & Wiggins, 2013;Clifton, 2009;Eliot, 2000;Forrester, 2020;Herzog, 1944;Mihelač et al., 2021;Trehub, 2003). Especially, repetition has a crucial role in children's songs, where smaller or larger parts (one tone/vowel/consonant, motifs/words, phrases, periods/sentences, etc.) in lyrics or melody are very frequently repeated, creating the feeling of predictability (Mihelač et al., 2021), which in turn can be soothing for children (Levitin, 2009), and stimulate brain growth (Eliot, 2000). ...
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The paper presents a manual classification model, the Classification Model for the categorization of Children’s Songs (Model CMCS) for the selection of children’s songs based on the proposed criteria found in studies about the selection of children’s songs, on music theoretical background, and on findings from cross-cultural studies about (dis)similarities in children’s songs. A step-by-step procedure comprising four levels for the classification of songs is explained and applied in the first testing, employing two musical experts for the evaluation of three different songs. The results have shown that the Model CMCS is transparent (understandable), applicable, and useful and will be tested in the next stage on a larger number of songs and involving more musical experts. An improved version of the Model CMCS could be used in the future as a framework for an automatic classification model for the selection of children’s songs.
... Some other studies illustrate the link between perfumes and physical proximity. For a couple, smelling a spouse's clothes gives the impression that the spouse is present (McBurney, Shoup, and Streeter 2006;Shoup, Streeter, and McBurney 2008), and olfaction in newborns is a way of getting closer to the mother (Eliot 2000;Varendi, Porter, and Winberg 2010;Winberg and Porter 1998). Neuroscientific studies have shown that odors act directly on the amygdala (rhinencephalon) of the brain to automatically stimulate or inhibit defensive emotions toward the environment (e.g., Blanchard and Blanchard 2008). ...
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Many sales and service interactions with frontline employees take place in scented places. This research focuses on the effect of ambient scents on consumer comfort with frontline employees and subsequently on the perceived quality of product and service offers. Two experimental studies carried out in actual setting in Paris, in taxis (242 respondents interacting with drivers) and in a small shop (120 respondents interacting with advisors), show that consumer comfort with frontline employees and perceived quality are higher (lower) in the presence of an ambient scent when the frontline employees maintain strong (low) physical proximity with consumers. This study shows the impact of ambient scents in consumers-employee’s relationships and questions their relevance when social interactions are constrained by distancing rules.
... This is due to the fact that a mindset creates a belief system which triggers a certain achievement goal. According to this theoretical framework, it can be noticed that there is a consistent body of empirical studies (Bempechat, Londra & Dweck, 1991;Robins & Pals, 2002) which have studied the relationship between ITI and school performance explained by the goal orientation theory (Eliot, 1999;Elliot & McGregor, 2001). Generally speaking, the results indicate that incremental theories of intelligence predict mastery-approach goals, while entity theories are a good predictor for performance-avoidance goals (Chen, 2012). ...
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The aim of this paper was to shed a light upon the relationships between implicit theories of intelligence and school performance through a systematic review approach, which mainly used empirical studies on the connections between these constructs. In the first section of this review, we synthesized the necessary theoretical marks for understanding the concepts mentioned above, we analysed definitions, as well as models of implicit theories of intelligence, referring to the relevance for the educational field. Then, there is also an analysis on empirical studies in the international literature that addresses the central concepts of the paper in an educational context and a systematic review of the relationships between implicit theories of intelligence and school performance. The last section contains the final conclusions, the limits of this systematic review and future research directions.
... Well-adjusted adulthood is facilitated by a healthy childhood since the first five years of life are considered a critical period for the development of regulatory behaviors and emotional processing (Lise, 1999). Scholars have proposed emotional processing, and the regulation of adverse reactions, as the mechanism by which early nurturing experiences foster adaptive functioning in children ...
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Background: Flourishing is considered an optimal state of well-being and is associated with positive psychological outcomes. Although, individual, family, and social factors may either facilitate or impede flourishing, their unique influence on flourishing outcomes is not well-understood among youth. Objective: Using data from the 2016–2017 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), this study investigated cross-sectional associations among adverse family experiences (AFE), community safety, family resilience, parental aggravation, and flourishing among youth. Participants and setting: Data from the 2016–2017 NSCH (N = 51,156) were analyzed. Participants included males (n = 26,124) and females (n = 25,032) whose ages ranged from 6 to 17 years old (M = 12.14, SD = 3.45). Methods: After controlling for relevant demographics, adjusted odds ratios (AORs) using a singleblock logistic regression determined the relative likelihood of flourishing. Results: Youth who experienced zero to one AFE (AOR = 2.10; 95% CI [1.95, 2.26]) and two to three AFEs (1.32 [1.20, 1.45]) were more likely to flourish than youth with four or more AFEs. Youth whose parents endorsed low parental aggravation (6.80 [6.41, 7.22]) and moderate parental aggravation (3.70 [3.51, 3.89]) were more likely to be flourishing than youth whose parents endorsed high parental aggravation. Conclusions: Findings suggest that high parental aggravation is related to poorer flourishing outcomes, after considering community safety, family adversity, family resilience, and demographic characteristics. Providers should consider interventions to support the emotional regulation of parental systems as a means of maximizing developmental outcomes among youth.
Thesis
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Many asymmetries characterize human functioning at the behavioral level, such as handedness (right-handedness, left-handedness, mixed-handedness) and the cerebral level. Atypical laterality is frequently mentioned in scientific literature as part of the clinical picture of several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Thus, understanding the neurodevelopmental mechanisms underlying laterality could shed light on the etiology of cognitive and motor difficulties. The goal of this thesis is twofold. Firstly, the theoretical objective was to investigate the involvement of the prenatal environment in the development of handedness. The influence of the vestibular system, fetal presentation, and other perinatal factors related to pregnancy complications and birth stressors were tested. Our results show no influence of the fetal presentation on the subsequent development of handedness. Perinatal adversities such as prematurity, low birthweight, and poor neonatal health reflected by very low Apgar scores however, appear to be risk factors which increase the prevalence of atypical handedness and motor impairments. Secondly, the applied objective was to simultaneously detect the different perceptual biases implicated in graphomotor productions. A 3D-2D transcription graphic task was proposed for identifying global patterns of drawing asymmetries, underpinned by cerebral lateralization, biomechanical constraints, and sociocultural influences. Our results suggest that cerebral lateralization, modulated by handedness and sex, influence graphomotor asymmetries in both children and adults. However, this influence is weaker in adults, which could be due to sociocultural influences.
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Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) in children is, to our knowledge, a very common but until now very often neglected outcome of, among other things, a) a stressful pregnancy, b) preterm birth and c) stressful term birth with pre- and perinatal injuries. The entire visual system includes both the eyes and the brain, and damage can affect one or both of these organs. The visual brain-focused aim is that children gain precise visual access to their surroundings, linking visual information with the appropriate language and motor skills to both enable them to understand what they see and guide movements along the visual acuity. Thus, vision, language and motor skills typically evolve together during the first months of life. The meaning of the so called ‘seeing sense’ is still not considered enough to understand its contribution to normal developmental stages and vision-related deterioration in childhood. A systematic diagnostic approach to CVI in the medical system is missing. Consequently, experimental interventions are very rare. However, due to the demographic development (e.g. the increase in preterm births) there is an increase in the prevalence and cerebral visual dysfunctions and the need for its treatment. Early insult to the visual system affects more than visual brain perception. As visual brain processing is related to cognition, emotion, motivation and the motor system, early visual impairments could negatively influence the development of all these functional systems. Thus, human brain development depends on structural and functional visual conditions and can be significantly disturbed by cerebral visual impairment. This article emphasizes the influence of possible early damage to the visual pathways on general development and academic achievement and the implication of CVI in the development of affected children.
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Genetics are undoubtedly implicated in the ontogenesis of laterality. Nonetheless, environmental factors, such as the intrauterine environment, may also play a role in the development of functional and behavioral lateralization. The aim of this study was to test the Left‐Otolithic Dominance Theory (LODT; Previc, 1991) by investigating a hypothetical developmental pattern where it is assumed that a breech presentation, which is putatively associated with a dysfunctional and weakly lateralized vestibular system, can lead to weak handedness and atypical development associated with language and motor difficulties. We used the ALSPAC cohort of children from 7 to 10 years of age to conduct our investigation. Our results failed to show an association between the vestibular system and fetal presentation, nor any influence of the latter on hand preference, hand performance, or language and motor development. Bayesian statistical analyses supported these findings. Contrary to our LODT‐derived hypotheses, this study offers evidence that fetal presentation does not influence the vestibular system's lateralization and seems to be a poor indicator for handedness. Nonetheless, we found that another non‐genetic factor, prematurity, could lead to atypical development of handedness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Chapter
In our investigations, here and elsewhere, art serves a neurological role, shaped by evolution. Art, not as a thing that is, but as a function that occurs, which we will call Behavioral Art (BA). An important aspect of BA is ‘borrowing intelligence’ from a humanly organized source, such as a painting, applied to a computer process. The resulting artifact of this auto-creative process might easily be mistaken for an object de (computer) art. But we must look further into the larger dynamic system, one that includes the audience as well. As we will discuss, the machine itself is incapable of meaningful organization. (i.e., alphabetical order is an arbitrary scheme to a machine.) A human (often the programmer) must supply the organizational paradigm to the input, and a human must recognize one in the output. However, by integrating resources from the environment via machine, a process we can now call augmented reality. We might imbue whatever quality triggered an interpretation of ‘potentially meaningful’ in audience members regarding the off-screen image to our computed output. In this chapter, we address how and why humans tend to employ this subtle particular form of nonverbal expression.
Chapter
This chapter details how the brain develops as a constant interplay between biology and environment, reflecting one of this book’s main themes: the meaninglessness of the traditional nature-nurture binary. Research on the impact of electronic media on brain development and function is also discussed in this chapter. After consideration of the brain in older adults, this chapter ends with a brief summary of some recent advances in neurolinguistics.
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