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Determinants of Employee Motivation for Organisational Commitment

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Abstract

Motivation is a psychological process in which unsatisfied needs produces drives that are focused on goals. Managers focus on extrinsic rewards, such as pay, to motivate employees, while ignoring intrinsic rewards which enhance employee commitment and job satisfaction. The study was conducted by survey method and interview of employees in University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus. Secondary data were obtained from books, journals, and internet. The target population consists of senior administrative staff and academic staff in the University. The objectives of the study are to ascertain the dimensions of motivation for employee commitment, determine how salary and working condition influence employee productivity, and ascertain the extent to which responsibility and personal growth influence employee commitment. Findings revealed that job design and autonomy are dimensions of motivation for employee commitment, salary and working condition have long - term effect on employee productivity, responsibility, and personal growth had a significant and positive influence on employee commitment. The conclusion and recommendation respectively state that: High performance could be achieved by highly – motivated people who are ready to use their discretionary effort. Organisations should provide the scenario within which high levels of motivation can be achieved by offering incentives and rewards, satisfying work, and opportunities for learning and growth. Keywords: Motivation, Commitment, Empowerment, Responsibility, Personal growth
IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM)
e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 19, Issue 7. Ver. III (July 2017), PP 01-09
www.iosrjournals.org
DOI: 10.9790/487X-1907030109 www.iosrjournals.org 1 | Page
Determinants of Employee Motivation for Organisational
Commitment
*Ezenwakwelu, C. A (Ph.D.)
Department of Management, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus
Corresponding Author: Ezenwakwelu, C. A (Ph.D.)
Abstract: Motivation is a psychological process in which unsatisfied needs produces drives that are focused on
goals. Managers focus on extrinsic rewards, such as pay, to motivate employees, while ignoring intrinsic
rewards which enhance employee commitment and job satisfaction. The study was conducted by survey method
and interview of employees in University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus. Secondary data were obtained from books,
journals, and internet. The target population consists of senior administrative staff and academic staff in the
University. The objectives of the study are to ascertain the dimensions of motivation for employee commitment,
determine how salary and working condition influence employee productivity, and ascertain the extent to which
responsibility and personal growth influence employee commitment. Findings revealed that job design and
autonomy are dimensions of motivation for employee commitment, salary and working condition have long -
term effect on employee productivity, responsibility, and personal growth had a significant and positive
influence on employee commitment. The conclusion and recommendation respectively state that: High
performance could be achieved by highly motivated people who are ready to use their discretionary effort.
Organisations should provide the scenario within which high levels of motivation can be achieved by offering
incentives and rewards, satisfying work, and opportunities for learning and growth.
Keywords: Motivation, Commitment, Empowerment, Responsibility, Personal growth
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Date of Submission: 26-06-2017 Date of acceptance: 15-07-2017
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I. Introduction
The connection between the organization and its members is controlled by what motivates them to
function, the rewards there from, and the attendant satisfaction they derive from it. The underlying concept of
motivation is some driving force within individuals by which they attempt to achieve some goal in order to
fulfill some need or expectation. The manager needs to know how best to elicit the cooperation of staff and
direct their performance to achieving the goals and objectives of the organization. The manager must understand
the nature of human behaviour and how best to motivate staff so that they work willingly and effectively. As
succinctly put by(Mullins, 2005) productivity and quality service is enhanced when positive motivation
philosophy and practice is in place, because motivation helps people towards: achieving goals, gaining a
positive perspective, creating the power to change, building self- esteem and capability, and managing their
development and helping others.
Also, motivation is an integral aspect of employee performance and productivity. It refers to the forces
within a person that affects his or her direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behaviour (McShane and
Glinow, 2000). Motivation is concerned with what activates human behaviour, motivation is concerned with
what directs this behaviour toward a particular goal, motivation is concerned with how this behavior is sustained
(Rue and Byars, 2000). Motivation is seen as psychological forces that determine the direction of a person‟s
behaviour in an organization, a person‟s level of effort, and a person‟s level of persistence (Jones and George,
2009). Generally, the term is synonymous with direction and persistence of action. On this note, (Krech,
Cructchfield and Ballachey, 1962) posit that motivation is concerned with why people choose a particular
course of action in preference to others, and why the chosen action is sustained, usually for a long period of
time, with the attendant strains and stress. Fundamentally, the concept revolves around the reason why people
behave in a certain way, hence, (Pate, 1998) poses the basic underlying question why do what they do?
However, whether motivation is considered from employee performance and productivity perspective or from
the angle of direction and persistence of actions, it is naturally a goal-directed behaviour. Therefore, motivating
other people entail getting them to move in the desired direction in order to achieve a result. For instance,
(Armstrong, 2003) suggests that people are motivated when they expect that a plan is likely to bring about goal
attainment and a valued reward (one that satisfies their needs). Apart from the goal achievement, employee
performance and action direction viewpoints, (Luthans and Doh, 2012) suggest that motivation is a
psychological process through which unsatisfied wants or needs lead to drives that are aimed at goals or
Determinants of Employee Motivation for Organisational Commitment
DOI: 10.9790/487X-1907030109 www.iosrjournals.org 2 | Page
incentives, hence, a person with an unsatisfied need will undertake goal- directed behaviour to satisfy the need.
Thus, as a psychological process by which employees set goals to achieve their varied needs, organisations
should provide various means of ensuring that employees‟ personal goals are achieved so that they can
contribute towards achieving the organizational goals.
1.1 Problem Statement
Employees need to be motivated to enhance productivity. Motivation should be continuous and varied.
Employees have different needs, they set different goals to satisfy those needs and they take actions to
accomplish the goals. It is not proper to use one source of motivation on employees with varied needs.
Managers often use only extrinsic reward such as pay to motivate employees and ignore intrinsic rewards.
However, employees get frustrated where they are not treated fairly and the chance of employee turnover
increases. Employee turnover forces the organization to hire personnel regularly: this increases cost and takes
time.
1.2 Research Questions
The problem stated brought out the following research questions
What are dimensions of motivation for employee commitment?
How could salary and working condition influence employee productivity?
To what extent do responsibility and personal growth influence employee commitment?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The specific objectives of the study are to:
Ascertain the dimensions of motivation for employee commitment.
Determine how salary and working condition influence employee productivity.
Ascertain the extent to which responsibility and personal growth influence employee commitment.
II. Conceptual Framework
2.1.1: ENHANCING WORK MOTIVATION THROUGH JOB DESIGN
The strategies that increase the motivational potential of jobs comprise of job rotation, job enlargement, and job
enrichment.
Job Rotation: Job rotation involves moving employees from job to job at regular intervals. When employees
periodically move to different jobs, the monotonous aspect of job specialization can be relieved. It is the practice
of moving employees from one job to another, typically for short periods of time (McShane and Glinow, 2000).
Considered from the organizational benefit standpoint, it is an effective way for employees to acquire new skills
and in turn for organizations to increase the overall skill level of their employees to perform different tasks
through cross-training and knowledge transfer between departments, thereby enhancing the flexibility of
managers to assign employees to different parts of the organisation when needed (Campion, Cheraskin and
Stevens, 1994; Kane, Argote and Levine, 2005). This way, employee boredom can be reduced depending on the
nature of the jobs the employee is performing at a given time. From the employee standpoint, the acquisition of
new skills that keep them marketable in the long run is an additional benefit (Wylie, 2003).Accordingly, job
rotation provides the variety of tasks which an employee needs to overcome boredom and to function optimally.
Job Enlargement: This entails increasing the number of tasks employees perform within their jobs. Two or
more complete jobs can be combined into one or just add one or two more tasks to an existing job. Job
enlargement significantly improves customer service. In addition, assigning all tasks to one employee minimizes
coordination problems. However, research indicates that simply giving employees more tasks would not affect
motivation, performance, or job satisfaction. Instead, these benefits result only when skill variety is combined
with more autonomy and job knowledge. Employees are motivated when they have a variety of tasks and have
the freedom and knowledge to structure their work to achieve the highest satisfaction and performance
(McShane and Glinow, 2000).
Job enlargement also refers to expanding the tasks performed by employees to add more variety.
Research indicates that when jobs are enlarged, employees view themselves as being capable of performing a
broader set of tasks (Parker, 1998). Thus, organizations hope to reduce boredom and monotony as well as utilize
human resources more effectively by giving employees several different tasks to be performed as opposed to
limiting their activities to a small number of tasks. Logically, job enlargement may have similar benefits to job
rotation, based on the premise that it may also involve teaching employees multiple tasks. Additionally,
(Campion and McClelland, 1991) adjudged job enlargement as highly essential, because it is positively related
to employee satisfaction and higher quality customer services as well as improves the opportunities for catching
errors. Remarkably, this claim, may depend on the type of enlargement. For instance, job enlargement
consisting of simple task additions negatively impacted on employee satisfaction with resultant and fewer errors
Determinants of Employee Motivation for Organisational Commitment
DOI: 10.9790/487X-1907030109 www.iosrjournals.org 3 | Page
being caught. Alternatively, giving employees more tasks that require them to be knowledgeable in different
areas seemed to have more positive effects (Campion & McClelland, 1993).
Job Enrichment: This aspect involves changing job specifications to broaden and add challenge to the tasks
required in order to increase productivity. It is designed to increase the degree of responsibility a worker has
over a job by empowering them to experiment to find new or better ways of doing the job. Job enrichment
encourages workers to develop new skills; to decide how to do the work, and grants them the responsibility for
deciding how to respond to unexpected situations, as well as the volition to monitor and measure their own
performance. The idea behind job enrichment is that increasing worker‟s responsibility increases their
involvement in their jobs and thereby increasing their interest in the quality of the goods they make or the
services they provide. Thus, managers who make design choices that increase the job enrichment is likely to
increase the degree to which people behave flexibly rather than rigidly or mechanically (Hellriegel, Jackson and
Slocum, 1999).
This approach allows employees more control over how they perform their own tasks, hence, assuming
greater responsibility. As an alternative to job specialization, companies using job enrichment may experience
positive outcomes, such as reduced turnover, increased productivity, and reduced absences (McEvoy and
Cascio, 1985; Locke, Sirota & Wolfson, 1976). This may be because employees that have the authority and
responsibility on their work can be more efficient, eliminate unnecessary tasks, take shortcuts, and increase their
overall performance. On the flip side, however, there is evidence that job enrichment may sometimes cause
dissatisfaction among certain employees (Locke, Sirota & Wolfson, 1976). The reason is not far-fetched as
employees who are given additional responsibility and autonomy would naturally expect higher pay or other
forms of benefits. This expectation when unattended, may lead to frustration. However, motivating employees
through job design reduces boredom and monotony and also help to utilize human resource effectively.
2.1.2: MOTIVATION THROUGH EMPOWERMENT, AUTONOMY AND TASK
SIGNIFICANCE
(i) Empowerment
Empowerment indicates a form of decentralization that involves the delegation of substantial decision
making authority to subordinates. Under this arrangement, managers express confidence in the ability of
employees to perform at high levels and are also encouraged to accept personal responsibility for their work.
One result of empowerment is that employees demonstrate more initiatives and perseverance in pursuing
organizational goals (Rue and Byars, 2000).
Benefits of Empowerment
An empowered employee is thus given „more space‟ to use his or her talents, thereby facilitating much
more decision making closer to the point of impact. Empowering employees according to (Green, 1998) offers
additional advantages which includes but not limited to expedited decision making process and reaction times,
enhances creative and innovative capacities as well as provides for greater job satisfaction, motivation, and
commitment. It enables employees to gain a greater sense of achievement from their work and reduces
operational costs by eliminating unnecessary layers of management and the consequent checking and re
checking operations
Similarly, (Sell, 1998) suggests that empowerment makes greater use of the knowledge, skills, and
abilities of the workforce; thus, it encourages team working and can aid the successful implementation of
change programmes if combined with meaningful participation. Although few manufacturing companies
empower their staff, research shows that empowerment can be one of the most effective tools in raising both
productivity and profit. It develops an individual‟s knowledge so they take a broader and more proactive
orientation towards their job, and more willing to suggest new ways of doing things and to engage in meaningful
team working (Wall and Wood, 2002). Employee empowerment has widely been recognized as an essential
contributor to organisational success and many authors observed its direct effect on employee performance, job
satisfaction and organizational commitment (Meyerson & Dewettinck, 2012). Empowerment is necessary for
talented employees. In Nigeria for example, public sector organizations rarely empower their employees. This is
because of the bureaucratic system of the public sector.
(ii) Autonomy
Autonomy is the degree to which a person has the freedom to decide how to perform his or her task.
For instance, an instructor who is required to follow a predetermined textbook, covering a given list of topics
using a specified list of classroom activities, has low autonomy. On the other hand, an instructor who has
discretional advantage to choose the textbook, design the course content, and to adopt the most appropriate
method of knowledge transfer has higher autonomy. Autonomy among other benefits increases motivation at
Determinants of Employee Motivation for Organisational Commitment
DOI: 10.9790/487X-1907030109 www.iosrjournals.org 4 | Page
work. Granting employees adequate autonomy at work is essential to individual and company success because
such employees are free to choose how to do their jobs and therefore can be more effective. They are also less
likely to adopt a “this is not my job” approach to their work environment and instead be proactive and creative
(Morgeson, Delaney Klinger & Hemingway, 2005). Similarly, (Armstrong, 2003) defines autonomy as the
freedom and independence the job holder has, including discretion to make decisions, exercise choice, schedule
the work and decide on the procedures to carry it out, and the job holder‟s personal responsibility for outcomes.
Deductively, this position accedes to the claim by (Gumel, 2008) that giving employees autonomy is also a great
way to train them on the job. Autonomy enhances flexibility and enables employees to use their initiatives.
Autonomy is guaranteed for academic staff in higher institutions in Nigeria. This is because an academic staff
has the freedom to perform his work by his own initiative. The academic staff learns through research and
experience.
(iii)Task Significance
Task significance refers to whether a person‟s job substantially affects other people‟s work, health, or
wellbeing (Armstrong, 2003; Grant, 2008). This viewpoint suggests that task significance is the extent to
which the job contributes to substantial impact on the lives and work of other people, therefore, employees tend
to feel that they are making an impact on their environment, which in turn boosts motivation and selfworth.
Apparently, people are motivated when they notice that their jobs affect other peoples‟ well- being.
2.1.3: TYPES OF MOTIVATION
There are two types of motivation as originally presented by Herzberg, Mausner, and Synderman (1957):
Intrinsic Motivation: the self- generated factors that influence people to behave in a particular way or to move
in a particular direction and these factors include; responsibility (feeling induced by the importance of work and
control over resources), autonomy (the freedom to act), discretional advantages over skills and ability
development, interesting and challenging work as well as other opportunities for advancement.
Extrinsic Motivation: this implies the externally induced actions directed to motivate people. This includes
rewards: increased pay, praise, promotion, and punishment, such as disciplinary action, withholding pay, or
criticism.
Extrinsic motivators can have a powerful effect, but it will not necessarily last long unlike the intrinsic
motivators that are connected to the quality of working life with a profound and long-lasting effect. This is
because they are inherent in individuals and not necessarily achieved externally. Intrinsic and extrinsic types of
motivation are required for the true motivation of employees in the workplace. Employees need both intrinsic
and extrinsic rewards to get real motivation. In some organizations, employees are left with only pay, ignoring
such rewards as promotion, interesting and challenging work, and opportunity for advancement.
2.1.4: ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT AND DRIVERS OF EMPLOYEE
COMMITMENT
Organisational commitment refers to the loyalty of an employee towards his or her organization
(Ghorbanhosseini, 2012). Organisational commitment is described by Meyer & Allen, 1997) as the degree of
attachment to an organization and is characterized by valuing the shared benefits held between an employee and
his or her organization. Moreover, organizational commitment is seen by Rae (2013) as a desire to maintain the
affiliation with an organization and is reflected in the willingness to exert a high level of effort to achieve
organizational goals. (Adapted from Hanaysha, 2016).
The following factors were found to be strong drivers of employee commitment.
Management Effectiveness: employees are motivated when their managers have sound decision making
ability, successfully engage their employees, and value their employees.
Positive work Environment: to be productive, employees need a healthy, safe workplace with access to
information needed to do their jobs.
Clear communication: managers can increase commitment by making sure employees understand their
company‟s goals, their own job, and the link between their job and the customer.
Having employees harness self direction and self- control in pursuit of common objectives was far
more preferable to imposing a system of controls designed to force people to meet objectives they didn‟t
understand or share. This is in line with (Luthans and Doh, 2012) position that rewarding people for
achievement was a far more effective way to reinforce shared commitment than punishing them for failure
Evidently, employee commitment is necessary for sustained organizational success, thus, organisations should
provide both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards to the employees and as well as a positive work environment,
management effectiveness, and clear communication.
Determinants of Employee Motivation for Organisational Commitment
DOI: 10.9790/487X-1907030109 www.iosrjournals.org 5 | Page
2.2: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Equity Theory
Equity theory focuses on how motivation is affected by people‟s perception of how fairly they are
being treated. The theory holds that if people perceive that they are being treated fairly, such perception causes a
positive effect on their job performance and satisfaction, thereby eliminating the need to strive for equity.
Conversely, if they believe they are not being treated fairly, especially in relation to relevant issues, they will be
dissatisfied, and this belief will have a negative effect on their job performance and they will strive to restore
equity (Luthans and Doh, 2012).
The Expectancy Theory
The expectancy approach to motivation was developed by Victor H. Vroom. The expectancy approach
postulates that motivation is largely influenced by a multiplicative combination of a person‟s belief that:
Effort will lead to performance (Expectancy) Performance will lead to specific outcomes (Instrumentality)
The outcomes will be of value to the individual (Valence) The theory predicts that high performance followed
by high rewards will lead to high satisfaction (Adapted from Luthans and Doh, 2012).
Managerial Implications of Expectancy Theory
Increase expectancies: Provide a work environment that facilitates good performance, and set realistically
attainable performance goals, provide training, support, and encouragement so that people are confident they
can perform at the levels expected of them.
Identify positively valent outcomes: Understand what people want to get out of work. Think about what their
jobs provide them and what does not provide but could be provided (Bateman and Snell, 2009).
Make performance instrumental toward positive outcomes: Make sure that good performance attracts
personal recognition and praise, favourable performance reviews, pay increases, and other positive results
(Bateman and Snell, 2009). Managerial implications of expectancy theory revealed that, to increase
expectancies of employees in an organization. The manager should provide a work environment that facilitates
good performance of employees and set specific attainable goals, provide training and encourage employees.
The manager should understand what employees want to get from working and ensure that employees get what
they want. The manager should make performance attract positive outcomes, such as praise, recognition and
increased pay.
Impact of Expectancy Theory on Motivation
For motivation to be high, expectancy, instrumentalities, and total valence of all outcomes must be high. As a
result, an employee will not be highly motivated if
He believes he can‟t perform well enough to achieve the positive outcomes that he knows the organization
provides to good performers (high valence and high instrumentality but low expectancy).
He knows he can do the job, and want the favourable outcomes, yet believes that no matter how well he
performs, the rewards will not be forthcoming (high expectancy, and positive valences but low
instrumentality).
He knows he can do the job and is fairly certain what the ultimate outcomes will be, however, he doesn‟t
want those outcomes (high expectancy and high instrumentality but low valence (Bateman and Snell, 2009).
The impact of expectancy theory on motivation revealed that an employee will be motivated if he knows
that he can perform well to get the positive outcomes that he knows the organization provides to good
performers.
2.3: PREVIOUS WORKS
Ezigbo (2012) conducted a study on reducing turnover by motivation in public sector organizations in
Nigeria. The study was carried out for the most part through the survey method and oral interview of employees
in three public sector organizations. Findings revealed that intrinsic satisfaction, economic rewards and social
relationship are the needs and expectation of people at work. It underscored the essence of employees
motivation towards the success of any organization: motivated employees are happy, productive and committed.
Additionally, it established the existence of a significant relationship between motivation, job satisfaction, and
work performance; hence, the nature of the work, one‟s interest in the job, personal growth and development,
and style of leadership would affect job satisfaction. The study recommended among other things that employee
incentive programme offers rewards for outstanding performance, hard work or result. Tirkey and Badugu
(2012) conducted a study on motivation level of employee‟s in small scale industries (SSI) in Aligarh District of
Uttar Pradesh, India. The objective was to study the motivational level of employees of small scale industries
Determinants of Employee Motivation for Organisational Commitment
DOI: 10.9790/487X-1907030109 www.iosrjournals.org 6 | Page
and its association with gender and educational qualification. Findings indicated that there is no significant
difference in the motivation levels of employees having a different educational qualification. There exists a
significant difference in the motivation levels between the male and the female employees of the Small Scale
Industry. The study recommended that to boost up the motivation level of the employees in SSI, concrete
actions should be taken to improve the physical working conditions meant for the use of the SSI employees.
Employees should have to be continuously encouraged to ensure that their motivation level is maintained/
improved which in turn will play a catalyst role in boosting their productivity and in a broader perspective, the
profitability of the organization.
III. Methodology
The study was conducted by survey method and interview of employees in University of Nigeria.
Secondary data were obtained from books, journals, and internet. The target sample consists of 50 senior
administrative and academic staff in the University of Nigeria, which was purposely selected. The sample data
was analysed using the Spearman rho bivariate correlation technique on SPSS (v.20).
TABLE 1: Analyses of Respondent’s Responses
S/N
Questions
Yes, in
Number
%
No, in
Number
%
Total in
Number
Total
in %
1
To ascertain dimensions of motivation for Employee
Commitment
1
(i) Are you motivated when you have a variety of tasks and
have the freedom and knowledge to do them?
42
84
08
16
50
100
(ii) Can you be efficient, if you have authority and
responsibility over your work?
48
96
02
04
50
100
(iii) Are you motivated if you notice that your job affects other
people‟s wellbeing?
31
62
19
38
50
100
(iv) Can you be motivated, if you have autonomy in a routine
task?
33
66
17
34
50
100
2
To determine how Salary and Working Condition Influence
Employee Productivity.
(i) Does your productivity increase when there is improved
salary?
49
98
01
02
50
100
(ii) Does your productivity increase when there is improved
working condition?
46
92
04
08
50
100
(iii)Does increase in your productivity due to improved salary
and working conditions last long?
36
72
14
28
50
100
(iv)Does improved salary and working conditions highly
influence productivity?
46
92
04
08
50
100
3
To ascertain the extent to which responsibility and personal
growth influence employee commitment.
(i) Do you feel motivated when you have responsibility and
authority to act?
45
90
05
10
50
100
(ii)Would you be committed to your job if it allows personal
growth and development?
42
84
08
16
50
100
(iii)Would you be committed to your job if you have
responsibility and authority to act but lacks personal growth?
10
20
40
80
50
100
(iv)Would you be committed when your responsibility
increases?
37
74
13
26
50
100
Source: Field Survey, 2017 IV. Analyses of Results
The responses obtained from the questions asked on dimensions of motivation for employee
commitment are 42, 48, 31 and 33 representing 84%, 96%, 62% and 66% respectively gave answers in the
affirmative while 8, 02, 19, and 17 representing 16%, 4%, 38% and 34% respectively had a contrary opinion.
H1: Job design and autonomy are dimensions of motivation for employees’ commitment.
Result
DATASET ACTIVATE DataSet4. CORRELATIONS /VARIABLES=Job_design Autonomy People_wellbeing
Motivation_Commitment
/PRINT=ONETAIL NOSIG /STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES /MISSING=PAIRWISE.
Descriptive Statistics
Mean
Std. Deviation
N
25.0000
24.04163
2
25.0000
32.52691
2
25.0000
8.48528
2
25.0000
11.31371
2
Determinants of Employee Motivation for Organisational Commitment
DOI: 10.9790/487X-1907030109 www.iosrjournals.org 7 | Page
NONPAR CORR /VARIABLES=Job_design Autonomy People_wellbeing Motivation_Commitment
/PRINT=SPEARMAN ONETAIL NOSIG /MISSING=PAIRWISE.
Correlations
Job_design
Autonomy
People_wellbeing
Motivation_
Commitment
Spearman's
rho
Job_design
Correlation
Coefficient
1.000
1.000**
1.000**
1.000**
Sig. (1-tailed)
.
0.000
0.000
0.000
N
2
2
2
2
Autonomy
Correlation
Coefficient
1.000**
1.000
1.000**
1.000**
Sig. (1-tailed)
0.000
.
0.000
0.000
N
2
2
2
2
People_wellbeing
Correlation
Coefficient
1.000**
1.000**
1.000
1.000**
Sig. (1-tailed)
0.000
0.000
.
0.000
N
2
2
2
2
Motivation_Commitment
Correlation
Coefficient
1.000**
1.000**
1.000**
1.000
Sig. (1-tailed)
0.000
0.000
0.000
.
N
2
2
2
2
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).
Job design and autonomy have a strong positive relationship with motivation for employees‟ commitment ((rs =
0.1, n = 2, p < 0.01). Therefore, there is a sufficient statistical evidence to conclude that job design and
autonomy are dimensions of motivation for employees‟ commitment.
The responses obtained from the questions asked on how salary and working condition affect employee
productivity are 49, 46, 36 and 46 representing 98%, 92%, 72 and 92% respectively gave answers in the
affirmative while 01, 04, 14 and 04 representing 2%, 8%, 28% and 08% respectively had a contrary opinion.
H2: Salary and working condition have long-term effect on employee productivity.
Test Result
CORRELATIONS /VARIABLES=Improved Salary, Improved Working,Condition Longterm effect on Prod_
Productivity
/PRINT=ONETAIL NOSIG /STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES XPROD/MISSING=PAIRWISE.
Descriptive Statistics
Mean
Std. Deviation
N
Improved_Salary
25.0000
33.94113
2
Improved_Working_Condition
25.0000
29.69848
2
Longterm_effect_on_Prod
25.0000
15.55635
2
Productivity
25.0000
29.69848
2
NONPAR CORR
/VARIABLES=Improved_Salary Improved_Working_Condition Longterm_effect_on_Prod Productivity
/PRINT=SPEARMAN ONETAIL NOSIG
/MISSING=PAIRWISE.
Correlations
Improved_
Salary
Improved_Working_
Condition
Longterm_effect_on_
Prod
Productivity
Spearman's
rho
Improved_Salary
Correlation
Coefficient
1.000
1.000**
1.000**
1.000**
Sig. (1-
tailed)
.
0.000
0.000
0.000
N
2
2
2
2
Improved_
Working_Condition
Correlation
Coefficient
1.000**
1.000
1.000**
1.000**
Sig. (1-
0.000
.
0.000
0.000
Determinants of Employee Motivation for Organisational Commitment
DOI: 10.9790/487X-1907030109 www.iosrjournals.org 8 | Page
tailed)
N
2
2
2
2
`Longterm_effect_on_Prod
Correlation
Coefficient
1.000**
1.000**
1.000
1.000**
Sig. (1-
tailed)
0.000
0.000
.
0.002
N
2
2
2
2
Productivity
Correlation
Coefficient
1.000**
1.000**
1.000**
1.000
Sig. (1-
tailed)
0.000
0.000
0.002
.
N
2
2
2
2
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).
Salary and working condition have a significant long-term and strong positive effect on employee productivity
(rs =0.1, n = 2, p < 0.01).
The responses obtained from the questions asked on the extent to which responsibility and personal
growth influence employee commitment are 45, 42, 10 and 37 representing 90%, 84%, 20%, and 74%
respectively gave answers in the affirmative while 5, 8, 40 and 13 representing 10%, 16%, 80% and 26%
respectively had a contrary opinion.
H3: Responsibility and personal growth have a significant and positive influence on employee
commitment.
Test Result
VARIABLES=Responsibility_Authority Personal_Growth_Development Responsibility_Without_Growth
Employee_Commitment
/PRINT=ONETAIL NOSIG /STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES XPROD /MISSING=PAIRWISE.
Descriptive Statistics
Mean
Std. Deviation
N
Responsibility_Authority
25.00
28.284
2
Personal_Growth_Development
25.00
24.042
2
Responsibility_Without_Growth
25.00
16.971
2
Employee_Commitment
25.00
21.213
2
Nonparametric Correlations
/VARIABLES=Responsibility_Authority Personal_Growth_Development Responsibility_Without_Growth
Employee_Commitment
/PRINT=SPEARMAN ONETAIL NOSIG
/MISSING=PAIRWISE.
Correlations
Responsibility_
Authority
Personal_
Growth_
Development
Responsibility_
Without_
Growth
Employee_
Commitment
Spearman‟s
rho
Responsibility_Authority
Correlation
Coefficient
1.000
-1.000**
-1.000**
1.000**
Sig. (1-
tailed)
.
0.000
0.000
0.000
N
2
2
2
2
Personal_Growth
_Development
Correlation
Coefficient
-1.000**
1.000
1.000
1.000**
Sig. (1-
tailed)
0.000
.
0.000
0.000
N
2
2
2
2
Responsibility_without_Growth
Correlation
Coefficient
-1.000**
-1.000**
1.000
-1.000
Sig. (1-
tailed)
0.000
0.000
.
0.000
N
2
2
2
2
Employee_Commitment
Correlation
Coefficient
1.000**
1.000**
-1.000**
1.000
Sig. (1-
tailed)
0.000
0.000
0.000
.
N
2
2
2
2
Determinants of Employee Motivation for Organisational Commitment
DOI: 10.9790/487X-1907030109 www.iosrjournals.org 9 | Page
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).
Responsibility and personal growth have a significant and strong positive influence on employee commitment
(rs =0.1, n = 2, p < 0.01). V. Findings
Findings revealed that Job design and autonomy are dimensions of motivation for employees‟ commitment (rs =
0.1, n = 2, p < 0.01). Salary and working condition have a long-term effect on employee productivity (rs = 0.1, n
= 2, p < 0.01). Responsibility and personal growth had a significant and strong positive influence on employee
commitment (rs =0.1, n = 2, p < 0.01).
. VI. Conclusion and Recommendations
Employee productivity enhanced by improved salary and working condition would last long, if there is
continuous improvement . Employees are not motivated when they have a responsibility and authority but lacks
personal growth. High performance can be achieved by motivated employees that are ready to use their
discretion. Organisations should provide both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards to their employees and provide a
positive work environment, management effectiveness, and clear communication.
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Ezenwakwelu. "Determinants of Employee Motivation for Organisational Commitment." IOSR
Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) 19.7 (2017): 01-09.
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