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Hare Psychopathy Checklist (PCL)

Hare Psychopathy Checklist
Kristopher J. Brazil and Adelle E. Forth
Department of Psychology, Carleton University,
Ottawa, ON, Canada
Hare psychopathy checklist;Psychopathy
An assessment rating scale designed for use with
incarcerated male offenders for the assessment of
traits and behaviors underlying the clinical con-
struct of psychopathy.
The Hare Psychopathy Checklist (PCL; Hare and
Frazelle 1980) was a preliminary research rating
scale developed by Robert Hare and his col-
leagues for the assessment of the clinical construct
psychopathy in criminal populations. The psy-
chopathy construct measured in the PCL was
largely inuenced by the clinical observations of
Hervey Cleckley regarding the psychopathic per-
sonality and associated antisocial behaviors
(Cleckley 1976). The PCL is the precursor to the
widely used and well-validated assessment scale
called the Psychopathy ChecklistRevised
(PCL-R; Hare 1991,2003). Use of the PCL has
been replaced by the updated and revised PCL-R
for research and clinical purposes. However, the
PCL is still viewed as a scale that contextualizes
the existing PCL-family measures including the
PCL-R, the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version
(PCL:YV; Forth et al. 2003), and the Psychopathy
Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV; Hart
et al. 1995)and helps trace the construct-related
validity of these PCL-family measures to the clin-
ical construct of psychopathy. Although the PCL
is no longer used, understanding its development
and contribution as the rst systematic effort to
assess psychopathy in pursuing research under-
scores its importance and relevance as a historical
assessment scale. This entry will explore the his-
torical context and rationale behind the develop-
ment of the PCL, how the scale was developed, its
structure, some of the rst studies to use the scale,
and some issues that led to its renement.
Rationale for Developing the PCL
Three observations largely fueled the develop-
ment of the PCL as a research scale to assess
psychopathy (Hare 1980). First and most impor-
tantly, theory and research on psychopathy were
limited since no reliable and valid measure to
assess the construct existed at the time. Clinical
judgment, self-report, and behavioral measures
#Springer International Publishing AG 2016
V. Zeigler-Hill, T.K. Shackelford (eds.), Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences,
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1079-1
were all being used at the time to assess psychop-
athy, but none of these had any systematic or
consistent way of conrming that they were cap-
turing the same construct (Hare and Cox 1978).
For example, a global rating scale from 0 to 7 was
often used to rate offenders on the clinical con-
struct of psychopathy observed by Cleckley.
Although this scale enjoyed good interrater reli-
ability, the score was a single measure arrived at
using clinical inference across all available infor-
mation about the offender (Hare and Neumann
2005). A central purpose of the PCL then was to
identify the features (i.e., traits and behaviors) that
went in to making the global ratings from the
clinical inference and making a more objective
measure that could assess the presence of those
features. Thus, the PCL was a solution that could
provide a common and more objective measure-
ment accessible to clinical and nonclinical inves-
tigators researching and reporting on
The second observation that led to the PCLs
development was a concern that clinical decisions
about the assessment and diagnosis of psychopa-
thy were being made based on a very limited time
frame of the individuals life. There was often
little to no consideration for lifetime personality
and behavioral traits exhibited by the offender
when assessing for psychopathy. The PCL instead
would provide a more extensive scoring system
that would consider a longer time period of
assessing how entrenched, chronic, and persistent
some of the traits and behaviors were for a partic-
ular offender being assessed. This was seen as a
solution to both reliability and validity issues
when assessing psychopathy.
The third observation that led to the develop-
ment of the PCL was the recognition that research
assessment scales of psychopathy should also be
explicitly and, thus, meaningfully connected to
the clinical construct of psychopathy (Cleckley
1976). Ensuring that the PCL was truly measuring
the construct that it claimed to measure was nec-
essary to make meaningful claims about the indi-
viduals presenting with the traits and behaviors
underlying that construct. Thus, adhering to this
allows interventions for individuals presenting
with these traits and behaviors to be properly
informed from the research using the PCL.
Development of the Scale
The PCL was developed using construct validity
and statistical analysis. Based on the clinical con-
struct of psychopathy (Cleckley 1976), all of the
traits, behaviors, indicants, and counterindicants of
psychopathy(Hare 1980, p. 114) were recorded,
resulting in a list of over 100 potential features.
Statistical analyses were then conducted using
these features to identify redundancy between
them, whether they could be scored adequately
and reliably, and which ones were effective at
discriminating between offenders rated high or
low on the global clinical scale of psychopathy.
These analyses reduced the list to 22 features that
were identied to best capture psychopathy and
thus formed the structure of the PCL.
The PCL Scale: Structure, Scoring,
and Administration
The PCL consists of 22 items (see Table 1), each
scored on a 3-point ordinal scale (0, 1, or 2).
Information to score the items is obtained from a
semi-structured interview lasting approximately
1 h and reviewing the offenders institutional
le. The PCL was designed for use in criminal
populations and so institutional les were often
readily available. The interview portion was
designed to sample the offenders interpersonal
style (e.g., impression management tactics, atti-
tudes, etc.) and to probe different areas of their
lives including education, occupations, family
life, marital status, present and past offenses,
drug and alcohol use, and health problems.
After reviewing the institutional le and
conducting the interview, the items are scored
either a 0 (denitely not present) or 2 (denitely
present) unless there is not enough information or
inconsistent information is present to score the
item, in which case it is scored a 1. In an effort
to establish consistency between raters, guidelines
of what information from the interview and
2 Hare Psychopathy Checklist
institutional les is relevant when scoring items
was provided (Hare and Frazelle 1980). Total
scores on the PCL are obtained by summing all
of the items, providing a range from 0 to 44, with
higher scores indicating a greater manifestation of
the traits and behaviors underlying the construct
of psychopathy. To increase the reliability of the
PCL, it was encouraged that two raters indepen-
dently rate the offender and then use the average
of the two scores (Hare and Frazelle 1980). This
also promoted early investigations on the
interrater reliability of the PCL.
Using the PCL: Early Validation
and Research
Early validation for the PCL was conducted to
ensure that it was capturing a similar construct as
Cleckleys criteria and the global ratings of
psychopathy. The initial sample consisted of
143 white incarcerated males from a prison in
British Columbia in Canada (Hare 1980). Regres-
sion analysis showed that PCL scores signi-
cantly predicted global ratings of psychopathy,
indicating that the items forming the PCL were
consisting of similar features that clinicians were
using when coming to a decision on the global
rating of psychopathy. Additionally, factor analy-
sis using the PCL and Cleckleys criteria revealed
a good t between the two sets of factors,
suggesting that both the 22-item PCL and
Cleckleys 16 criteria of psychopathy were mea-
suring a similar construct. Early validation analy-
sis, thus, suggested that the PCL was accurately
capturing the same or similar construct of psy-
chopathy that clinicians were assessing with
global rating scales of psychopathy and
Cleckleys criteria, placing condence in the abil-
ity of the PCL as a measure of psychopathy (Hare
1980). Reliability of the scale items and ratings
from this initial study also indicated that it could
be used condently as a reliable measure.
Subsequent research using the PCL began to
shed light on psychopathy. A number of early
studies were crucial for inuencing the psychop-
athy literature for decades to come. The rst study
to link the PCL with other measures of personality
used the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Hare
1982). This study found that PCL scores were
associated with psychoticism and negatively
with the lie scale. Another study examined the
relation between the PCL and violence (Hare
and McPherson 1984). This study found that
criminals with higher PCL scores were more
likely to commit violent and aggressive criminal
acts than those lower in PCL scores and that lower
IQ was not a reason for this effect. This nding
would propel the PCL into research examining the
risk that offenders with elevated PCL(-R) scores
pose for committing violent criminal acts upon
release from prison (Hare 2003). Another early
and consistent nding was that individuals with
high PCL scores were less likely to learn from
punishment when there was a prospect of receiv-
ing a monetary reward (Newman 1987). These
ndings laid the groundwork for subsequent
research that would corroborate and extend these
Hare Psychopathy Checklist, Table 1 Original 22 PCL
1. Glibness/supercial charm
2. Previous diagnosis as psychopath (or similar)
3. Egocentricity/grandiose sense of self-worth
4. Proneness to boredom/low frustration tolerance
5. Pathological lying and deception
6. Conning/lack of sincerity
7. Lack of remorse or guilt
8. Lack of affect and emotional depth
9. Callous/lack of empathy
10. Parasitic lifestyle
11. Short-tempered/poor behavioral controls
12. Promiscuous sexual relations
13. Early behavior problems
14. Lack of realistic, long-term plans
15. Impulsivity
16. Irresponsible behavior as parent
17. Frequent marital relationships
18. Juvenile delinquency
19. Poor probation or parole risk
20. Failure to accept responsibility for own actions
21. Many types of offense
22. Drug or alcohol abuse not direct cause of antisocial
Source: Hare and Frazelle (1980)
Hare Psychopathy Checklist 3
features and many others into a greater under-
standing of individuals with psychopathic traits.
Beyond the PCL
The PCL initiated the development of a research
scale for the assessment of psychopathy. How-
ever, a number of issues arose from the early
validation study of the scale. The PCL contained
22 items, but two items had relatively low corre-
lations with the overall PCL score (Hare 1980).
These two items were item 2 (Previous diagnosis
as psychopath (or similar)) and item 22 (Drug or
alcohol abuse not direct cause of antisocial behav-
ior). These two items were subsequently removed
when developing the revised scale, resulting in a
total of 20 items (with scores ranging from 0 to
40). Additionally, item 16 (Irresponsible behavior
as parent) was modied to represent irresponsible
behavior across many contexts beyond just
Another issue concerned what information
about the individual should be used to score
each item. Thus, more comprehensive and clear
item descriptions were subsequently provided.
Scoring the PCL was also problematic when little
to no information was available for a given item.
In these circumstances, raters would often score
the offender a 1 for that item, which may have
articially inated scores. As a result, the need to
omit items and provide prorated scores was
suggested and implemented in the revised scale.
Lastly, some of the factors from the factor analysis
in the preliminary study did not have underlying
content that could meaningfully be communi-
cated. However, renements of the PCL items,
scoring adjustments, and clearer item descriptions
would later produce the replicable and content-
meaningful four-factor structure found in the
PCL-R, PCL:SV, and PCL:YV (e.g., interper-
sonal, affective, lifestyle, and antisocial factors).
The PCL provided the rst assessment scale
enabling systematic research into the clinical
construct of psychopathy. Previous to its develop-
ment, psychopathy was largely a clinical diagno-
sis, arrived at by interviewing the individual and
using clinical judgment to make the diagnosis.
The PCL provided a rating scale that amalgam-
ated many of the traits and behaviors of psychop-
athy using conceptual and statistical methods to
provide for a more objective and dimensional
assessment of psychopathy in criminal
populations. Amalgamating the features that
form the construct of psychopathy had the benet
of not being unduly inuenced by any particular
salient trait or behavior of the offender (e.g.,
extensive deception, heinous crimes). In this
way, the PCL provided a balanced, reliable, and
accurate way to assess an individual on psycho-
pathic traits for research and clinical purposes.
Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R)
Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version
Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version
Cleckley, H. (1976). The mask of sanity (5th ed.). St. Louis:
Forth, A. E., Kosson, D. S., & Hare, R. D. (2003). The
Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version. Toronto:
Multi-Health Systems.
Hare, R. D. (1980). A research scale for the assessment of
psychopathy in criminal populations. Personality and
Individual Differences, 1,111119.
Hare, R. D. (1982). Psychopathy and the personality
dimensions of psychoticism, extraversion and neuroti-
cism. Personality and Individual Differences, 3, 3542.
Hare, R. D. (1991). The Hare Psychopathy Checklist
Revised. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.
Hare, R. D. (2003). The Hare Psychopathy Checklist
Revised (2nd ed.). Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.
Hare, R. D., & Cox, D. N. (1978). Clinical and empirical
conceptions of psychopathy and the selection of sub-
jects for research. In R. D. Hare & D. Schalling (Eds.),
Psychopathic behavior: Approaches to research
(pp. 121). Cichester: John Wiley.
4 Hare Psychopathy Checklist
Hare, R. D., & Frazelle, J. L. (1980). Some preliminary
notes on the use of a research scale for the assessment
of psychopathy in criminal populations. Unpublished
manuscript. University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Hare, R. D., & McPherson, L. M. (1984). Violent and
aggressive behavior by criminal psychopaths. Interna-
tional Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 7, 3550.
Hart, S. D., Cox, D. N., & Hare, R. D. (1995). The Hare
Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version. Toronto:
Multi-Health Systems.
Hare, R. D., & Neumann, C. S. (2005). The PCL-R assess-
ment of psychopathy: Development, structural proper-
ties, and new directions. In C. J. Patrick (Ed.),
Handbook of psychopathy (pp. 5888). New York,
NY: Guilford Press.
Newman, J. P. (1987). Reaction to punishment in extraverts
and psychopaths: Implications for the impulsive behav-
ior of disinhibited individuals. Journal of Research in
Personality, 21, 464480.
Hare Psychopathy Checklist 5
... While studies based on self-reports and spouse ratings on the NEO PI-R questionnaire support the validity of the personality traits measured (Costa & McCrae, 2005), it has been reported that psychopathic traits such as Machiavellian egocentricity and externalizing blame are associated with greater success in faking a positive personality profile (MacNeil & Holden, 2006). This may be particularly relevant as 80% of the violent offenders met the criteria for psychopathy based on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) when using a cutoff score of ≥25 (Brazil & Forth, 2016). In addition, the study sample consisted of only men, which means we cannot generalize the results to women. ...
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Background Although aggression is conceptualized as a dimensional construct with violent behavior representing the extreme end of a spectrum, studies on the involvement of personality traits in human aggression have typically only included data representing a restricted spectrum of aggressive behaviors. Methods In the current study, we therefore examine whether trait aggression is associated with five-factor model personality traits in an enriched sample of 259 men with a broad continuum of trait aggression, ranging from very low to very high including 39 incarcerated aggressive violent offenders. All participants completed the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R) and the Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ). The association between each of the five NEO PI-R personality traits and trait aggression (BPAQ) was investigated using five linear regression models, covarying for group status, age and educational level. Results Higher BPAQ scores were positively associated with Neuroticism and negatively associated with Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Conclusion Our results indicate that those high in Neuroticism and low in Agreeableness and Conscientiousness are at higher risk of exhibiting aggressive behavior, underlining the relevance of these higher order personality traits in understanding aggressive behavior. We argue that studying individual personality differences should be offered a greater attention within violent and criminal behaviors.
... Psychopathy is more than just aggression; the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is the premiere diagnostic tool for psychopathy and it assesses 20 characteristics or behaviours (Kiehl, 2014). The PCL-R was created based on a study that included 143 Caucasian, male inmates who were incarcerated in British Columbia, Canada (Brazil & Forth, 2016). If the main assessment tool was created by only examining male behaviour, it is likely that it overlooks any differences that are influenced by sex or gender roles. ...
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Psychopathy is characterized by detrimentally high levels of impulsive or risk-taking, deceptive and grandiose behaviours and low levels of empathy or remorse; psychopathy has a strong correlation with criminal and aggressive behaviour. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is the premiere diagnostic tool for psychopathy and it assesses 20 characteristics or behaviours. Hare created this to use in his research with male inmates in Vancouver, British Columbia. It was not intended for clinical or forensic use but due to the success of his work, Hare continued to adapt this measure into a revised checklist, screening version, and youth version. While Hare and his colleagues routinely assess these measures, they frequently do not include female participants, or the female participant pool is not representative. This systematic analysis examined gender as a factor in the symptomology of psychopathy in inmates and determined whether female inmates require an adjusted version of the PCL measures in order to accurately assess psychopathy. Important differences were noted in psychopathy across gender. Women with psychopathic traits are less likely to display criminal behaviour or physical violence and more likely to engage in verbal violence or social network manipulation. Male psychopaths are more likely to have grandiose or impulsive behaviour whereas female psychopaths have higher rates of emotional reactivity and drug abuse. Women are more likely to inflict harm on themselves than others. Psychopathic women were more likely to be sex workers and/or use sex for manipulation than men. Most notably, psychopathic behaviour related more strongly to BPD in women and ASPD in men. Gender moderates the symptoms, assessment, and diagnosis of psychopathy. The current measures are not effectively diagnosing psychopathy or assessing risk in women, which they claim to do.
... The current concept of psychopathy describes a pattern of personality characterized by low levels of empathy and sense of guilt, arrogance, superficial charm, irresponsible and resulting antisocial behaviors (Cleckley, 1951). Research further disentangled this concept in three inter-correlated domains: The CU traits consist of lack of empathy and remorse, with short-lived emotions, whereas the manipulative domain is characterized by verbal and manipulative abilities, superficial charm, egocentricity and eloquence (also named narcissism) and the daring-impulsive domain (also named impulsivity or psychopathy-related impulsivity) traits include irresponsibility, proneness to boredom, novelty seeking and low prosocial behavior (Brazil & Forth, 2016). Previous research pointed out that these domains are not exclusive of adult psychopathology, but they can also be found in children and adolescents (Frick & White, 2008), leading to the concept of childhood psychopathy, firstly conceptualized by Forth and colleagues (Forth, Hart, & Hare, 1990), and further supported by Frick (Frick, O'Brien, Wootton, & McBurnett, 1994) and Lynam (Lynam, 1997). ...
Disruptive behavior is a common phenomenon in human nature and frequently occurs during adolescence. It is associated with conduct problems (CP) in healthy as well as clinical populations. When CP exceed the normal range and disruptive behaviors are severe, Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD), including Conduct Disorder (CD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), is often diagnosed. Individuals who fulfill diagnostic criteria of DBD also frequently display a conspicuous pattern of behavior that is characterized by a callous, uncaring and unemotional interpersonal style, including deficits in empathy, emotional affectivity and conscientiousness. These behaviors have been labeled the affective dimension of psychopathy or callous-unemotional traits (CU traits) in research. Overall, evidence-based psychological treatments for DBD (with and without increased CU traits) only reach small to moderate effect sizes and there is currently not enough evidence to support one specific form of treatment over another. To date, real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI-NF) is increasingly considered as a promising tool for the training of brain self-regulation in order to treat psychiatric conditions. It has already been applied to train self-regulation of compromised inhibitory or emotional brain regions, and of emotion regulation strategies in adult psychopaths and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. For the purpose of investigating and evaluating new innovative forms of treatments for adolescents with DBD, this thesis followed a two-way approach. First (study 1), a large dataset of healthy young adolescents (mean age: 14.44 (0.41), range 13.08-15.72 years) with varying level of CP was analyzed with respect to possible neural correlates of frontal control over CP during affective processing of negative facial emotions. Second (study 2), an individualized rtfMRI-NF training aiming at the learning of self-regulation of emotional processing regions (amygdala or insula) and, as a result, at the improvement of affective processing was conducted with adolescent patients (mean age: 14.62 (1.64), range: 12.04-17.99 years) diagnosed with DBD and elevated CU traits (ICU total score >20 in self-rating and/or >24 in parent-rating) over a course of 10 weeks and compared with a clinical TAU group. In study 1, we observed no significant differences in brain responses to negative facial affect in adolescents with high versus low CP. However, regression analyses along the CP dimension across the groups revealed a significant nonlinear effect: left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) responses increased with increasing CP up to the clinical range, and, decreased again only for the highest CP range. This increasing left OFC activity found during affective processing in an epidemiological adolescent sample with low to clinically relevant levels of CP might represent frontal control mechanisms preventing the outbreak of disruptive or conduct disorder despite conduct problems. In study 2, the NF and the TAU group showed comparable and significant clinical improvement on DBD-related behavioral scales over time, in line with non-inferiority. Within the NF group, successful learning of self-regulation in the target region was found for NF of the amygdala, but not for NF of the insula. The data suggest that the self-regulation of emotional processing regions might be more promising when receiving feedback from the amygdala (as compared to the insula). Additional exploratory analyses also suggested involvement of prefrontal areas in the learning of self-regulation of emotion processing regions. However, clinical improvement in NF was not specific to the amygdala group. In the emotion matching task, both treatment groups showed decreased activities after treatment in prefrontal emotion-regulation related areas, potentially indicating higher efficiency of processing affective stimuli after treatment. The results suggest clinical improvement and non-inferiority of rtfMRI-NF training compared to other treatment options for adolescents with diagnosis of DBD, but further studies are needed to clarify underlying mechanisms and cost effectiveness. As a future perspective, further investigation of the role of structural and functional connections between subcortical and prefrontal areas with respect to the cognitive regulation of affective arousal might be fruitful for the development of future specific treatment strategies aiming at the improvement of adaptive reactivity, emotion regulation and social behavior. Also, the OFC could form a promising target for further NF approaches aiming at the control of emotions.
... As previously discussed, Hare is renowned for his work in the field of psychopathy, partly due to his contributions to the general understanding of what constitutes a psychopath. However, he is most well-known for the development and publishing of the PCL-R, which he created in 1991 (Brazil & Forth, 2016). This checklist was originally designed to assess individuals that had been accused or convicted of a crime with the general idea being that the higher the PCL-R score, the more likely the individual was to have committed the crime in question. ...
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This contemporary literature review acted as a mini-dissertation during my third year of university. I investigated psychopathy as a construct and identified some of the key characteristics that lend psychopaths to criminal behaviour. I went on to discuss how psychopathy is linked with some specific criminal behaviours, such as white collar crime and rape. I finally made the link with sexual sadism which tied together all the knowledge I had built during the review.
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A quest to find the light 2 A quest to find the light: A review of corporate and successful psychopathy literature with proposal for future development to a full research paper. Summary This is a development paper, and primarily a review of existing literature on successful psychopathy with the aim to develop it into a full research paper. An aim of the proposed research is to encourage discussion on the emerging subject area of the positive aspects of successful psychopathy in scholastic circles in addition to those of the disciplines of criminology and psychology. It would be of particular interest to stimulate debate amongst business and management academics, where there is currently a dearth of literature on the adaptive tendencies of successful psychopaths. Are they the destructive leaders so many researchers believe, or can they have positive impacts on the business they run? Word Count: 4886 A quest to find the light 3 Background and Rationale
This research discusses the psychopathic behaviour of the antagonist, John Bristow, in the novel The Cuckoo`s Calling by Robert Galbraith. This research aims at identifying the characteristics and causes of psychopathic behavior of the antagonist and the impact on others and himself. The research was conducted using descriptive analysis method and psychoanalysis approach. John, who has hurt others without remorse, is not afraid of repeating his crime. He is able to deceive and manipulate others, not to mention coldhearted, and has a lack of emphaty. Strong id and weak superego originating from John's lack of attention and affection from his parents and closest people are the causes of John`s psychophatic behaviour. John`s psychopathic behaviour in turn causes others to suffer and causes himself to lose his family.Keywords : The Cuckoo`s Calling, Psychopathic Behaviour, Superego, Id, Family.
Conduct disorder is a significant psychiatric disorder of childhood and adolescence. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth version (DSM-5), added the limited prosocial specifier to identify those individuals who exhibit a more severe pattern of behavior characterized by a callous and unemotional (CU) interpersonal style across multiple settings and relationships. This review has attempted to summarize the relevant research focusing on the significance of CU interpersonal style in the development of psychopathy. The primary focus was on the electrophysiological and neuropsychological correlates of CU traits and their implication on the treatment protocol using neurofeedback training for children with such traits. The source of the literature search was PubMed, which majorly uses the MEDLINE database. The keywords used included CU traits, conduct disorder, child psychopathy, empathy, electrophysiology, criminal behavior, neuropsychology, neurofeedback training, and so on. Studies from the last 15 years were considered for the review. This review revealed that children with conduct disorder and high-CU traits with a combination of reactive and proactive aggression are more likely to develop psychopathy. Evidence suggests that these children have distinct forms of electrophysiological and neuropsychological correlates. However, research in this area is still not conclusive as they yield variation in findings. Studies on the efficacy of neurofeedback training on reducing symptoms such as impulsivity, hostility, and psychopathy indicate that neurofeedback training can be a promising treatment alternative for children with severe conduct disorder.
This paper describes an early phase in the development of new research scale for the assessment of psychopathy in criminal populations. The scale is meant to be a sort of operational definition of the procedures that go into making global ratings of psychopathy. While the interrater reliability of these ratings is very high ( > 0.85) they are difficult to make, require a considerable amount of experience, and the procedures involved are not easily communicated to other investigators. Following a series of analyses, 22 items were chosen as representative of the type of information used in making global ratings. Two investigators then used interview and case-history data to complete the 22-item checklist for 143 male prison inmates. The correlation between the two sets of total checklist scores was 0.93 and coefficient alpha was 0.88, indicating a very high degree of scale reliability. The correlation between the total checklist scores and global ratings of psychopathy was 0.83. A series of multivariate analyses explored the factorial structure of the scale and demonstrated its ability to discriminate very accurately between inmates with high and low ratings of psychopathy. Preliminary indications are that the checklist will hold up well to crossvalidation.
In this chapter we review the impetus for, and the development of, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003), discuss its psychometric properties, examine recent research on its structural characteristics, and suggest several directions and paradigms for new research. Reference also is made to direct derivatives of the PCLR (referred to here as the PCL scales): The Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV; Hart, Cox, & Hare, 1995) and the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003). These scales are described briefly below. Extensive discussions and reviews of the construct validity of these instruments are available in their respective manuals and elsewhere (e.g., this volume; Cooke, Forth, & Hare, 1998; Gacono, 2000). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) was administered to 173 male prison inmates for whom reliable assessments of psychopathy were available. Psychopathy was significantly correlated with the Psychoticism (P) scale (r = 0.16) and the Lie scale (r = 0.14), but not with the Extraversion (E) or Neuroticism (N) scales. Zone (octant) analysis indicated that psychopathy was not associated with any particular combination of P, E and N scores. Additional analyses, based on the discriminant function procedure described in the EPQ manual, indicated that inmates with high assessments of psychopathy were significantly less psychiatrically abnormal, in the EPQ sense, than were those with low assessments of psychopathy. A series of comparisons was also made between the P scale and a 22-item psychopathy checklist. The P scale was significantly correlated with six of the items, and with factors 1 (r = 0.30) and 4 (r = 0.19) that emerged from a principal components analysis of the checklist. Factor 1 is related to an impulsive, unstable lifestyle with no long-term commitments and factor 4 to the early appearance of antisocial behavior. It is argued that the P scale reflects the criminal, antisocial aspects of psychopathy and that the results probably have no direct implications for the suggestion that psychopathy and psychoticism are related in some fundamental way. A canonical analysis indicated that some interesting relations may exist between the EPQ variables and the psychopathy factors.
To explore the factors mediating impulsivity in the syndromes of disinhibition, we investigated the ability of extraverts and psychopaths to use signals for punishment to withhold maladaptive approach behavior under various incentive conditions. The results provide evidence that (a) in comparison to controls, extraverts and psychopaths fail to use cues for punishment to inhibit incorrect approach responses; (b) the deficient response inhibition of disinhibited subjects is specific to approach-avoidance situations; (c) under conditions involving monetary rewards and punishments, disinhibited subjects are less likely to slow down, and may even respond more quickly, following punishment; and (d) the tendency to speed up rather than slow down following punishment is associated with failure to learn from punishment. The results suggest that once focused on obtaining reward, extraverts and psychopaths display an active (disinhibited) as opposed to a passive (reflective) reaction to punishment and frustrative nonreward. This reaction to punishment appears to interfere with learning cues for punishment and may underlie the poor passive avoidance learning and impulsive behavior that characterize the syndromes of disinhibition.
The mask of sanity The Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version
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