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On potential use of hemp flour in bread production



The aim of this research is to study the potential use of hemp flour in the production of bread with increased nutritional value. The study of the nutritional value of three types of flour is presented. A positive effect of hemp flour on replenishing the mineral value of bread has been established. Trial samples of bread contain more macronutrients and micronutrients. The offered method allows us to produce bread with an increased nutritional value, which contains 27.4% more proteins, 200.8% more fats, and 497.2% more fibers. The new technology of bread production using hemp flour helps reduce proofing time for the dough, reduce baking time.
Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov
Series II: ForestryWood Industry • Agricultural Food EngineeringVol. 10 (59) No.1 - 2017
Aleksandr LUKIN1 Ksenia BITIUTSKIKH1
Abstract: The aim of this research is to study the potential use of hemp
flour in the production of bread with increased nutritional value. The study of
the nutritional value of three types of flour is presented. A positive effect of
hemp flour on replenishing the mineral value of bread has been established.
Trial samples of bread contain more macronutrients and micronutrients. The
offered method allows us to produce bread with an increased nutritional
value, which contains 27.4% more proteins, 200.8% more fats, and 497.2%
more fibers. The new technology of bread production using hemp flour helps
reduce proofing time for the dough, reduce baking time.
Key words: bread, hemp flour, mineral content, quality, production
1 Department of Higher School of Food and Biotechnology, Federal State Autonomous Educational
Institution of Higher Education “South Ural State University (national research university)”, 76,
Lenin prospect, Chelyabinsk, Russia, 454080
Correspondence: Aleksandr Lukin; email:
1. Introduction
The analysis of actual nutrition and the
nutritional status assessment of the
population in various regions of Russia
show that the population’s diet is
characterized by excessive consumption of
animal fats and easily digesting
carbohydrates and a deficiency in dietary
fibers, vitamins, pseudo vitamins, as well
as macro- and micronutrients [12].
In order to solve this problem, there are
currently studies on ways of creating
special foods necessary not only to make
up for micronutrient deficiency in the diet
and support the vital functions of the
human body, but also to protect it from
many diseases caused by environmental
impact (immune, cardiovascular,
respiratory and oncology diseases and
premature aging). Many countries of the
world (United Kingdom, Norway, Finland,
USA and others) have large scale programs
for population health improvement that
include bread and bread products as a
solution [5]. In Russia, bread is a
traditional staple food, therefore,
developing and producing bread with a set
chemical composition will allow us to have
a big influence on the health of the
population with minimal costs.
Data taken from literature on protein,
mineral and vitamin value of bread
supports the claim that it is one of the most
valuable food products [11]. However, a
deficiency of irreplaceable amino acids
(lysine, threonine), macro- and
micronutrients (calcium, iodine, iron etc.)
and vitamins has been found in bread.
Therefore, one of the most crucial tasks for
Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov • Series II • Vol. 10 (59) No. 1 - 2017
bread producers is not only improving the
quality of bread and keeping it fresh, but
also increasing its nutritional value,
including by enriching it with additional
nutrients [1], [6], [7].
In the practice of bread making, various
food additives are used for this purpose,
including those received from plant and
animal raw materials, chemical processes,
microbiological synthesis or the processing
of natural materials.
Bakers in Russia and abroad widely use
plant-based food additives that help enrich
wheat flour with certain irreplaceable
amino acids, fiber, vitamins, and
micronutrients. For example, the works
[15] show the suitability of adding 50–70%
triticale flour to wheat flour to enrich bread
products with irreplaceable amino acids.
However, the use of triticale flour in
baking is made difficult by its heightened
autocatalytic activity and low gluten
quality that is why the authors advise using
apple pectin extract as an improving agent.
The work suggests using lentil and bean
flour as a protein additive. The resulting
bread product contains 1.7 times less
starch and 2.6 times more irreplaceable
amino acids and enriches the bread with
micronutrients (potassium, calcium,
magnesium, iron, and phosphorus) and B
vitamins. The authors of [10] recommend
using wheat bran (15% of the total flour
mass) and barley or corn flour (10% of the
total flour mass) in the recipe. Following
that, dietary fiber content is increased by 2
times, micronutrient content (potassium,
calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and
iron) by 1.8 times, and vitamin content
(В1, В2, РР) by 1.3 times. This bread
can be included in the diet to prevent
cardiovascular diseases and metabolic
disorders and to strengthen immunity. In
the work [2] the possibility of including 5
to 10% of different types of grains (rice,
millet, crushed buckwheat) to the “Grain”
bread recipe made from top-grade wheat
flour is studied. Amaranth grains are a
source of lysine, unsaturated fatty acids
(oleic, linoleic and linolenic), carotenoids,
flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, tripholine),
vitamins (В1, В6, С, Е) and dietary fibers.
In foreign practice a method of bread
production using wholemeal flour with
herbs, different fruits and green algae is
used [9]; bread is also made from blended
wheat and rye flour with the addition of
nut kernels and nut oil [14]; bread with
high dietary fiber content is made by
adding bran, oleiferous plant extraction
cake, flour from other grain crops, and
dried whole apple powder to the recipe.
Bread made with dried apple powder is
noted for hardening slower and a pleasant
fruity taste [13].
Other examples of using plant-based raw
materials in making bread are known:
banana flour is added in Latin America,
dried coconut in the Philippines, citric
extract in the USA, cassava fruit and
potatoes in India [3]. In Poland [16] the
addition of flour made from the seeds of
nonalkaloid varieties of lupine to the recipes
of baked goods was found promising, as it
has a positive effect on the nutritional and
health benefits of the product as well as
their quality and preserving freshness. In
Turkey [17] studies have shown the
suitability of using 15% of dried ground
spent grains, which are a source of dietary
fiber, in cookie dough.
In this context, the aim of this study is to
explore the possibilities of using hemp
flour in bread production technology.
2. Material and Methods
The materials used in this study include
dried and ground hemp seeds (Cannabis
sativa); model bread samples made
following the recipe [4]. As a control
sample we have used bread made using a
basic recipe (contents: medium rye flour,
short patent wheat flour, table salt, yeast
A. LUKIN et al.: On Potential Use of Hemp Flour in Bread Production
cake, bulk starter and drinking water); as
an experiment adding 10% hemp flour
by replacing an equivalent amount of short
patent wheat flour used in bread making.
The content of raw oil in hemp flour was
calculated by extracting it from the seeds
using an appropriate solvent in the Soxhlet
extractor. Ash weight percentage was
calculated by burning the regrounded
sample weight of the product until the
substance is completely burned, followed
by a quantitative measurement of the
residue. Protein weight percentage was
determined through the nitrogen content
using the Kjeldahl method. Fiber was
measured through a step-by-step
application of acid solution, alkali solution
and ashing the sample weight of the trial
sample and a quantitative measurement of
the organic residue by weight. Acidity was
calculated through titration of the
suspension of a sample weight of
regrounded product in a 0.1 N solution of
sodium hydrate with the addition of 5
drops of 1% phenolphthalein solution until
it turns pink and remains pink for 1
Phosphorus, iron, magnesium and
calcium content in model bread samples
were determined using atomic absorption
spectrophotometry [18]. Dough
fermentation properties were measured by
the dough rising speed in the thermostat.
The dough piece is usually evaluated as
ready to bake organoleptically based on the
changes in volume and shape of the dough
and its rheological properties. The
sample’s preparedness is signaled by the
temperature in the center of the crumb,
which should be 9697°С in the final stage
of the baking process.
All measurements were repeated three
times. Statistical analysis was performed
using the following software packages:
Microsoft Excel XP, Statistica 8.0.
Statistical error did not exceed 5% (with a
95% confidence level).
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Method for Producing Hemp Flour
In the first stage of this study a method
for producing hemp flour was developed
and the resulting product’s nutritional value
was measured. Whole hemp seeds were
cleaned from contaminants and dust in a
grain separator, run through magnets to
clean from metallic contaminants, washed
out with tap water, sent to open grain
roasters, dried for 15 minutes at a
temperature of 8090°С in the seed mass
until they reached the moisture level of 8%.
Dried seeds were then cooled to room
temperature and sent to the grinder to be
ground into a powder. Hemp flour is a
grayish-green powder with brown
particles, a pleasant nutty taste and scent,
and a slight crunch when chewing the
outer layer particles.
For comparison we have studied the
nutritional value of short patent wheat flour,
rye flour, and hemp flour. The results of
testing the nutritional value of the three
flour types are presented in Table 1.
The nutritional value of three types of flour Table 1
Parameter name
Test results
Wheat flour
Rye flour
Hemp flour
Fat weight percentage [%]
1.9 ± 0.3
1.7 ± 0.3
24.9 ± 0.3
Protein weight percentage [%]
11.8 ± 0.7
8.8 ± 0.7
23.4 ± 0.7
Ash weight percentage [%]
2.1 ± 0.1
2.4 ± 0.1
2.9 ± 0.1
Fiber percentage [%]
0.6 ± 0.3
1.2 ± 0.3
36.1 ± 0.3
Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov • Series II • Vol. 10 (59) No. 1 - 2017
The increased health benefits of hemp
flour are explained by the fact that it
contains a high amount of insoluble and
soluble dietary fiber, or crude dietary fiber,
which aid the body to effectively remove
Compared to rye flour, hemp flour
contains more fiber (30 times). Hemp flour
also contains 20 amino acids essential for
the human body, half of which are not
produced by our bodies naturally. Hemp
flour contains more protein than short
patent wheat flour (2 times) and rye flour
(2.6 times). Hemp flour is also rich in
lipids, including the essential fatty acids in
the omega-3 and omega-6 groups. The
flour contains soluble vitamins and
deficient mineral elements [8]. The listed
benefits give hemp flour the qualities of an
additive-enricher in foods.
3.2 Developing the Technologies for
Producing Bread Using Hemp
In the second stage of this study, the
technology for producing bread with the
addition of hemp flour was developed.
The flour (readily blended or separate
medium rye and short patent wheat flour)
is sifted, poured into the trough, and then
mixed with hemp powder made from
ground hemp seeds at the humidity of no
more than 8% in the amount of 1015% of
the total flour mass, salt is added and the
flour is mixed. Following that, 1/4 bulk
starter is added together with a calculated
amount of water and the mixture is sent to
the dough kneading machine, after which
the dough is made up, sent to proofing and
then baked in a dampened baking chamber
at the temperature of 190200°С.
The dough is sent to make up, the dough
pieces are placed in round cases, sent to
proofing and then to baking. It is
recommended to spray the dough pieces
with water before putting them in the
baking chamber.
The comparative analysis of the
parameters of the technological process of
bread production is supplied in Table 2.
The changes in the technological
parameters are explained as follows: the
fiber contained in hemp flour expands the
gelatinized mass, increases the active
surface, traps air bubbles caught when
kneading, which increases the dough
fermentation property. Enriching the
dough with fat contained in hemp flour
also has an effect on the technology it
increases the gas-retaining capacity and
improves the crumb’s structural and
mechanical properties. All of the above
leads to a shortened proofing time,
shortened baking time and lowered baking
heat, and creates higher porosity and fine
pored bread crumb in the final product.
The acidity of the new bread product is
also lower than the control.
Parameters of dough preparation and bread baking Table 2
Parameter name
Test results
Bread made with a
basic recipe
Bread made with the
addition of 10% hemp flour
Final acidity [°H]
Dough fermentation property [min]
Proofing time of the dough pieces [min]
Baking time [min]
Baking temperature [°С]
A. LUKIN et al.: On Potential Use of Hemp Flour in Bread Production
3.3. Nutritional Value and Mineral Content
of the Bread with Hemp Flour
In the third stage of this study the
nutritional value and mineral value of the
bread was tested. The nutritional value and
mineral content of the control and trial
bread samples are presented in Table 3.
For the first time, a positive effect of
hemp flour on the mineral value of bread
was established. Trial bread samples
contain an increase in macronutrients
including calcium (2.5 times), phosphorus
(2 times), magnesium (1.8 times), and
micronutrients iron (51.8%).
Nutritional value and mineral content of the bread Table 3
4. Conclusions
Hemp flour contains all minerals required
by the human body: calcium, magnesium,
iron, phosphorus. Crude dietary fibers aid the
regulation of the gastrointestinal tract. Hemp
flour contains a record amount of
magnesium, which has a positive effect on
the body’s stress resistance. Contrary to
popular opinion on the psychoactive and
narcotic properties of cannabis (which really
are present, but only in the stems and leaves
of the plant), flour made from the seeds is
completely safe and can serve as an addition
to the diets of adults and children alike.
The offered method allows us to make
bread with increased nutritional value, as it
contains 27.4% more protein, 200.8% more
fats, and 497.2% more fiber. The new bread
has an enriched mineral content: calcium
content is increased by 148.9%, phosphorus
by 101.5%, magnesium by 87.1%.
The work was supported by Act 211 of the
Government of the Russian Federation,
contract № 02.A03.21.0011.
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10% hemp flour
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1.2 ± 0.3
3.61 ± 0.3
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8.95 ± 0.7
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4.18 ± 0.3
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55.47 ± 4.40
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260 ± 36
Magnesium content [mg/100 g]
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Iron content [mg/100 g]
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... For samples with 10% addition, Lukin and Bitiutskikh Ksenia, report a lipid content of 3.61%, and Badarau et al. a percentage of 3.09%, with increases of 1.5-2.0% compared to the control sample, which denotes that the results reported by us are consistent with those reported in the literature [57]. However, Pojic et al. report lower values and increases of only 0.4% for bread with the addition of 10% hemp flour [58]. ...
... Our results are lower than those reported by Lukin et al., who reported increase of 3.48% or 4.31% reported by Apostol et al., reporting the same percentage of the addition. In the case of total fibers, higher results were reported than those obtained for the Dacia Secuini and Zenit varieties [56,57]. These differences are due to the variety from which hemp seeds come, but most studies do not show results specific to the varieties of which hemp seeds are part. ...
... Enrichment with micro and macro elements of bread samples with the addition of hemp flour was also reported in the literature. Lukin et al. [57] reported a lower content of Ca and Mg, and a higher amount of P, from the 4 elements studied. Apostol et al. [56] identified a higher amount of Mg and less of Ca and K, and Bădărău et al.'s [53] research showed higher amounts of K and Mg in the bread samples with hemp flour studied. ...
Full-text available
Hemp flour from Dacia Secuieni and Zenit varieties was added to bread in different proportions (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) to improve its nutritional properties. The purpose of this paper was to present the advanced nutritional characteristics of these bread samples. The selected varieties of hemp, accepted for human consumption, met the requirements for the maximum accepted level of THC in seeds. The protein content of new products increased from 8.76 to 11.48%, lipids increased from 0.59 to 5.41%, mineral content from 1.33 to 1.62%, and fiber content from 1.17 to 5.84%. Elasticity and porosity decreased from 95.51 to 80% and 78.65 to 72.24%, respectively. K, Mg, Ca, P, Mn and Fe are the main mineral substances in bread with addition of hemp flour from the Dacia Secuieni and Zenit varieties. The total amount of unsaturated fatty acids in the bread samples with hemp flour ranged from 67.93 g/100 g and 69.82 g/100 g. Eight amino acids were identified, of which three were essential (lysine, phenylalanine, histidine). Lysine, the deficient amino acid in wheat bread, increased from 0.003 to 0.101 g/100 g. Sucrose and fructose decreased with the addition of hemp flour, and glucose has not been identified. The amount of yeasts and molds decreased in the first 3 days of storage. Regarding the textural profile, the best results were obtained for the samples with 5% addition. In conclusion, bread with the addition of hemp flour has been shown to have superior nutritional properties to wheat bread.
... The addition of CF or MF seems to have a negative effect due to the decrease of proteins up to values of 10.7% and 8.3% respectively at ratio of 5%. The level of protein of WF obtained was higher to 11.58% cited by Frakolaki et al. (2018) and close to 11.8% reported by Lukin and Bitiutskikh (2017). The amount of protein of SBF obtained was lower to 38% cited by Singh et al. (2008). ...
... All added flours improve the starch content of composite blended flours. W F is poor in fat content, the value obtained 0.9% was lower to 1.9% cited by Lukin and Bitiutskikh (2017). The addition of MF and SBF significantly increases the amount of fat and fatty acids contents of the composite flours, unlike the CF which, when incorporated, reduces the quantities of fat and fatty acids. ...
Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the partial replacement of wheat flour by carob, malt and soybean flours on the characteristics of dough’s and breads. Methods: For preparation of basic dough, wheat flour was blended with water, sodium chloride and dried yeast. The samples were subjected to the operations of mixing, proofing and baking. The carob, soybean and malt flours were used in increasing ratio 1-5%. Result: Physicochemical properties of composite flours showed that the proteins level (for soybean), ash, fat, fatty acids and starch were increased with increase level of flours substitution. Composite flours prepared with carob and soybean displayed higher amounts of dry and wet gluten, Zeleny number and lower value of failing number. For sensory characteristics, carob and soybean breads received higher liking scores compared to the malt and wheat samples. For malt, only 1% was able to improve the color, section shapes and texture of bread. This study demonstrated the potential use of carob, soybean and malt flours to improve the overall characteristics of the dough’s and breads.
... A by-product of hemp oil production, i.e. hemp oil cake, due to high content of protein (33.5%), dietary fiber (42.6%) and minerals (7.2%) can also be used to improve the nutritional value of foods [8,9]. Hemp cake is usually grounded, which makes it a highly versatile raw material used, among others, in the cereal industry [9,10]. ...
... In recent years, research has been undertaken to assess the possibility of using hemp raw materials in products such as bread [10,17] and cookies [18]. However, there is no research on the possibility of using hemp component for the fortification of the nutritional value of durum wheat pasta. ...
Full-text available
Hemp seed ( Cannabis sativa L.) contain large amounts of nutrients, e.g. protein, dietary fiber, minerals, and unsaturated fatty acids, which make them a good fortifying component in food production. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of hemp addition on the physicochemical properties, cooking quality, texture parameters and sensory properties of durum wheat pasta. The samples were fortified with 5–40% of commercially available hemp flour or 2.5–10% of hemp cake obtained from hemp seed oil pressing. Our study showed that the addition of hemp seed raw materials led to an increase in the protein, total dietary fiber (TDF), ash and fat content in the pasta samples. Due to its lower granulation and higher nutritional value, hemp flour was found to be a better raw material for the fortification of pasta than hemp cake. Pasta enriched with hemp flour at the level of 30–40% contains 19.53–28.87% d.m. of protein and 17.02–21.49% d.m. of TDF and according to the EU, a definition can be described as a high-protein and high-fiber products. All enriched pasta samples were also characterized by safe Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) content, and their sensory properties were accepted by consumers.
... Yine son ürün olan ekmekte %27.4 daha fazla protein, %497.2 daha fazla lif içeriği ile birlikte %148,9 kalsiyum artışı, %101.5 fosfor artışı ve %87,1 magnezyum artışı tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca demir içeriği mg/100 g'da 3.9'dan 8.1'e yükselmiştir (78). İşlem görmemiş bütün kenevir tohumu ve kekinin %20-40 arasında pirinç ununa ilave edilerek formülüze edilen ekstrüde edilmiş enerji barlarında; kenevir katkılı olanlar, kontrol grubuna göre daha düşük su emme indeksi, daha yüksek toplam fenolik, flavanoid ve antioksidan kapasite göstermiştir. ...
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Bu makaleye atıfta bulunmak için/To cite this article: Doğan N, Doğan C. Mucizevi Bitki Kenevir'in (Cannabis sativa L.) Gıda Endüstirisinde Kullanımı. Bozok Vet Sci (2021) 2, (2): 47-56. Özet: Kenevir (Cannabis sativa L.), tarımı yapılan en eski tahıllardan biri olmasına rağmen içerdiği psikotropik maddeden dolayı esrar olarak kullanımı nedeniyle 20. yüzyılda kısıtlanmalara maruz kalmıştır. Ancak son yıllarda kenevir tohumu üretimi ve tüketimi, içermiş olduğu primer/sekonder bileşenlerin fonksiyonel faydaları, hakkındaki bilimsel çalışmaların hız kazanması ve uygulanan ülke politikalarıyla yükselme eğilimine girmiştir. Buna ek olarak kenevirin gıda-gıda bileşeni olarak kullanımı da son yıllarda yaygınlaşmıştır. Bu nedenle, bu çalışma, bilimdeki son gelişmeler ışığında kenevir tohumunun primer ve sekonder metabolitlerini ve gıda endüstrinde katma değerli gıda ürünlerine işlenmesi ve çeşitli faydaları hakkındaki araştırmaları içermektedir.
... Yapılan bir bilimsel araştırmada %10 kenevir unu ilave edilerek hazırlanan ekmeklerde normal ekmeklere (buğday ve arpa unu karışımlı) göre protein içeriğinin dörtte-bir oranında arttığı, lif içeriğinin yaklaşık 5 kat arttığı, mineral konsantrasyonlarının yaklaşık yüzde-yüz arttığı, mayalanma süresi, pişirme süresi, asitlik değeri ve pişirme sıcaklığının ise azaldığı tespit edilmiştir. Bu çalışma, normal ekmeklere onda-bir oranında kenevir ununun ilavesinin çok önemli katkılara neden olduğunu göstermiştir (21). Yine farklı bir çalışmada ise farklı oranlarda kenevir keki ve tohumu ile pirinç unu karıştırılarak ekstrüde enerji barları üretilmiştir. ...
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K enevir birçok farklı alanda kullanılan önemli bir bitkidir. Hem erkek hem de dişi yapısı olan, yıllık dioik bir türdür. Hint keneviri (Cannabis indica) ve endüstriyel kenevir olarak adlandırılan (Cannabis sativa L.) iki türü öne çıkmaktadır. Narko-tik maddeler için üretilen ve dişi çiçek salkımlarının reçinesi olan tür indica'dır. Sativa ise güçlü lifler için üretilen ve çok az reçine oluşturan en yaygın türdür. Günümüzde yaşanan kuraklıklar ve savaşlar nedeni ile buğday stoklarında ve üretiminde sıkıntılar baş göstermeye başlamıştır. Bu nedenle buğday unu yerine unlu mamullerin yapımında kullanılmak üzere alternatif ürünlerin arayışına gidilmektedir. Bu alan da ihtiyacı gidermek için kenevirin kullanımı da araştırılmaktadır. Kenevir denilince ilk akla gelen uyuşturucu olarak tüketil-mesi nedeni ile kuşku ile bakılmaktadır. "Acaba böyle bir etkiye sahip olan kenevir ile biz uyuşturucu bağımlısı mı yapılmak isteniyoruz?" sorusu zihinleri meşgul etmektedir. Bu soru doğal olarak herkesin merak ettiği bir konudur. Fakat kenevirin uyuşturucu olarak kullanıldığı tür, tıbbi kenevir olarak bilinen türüdür. Kenevirin, endüstriyel kenevir olarak adlandırılan türü birçok farklı sanayi alanında da kullanıldığı için endüstriyel kenevir olarak isimlendirilmekte ve unlu mamullerin yapımında bu tür kullanılmaktadır. Bu ne-denle endüstriyel kenevirden elde edilen un ile üretilen mamullerde uyuşturucu etkisinin oluşmadığını bilimsel çalışmaların sonuçları ve gönül rahatlığı ile söyleyebiliriz. Haşhaş da uyuşturucu olarak etkisi bilinen ama aynı zamanda birçok unlu mamullerde kullanılan bir bitki türü olduğu için bu yönü ile kenevirde haşhaş gibi kullanılabilmektedir. Böylece gelecekte ön görülen gıda stoklarındaki azalmada kenevirin alternatif bir ürün olabileceği görülmektedir. Bu alanda özellikle ekmek, kurabiye ve pasta gibi unlu mamullerde kullanıl-ması hem ekonomik hem de sosyal yönden topluma önemli derecede katkı sağlayacaktır (1). Kenevir, uyuşturucu özelliğinden dolayı uzun yıllar yasaklanmasına rağmen dünya genelinde birçok ülkede son zamanlarda yapılan düzenlemeler ile üretimi teşvik edilmektedir. Ülkemizde de geçmişte yapılan yasaklamalar yerini kontrollü üretime bırakmış ve 2016 yılında yapılan düzenleme ile üretimi daha da teşvik edilmiştir. Bu amaçla kenevir ile ilgili bir yönetmelik hazırlanmıştır. Bu çıkarılan yönetmelik ile kenevirin uyuşturucu olarak kullanılması engellenmekte ve endüstriyel kenevirin ise belirli alanlarda kullanılması için üretimi teşvik edilmekte, üretimin yapılacağı usul ve esaslar temel hatları ile ortaya konmaktadır (2). Kenevirin gıda kaynağı olarak kullanımı yüzyıllar öncesine dayanmaktadır. Özellikle Avrupa'da besleyici gıda olarak kullanılmaktadır. Gıda sektöründe doğrudan ve dolaylı
... As a result of their abundant volatile compounds, hemp-derived products have been extensively studied for their potential to influence the final food products' sensory characteristics positively. For instance, a research study obtained grayish-green powder with brown particles, a pleasant nutty taste, and a slight crunch when hemp flour was added into bread dough (Lukin and Bitiutskikh 2017b). Merlino et al. used hempseed flour to fortify gnocchi, a typical Italian potato-based fresh pasta and investigated its influence on the final product's sensory characteristics (Merlino et al. 2022). ...
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Hemp is a valuable crop with a wide range of use, from applications in foods and textiles to pharmaceuticals. Over recent years, the use of hemp as food and food ingredients has drastically increased. The growth is driven by numerous health benefits hemp possesses and its wide range of applications in the food industry. This review provides the scientific literature concerning the benefits of industrial hemp in the food industry. The relevant historical context of use, recent applications in the food industry, health benefits, various development challenges, and the global market outlook for hemp-based food products have been analyzed. Evidence suggests that today hemp is widely consumed as food or an ingredient in the food. Hemp-based foods are marketed as having various health benefits, although their reception by target consumers and success varies. Besides, scientific research on hemp-derived foods has dramatically increased over recent years. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have investigated the health benefits of hemp-based foods. Therefore, there is a promising growth trend in producing novel foods from industrial hemp. Nevertheless, due to health concerns related to THC, there is a general need for regulatory compliance when integrating hemp into foods to ensure product safety before use.
... The use of hempseed protein products as an alternative to the commonly used casein, whey, wheat, and soy protein is on a rise. For instance, some studies have shown that hemp protein products can be used as value added ingredients in the production of bread with increased protein and macro and microelement contents, and lower baking loss and baking time (Korus et al., 2017(b) [2] , Lukin & Bitiutskikh, 2017 & Pojić et al., 2014) [4,5] . The color of hemp-seed protein products can range from light tan to dark brown, depending on the pH condition used during processing and the temperature involved in the final product drying. ...
With global warming and the economic crisis threatening agricultural production in the Mediterranean basin, there are new challenges and opportunities for renewing plant material. Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) has great potential as a multifunctional crop for many different environments. Although hemp is a controlled and multifaceted crop, today, its production is amply undergoing resurgence. The European Union directives restricted its expansion; however, with the renewal in hemp interest and an increase in its cultivation, the hemp industry in Europe has increased in recent decades. This review addresses hemp as a sustainable high-yielding crop that is well adapted to most European conditions, with suitable environmental and agronomic benefits. Specifically, this multiuse crop is able to supply raw material to a large number of traditional and innovative industrial applications, which will be enhanced if the market shows a continuous increasing demand for it. That is, hemp cultivation is perceived as a promising option in terms of crop diversification; particularly in the Mediterranean semiarid region, its implementation remains limited, which reduces the progress of hemp value chains at a larger scale. We concluded that although more knowledge is needed regarding the agronomic practices for cultivating hemp, there is a large amount of evidence that in the coming years, the global market of products made from hemp could be significantly augmented. Thus, hemp can rebuild its reputation with huge opportunities as a promising raw material and a leading crop for sustainable agriculture.
In 2005, hemp acreage in Canada has doubled to 8,000 ha, driven almost entirely by the growing demand for hemp foods and cosmetics in the North American market for natural products. To sustain that growth, members of the Canadian Hemp Trade Alliance (CHTA), which represents all relevant industry sectors, have initiated a comprehensive R&D and communication program on hemp foods. Its main goals are to comprehensively characterize the nutritional profile of seeds, nuts, oil and flour, across all commercially relevant hemp varieties grown in Canada, to assess the relevance of the established profiles to nutritional health, and to communicate results effectively to trade journalists and consumers. Initial characterization studies will assess amino acids and fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, and select phytochemicals. Subsequently, a panel of experts on nutritional health will assess the data and project potential health benefits. In a related project, the impact of processing and storage conditions on rancidity will be quantified and quality management strategies will be developed. The overall joint R&D agenda is funded by several Canadian government programs and by industry contributions.
Effect of blending 50 to 250 g kg−1 cowpea flour in wheat flour on rheological, baking and sensory characteristics of bread, chapati, cookies and muffins was studied. Farinograph water absorption, dough development time, mixing tolerance index and dough stability increased significantly with increased amount of cowpea flour. Incorporation of cowpea flour lowered gelatinisation time and peak viscosity. Loaf volume and overall acceptability scores of bread were reduced significantly beyond 150 g kg−1 incorporation of cowpea flour. There were significant changes in specific volume and overall acceptability scores of muffins, registering an initial improvement up to 50 g kg−1 and a significant decline thereafter.© 1999 Society of Chemical Industry
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