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Abstract

Mental health related disorders are common diseases, especially among the elderly. Among the various mental health diseases, one potential threat to ageing-in-place is the risk of depression. In this paper, we propose a simple unobtrusive sensing system using Passive Infra-Red (PIR) motion sensors to monitor the Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) of elderly who are living alone. A feature extraction module comprising of three layers - states, events and activities - and the corresponding algorithms are proposed to extract features. Four popular classification models - neural network, C4.5 decision tree, Bayesian network, and Support Vector Machine (SVM) - are then applied to detect the severity of depression. We implement and test the algorithms on sensor data collected over three months from 20 elderly, each in different daily living conditions. Our evaluation shows that the proposed algorithms are effective in detecting both normal condition and mild depression with up to 96% accuracy, using neural network as the classification algorithm. The sensing system is non-intrusive and cost-effective, with the potential of use for long-term depression monitoring and detection of early symptoms of mental related disorders. This enables caregivers to provide timely interventions to elderly who are at risk of depression.

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... (Taysi et al., 2010;Englert et al., 2013;Pathak et al., 2015;Pandya & Ghayvat, 2021) Energy consumption monitoring Passive infrared sensor (PIR) sensors Nonwearable (Luo et al., 2012;Popescu et al., 2012;Guan et al., 2017) Fall detection monitoring PIR sensors, which can estimate presence and movements of users, were used to detect falls, monitor ADLs based on indoor locations of users, and analyse occupancy patterns to understand energy demands of users. (Crandall & Cook, 2013;Fanti et al., 2016;Kim et al., 2017;Luo et al., 2017;Jiménez & Seco, 2018) ADL monitoring (Byun et al., 2012;Machorro-Cano et al., 2020;Paredes-Valverde et al., 2020) Energy consumption monitoring ...
... Other types of nonwearable devices, such as PIR and floor sensors, do not highly intrude privacy. Several studies (Crandall & Cook, 2013;Fanti et al., 2016;Kim et al., 2017;Luo et al., 2017) used PIR sensors, which can detect the presence of users for ADL monitoring, because they are inexpensive and not highly privacy invasive. Kim et al. (2017) used PIR sensors with door-switch sensors to estimate the indoor locations of users in a residential environment for the detection of mental disorders based on the changes in ADLs. ...
... Several studies (Crandall & Cook, 2013;Fanti et al., 2016;Kim et al., 2017;Luo et al., 2017) used PIR sensors, which can detect the presence of users for ADL monitoring, because they are inexpensive and not highly privacy invasive. Kim et al. (2017) used PIR sensors with door-switch sensors to estimate the indoor locations of users in a residential environment for the detection of mental disorders based on the changes in ADLs. Crandall and Cook (2013) deployed multiple PIR sensors on a ceiling to track the indoor locations of users based on the sequence detected by each PIR sensor. ...
Article
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In recent decades, smart home technology has advanced, improving the well-being and quality of life of its users. Thus, its applications have expanded, particularly in health and environmental monitoring. Numerous devices have been developed to accommodate user requirements of monitoring; however, the adoption of monitoring devices is closely related to user perception. User perception can be considered from different perspectives. One method of understanding different user perceptions is comparing wearable and nonwearable devices, owing to the differences in their obtrusiveness. The aim of this study was to systematically review the applications and user perceptions of health and environmental monitoring devices, emphasizing on the wearable and nonwearable distinction. We conducted a focused search of articles related to smart home technology and its user perceptions based on its applications. The inclusion criteria were original and peer-reviewed articles centered on health and environmental monitoring devices. We identified and analysed 159 of the 4476 relevant articles and divided the articles into two categories. The first category comprised health and environmental monitoring and their applications by the type of device. The second category comprised user perceptions of monitoring devices. The devices were grouped into wearable and nonwearable devices for our analysis. We identified user perceptions based on usefulness, ease of use, and privacy. Because wearable and nonwearable devices complement their limitations, we recommend their integration for improving user perception.
... According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2021, 3.8% of the world's population suffered from depression, and the rate in the elderly over the age of 60 was 5.7%, 1.5 times the overall level [3]. It should pay particular attention to depression of the elderly because it is difficult for the elderly to recognize that they are depressed on their own, so they often complain of physical symptoms rather than complaining of changes in their emotions [4,5]. ...
... Researchers in this field detect depression by recognizing changes in body shape such as a patient's gait [13,14], head position [15], and thoracic kyphosis [16]. The method of detecting depression using the sensors is again divided into obtrusive and unobtrusive; the former has the problem of inconvenience and the latter suffers from low accuracy [5,17]. The other one detects depression early by analyzing behavior in cyberspace using various AI techniques [18]. ...
... She recently went to the hospital for insomnia and loss of appetite, but her symptoms did not improve because she did not recognize by herself that there were symptoms of depression. Generally, the elderly have difficulty recognizing signs that they are depressed, so they often complain of physical symptoms such as insomnia and loss of appetite rather than complaining of emotional changes [5]. As a result, it is hard to detect depression in the elderly in the early stages, so treatment time is often missed, leading to serious social problems such as suicide in the elderly. ...
Article
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Although the diagnosis and treatment of depression is a medical field, ICTs and AI technologies are used widely to detect depression earlier in the elderly. These technologies are used to identify behavioral changes in the physical world or sentiment changes in cyberspace, known as symptoms of depression. However, although sentiment and physical changes, which are signs of depression in the elderly, are usually revealed simultaneously, there is no research on them at the same time. To solve the problem, this paper proposes knowledge graph-based cyber–physical view (CPV)-based activity pattern recognition for the early detection of depression, also known as KARE. In the KARE framework, the knowledge graph (KG) plays key roles in providing cross-domain knowledge as well as resolving issues of grammatical and semantic heterogeneity required in order to integrate cyberspace and the physical world. In addition, it can flexibly express the patterns of different activities for each elderly. To achieve this, the KARE framework implements a set of new machine learning techniques. The first is 1D-CNN for attribute representation in relation to learning to connect the attributes of physical and cyber worlds and the KG. The second is the entity alignment with embedding vectors extracted by the CNN and GNN. The third is a graph extraction method to construct the CPV from KG with the graph representation learning and wrapper-based feature selection in the unsupervised manner. The last one is a method of activity-pattern graph representation based on a Gaussian Mixture Model and KL divergence for training the GAT model to detect depression early. To demonstrate the superiority of the KARE framework, we performed the experiments using real-world datasets with five state-of-the-art models in knowledge graph entity alignment.
... In previous studies, Internet-of-Things (IoT) or multiple sensors have been used to collect data on daily activities or risk of deterioration [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. In these studies, various kinds of sensors were used and the usefulness of the collected data for monitoring changes of daily activities or detecting risk for elderly peoples were demonstrated [7]. ...
... Therefore, we decided to use a single sensor placed in the bed, which does not require wearing or video data. In addition, several models constructed in previous studies tried to detect whether subjects have illness by comparing the values collected in two periods [5,10]. However, for facility use, a daily anomaly detection system that alerts abnormal condition for each day and for each subject is needed. ...
... Further, to analyze the relation between the amount of training data and accuracy, we constructed several simulation models with training data of different numbers of days (1,3,5,7,14,30, and 60 days), and the accuracy was calculated. ...
Article
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Currently, the shortage of care workers for the elderly has become a big problem, and more streamlined care operations are needed. In care facilities, care workers are required to use their subjective experience to detect anomalies in physical condition of care receivers, including serious or insignificant deterioration or behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, which can decrease the work efficiency. Therefore, we aim to create a model using objective data for detecting anomalies in physical condition. In this study, data from 13 subjects in a care facility were collected, and isolation forest models were constructed for each subject. The subject's anomalies in physical condition were documented in a care record by a nurse and used as reference for model evaluation. Recall and specificity were used to evaluate the model, expressed as the percentage of detection success for abnormal or normal conditions. Data collected for 1 to 60 days were used to train the isolation models, and the relationship between the amount of training data and model performance was simulated. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and time of getting out of bed were collected from a sensor placed on the subject's bed and used as the model features. In addition, dietary intake information was collected from the care record. Analysis of the evaluation results showed recall and specificity of 45.6 ± 46.7% and 83.88 ± 6.06%, respectively, for the model constructed using training data of 60 days. For future studies, we will continue to collect data and increase the number of participants to improve the robustness and accuracy of the proposed anomaly detection system.
... Eleven studies [43,44,47,49,51,55,[58][59][60]65,67] have been more focused in developing smart homes with protection of user privacy being the utmost priority. ...
... Eight [43,44,58,60,63,66] of the 31 studies included in this review, the systems deployed were aimed at providing some sort of medical support by health monitoring and taking appropriate action. Fourteen [43,45,[47][48][49][51][52][53]55,60,64,65,69,72] of the 31 studies were aimed at monitoring the environment for any abnormalities and detecting falls, which allowed the elderly to stay alone in their homes. ...
... Eight [43,44,58,60,63,66] of the 31 studies included in this review, the systems deployed were aimed at providing some sort of medical support by health monitoring and taking appropriate action. Fourteen [43,45,[47][48][49][51][52][53]55,60,64,65,69,72] of the 31 studies were aimed at monitoring the environment for any abnormalities and detecting falls, which allowed the elderly to stay alone in their homes. Figure 2 shows the numbers of studies with different features of smart home. ...
Article
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Owing to progressive population aging, elderly people (aged 65 and above) face challenges in carrying out activities of daily living, while placement of the elderly in a care facility is expensive and mentally taxing for them. Thus, there is a need to develop their own homes into smart homes using new technologies. However, this raises concerns of privacy and data security for users since it can be handled remotely. Hence, with advancing technologies it is important to overcome this challenge using privacy-preserving and non-intrusive models. For this review, 235 articles were scanned from databases, out of which 31 articles pertaining to in-home technologies that assist the elderly in living independently were shortlisted for inclusion. They described the adoption of various methodologies like different sensor-based mechanisms, wearables, camera-based techniques, robots, and machine learning strategies to provide a safe and comfortable environment to the elderly. Recent innovations have rendered these technologies more unobtrusive and privacy-preserving with increasing use of environmental sensors and less use of cameras and other devices that may compromise the privacy of individuals. There is a need to develop a comprehensive system for smart homes which ensures patient safety, privacy, and data security; in addition, robots should be integrated with the existing sensor-based platforms to assist in carrying out daily activities and therapies as required.
... Awais et al. [76] used accelerometers to recognize the ADL of the elderly, such as sitting, walking, and standing. To estimate the indoor location of the elderly, Morita et al. [77] employed Bluetooth low energy (BLE) beacons in a nursing home. Kim et al. [78] developed a framework to detect depression in the elderly by analyzing activity patterns based on indoor location, estimated using PIR sensors. ...
... Thus, with the approval of elderly users, the sensor data can also be accessed by other entities through a web-based platform on any device. Subsequently, through this sensor-set's wearable BLE beacons [77], BLE receivers and its integrated accelerometers [76], the elderly user's ADL recognition can be acquired by analysis of the sensor's collected user's indoor location information [71][72][73][74] and activity recognition [69,70] (which are significantly closely associated to each other). The daily activities which can be recognized through sensor data include sitting, walking, sleeping, watching TV, cooking, bathroom usage, and etc. [77]. ...
... Subsequently, through this sensor-set's wearable BLE beacons [77], BLE receivers and its integrated accelerometers [76], the elderly user's ADL recognition can be acquired by analysis of the sensor's collected user's indoor location information [71][72][73][74] and activity recognition [69,70] (which are significantly closely associated to each other). The daily activities which can be recognized through sensor data include sitting, walking, sleeping, watching TV, cooking, bathroom usage, and etc. [77]. The purpose of the recognition of these daily activity provides an automatically generated report of the elderly's daily profile, which can potentially be used to effectively improve their QoL. ...
Article
Full-text available
An integrated smart home system (ISHS) is an effective way to improve the quality of life of the elderly. The elderly’s willingness is essential to adopt an ISHS; to the best of our knowledge, no study has investigated the elderly’s perception of ISHS. Consequently, this study aims to investigate the elderly’s perception of the ISHS by comprehensively evaluating its possible benefits and negative responses. A set of sensors required for an ISHS was determined, and interviews were designed based on four factors: perceived comfort, perceived usability, perceived privacy, and perceived benefit. Subsequently, technological trials of the sensor-set followed by two focus group interviews were conducted on nine independently living elderly participants at a senior welfare center in South Korea. Consistent with previous studies, the results of this investigation indicate that elderly participants elicited negative responses regarding usability complexity, and discomfort to daily activities. Despite such negative responses, after acquiring enough awareness about the ISHS’s benefits, the elderly acknowledged its necessity and showed a high level of willingness. Furthermore, these results indicate that for a better adoption of an ISHS, sufficient awareness regarding its benefits and development of elderly-friendly smart home sensors that minimize negative responses are required.
... There is an increasing interest in the scientific literature in studies related to these topics; for example, there have been papers focusing on smart buildings [1][2][3][4][5], smart homes [6][7][8][9][10], smart hospitals [11], smart commercial buildings [12,13], sensor devices [9,[14][15][16][17], supervised machine learning models for classification purposes [1, 11,[16][17][18] or for regression purposes [19][20][21][22][23], unsupervised machine learning models for clustering purposes [24][25][26], deep learning techniques [18,27,28], human activity recognition and classification with a view to assisted living [15,[29][30][31][32][33][34][35], Internet of Things (IoT) [21,[36][37][38][39], energy efficiency and an optimal building management [1, 21,23,24,[40][41][42][43][44][45][46], and the comfort and safety of the inhabitants [39,40,[47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56]. ...
... In their research, the authors of these papers implement various types of sensors, according to their purposes, namely: indoor sensors [1], occupancy information sensors [1], electricity meters [1, 6,44], motion sensors [6,7,30,59,60], item kitchen sensors [6], door sensors [6,59,61,62], temperature sensors [1, 2,6,59,63], photosensors [1, 3,63], status of water and burner sensors [6,59], acceleration sensors [4,7], Kinect motion sensors [7], modern smartphone sensors [4,7,60], passive radar-based sensors [8], unobtrusive sensors [9,14], infrared sensors [15,30], wireless sensor networks [61,62], accelerometers [5,63], altimeters [63], gyroscopes [63], barometers [63], heart rate monitor [63], embedded sensors [4,10,32,60,63], binary sensors [29,31,59,61], sensors installed in everyday objects [62], ubiquitous sensors [29], building management systems [44], weather stations [44], video systems [52], multi-appliance recognition systems [64], sensors for the Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) technology [65]. ...
... With respect to the reasons for using the SVM method with sensor equipment in smart buildings, it can be observed that the recognition of human activity is at the forefront, as this is addressed in most of the papers [3,4,6,[8][9][10]14,15,[29][30][31][32]59,60,62,63]. Assisted living was a strong motivation for using the SVM method with sensor devices in the smart buildings sector; seven of the identified papers focusing on the recognition of human activity did so in order to provide appropriate assisted living [6,14,15,[30][31][32]63], while other papers aimed to achieve assisted living by focusing on human fall detection [7], human behavior recognition [2], assessment of occupancy status information, and identification of human behavior [61]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Lately, many scientists have focused their research on subjects like smart buildings, sensor devices, virtual sensing, buildings management, Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence in the smart buildings sector, improving life quality within smart homes, assessing the occupancy status information, detecting human behavior with a view to assisted living, maintaining environmental health, and preserving natural resources. The main purpose of our review consists of surveying the current state of the art regarding the recent developments in integrating supervised and unsupervised machine learning models with sensor devices in the smart building sector with a view to attaining enhanced sensing, energy efficiency and optimal building management. We have devised the research methodology with a view to identifying, filtering, categorizing, and analyzing the most important and relevant scientific articles regarding the targeted topic. To this end, we have used reliable sources of scientific information, namely the Elsevier Scopus and the Clarivate Analytics Web of Science international databases, in order to assess the interest regarding the above-mentioned topic within the scientific literature. After processing the obtained papers, we finally obtained, on the basis of our devised methodology, a reliable, eloquent and representative pool of 146 papers scientific works that would be useful for developing our survey. Our approach provides a useful up-to-date overview for researchers from different fields, which can be helpful when submitting project proposals or when studying complex topics such those reviewed in this paper. Meanwhile, the current study offers scientists the possibility of identifying future research directions that have not yet been addressed in the scientific literature or improving the existing approaches based on the body of knowledge. Moreover, the conducted review creates the premises for identifying in the scientific literature the main purposes for integrating Machine Learning techniques with sensing devices in smart environments, as well as purposes that have not been investigated yet.
... The third privacy concern was C) risk and regulation of privacy, which included discussions surrounding dissemination of data or active data theft (44)(45)(46)(47), as well as change in behavior or relationships due to interaction with technology (48,49). Researchers were aware of both legal and design-contextual measures that must be observed in order to ensure that these risks were minimized (45,50,51). ...
... This trust in technology was increased when a physical robot instead of an only virtual agent was involved (60,65). Studies in the realm of embodiment of virtual agents and robots suggest that the presence of a body or face promotes human-like interactions with said agents (51). Furthermore, our systematic review discovered other characteristics which promote trust in SHHTs, such as perceived usefulness (94) or time spent with the technology (59). ...
Preprint
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Background The worldwide increase in older persons demands technological solutions to combat the shortage of caregiving and to enable aging in place. Smart home health technologies (SHHTs) are promoted and implemented as a possible solution from an economic and practical perspective. However, ethical considerations are equally important and need to be investigated. Methods we conducted a systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines to investigate if and how ethical questions are discussed in the field of SHHTs in caregiving for older persons. Results 156 peer-reviewed articles published in English, German and French were retrieved and analyzed across 10 electronic databases. Using narrative analysis, 7 ethical categories were mapped: privacy, autonomy, responsibility, human vs. artificial interactions, trust, ageism and stigma, and other concerns. Conclusions The findings of our systematic review show the (lack of) ethical consideration when it comes to the development and implementation of SHHTs for older persons. Our analysis is useful to promote careful ethical consideration when carrying out technology development, research and deployment to care for older persons. Registration We registered our systematic review in the PROSPERO network under CRD42021248543
... Seven studies were included that identified older adults' functional, psychological, and social abnormal activities such as unexpected and irregular behaviors using in-home monitoring technologies and machine-learning algorithms [16][17][18][19][20][21][22]. For example, movement at 3 AM in a living room can be considered abnormal behavior if monitoring data showed that older residents usually wake up at 6 AM every morning. ...
... The investigators found a significant relationship between predicted loneliness and observed loneliness, demonstrating that it is possible to estimate older adults' loneliness by analyzing sensor data. Other studies [18] have estimated older adults' depression levels by analyzing daily activities, demonstrating that proposed algorithms can effectively detect depression with up to 96% accuracy. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background For successful aging-in-place strategy development, in-home monitoring technology is necessary as a new home modification strategy. Monitoring an older adult’s daily physical activity at home can positively impact their health and well-being by providing valuable information about functional, cognitive, and social health status. However, it is questionable how these in-home monitoring technologies have changed the traditional residential environment. A comprehensive review of existing research findings should be utilized to characterize recent relative technologies and to inform design considerations. Objective The main purpose of this study was to classify recent smart home technologies that monitor older adults’ health and to architecturally describe these technologies as they are used in older adults’ homes. Methods The scoping review method was employed to identify key characteristics of in-home monitoring technologies for older adults. In June 2021, four databases, including Web of Science, IEEE Xplore, ACM Digital Library, and Scopus, were searched for peer-reviewed articles pertaining to smart home technologies used to monitor older adults’ health in their homes. We used two search strings to retrieve articles: types of technology and types of users. For the title, abstract, and full-text screening, the inclusion criteria were original and peer-reviewed research written in English, and research on monitoring, detecting, recognizing, analyzing, or tracking human physical, emotional, and social behavior. The exclusion criteria included theoretical, conceptual, or review papers; studies on wearable systems; and qualitative research. Results This scoping review identified 30 studies published between June 2016 and 2021 providing overviews of in-home monitoring technologies, including (1) features of smart home technologies and (2) sensor locations and sensor data. First, we found six functions of in-home monitoring technology among the reviewed papers: daily activities, abnormal behaviors, cognitive impairment, falls, indoor person positioning, and sleep quality. Most of the research (n=27 articles) focused on functional monitoring and analysis, such as activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, or falls among older adults; a few studies (n=3) covered social interaction monitoring. Second, this scoping review also found 16 types of sensor technologies. The most common data types encountered were passive infrared motion sensors (n=21) and contact sensors (n=19), which were used to monitor human behaviors such as bodily presence and time spent on activities. Specific locations for each sensor were also identified. Conclusions This wide-ranging synthesis demonstrates that in-home monitoring technologies within older adults’ homes play an essential role in aging in place, in that the technology monitors older adults’ daily activities and identifies various health-related issues. This research provides a key summarization of in-home monitoring technologies that can be applied in senior housing for successful aging in place. These findings will be significant when developing home modification strategies or new senior housing.
... With the help of accurate activity recognition, a spatiotemporal pattern describing human daily behaviors can then be derived via various machine learning methods [20,21]. The wellness of older adults can then be determined by analyzing the activity pattern [22][23][24]. Essentially, machine learning is used for both extracting features from sensor data and classifying activity patterns as normal or abnormal. A well trained model can achieve good accuracy for activity recognition and pattern classification. ...
... Accuracy rate needs improvement. [23] 2017 HAR Smart Home Arch., ML ...
Article
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The aging population is growing at an unprecedented rate globally and robotics-enabled solutions are being developed to provide better independent living for older adults. In this study, we report the results from a systematic review of the state-of-the-art in home robotics research for caring for older adults. This review aims to address two questions: (1) What research is being done towards integrating robotics for caring for older adults? (2) What are the research and technology challenges that robots are facing in the home? Sixty-three papers have been identified and studied in this review by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Common themes that are consistent across the reviewed papers are distinguished and consolidated as follows: (1) Ambient assisted living, where smart home environments and physical support tools are studied; (2) Robot ecosystem, where robotic devices are used to provide various services; (3) Social interaction, where the social isolation problem has been targeted. We also summarize the results of similar literature reviews we came across during our search. The results of this study present the current research trends and technologies used in each category. The challenges and limitations of robotics applications are also identified. Suggestions for accelerating the deployment of robots at home for providing older adults with independent care in the home are presented based on the results and insights from this study.
... One study examined psychiatric patients' physical activities via smartphone and monitored smartphone call patterns, acceleration, geographic location data and reported a correlation between mental state change and activities such as walking, running, and sleeping [29]. Another study developed a sensor-based monitoring method for detecting depression severity among the elderly using daily physical activities in their living space [32]. Additionally, a few studies have monitored individual's daily life movement and activities by using mobile GPS to assess the severity of depression [30,[33][34][35]. ...
... Although a few previous studies have differentiated depressed individuals from non-depressed individuals using smartphone sensors [22,23,29,30,[33][34][35], there is a lack of studies assessing different depression levels (absence, moderate, and severe) [29,32]. Consequently, further study is needed to establish the validity of unobtrusive monitoring of depression levels via smartphone sensors. ...
... In [12], the author present sensor based depression detection algorithm with the chronic disorder patients. In [13], the author present schizophrenia prediction algorithm which analyses the problem using decision tree. ...
Article
The problem of bipolar disorder has been well studied and analyzed. To perform the detection of presence of BD, there are number of approaches available and the result of detection has been used in several ways. In order to improve the performance in BD detection and utilize the result in gauging the performance of students, a behavioral pattern base psychotic analysis model has been presented in this paper. The method maintains the behaviors, habits and interests of different students in different period of time. The student behaviors includes mood change, depression, sudden laughs, uninterested, short temper, lack of concentration, adamant, frustration, energy, sleep and so on. Such behaviors has been tracked for number of students for prolong period and stored in the behavior set. By reading the behavior set and with the identified samples of BD, the method generates set of behavioral patterns. The behavioral pattern has been generated for three different classes like lower, medium and high. For each class of behavioral pattern, the method generates set of fuzzy rules. Using the fuzzy rule, each student has been analyzed for their behavioral pattern in different time window. Based on the patterns, the method estimates BDCW (Bipolar Disorder Class Weight). Based on the weight measure, the presence of BD has been identified and classified under different class. Identified results have been used to generate academic pattern and helps to generate analysis result to improve the student performance. The proposed approach improve the performance of student development, monitoring and health development.
... In the same way, [15] In their research, [16] researched people living alone to monitor their daily living activities. ...
Article
In recent years, social media platforms have proved to be a vast repository of real-time information. People have expressed their inner feelings on the internet through social networking. Through reviewing their writings and postings on social media, it could help us to recognize various mental health problems early on. Tweets were retrieved using various keywords for mental health disorders from Twitter, Pre-processed using sentiment analysis and natural language processing techniques. Classification Models to analyze the tweets were developed using different data mining algorithms.The developed models analyze tweets relating to the area of mental health and then predict people having signs of mental health conditions. The accuracy of the predictions shows that Decision Tree and Random Forest classifiers performed better than other classifiers which suggests that multiple covariates and multiple decisions work better than other classifiers. This could help track mental health conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, drug abuse, and seasonal emotional disorders through the social media activities of users andsubsequently in real-time to monitor mental health.
... Several studies have demonstrated the utility of using wearable-based digital measures in assessing general depression [54][55][56] . Furthermore, one instance reported on the assessment of late-life depression using PIR-derived information on activities of daily living (ADL) 57 . However, it is unclear whether their methodology prevented data leakage, judging by the unusually high ROC AUC values ≥ 0.95. ...
Article
Full-text available
Using connected sensing devices to remotely monitor health is a promising way to help transition healthcare from a rather reactive to a more precision medicine oriented proactive approach, which could be particularly relevant in the face of rapid population ageing and the challenges it poses to healthcare systems. Sensor derived digital measures of health, such as digital biomarkers or digital clinical outcome assessments, may be used to monitor health status or the risk of adverse events like falls. Current research around such digital measures has largely focused on exploring the use of few individual measures obtained through mobile devices. However, especially for long-term applications in older adults, this choice of technology may not be ideal and could further add to the digital divide. Moreover, large-scale systems biology approaches, like genomics, have already proven beneficial in precision medicine, making it plausible that the same could also hold for remote-health monitoring. In this context, we introduce and describe a zero-interaction digital exhaust: a set of 1268 digital measures that cover large parts of a person’s activity, behavior and physiology. Making this approach more inclusive of older adults, we base this set entirely on contactless, zero-interaction sensing technologies. Applying the resulting digital exhaust to real-world data, we then demonstrate the possibility to create multiple ageing relevant digital clinical outcome assessments. Paired with modern machine learning, we find these assessments to be surprisingly powerful and often on-par with mobile approaches. Lastly, we highlight the possibility to discover novel digital biomarkers based on this large-scale approach.
... Many studies have been conducted to predict depression using sleep time with a wearable band [10,11] because of the convenience. Studies using passive infrared (PIR) motion sensors in residential spaces to collect data from real living spaces are reported [12]. Individual depression can be predicted from daily life activities of spatial characteristics such as bedroom, bathroom, and kitchen. ...
Article
Full-text available
Depression in the elderly is an important social issue considering the population aging of the world. In particular, elderly living alone who has narrowed social relationship due to bereavement and retirement are more prone to be depressed. Long-term depressed mood can be a precursor to eventual depression as a disease. Our goal is how to predict the depressed mood of single household elderly from unobtrusive monitoring of their daily life. We have selected a wearable band with multiple sensors for monitoring elderly people. Depression questionnaire has been surveyed periodically to be used as the labels. Instead of working with depression patients, we recruited 14 single household elderly people from a nearby community. The wearable band provided daily activity and biometric data for 71 days. From the data, we generate a depressed mood prediction model. Multiple features from the collected sensor data are exploited for model generation. One general model is generated to be used as the baseline for the initial model deployment. Personal models are also generated for model refinement. The general model has a high recall of 80% in an MLP model. Individual models achieved an average recall of 82.7%. In this study, we have demonstrated that we can generate depressed mood prediction models with data collected from real daily living. Our work has shown the feasibility of using a wearable band as an unobtrusive depression monitoring sensor even for elderly people.
... Researchers have used smart home sensors combined with computing and machine learning algorithms to detect changes in individuals' behaviors that are indicative of changes in health (Sprint et al., 2021;Bakar et al., 2015;Robben et al., 2017;Dahmen and Cook, 2021;Forbes et al., 2020;Forbes et al., 2021). In one study, researchers monitored residents' socialization patterns using ambient sensors and found that decreased socialization was predictive of depression (Kim et al., 2017). In other studies, machine learning techniques identifying behavior markers such as sleep/wake behaviors and activity level were used to predict pain (Fritz et al., 2020), clinical scores (Dawadi et al., 2013), and mobility, cognition, and depression symptoms in older adults (Alberdi Aramendi et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Background : Telehealth and home-based care options significantly expanded during the SARS-CoV2 pandemic. Sophisticated, remote monitoring technologies now exist that support at-home care. Advances in the research of smart homes for health monitoring have shown these technologies are capable of recognizing and predicting health changes in near-real time. However, few nurses are familiar enough with this technology to use smart homes for optimizing patient care or expanding their reach into the home between healthcare touch points. Objective : The objective of this work is to explore a partnership between nurses and smart homes for automated remote monitoring and assessing of patient health. A series of health event cases is presented to demonstrate how this partnership may be harnessed to effectively detect and report on clinically relevant health events that can be automatically detected by smart homes. Participants : 25 participants with multiple chronic health conditions Methods : Ambient sensors were installed in the homes of 25 participants with multiple chronic health conditions. Motion, light, temperature, and door usage data were continuously collected from participants’ homes. Descriptions of health events and participants’ associated behaviors were captured via weekly nursing telehealth visits with study participants and used to analyze sensor data representing health events. Two cases of participants with congestive heart failure exacerbations, one case of urinary tract infection, two cases of bowel inflammation flares, and four cases of participants with sleep interruption were explored. Results : For each case, clinically relevant health events aligned with changes from baseline in behavior data patterns derived from sensors installed in the participant's home. In some cases, the detected event was precipitated by additional behavior patterns that could be used to predict the event. Conclusions : This case series provides evidence that continuous sensor-based monitoring of patient behavior in home settings may be used to provide automated detection of health events. Nursing insights into smart home sensor data could be used to initiate preventive strategies and provide timely intervention. Tweetable abstract : Smart home partnered with nurses could detect exacerbations of health conditions at home leading to early intervention
... Coupled with the relevant analytical capabilities, such as those provided by AI and big data applications, use cases of biosensors and wearables serve to detect and monitor mental disorders and provide complementary insights into self-report instruments (UC7). For example, the unobtrusive measurement of activities of daily living and social rhythm, and even voice signals detected through sensors, can inform health care providers about the state of patients' chronic diseases, including depressive symptoms or bipolar disorders [e.g., [25][26][27]. Further studies suggest accurate monitoring opportunities for stress and anxiety, schizophrenia, and PTSD [10]. ...
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Digital technology trends for mental health, instantiated with only emerging use cases or already established applications, offer significant potential to improve clinical therapy and care. In this paper, we identify five major trends, mHealth/eHealth, telehealth, artificial intelligence (AI), big data, and biosensors/wearables; describe seven specific technology use cases for mental health care and psychotherapy; and provide an overview of their maturity in practice.
... 12, [30][31][32]36,39 However, studies to screen for and diagnose depression based on differences in levels of depression are lacking. 39,40 Therefore, a study targeting different patient groups is necessary for the diagnosis of depression. ...
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Purpose: Depression is a symptom commonly encountered in primary care; however, it is often not detected by doctors. Recently, disease diagnosis and treatment approaches have been attempted using smart devices. In this study, instrumental effectiveness was confirmed with the diagnostic meta-analysis of studies that demonstrated the diagnostic effectiveness of PHQ-9 for depression using mobile devices. Patients and methods: We found all published and unpublished studies through EMBASE, MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, and PsychINFO up to March 26, 2021. We performed a meta-analysis by including 1099 subjects in four studies. We performed a diagnostic meta-analysis according to the PHQ-9 cut-off score and machine learning algorithm techniques. Quality assessment was conducted using the QUADAS-2 tool. Data on the sensitivity and specificity of the studies included in the meta-analysis were extracted in a standardized format. Bivariate and summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve were constructed using the metandi, midas, metabias, and metareg functions of the Stata algorithm meta-analysis words. Results: Using four studies out of the 5476 papers searched, a diagnostic meta-analysis of the PHQ-9 scores of 1099 people diagnosed with depression was performed. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.797 (95% CI = 0.642-0.895) and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.780-0.900), respectively. The diagnostic odds ratio was 22.16 (95% CI = 7.273-67.499). Overall, a good balance was maintained, and no heterogeneity or publication bias was presented. Conclusion: Through various machine learning algorithm techniques, it was possible to confirm that PHQ-9 depression screening in mobiles is an effective diagnostic tool when integrated into a diagnostic meta-analysis.
... However, despite various technological convergences, the scope of SHS provision for the elderly focuses on supporting energy efficiency and physical functions, such as indoor environment control, automation [46][47][48][49], and remote response in case of emergency [42,43]. On the other hand, in the case of SHS related to mental health, studies dealing with practical support services at the level of detecting or predicting dementia and depressive states are insufficient [52,58,59]. Therefore, this study emphasized the need for psychological satisfaction and positive emotional management of the elderly in their house and sought an SHS plan that considers the requirements of the elderly from a bio-friendly perspective. ...
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Smart home services (SHS) should support the positive experiences of the elderly in homes with a focus on getting closer to nature. The study identified the services preferred by the elderly through a survey on the biophilic experience-based SHS, and to discuss the configuration of the sensors and devices required to provide the service. We reorganized the biophilic experience-based SHS and related sensors and devices, focusing on our previous study, and developed a survey instrument. A preference survey was conducted on 250 adults aged 20 and older, and the SPSS program was used for a factor analysis and independent two-sample T-test. We derived six factors for biophilic experience-based SHS. Compared to other age groups, the elderly preferred services that were mainly attributed to factors such as 'Immersion and interaction with nature' (A), 'Management of well-being and indoor environmental quality (IEQ)' (B), and 'Natural process and systems' (F). We proposed 15 prioritized services, along with their sensor and device configurations, in consideration of service provision regarding the elderly's preferences and universality. This study contributes to new developments in elderly-friendly smart home research by converting bio-friendly ideas into the market in the development of medical services and SHS for the elderly.
... A data collection of 510 geriatric patients was used to assess and check 10 classifiers using 10 crossvalidation approaches (Tables 5.1À5.4). Chen et al. [14] Not involvement of grey literature Robotics Pino et al. [15] Smaller number of participants Robotics Kim et al. [16] Smaller number of participants Machine learning Abdollahi et al. [17] Smaller number of participants Robotics Zhongzhi et al. [18] Not enough data on patient's hospitalization. ...
Chapter
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Depression is a common disease occurring in every human at least once in his or her lifetime. Patients were analyzed based upon their text information, audio, video and image (IOT-based data) recording. The most effective techniques available in the deep learning models are being obtained and combined together to form the hybrid fusion model that how various types of fusion techniques. The fusion-based deep learning (FBDL) model was found to have a more accurate result along with the early fusion techniques, which also provided a good result. This technique is also being used in various IoT-based data applications to detect the depression of a person based upon their messages. The prevention of depression can be done using robotics which contains FBDL models. Several robots were used in the form of social animals or humanoids to minimize the effect of depression in elderly people. Thus deep learning models and robotics domain can be used to detect and cure the symptoms of depression in elderly people.
... Depressive state was reflected in low energy, slow movement and expanded limbs and torso [19,20]. Normally human activity like walking, researches keep a attention on arm swing and vertical head movements reducing, reduced walking speed, abnormal hand movements and head position in walking comparing to neutral, larger lateral swaying movements of the upper body and a more slumped posture and depressed patients showed larger reaction time variability [21,22]. ...
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Background Depression, a common worldwide mental disorder, which brings huge challenges to family and social burden around the world is different from fluctuant emotion and psychological pressure in their daily life. Although body signs have been shown to present manifestations of depression in general, few researches focus on whole body kinematic cues with the help of machine learning methods to aid depression recognition. Using the Kinect V2 device to record participants’ simple kinematic skeleton data of the participant’s body joints, the presented spatial features and low-level features is directly extracted from the record original Kinect-3D coordinates. This research aimed to constructed machine learning model with the preprocessed data importing, which could be used for depression automatic classification. Methods Considering some patients’ conditions and current status and refer to psychiatrists’ advices, simple and significant designed stimulus task will lead human skeleton data collection job. With original Kinect skeleton data extracting and preprocessing, the proposed experiment demonstrated four strong machine learning tools: Support Vector Machine, Logistic Regression, Random Forest and Gradient Boosting. Using the precision, recall, sensitivity, specificity, roc-curve, confusion matrix et.al, indicators were calculated as the measurement of methods, which were commonly used to evaluate classification methodologies. Results Across screened 64 pairs with age and gender totally matching in depression and control group, and Gradient Boosting achieved the best performance with the prediction accuracy of 76.92%. Sorted by female (54.69%) and male for the gender-based depression recognition, we applied best performance classifier Gradient Boosting got prediction accuracy of 66.67% in the male group, and 71.73% in the female group. Utilizing the best model Gradient Boosting for age-based classification, prediction accuracy got 76.92% in the older group (age >40, 50% of total) and 53.85% accuracy in the younger group (age <= 40). Conclusion The depression and non-depression individuals can be well classified by computational models using Kinect captured skeletal data. The Gradient Boosting, an excellent machine learning tool, get the performance in the four methods we demonstrated. Meanwhile, in the gender-based depression classification also gets reasonable accuracy. In particular, the recognition results of the old group are significantly better than that of the young group. All these findings suggest that kinematic skeletal data based depression recognition can be applied as an effective tool for assisting in depression analysis.
... Early detection of cognitive impairment has also been investigated in (50), by installing an unobtrusive activity assessment system containing motion sensors and contact sensors to monitor the activity of older adults in their homes. Moreover, passive infrared motion sensors have been employed to monitor the daily activities of elderly persons and achieve long-term depression monitoring by creating smart homes (Figure 6) (47). Last, a smart home test bed was designed at Washington State University represented by an apartment that was instrumented with motion sensors on the ceiling and sensors on cabinets and doors as well as sensors on selected kitchen items. ...
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Collecting and analyzing data from sensors embedded in the context of daily life has been widely employed for the monitoring of mental health. Variations in parameters such as movement, sleep duration, heart rate, electrocardiogram, skin temperature, etc., are often associated with psychiatric disorders. Namely, accelerometer data, microphone, and call logs can be utilized to identify voice features and social activities indicative of depressive symptoms, and physiological factors such as heart rate and skin conductance can be used to detect stress and anxiety disorders. Therefore, a wide range of devices comprising a variety of sensors have been developed to capture these physiological and behavioral data and translate them into phenotypes and states related to mental health. Such systems aim to identify behaviors that are the consequence of an underlying physiological alteration, and hence, the raw sensor data are captured and converted into features that are used to define behavioral markers, often through machine learning. However, due to the complexity of passive data, these relationships are not simple and need to be well-established. Furthermore, parameters such as intrapersonal and interpersonal differences need to be considered when interpreting the data. Altogether, combining practical mobile and wearable systems with the right data analysis algorithms can provide a useful tool for the monitoring and management of mental disorders. The current review aims to comprehensively present and critically discuss all available smartphone-based, wearable, and environmental sensors for detecting such parameters in relation to the treatment and/or management of the most common mental health conditions.
... ANNs are extremely dynamic and find applications in domains related to pattern recognition. Kim et al. [49] used an inconspicuous method of IR sensors placed throughout the house to monitor movement, bathroom time, sleep, and excursions to detect signs of depression among elderly people through processing information received over telecom data using ANN. Bhatia and Sood [50] proposed using back propagation ANN to predict probabilistic health state vulnerabilities during exercising. ...
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The Internet of Things (IoT) is playing a vital role in the rapid automation of the healthcare sector. The branch of IoT dedicated towards medical science is at times termed as Healthcare Internet of Things (H-IoT). The key elements of all H-IoT applications are data gathering and processing. Due to the large amount of data involved in healthcare, and the enormous value that accurate predictions hold, the integration of machine learning (ML) algorithms into H-IoT is imperative. This paper aims to serve both as a compilation as well as a review of the various state of the art applications of ML algorithms currently being integrated with H-IoT. Some of the most widely used ML algorithms have been briefly introduced and their use in various H-IoT applications has been analyzed in terms of their advantages, scope, and possible improvements. Applications have been divided into the domains of diagnosis, prognosis and spread control, assistive systems, monitoring, and logistics. In healthcare, practical use of a model requires it to be highly accurate and to have ample measures against security attacks. The applications of ML algorithms in H-IoT discussed in this paper have shown experimental evidence of accuracy and practical usability. The constraints and drawbacks of each of these applications have also been described.
... It is highly extensible. R can be use as programming, transforming, discovering, modelling and communicate the results [50]. The collection of library and package helps in transforming data, modelling and produce output visualization [49]. ...
... Kim et al. proposed a simple unobtrusive sensing system to monitor the activities of elderly people living alone. The results showed that the neural network effectively detected normal and mild depression [11]. Gao et al. focused on machine learning to predict major depression disorder utilizing features derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data [12]. ...
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In this work, we propose a combined sampling technique to improve the performance of imbalanced classification of university student depression data. In experimental results, we found that combined random oversampling with the Tomek links under sampling methods allowed generating a relatively balanced depression dataset without losing significant information. In this case, the random oversampling technique was used for sampling the minority class to balance the number of samples between the datasets. Then, the Tomek links technique was used for undersampling the samples by removing the depression data considered less relevant and noisy. The relatively balanced dataset was classified by random forest. The results show that the overall accuracy in the prediction of adolescent depression data was 94.17%, outperforming the individual sampling technique. Moreover, our proposed method was tested with another dataset for its external validity. This dataset’s predictive accuracy was found to be 93.33%.
... (1) Biosensor-based real-time monitoring and remote management of geriatric physical activities and vital signs [28][29][30][31] (2) Medication safety and management with smart technologies including RFID, sensor, electronic tag, twodimension code, and global positioning system (GPS) [32][33][34][35][36] (3) Smart assessment of geriatric cognitive function with online and offline methods [37][38][39][40], e.g., estimating the influence of healthy lifestyle on episodic memory among adults who have subjective memory complaints [40] (4) Smart nursing methods for geriatric common and chronic diseases [41][42][43] In this section, we construct the framework of smart geriatric nursing in physical health by demonstrating two scenarios. The first scenario is biosensor-based real-time remote monitoring and management of geriatric physical activities and vital signs. ...
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The National Bureau of Statistics of China shows that the population over 65 years old in China exceeds 166 million accounting for 11.93% of the total population by the end of 2018. The importance and severity of taking care of the elderly are becoming increasingly prominent. High-quality and meticulous care for the daily life of the elderly needs helpful and advanced sciences and technologies. Smart geriatric nursing is a must. Basing on the professional knowledge of geriatric nursing, this paper proposes a framework of smart geriatric nursing which consists of three aspects of smart nursing: smart geriatric nursing in physical health using biosensor and advanced devices, smart geriatric nursing in mental health based on user profile, and smart geriatric nursing for daily life based on big data in health. The deployment of the proposed method relies on the technologies of the Internet of Things (IoT), user profile system, big data, and many other advanced information technologies. The framework of methods can provide a useful reference for the systematic technical scheme of smart geriatric nursing in an aging society.
... Anomaly detection in ADL is a particularly important issue in e-health applications such as monitoring the older adults [1][2][3], monitoring chronic diseases [4] and detection of depression [5], to cite but a few. In this kind of application, the subject is continuously monitored, commonly by means of a sensor network. ...
Article
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Anomalyq detection in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) plays an important role in e-health applications. An abrupt change in the ADL performed by a subject might indicate that she/he needs some help. Another important issue related with e-health applications is the case where the change in ADL undergoes a linear drift, which occurs in cognitive decline, Alzheimer’s disease or dementia. This work presents a novel method for detecting a linear drift in ADL modelled as circular normal distributions. The method is based on techniques commonly used in Statistical Process Control and, through the selection of a convenient threshold, is able to detect and estimate the change point in time when a linear drift started. Public datasets have been used to assess whether ADL can be modelled by a mixture of circular normal distributions. Exhaustive experimentation was performed on simulated data to assess the validity of the change detection algorithm, the results showing that the difference between the real change point and the estimated change point was \(4.90_{+3.17}^{-1.98}\) days on average. ADL can be modelled using a mixture of circular normal distributions. A new method to detect anomalies following a linear drift is presented. Exhaustive experiments showed that this method is able to estimate the change point in time for processes following a linear drift.
... To solve this issue, unconstrained measurement methods have been developed for long-term reliable monitoring of RPM. The application of this technology varies from sensors attached to the body to ambient sensors attached in the environment as well as a new breakthrough of contactless monitoring that has shown to be effectiveness and only requires the patient to be present within a few meters from the sensor [8,[16][17][18]. In addition, several unconstrained sensing technologies have been proposed such as inertial sensor-based respiration monitoring [19], camera-based gait monitoring [20], fabricbased physiological and behavioral signal sensing systems [21], and a capacitive sensor-based ECG monitoring system [22]. ...
Article
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This research is about new advances in the application of remote bio-signal monitoring technology. An unobtrusive IoT bio-signal measurement system is attached to a bed using a very thin strip sensor, then the user’s sleep efficiency and respiration rate can be measured with accuracy similar to that of an existing FDA-approved sleep tracker. In particular, in this study, we propose a ubiquitous central monitoring system that links an existing, personal use, unobtrusive measurement system to cloud-based systems via WiFi transmission. The proposed monitoring system simultaneously collects, stores, and displays the data from multiple devices using a web server as well as PC and mobile platforms such as personal smart devices. In this study, we implemented a system for the real-time transmission and display of data from multiple unobtrusive systems and validated that there were no problems associated with sending and receiving data at distances of 300 km with around a one-second delay. In addition, we evaluated the tele-monitoring system’s data processing time, CPU usage, and memory usage as the number of users was increased. Each user transmits an average of 810 bytes of data including information such as user id, time stamp, data for each channel, respiration rate and sleep status. We observed that the average data processing time was 0.15 seconds, average CPU usage was 5.01%, average memory usage was 0.1% assuming 10 users connected simultaneously. These results are expected to be useful in guiding future similar personal, public, and clinical applications of this technology.
... Depression disorders. Kim et al. [23] analyze depression severity (normal, mild, severe) on 20 seniors (age between 69 and 90) during 90 days using Ambient Assisted Living technologies and classification models (e.g., Artificial Neural Network, Decision Tree, Bayesian Network, and Support Vector Machine). ...
Article
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Nowadays, healthy lifestyle, fitness, and diet habits have become central applications in our daily life. Positive psychology such as well-being and happiness is the ultimate dream of everyday people's feelings (even without being aware of it). Wearable devices are being increasingly employed to support well-being and fitness. Those devices produce physiological signals that are analyzed by machines to understand emotions and physical state. The Internet of Things (IoT) technology connects (wearable) devices to the Internet to easily access and process data, even using Web technologies (aka Web of Things). We design IAMHAPPY, an innovative IoT-based well-being recommendation system to encourage every day people's happiness. The system helps people deal with day-to-day discomforts (e.g., minor symptoms such as headache, fever) by using home remedies and related alternative medicines (e.g., naturopathy, aromatherapy), activities to reduce stress, etc. To achieve this system, we build a web-based knowledge repository for emotion with a focus on happiness and well-being. The knowledge repository helps analyze data produced by IoT devices to understand users' emotions and health. The semantics-based knowledge repository is integrated with a rule-based engine to suggest recommendations to achieve everyday people's happiness. The naturopathy application scenario supports the recommendation system.
... Boissy et al., 2007;Choi & Youm, 2017;da Cunha, Baixinho & Henriques, 2018;Godfrey, 2017;Meachem & Phalp, 2016;Nguyen et al., 2018;Panicker & Kumar, 2015;Tang et al., 2018;Zhang et al., 2017). Other than falls, dementia is one of the most researched disease for gerontological IoT research and applications (Atee, Hoti & Hughes, 2018;Banerjee, 2018;Barrué, 2017;Enshaeifar et al, 2018;Gibson et al., 2018;Jenkins, 2017;Kwan, Cheung & Kor, 2018;Moore et al., 2013;Stranks, 2017;Tiberghien et al., 2012;Zanwar et al., 2018) followed in distance by research on Alzheimer's Disease (Maresova et al., 2018;Sharma & Kaur, 2017;Zanwar et al., 2018), Parkinson's Disease (Del Din et al. 2016a, 2016b, and depression (Kim et al., 2017). ...
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In this article, we propose a new term, ‘assisted aging’ which is an offshoot of the discussions on assisted living of aging populations. The article consists of 5 major sections: In the first section after introduction, we review mostly technical accounts of health applications of IoT. In the second section, we introduce mostly social science-oriented research on health applications of IoT. In the third section, we present and discuss gerontological research on IoT. In the fourth section, we focus on yet another relatively new term which is ‘psychological AI’. We show how this will be central to future IoT for gerontological purposes. Finally, we reflect on assisted living studies to develop our notion of assisted aging. Bu makalede, yaşlanmakta olan nüfusların yardımlı yaşamaları konulu tartışmaların bir uzantısı olarak ‘yardımlı yaşlanma’ biçiminde yeni bir terim ileri sürüyoruz. Makale, 5 ana bölümden oluşuyor: Girişten sonraki ilk bölümde, nesnelerin internetinin sağlık uygulamalarının çoğunlukla teknik açıklamalarını gözden geçiriyoruz. İkinci bölümde, nesnelerin internetinin sağlık uygulamalarına ilişkin çoğunlukla toplum bilimleri yönelimli araştırmalara giriş yapıyoruz. Üçüncü bölümde, nesnelerin internetiyle ilgili yaşlılık bilimi araştırmalarını sunuyor ve tartışıyoruz. Dördüncü bölümde, bir diğer görece yeni terim olan ‘psikolojik Yapay Zeka’ terimine odaklanıyoruz. Bunun gelecekteki yaşlılık bilimi amaçlı nesnelerin interneti için ne kadar merkezi olacağını gösteriyoruz. Son olarak, yardımlı yaşlanma kavramsallaştırmamızı geliştirmek üzere yardımlı yaşama çalışmaları üstüne düşünüyoruz.
... The raw data provided by sensors are used to create residents behavioral profile. This profile can be used for other purposes such as disease diagnosis and prevention [20][21][22], activity recognition [23,24], and activity prediction [25]. ...
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In this paper, a novel approach is presented to identify the smart home residents. The different behavioral patterns of smart home’s inhabitants are exploited to distinguish the residents. The variation of a specific individual behavior in smart homes is a significant challenge. We introduce different features that are useful to handle this problem. Moreover, we introduce an innovative strategy which considers the Bag of Sensor Events and Bayesian networks. In the Bag of Sensor Events approach, the frequency of each sensor event occurrence is considered, regardless of the order of sensor events. The efficiency of the Bag of sensor Events approach is compared to the Sequence of Sensor Events. Our experiments confirm that the Bag of Sensor Events approach outperformed the previous approaches. When the smart homes residents are people who repeat their daily activities frequently, applying the Bag of Sensor Events on Activity Based Window Frame features, which considers the performed daily activities, would identify them more accurately. In contrast, in cases where residents perform their activities in different ways, considering the Time Based Window Frame leads to higher accuracy in distinguishing residents. In this approach, the features are created by considering the constant time intervals. The F-measure of our proposed approach on the Twor2009, Tulum2009, and Tulum2010 datasets is 96%, 100%, and 99%, respectively, which improves the results of the previous researches which consider behavioral patterns to identify smart home residents.
... In recent years, human activity recognition of wearable devices has been conducted deep studies. Traditional methods of machine learning such as SVM [12], [4], [13], Bayesian network [14], [15], time-frequency domain analysis [2], etc. all needed to extract features manually, which were handdesigned by the researchers, and then were fed into the classifiers as the inputs [16]. For example, Bao and Intille [17] collected a large amount of accelerometer data, and then manually extracted different features such as mean, energy, frequencydomain entropy and correlation, etc., and then fed these features into different classifiers for recognition and classification. ...
Article
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Traditional methods of human activity recognition from wearable sensors rely on good training datasets in which thousands of training sequences should be carefully labeled. However, unlike images or videos which can be easily classified by human beings, strictly labeling such sequences of sensor data need much more manpower and computing resources. In this paper, we present a new weakly supervised human activity recognition model based on recurrent attention learning, in which an agent is trained to extract information from weakly labeled sensor data by adaptively selecting a sequence of locations. Since the model is non-differentiable and multiple activities may occur in a sequence of sensor data, it is trained by reinforcement learning with novel reward strategies. We evaluated our model on the traditional UCI HAR dataset and our collected weakly labeled dataset. The experimental results show that our model is superior to the traditional CNN model and the DeepConvLSTM model on both datasets.
... In fact, healthcare is the most important domain that has been focused till date with 17 reported studies. Using various forms of smart- home services along with relevant Internet of Things (IoT) technologies researchers have attempted to provide assistance and improve the QoL of the elderly people suffering from common old age disorders like dementia, Parkinson's disease, and depression [15][16][17][18][19][20]. A lot of work has also been done with healthy elderly people with respect to monitoring their patterns of daily activities, fall detection, sleep tracking using bed sensors, gait monitoring, and creating indoor smart walking environment for staying fit [21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. ...
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A rapid increase in the percentage of elderly people over the past few years has been a cause of serious concern among the research fraternity worldwide. Active research is being carried out to leverage the benefits of information and communication technologies that enable them to live independently and promote a sense of overall well-being. Smart-homes are often employed to assist this group of people. However, there is a serious lack of relevant exploratory research that tries to measure and explain the intention of these people towards using such a service. In this work, we propose and validate a new comprehensive research model called the elderly smart home technology acceptance model (ESHTAM) by extending the original technology acceptance model (TAM) that can explain the elderly intention to use the smart-homes. An online questionnaire survey is conducted for this purpose, the results of which are analyzed using the Partial least squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) approach on data collected from 254 subjects. Subjective norm, compatibility, automation, self-capability, and satisfaction are positively related to the elderly intention in using smart-homes, whereas there is a negative association between affordability, security/privacy and usage intention. Two other factors, namely universal connectivity and enjoyment have no effect on the behavioral intention. The present study is a first empirical attempt that tries to explore the adoption of smart-homes among the elderly, as all other previous research has focused only on the technical aspects and implementation issues rather than the actual usage intention.
... Such disorders include generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic disorder (PD), social phobia and specific phobias, among others [63]. Below we show the main studies found on schizophrenia and bipolar disorders (see Table 5) and Kim et al. [59] 2017 They propose a simple and discreet detection system that uses passive infrared sensors to monitor the daily life activities of elderly who live alone. ...
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Background: Data Mining in medicine is an emerging field of great importance to provide a prognosis and deeper understanding of disease classification, specifically in Mental Health areas. Objective: The main objective of this paper is to present a review of the existing research works in the literature, referring to the techniques and algorithms of Data Mining in Mental Health, specifically in the most prevalent diseases such as: Dementia, Alzheimer, Schizophrenia and Depression. Methods: Academic databases that were used to perform the searches are Google Scholar, IEEE Xplore, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science, taking into account as date of publication the last 10 years, from 2008 to the present. Several search criteria were established such as 'techniques' AND 'Data Mining' AND 'Mental Health', 'algorithms' AND 'Data Mining' AND 'dementia' AND 'schizophrenia' AND 'depression', etc. selecting the papers of greatest interest. Results: A total of 211 articles were found related to techniques and algorithms of Data Mining applied to the main Mental Health diseases. 72 articles have been identified as relevant works of which 32% are Alzheimer's, 22% dementia, 24% depression, 14% schizophrenia and 8% bipolar disorders. Many of the papers show the prediction of risk factors in these diseases. Conclusion: From the review of the research articles analyzed, it can be said that use of Data Mining techniques applied to diseases such as dementia, schizophrenia, depression, etc. can be of great help to the clinical decision, diagnosis prediction and improve the patient's quality of life.
... Vision (digital video camera) based method by transforming the video frame into certain features by using image processing techniques and then creating a classification model by using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier Elderly people suffering from dementia Sample size: 11 Provision for a continuous monitoring scheme both inside and outside the residence for conducting a stray prevention system for the elderly Using radio frequency identification, GPS sensors and GIS for elderly monitoring and subsequent feedback about the system [32]/HM Elderly people suffering from depression Sample size: 20 Implementation and testing of algorithms on sensor data collected from elderly homes that helps to detect depression Use of neural network, C4.5 decision tree, Bayesian network and SVM classifiers to detect the severity of depressions [33]/HM Normal elderly people with no specific disabilities or requirements Sample size: 19 ...
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The percentage of the elderly population has been on the rise steadily over the past few years across the globe, which is a cause of serious concern among the research fraternity. A lot of research is going on that tries to harness the benefits of the various information and communication technologies to enable these elderly people to live independently and promote a sense of overall well-being. Although in the evolutionary phase, yet smart-homes can help these elderly people in their daily life. However, for the success of such smart systems, the intention of the users towards using those systems must be understood. But, there is a serious lack of relevant exploratory research that tries to measure and explain the adoption of such smart homes by the elderly population from a multiple theory perspective: namely, the Technology Acceptance Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior. The main aim of this paper is to fill up this void of a lack of theoretical approach by testing the three models in the context of the adoption of smart homes by the elderly population. In order to do so, we conducted a survey with N = 239 (after screening) and analyzed the results using the Structural Equation Modelling and Confirmatory Factor Analysis techniques. Results suggest that all the three models are valid although they do not take into account certain factors that are unique to this context. The present paper provides the initial groundwork to explore the process of adopting smart home services by the elderly with potential future research areas.
Chapter
Today, many changes have been seen in the life of people in society with the development of new technologies. For example, developing various new communication platforms and applications such as social networks has been able to affect the lifestyle and communication of people in different age groups. The elderly are one of the most important sections of society, and other age groups have been affected by new applications and social networks in recent years. One of the important issues that should be considered for the elderly people is to provide a suitable environment to improve their quality of life because they are one of the most vulnerable groups in society who, due to old age and various diseases, don't have this power to do their daily routine, and this affects their moods. So, designing new intelligence applications for improving their emotional intelligence can play an important role to facilitate their work and communications. In this chapter, the authors discuss new artificial intelligence applications that can control the emotional intelligence of the elderly.
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We conducted a feasibility study of a system for non-invasive monitoring of subjects at home. Electrical activity was recorded from room lights and from electrical domestic appliances; this was translated into the probability of physical activity or a particular Activity of Daily Living (ADL). Thirteen volunteer subjects were monitored for a period of 6.4 months (range 3-8). The mean age of the subjects was 80 years and they all lived alone at home; one had moderate Alzheimer's disease. A one-week validation was carried out to ascertain whether the recorded activity actually occurred. The results showed that daily and nocturnal activity could be well differentiated. The probability of having eaten, taken a bath and going to the toilet could be calculated each day. Eating was the most accurately measured ADL; toileting and bathing results were less accurate. The system appears to be a promising component of home telecare.
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There is a general belief that physical activity and exercise have positive effects on mood and anxiety and a great number of studies describe an association of physical activity and general well-being, mood and anxiety. In line, intervention studies describe an anxiolytic and antidepressive activity of exercise in healthy subjects and patients. However, the majority of published studies have substantial methodological shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to critically review the currently available literature with respect to (1) the association of physical activity, exercise and the prevalence and incidence of depression and anxiety disorders and (2) the potential therapeutic activity of exercise training in patients with depression or anxiety disorders. Although the association of physical activity and the prevalence of mental disorders, including depression and anxiety disorders have been repeatedly described, only few studies examined the association of physical activity and mental disorders prospectively. Reduced incidence rates of depression and (some) anxiety disorders in exercising subjects raise the question whether exercise may be used in the prevention of some mental disorders. Besides case series and small uncontrolled studies, recent well controlled studies suggest that exercise training may be clinically effective, at least in major depression and panic disorder. Although, the evidence for positive effects of exercise and exercise training on depression and anxiety is growing, the clinical use, at least as an adjunct to established treatment approaches like psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy, is still at the beginning. Further studies on the clinical effects of exercise, interaction with standard treatment approaches and details on the optimal type, intensity, frequency and duration may further support the clinical administration in patients. Furthermore, there is a lack of knowledge on how to best deal with depression and anxiety related symptoms which hinder patients to participate and benefit from exercise training.
Article
Chronic forms of depression are more common and impairing than is generally recognized. This article introduces an In Session issue devoted to dysthymic disorder and chronic depression, and it reviews current knowledge about these disorders. First, we discuss nosological issues, followed by a summary of potential risk factors. Finally, the naturalistic course of chronic depression is described and implications for clinical practice are discussed. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol/In Session.
Article
Depression is underrecognized in older adults, especially those with chronic conditions such as heart disease and arthritis. Left untreated, depression may progress and have dramatic effects on overall health. The Geriatric Depression Scale: Short Form is a 15-question screening tool for depression in older adults that takes five to seven minutes to complete and can be filled out by the patient or administered by a provider with minimal training in its use. The questions focus on mood; the score can help clinicians decide whether further assessment is needed. (This screening tool is included in a series, Try This: Best Practices in Nursing Care to Older Adults, from the Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing at New York University's College of Nursing.) For a free online video demonstrating the use of this tool, go to http://links.lww.com/A101.
Article
Numerous advances have been made in developing intelligent programs, some inspired by biological neural networks. Researchers from many scientific disciplines are designing artificial neural networks (ANNs) to solve a variety of problems in pattern recognition, prediction, optimization, associative memory; and control. Although successful conventional applications can be found in certain well-constrained environments, none is flexible enough to perform well outside its domain. ANNs provide exciting alternatives, and many applications could benefit from using them. This article is for those readers with little or no knowledge of ANNs to help them understand the other articles in this issue of Computer. It discusses the motivation behind the development of ANNs; describes the basic biological neuron and the artificial computation model; outlines network architectures and learning processes; and presents multilayer feed-forward networks, Kohonen's self-organizing maps, Carpenter and Grossberg's Adaptive Resonance Theory models, and the Hopfield network. It concludes with character recognition, a successful ANN application.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
World Population Ageing 2015, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, New York, NY, USA, 2015.