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Abstract

Three polysaccharide complexes (PSCs) were isolated from the aerial parts of common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.), and the flowers of common lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) and silver linden (Tilia tomentosa Moench) by boiling water extraction and ethanol precipitation. The chemical composition and immunomodulating effects of isolated PSCs were characterized. The chemical characterization revealed that the three samples contain mainly pectic polysaccharides. They exhibited ex vivo intestinal immunomodulating activity through the murine Peyer’s patch-mediated bone marrow cell proliferation test at 100 μg/ml concentration. At the same time, they stimulated ex vivo human blood T-cell populations (CD4⁺/CD25⁺ and CD8⁺/CD25⁺), phagocytic leukocytes (CD14⁺ and CD64⁺ cells) and induced IL-6 production from human white blood cells and Peyer’s patch cells. The herbal PSCs stimulated ex vivo ROS production from whole blood phagocytes and showed unspecific in vitro anti-proliferative activity against normal and A549, HeLa and LS180 tumor cells. This is the first report on immunomodulating studies of linden flower pectins and chemical and biological activity characterization of lavender polysaccharides. Our study demonstrates that similarly to purslane, lavender and silver linden herbal materials contain immunomodulating polysaccharides that could be useful for support of compromised immune system.

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... In our preliminarily study a crude polysaccharide complex from T. tomentosa (linden PSC) expressed ex vivo immunomodulating activity against human phagocytic leukocytes, T-cells, murine Peyer's patch cells and anti-tumor activity in vitro (Georgiev et al., 2017). The aim of the current study is to characterize the chemical diversity and immunomodulating properties of purified pectic polysaccharides from T. tomentosa Moench blossoms. ...
... Linden PSC was extracted with boiling water as previously described (Georgiev et al., 2017). ...
... Growth inhibitory effect of some of the linden polysaccharides was studied against FL cell line (ATCC CCL 62, NBIMCC 94) derived from normal human amniotic cells and different human tumor cell lines: A549 (ATCC CCL 185), LS180 (ATCC CL-187), HT29 (ATCC HTB-38), HeLa (ATCC CCL-2), CaOV (NBIMCC 1108), Jurkat (ATCC, TIB-152) and MOLT-4 (ATCC, CRL-1582). The studied cell lines were treated with PSI or III (50 and 25 g/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 h, and the cell viability was tested with the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,4-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (Sigma-Aldrich) reagent as previously described (Georgiev et al., 2017). The percent inhibition of the cell growth was calculated using the mean absorbance units from each test sample and the mean data from the control cells incubated in the absence of linden polysaccharides. ...
Article
Silver linden flowers contain different pectins (PSI-PSIII) with immunomodulating properties. PSI is a low-esterified pectic polysaccharide with predominant homogalacturonan region, followed by rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI) with arabinogalactan II and RGII (traces) domains. PSII and PSIII are unusual glucuronidated RGI polymers. PSIII is a unique high molecular weight RGI, having almost completely O-3 glucuronidated GalA units with >30% O-3 acetylation at the Rha units. Linden pectins induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NO generation from non-stimulated whole blood phagocytes and macrophages, resp., but suppressed OZP-(opsonized zymosan particles)-activated ROS generation, LPS-induced iNOS expression and NO production. This dual mode of action suggests their anti-inflammatory activity, which is known for silver linden extracts. PSI expressed the highest complement fixation and macrophage-stimulating activities and was active on intestinal Peyer’s patch cells. PSIII was active on non-stimulated neutrophils, as it induced ß2-integrin expression, revealing that acetylated and highly glucuronidated RGI exhibits immunomodulating properties via phagocytes.
... COS has smaller molecular weight (MW), lower degree of polymerization (DP), and good water solubility which chitosan does not possess [13][14][15]. Similar to other natural carbohydrate [16,17], COS has been shown to have good immunogenicity and anti-inflammatory activity in vitro [18][19][20] and in vivo [21][22][23], and is expected to be a good natural antiinflammatory drug to prevent and treat endotoxemia. The anti-inflammatory activity of COS is related to its structural parameters, including MW, DP and degree of acetylation (DA) etc. ...
... The ion peaks at m/z 171.08 and 341. 16 6 . Moreover, there is no ion peak corresponding COS with acetyl groups in it. ...
Article
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Endotoxemia is mainly caused by a massive burst of inflammatory cytokines as a result of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) invasion. Chitooligosaccharides (COS) is expected to be a potential drug for relieving endotoxemia due to its anti-inflammatory properties. However, the structural parameters of COS are often ambiguous, and the effect of degree of acetylation (DA) of COS on its anti-inflammatory remains unknown. In this study, four COSs with different DAs (0%, 12%, 50% and 85%) and the same oligomers distribution were successfully obtained. Their structures were confirmed by 1H NMR and MS analysis. Then, the effect of DA on the anti-inflammatory activity and relieving endotoxemia potential of COS was researched. The results revealed that COS with a DA of 12% had better anti-inflammatory activity than COSs with other DAs, mainly in inhibiting LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines burst, down-regulating its mRNA expression and reducing phosphorylation of IκBα. Furthermore, this COS showed an obviously protective effect on endotoxemia mice, such as inhibiting the increase in inflammatory cytokines and transaminases, alleviating the injury of liver and intestinal tissue. This study explored the effect of DA on the anti-inflammatory activity of COS for the first time and lays the foundation for the development of COS as an anti-inflammatory drug against endotoxemia.
... Recent researches showed that Gal, Glc, Ara and Rha were high frequency monosaccharides in plant polysaccharides with high immunomodulatory activities [47]. In addition, polysaccharides with a molecular weight range of 10-1000 kDa were more effective in adjusting immune function [48]. According to this study, PSAP-1 was found to be composed of Gal, Ara, Glc and GlcA, and PSAP-2 was composed of Gal, Glc, Ara, Rha and GalA. ...
... It has been reported that polysaccharides with high content of uronic acid possessed high immunomodulatory activity [48,49], and the level of NO released from macrophage was proportionally related to the sulfate content [50]. Uronic acid content of 15.97 ± 0.17% for PSAP-2 was much higher than 1.09 ± 0.06% for PSAP-1, and content of sulfate radical in PSAP-2 was also higher than that of PSAP-1. ...
... In our previous studies with herbal pectins, it was found that they can activate neutrophils, macrophages and T cells [49,68,69]. Normally, the monosaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages, presence of specific repeating units, chain size and nanostructure of PSs are essential for the immune response. ...
Article
The aim of the present study is to investigate the chemical composition and biological activity of polysaccharides (PSs) and secondary metabolites, isolated from poorly explored cyanobacterial species, in search of immunomodulating and antioxidant compounds. Polysaccharide complexes (PSCs) were obtained by boiling water extraction from biomasses of Anabaena laxa (AL-PSC), Oscillatoria limosa (OL-PSC) and Phormidesmis molle (PM-PSC), pretreated with 80% (v/v) ethanol and pure acetone. The total carbohydrate content in the complexes varies between 53.0% and 63.5% (w/w). The complexes contain PSs composed of neutral monosaccharides as main building blocks and the uronic acids (GalA and GlcA) are in smaller amounts (4.2–9.5%). AL-PSC and OL-PSC are rich in Glc (33.1% and 38.6%), followed by Man, Gal and Xyl as other dominant monomers. PM-PSC has the highest amount of Gal (45%), followed by Glc (21%). Additionally, a neutral exopolysaccharide (EPS) (PM-EPSC), from a (hetero)xylan type (Xyl content 70.5%), was isolated from P. molle. The weight-average molecular weights (Mw) of AL-PSC, OL-PSC and PM-PSC are estimated to be 67.0, 71.8 and 74.7 × 10⁴ g/mol. AL-PSC (200 μg/mL) expresses the most potent ex vivo stimulating activity on human monocytes and granulocytes. AL-PSC and OL-PSC (50–200 μg/mL) manifest better in vitro growth-inhibitory effect against human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT-29) and colon adenocarcinoma (LS-180) cells than PM-PSC, affecting their lysosomal activity. The organic extracts, obtained from the biomasses extracted with 80% ethanol and acetone, are rich in carbohydrates, followed by fatty acids and other triacylglycerol metabolism compounds, terpenes, Krebs cycle metabolites, chlorophylls and phenolics. Among the three species, the extract from A. laxa (AL-E) contains the highest phenolic content, as well as exhibiting the strongest antioxidant activity by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. A. laxa and the other cyanobacteria should be considered valuable for isolation of immunomodulators and antioxidants with possible application in dietetics and medicine. https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1e2UI_oInis-o5 (50 days' free access)
... Many natural polysaccharides are able to enhance T lymphocyte proliferation and increased the levels of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells [27,28]. There was no difference with respect to the conclusion of Georgiev et al. that the approach of polysaccharides expressing activity against the Peyer' patch mediated-bone marrow cell proliferation was through phagocytic leukocytes and T-lymphocytes [29]. Some natural polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus, Panax ginseng, and Ganoderma lucidum for example improved the percentage of activated Th cells in the Peyer' patch cells, promoting CD4 + T cell growth and inhibiting CD8 + T cell [30][31][32]. ...
Article
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In this study, an acidic polysaccharide from Codonopsis pilosula Nannf. var. modesta (Nannf.) L. T. Shen (WCP-I) and its main fragment, WCP-Ia, obtained after pectinase digestion, were structurally elucidated and found to consist of a rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) region containing both arabinogalactan type I (AG-I) and type II (AG-II) as sidechains. They both expressed immunomodulating activity against Peyer’s patch cells. Endo-1,4-β-galactanase degradation gave a decrease of interleukine 6 (IL-6) production compared with native WCP-I and WCP-Ia, but exo-α-l-arabinofuranosidase digestion showed no changes in activity. This demonstrated that the stimulation activity partly disappeared with removal of β-d-(1→4)-galactan chains, proving that the AG-I side chain plays an important role in immunoregulation activity. WCP-Ia had a better promotion effect than WCP-I in vivo, shown through an increased spleen index, higher concentrations of IL-6, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum, and a slight increment in the secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio. These results suggest that β-d-(1→4)-galactan-containing chains in WCP-I play an essential role in the expression of immunomodulating activity. Combining all the results in this and previous studies, the intestinal immune system might be the target site of WCP-Ia.
... BSP-2 with an appropriate molecular weight and high uronic acid content might exhibit higher immunomodulatory activity than other BSP fractions, similar to previous reports. 69,70 BSP-3 showed inapparent immunomodulatory activity possibly due to its lowest uronic acid content and highest molecular weight. We will focus on the structure and mechanism of the extracted BSP in a future study. ...
Article
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Bletilla striata is widely used for stanching bleeding. In this study, polysaccharides from B. striata (BSP) were extracted by hot water. Four polysaccharides named BSP-1–BSP-4 were fractionated using DEAE-52 cellulose. BSP fractions contained sulfate, and the degrees of substitution of BSP-3 and BSP-4 were 1.59 and 1.70, respectively. Analysis of monosaccharide composition showed that four polysaccharides were mainly composed of mannan and glucose. The in vitro results showed that BSP-1–BSP-4 elicited pro-coagulant capacities by shortening the activating partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time and elevating the fibrinogen content. Immunomodulatory activity was evaluated by MTT assay, the pinocytic capacity and NO production. Although BSP fractions did not affect RAW 264.7 cell viability, they, especially BSP-2, enhanced the immunomodulatory activity by increasing the pinocytic capacity and NO production. Overall, BSP may be developed as a potential coagulant with immunomodulatory effects.
... Farmakologiczne właściwości dla badanych interwencji, tj. łączonego protokołu -olejek lawendowy, oregano, lukrecja i monopreparat z oregano -są możliwe, gdyż dla poszczególnych składowych wykazano właściwości przeciwbakteryjne, przeciwzapalne, wzmacniające oraz oddziałujące na błonę śluzową, które jako końcowy element przyczyniły się do poprawy parametrów pacjenta [16,19,23]. Wyciąg z oregano dostępny jest w Polsce w postaci suplementów diety, również suplementów diety zawierających olej z oregano. ...
Article
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At the beginning of 2020, the latest updated European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EPOS 2020) was published under the auspices of the European Society of Rhinology. EPOS 2020 presents updated guidelines based on the highest quality scientific evidence, resulted from the analysis of updated, evidence-based reports of EBM (Evidence Based Medicine) from the last eight years, including and addressing such areas as diagnostics and treatment of chronic sinusitis in the pediatric population or sinus surgery. In the treatment process the new EPOS 2020 guidelines involve not only the physicians themselves, but also the new concerned who have been more involved in the treatment of rhinitis and para nasal sinusitis since the publication of the last EPOS document in 2012. This includes, among others, pharmacists, nurses, care providers and, in fact, patients themselves, who are using more and more self-control over their condition, correctly applying prescription treatment as well as over the counter (OTC) treatment. The guidelines also outline further research directions in the area of para nasal sinusitis. What is more, in comparison to the 2012 guidelines, they change the treatment regimen at the initial stage, placing the patient and the pharmacist first, and then, when the first stage of self-treatment fails, successively family doctors, internists and paediatricians (primary care physicians), followed by consultation with an otorhinolaryngologist (with possible hospitalisation) as the last, third stage in the treatment regimen. According to the data published in the PGEU report (Pharmacetical Group of the European Union) in 2018, 58% of Europeans are able to reach the nearest pharmacy within 5 minutes, and 98% of European residents within no more than half an hour, what makes pharmacists the most accessible group of professionals in the primary healthcare system.
... 2004). Ihlamur çayında çok güçlü antioksidan içeren flavonoid yapısında polifenoller olduğu ve bu bileşiklerin kateşin ve türevlerinden kaynaklandığı, antioksidan içeren bileşiğin hücreleri serbest radikal hasarlarına karşı C ve E vitaminlerinden çok daha iyi koruduğu ve immun sistemi desteklediği gösterilmiştir (Vinson et al. 1995;Georgiev et al. 2017). Çok güçlü bir antioksidan aktiviteyi sağlayan ve ıhlamur çayında bulunan flavonollerin (glycosides, quercetin, kaempferol, hydroxycinnamic acidsve ellagitannins gibi) C vitamininden 20 kez daha etkili olduğu belirlenmiştir (Craig 1999;Ieri et al. 2015). ...
... Herbal medicine has been used for thousands of years and has many benefits, including cost-effectiveness and accessibility. Numerous studies have reported that herbal medicines can improve the body's immune response by indirectly exerting an immune regulation effect or directly acting on the intestinal epithelial cells [36][37][38][39][40]. This is further achieved through the regulation of inflammation-related signal transduction pathways, to improve the immune status of the body. ...
Article
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Influenza in humans is often accompanied by gastroenteritis-like symptoms. GeGen QinLian decoction (GQD), a Chinese herb formula, has been widely used to treat infectious diarrhea for centuries and has the effect of restoring intestinal flora. Studies have also reported that GQD were used to treat patients with influenza. However, whether regulating the intestinal flora is one of the ways GQD treats influenza has not been confirmed. In present research, we conducted a systemic pharmacological study, and the results showed that GQD may acts through multiple targets and pathways. In influenza-infected mice, GQD treatment reduced mortality and lung inflammation. Most importantly, the mortality and lung inflammation were also reduced in influenza-infected mice that have undergone fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from GQD (FMT-GQD) treated mice. GQD treatment or FMT-GQD treatment restores the intestinal flora, resulting in an increase in Akkermansia_muciniphila, Desulfovibrio_C21_c20 and Lactobacillus_salivarius, and a decrease in Escherichia_coli. FMT-GQD treatment inhibited the NOD/RIP2/NF-κB signaling pathway in the intestine and affected the expression of downstream related inflammatory cytokines in mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs) and serum. In addition, FMT-GQD treatment showed systemic protection by restraining the inflammatory differentiation of CD4⁺ T cells. In conclusion, our study shows that GQD can affect systemic immunity, at least in part, through the intestinal flora, thereby protect the mice against influenza virus infectious pneumonia.
... The immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharide complexes immuno-modulation of the underlying immuno-competent cells (Georgiev et al., 2017). The results demonstrated that P. oleracea contains immunomodulating polysaccharides that could be used in the The phenotypic expression of IFN-γ cells was increased, and IL-4 positive cells were decreased by quercetin (Nair et al., 2002). ...
Article
Various pharmacological effects for Portulaca oleracea were shown in previous studies. Therefore, the effects of P. oleracea and its derivatives on respiratory, allergic, and immunologic diseases according to update experimental and clinical studies are provided in this review article. PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched using appropriate keywords until the end of December 2020. The effects of P. oleracea and its constituents such as quercetin and kaempferol on an animal model of asthma were shown. Portulaca oleracea and its constituents also showed therapeutic effects on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic bronchitis in both experimental and clinical studies. The possible bronchodilatory effect of P. oleracea and its ingredients was also reported. Portulaca oleracea and its constituents showed the preventive effect on lung cancer and a clinical study showed the effect of P. oleracea on patients with lung adenocarcinoma. In addition, a various constituents of P. oleracea including, quercetin and kaempferol showed therapeutic effects on lung infections. This review indicates the therapeutic effect of P. oleracea and its constituents on various lung and allergic disorders but more clinical studies are required to establish the clinical efficacy of this plant and its constituents on lung and allergic disorders.
... PO aerial parts are rich with flavonoids (kaempherol, apigenin, luteolin, myricetin, quarcetin, genistein, portulacanones A to D and genistin), phenolic acids (rosmarinic acids, caffeic, p-coumaric, chlorogenic and ferulic), lignins, terpenoids, stillbens, tannins, saponins, chlorophyll, bergapten, robustin and melatonin [12][13][14]. Also, the bioactive compounds found in PO as omega-3 fatty acids and polysaccharides are considered as tumor suppressants and immune system strengthening [15,16]. As well as, PO administration can scavenge the free radicals and antagonize rotenone induced dopamine depletion, neurons apoptosis and complex-I inhibition in striatum of rats, recommended that PO may be has a potential neuroprotective effects against Parkinson's disease [17]. ...
Article
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Purslane (Portulaca oleraceae L.) is an annual luscious plant in the Portulacaceae family. It is famous as a folk medicine in many countries. The purslane extracts rich with active compounds were tested for their antitumor activity (in vitro) against breast cancer cells (MCF7) and colon cancer cells (CaCo-2), antimicrobial activity and brain protective effects. The results showed that, ethanol extract had high potential against S. aureus, E. Coli and A. niger and possessed the lowest viability cell (31%) in colon cancer cells (CaCo-2) at maximum concentration (2000 µl/ mg), while, methanol extract possessed the lowest cell viability (38%) at maximum concentration (2000 µl/ mg) against (MCF7). As well as, the different extracts: ethanol, methanol, hot water and cold water have inhibition effect of Fe +2 induced brain lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, the extracts that have high phenolic compounds have biological impacts on human health and could be used as food, nutraceutical supplementation and pharmaceutical applications.
... Furthermore, it upregulates production of anti-inflammatory cytokines ( Figure 5). Polysaccharides complexes isolated from aerial parts of purslane shown to be stimulate CD4 + /CD25 + and CD8 + /CD25 + (human T-cells), CD14 + and CD64 + cells (activated phagocytes) and also enhanced IL-6 production from human white blood cells and Peyer's patch cells [215]. Few other studies have also shown immunomodulatory activities of purslane using various models and cell lines [216,217]. ...
Article
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The Portulaca oleracea L. commonly known as purslane is distributed all over the world and easily grows in diverse soil and climatic conditions. It has been traditionally used as a nutritious and ethnomedicinal food across the globe. Various studies have shown that the plant is a rich source of various important phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, proteins, carbohydrates, and vitamins such as A, C, E, and B, carotenoids and minerals such as phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and zinc. It is particularly very important because of the presence of a very high concentration of omega-3- fatty acids especially α-linolenic acid, gamma- linolenic acid and linoleic acid, which are not generally synthesized in terrestrial plants. Various parts of purslane are known for ethnomedicinal and pharmacological uses because of its anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, skeletal muscle relaxant, antitumor, hepatoprotective, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-insomnia, analgesic, gastroprotective, neuroprotective, wound healing and antiseptic activities. Due to multiple benefits of purslane, it has become an important wonder crop and various scientists across the globe have shown much interest in it as a healthy food for the future. In this review, we provide an update on the phytochemical and nutritional composition of purslane, its usage as nutritional and an ethnomedicinal plant across the world. We further provide a detailed account on ethnopharmacological studies that have proved the ethnomedicinal properties of purslane.
... Several studies showed immuno modulatory properties of Portulaca. Georgiev et al. (2017) reported that polysaccharide complexes isolated from aerial parts of Purslane activated phagocytes, enhanced immunomodulatory activities by interacting with immune cells in Peyer's patch cells. Li Y et al. (2014)investigated that Purslane polysaccharides raised the body weight, lymphocyte proliferation, and WBC count and splenocytes proliferation. ...
Book
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Medicinal plants have been the keystone of health care since ancient time. Their innumerable uses have been documented and transformed through the generation for over more than 4000 years. In the early 19th century, as soon as the scientific investigations began, numerous plant based drugs have been made available to cure large number of global diseases. The 21st century started with exploration of these traditional remedies to meet patient needs. Now we are in the era where science and technologies have evolved to elucidate the safety and efficacy of traditional medicines. Even though much more information on uses of plant/plant parts in various health practices is still unrecorded. This book will present an overall illustration of some selected medicinal plants and their medico biological application. It will also throw light on critical areas of ongoing research, transforming the information on medicinal plants and their recent applications.
... UPLC-MS/MS analysis showed that the content of arabinose in the polysaccharides was the highest, which accounted for more than 40% of the total sugar content followed by glucose and galactose (Table 4). Georgiev et al. reported that the chemical features of the three purslane polysaccharide complexes such as the highest galactose, arabinose, and glucose contents were important in immunomodulating activity [30][31][32]. Akhtar et al. reported that arabinose contained in wheat bran could enhance humoral immune function and significantly increase serum antibody levels in animal bodies [33]. The anti-allergic activity of SRPS might be closely related to its high content of arabinose. ...
Article
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Background: Allergic disease is a common clinical disease. Natural products provide an important source for a wide range of potential anti-allergic agents. This study was designed to evaluate the anti-allergic activities of the water-soluble polysaccharides extracted and purified from Saposhnikoviae Radix (SRPS). The composition and content of monosaccharides were determined to provide a material basis. Methods: An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was established to determine the composition and content of SRPS. 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) induced a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) mouse model orally administrated SRPS for seven consecutive days. Ear swelling, organ index, and serum IgE levels were observed to evaluate the anti-allergic activities. Results: The UPLC-MS/MS analysis showed that SRPS was consisted of eight monosaccharides including galacturonic acid, mannose, glucose, galactose, rhamnose, fucose, ribose, and arabinose with a relative molar ratio of 4.42%, 7.86%, 23.69%, 12.06%, 3.10%, 0.45%, 0.71%, and 47.70%, respectively. SRPS could effectively reduce ear swelling, a thymus index, and a serum IgE levels. Conclusions: The method was simple, rapid, sensitive, and reproducible, which could be used to analyze and determine the monosaccharide composition of SRPS. The vivo experiments demonstrated that SRPS may effectively inhibit development of DNFB-induced DTH. SRPS is a novel potential resource for natural anti-allergic drugs.
... Polysaccharides from p. oleracea downregulate the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6. Furthermore, they upregulate production of IL-10 [72] Polysaccharides isolated from aerial parts of p. oleracea were shown to stimulate CD4 + /CD25 + and CD8 + /CD25 + (human T-cells), CD14 + and CD64 + cells (activated phagocytes) [73]. 1-carbomethoxy-carboline disturbed one of the major intracellular inflammatory signaling pathways associated with MAPKs and suppressed the nuclear translocation of NF-B, decreasing proinflammatory mediators such as iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1 [36, 73]. ...
Research
Background and aim: portal hypertension (PHT) is a common complication of liver cirrhosis and/or fibrosis. Propranolol is a nonselective beta blocker that is commonly used to reduce portal pressure. Portulaca oleracea extract has been shown to have hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study is to assess the effects and interactions of portulaca oleracea extract and propranolol in cirrhotic PHT in rats.
... These antimicrobial effects may confirm the findings of the present study on the local use of lavender oil in the pathophysiology of microbial contamination. In another study, conducted by Georgiev et al. on the lavender immune effects, lavender flowers contain polysaccharides that are immune-augmenter and can protect immune deficiencies (32). In a similar study, Gostner et al. concluded in a laboratory study that the effects of lavender on the immune system and neuroendocrine were due to its effect on tryptophan metabolism (33). ...
Article
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Background Chronic rhinosinusitis is one of the most common diseases affecting the quality of life of patients. Patients suffer from high costs in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Frequent recurrence and failure of therapeutic protocols are among the most important issues in the management of this disease. In view of this, the use of traditional and complementary therapies to promote the treatment of this disease has been increasingly taken into account. Objective Comparison of the effectiveness of the Persian Medicine Protocol with the conventional therapy in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis. Methods A randomized clinical trial was conducted at Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran from July 2016 to March 2017. For patients with chronic rhinosinusitis symptoms, endoscopy of the sinuses was performed by an ENT specialist and in the case of negative endoscopy, paranasal sinus CT scan was requested. A total of 42 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were randomly assigned to two groups. The first group (classical) received systemic and intranasal cortisone, and the second group (traditional) received a therapeutic Persian medicine protocol including intranasal lavender oil, and Liquorice Marjoram Tea (L. M. tea) for six weeks. The symptoms of the patients were evaluated using the SNOT-22 questionnaire at the beginning of the study and at the sixth week. If no improvement occurs, treatment continued for 12 weeks. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16, using ANOVA, independent-samples and paired-samples t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and simple linear regression. Results In 20 patients in the traditional group, the decrease in SNOT score was observed as 56% after 6 weeks treatment (p=0.001), which is similar to the effect of the first group (classical). Although there was no statically significant difference between the two groups, in clinical terms, the difference in mean systemic symptoms such as confusion with 1.05 (p=0.5) and fatigue with 1.63 (p=0.01) had more improvement in the traditional group, and the difference in mean local symptoms such as nasal congestion with 2.37 (p=0.78) and runny nose with 1.95 (p=0.14) had a more decrease in the classical group. Conclusion The results of this trial indicate the effectiveness of the Persian Medicine Protocol (including Lavender oil and L.M tea) in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis, especially on improving systemic symptoms. Nevertheless more clinical studies are necessary to support the acquired results. Trial registration This trial was registered at the Iranian Center for Clinical Trials (ID: IRCT2015112425217N1). Funding This research is part of a PhD thesis and is funded by the Vice-Chancellor for Research at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Grant No. 931673.
... Polysaccharides from p. oleracea downregulate the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6. Furthermore, they upregulate production of IL-10 [72] Polysaccharides isolated from aerial parts of p. oleracea were shown to stimulate CD4 + /CD25 + and CD8 + /CD25 + (human T-cells), CD14 + and CD64 + cells (activated phagocytes) [73]. 1-carbomethoxy-carboline disturbed one of the major intracellular inflammatory signaling pathways associated with MAPKs and suppressed the nuclear translocation of NF-B, decreasing proinflammatory mediators such as iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1 [36, 73]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aim: portal hypertension (PHT) is a common complication of liver cirrhosis and/or fibrosis. Propranolol is a nonselective beta blocker that is commonly used to reduce portal pressure. Portulaca oleracea extract has been shown to have hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study is to assess the effects and interactions of portulaca oleracea extract and propranolol in cirrhotic PHT in rats.
... In a study of sulfated polysaccharide from Ulva rigida (Leiro, Castro, Arranz, & Lamas, 2007), the authors found that the level of NO released from macrophages was proportionally related to the sulphate content. In addition, according to our and others' previous reports (Georgiev et al., 2017;Wang et al., 2017Wang et al., , 2018, some acidic polysaccharides rich in GalA possessed high immunomodulatory activity. Taken together, it can concluded that the relative high uronic acid and sulphate esters content as well as the relative low molecular weight might partly explain a high immunomodulatory activity of SLP-2. ...
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Stem lettuce has a long history of cultivation in China and possesses high nutritional and medicinal value. In our previous studies, extraction optimization, characterization, and bioactivities of stem lettuce polysaccharides (SLP) were investigated. In this study, SLP were further separated into two purified polysaccharides, SLP-1 and SLP-2, by anion exchange chromatography followed by size exclusion chromatography. SLP-1, with a molecular weight of 90 KDa, was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 17.6:41.7:33.9. SLP-2, with a molecular weight of 44 KDa, was mainly composed of mannose, galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 11.5:69.5:9.3:8.2. In addition, both purified polysaccharides contain sulphate radicals, have triple helical structures and can promote macrophage proliferation without cytotoxicity. SLP-2 was better able to stimulate phagocytic and nitric oxide production than SLP-1. The results suggest that polysaccharides from stem lettuce could be explored as immunomodulatory agents in the field of pharmaceuticals and functional foods.
... In our study, herbs increased T cell population in both intrafollicular zone and dome and B follicular zone, which points to immune-modulating activity against the cells in Peyer's patches. Several studies have found that polysaccharide of different plants can stimulate immunecompetent cells in PPs [88]. Interestingly, after administering the herbs, the number of T cells in LP and IEL depended on the location side of the intestine: in jejunum, a tendency to slightly decrease the number of T cells was observed, while a significant increase of T cell density in the colon was present. ...
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Biotinylated Portulaca oleracea polysaccharide (Bio-POP) conjugates were successfully prepared by the esterification reaction. The biotinylated polysaccharide products were an off-white powder with an average degree of substitution of 42.5%. After grafting biotin onto POP, the thermal stability of Bio-POP conjugates was much higher than that of POP and the surface topography of Bio-POP was a loose and porous cross-linked structure. The cytotoxicity assay in vitro demonstrated that POP, biotin, and Bio-POP conjugates exhibited different cytotoxicity to HeLa, MCF-7, LO-2, and A549, in particular POP inhibited the growth of the A549 cell line more than other cell lines. The nuclear staining method demonstrated that Bio-POP conjugates can interfere with the apoptosis of A549 cells to some extent and the immunofluorescence staining photograph illustrated that Bio-POP conjugates induced A549 cells to exhibit immune activity. Therefore, the combination of biotin and Portulaca oleracea polysaccharides had immune synergistic therapeutic effects on A549 cells and can be applied in the field of anti-tumor conjugate drugs.
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Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are a recently developed class of green, efficient, and versatile alternatives to traditional organic solvents in natural product extractions. Inspired by the emergence of natural DESs and their green nature, we herein optimized the experimental variables for the extraction of dopamine from purslane (Portulaca oleracea L., POL) using DESs. Nine choline chloride (ChCl)-based DESs were tested to select the optimum solvent for ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and the combination of ChCl:glycerol (1:2) with 30% water extracted more dopamine from POL than ethanol. The amount of dopamine in the extracts was quantified by HPLC equipped with a fluorescence detector. The influence of UAE treatment on the morphology of plant material was studied by SEM. Based on single-factor experiments, the UAE conditions were optimized by response surface methodology using the Box-Behnken design. The optimum conditions were: extraction time of 30 min, water content in DESs of 32%, temperature of 58 °C, and plant material-liquid ratio of 40 mg/mL, which resulted in 2.96 mg of dopamine per 1 g of POL. The percentage of water in DESs and the extraction temperature were the most significant factors influencing the extraction efficiency of dopamine from POL. The results of this study promote the application of DESs for green and efficient extractions of bioactive alkaloids and other target molecules from plant materials.
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A novel acidic polysaccharide named SSPA50–1 was isolated from Scapharca subcrenata using a simulated gastric fluid extraction method. SSPA50–1 is a heteropolysaccharide with an average molecular weight of 44.7 kDa that is composed of galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, mannose, ribose, rhamnose, fucose, xylose and arabinose at a molar ratio of 1.00:5.40:9.04:3.10:1.59:4.01:2.10:2.21:2.28. The structural characterization based on the methylation and 1D/2D NMR analyses indicated that SSPA50–1 is composed of →3)-β-L-Rhap-(1→,→3)-β-L-2-O-Me-Fucp-(1→, →2)-α-D-Xylp-(1→, →5)-α-L-Araf-(1→, →3)-β-D-Galp-(1→, →6)-α-D-Glcp-(1→, →3,4)-β-D-Manp-(1→, →3,4)-β-D-Galp-(1→, β-D-Ribf-(1→, α-D-Glcp-(1→, and α-D-GalAp6Me-(1→. Furthermore, SSPA50–1 possessed potent immunoregulatory activity by enhancing the phagocytosis and NO, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6 secretion capacity of RAW 264.7 cells. Otherwise, SSPA50–1 significantly promoted the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages. These results indicated that SSPA50–1 could be developed as a potential ingredient for immunostimulatory agents.
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Background and aim: portal hypertension (PHT) is a common complication of liver cirrhosis and/or fibrosis. Propranolol is a nonselective beta blocker that is commonly used to reduce portal pressure. Portulaca oleracea extract has been shown to have hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study is to assess the effects and interactions of portulaca oleracea extract and propranolol in non-cirrhotic PHT in rats.
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In the current research, pectic polysaccharide has been isolated from celery tubers (Apium graveolens var. rapaceum D. C.) by extraction with an aqueous ammonium oxalate. The obtained pectin has been characterized as low methoxylated (LM) with degree of esterification (DE) 36 % and anhydrouronic acid content (AUАC) 56 %, respectively. Additional modification was performed under conventional and ultrasonic irradiation conditions to obtained highly methoxylated celery pectin (DE=83 %). The ultrasound-assisted amidation of highly methoxylated pectin was carried out with 1 M NH3 in the different reaction media. The isolated celery pectin and its derivatives were characterized by the degree of esterification (DE) and degree of amidation (DA). Their structure was elucidated by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. The amidation reaction was successfully performed in 1-propanol used as reaction media.
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This study evaluated the impact of different doses of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on the functional status and phenotype of T cells during polymicrobial sepsis. Methods. On day 1 after cecal ligation and puncture, mice were treated with either saline, 100 (A100), 200 (A200), or 400 mg APS/kg body weight (BW) (A400) by an intraperitoneal injection daily for 4 days. All mice were sacrificed 5 days after the operation. Results. APS treatment reversed the sepsis-induced decrement in the T helper (Th) cell population, and the percentage of activated Th cells also increased in the spleen and Peyer’s patches. APS administration downregulated the percentages of circulating Th2 cells and regulatory T cells (Treg), and the percentage of Th17 cells in blood was upregulated in the A400 group. Weight loss and kidney injury were attenuated in the A100 and A200 groups but not in the A400 group at the end of the study. Conclusions. Treatments with 100 and 200 mg APS/kg BW reduced Treg populations and elicited a more-balanced Th1/Th2 response that consequently attenuated immunosuppression in polymicrobial sepsis. High-dose APS administration led to excessive responses of Th17 cells which may have adverse effects in sepsis-induced organ injury.
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Portulaca oleracea L., belonging to the Portulacaceae family, is commonly known as purslane in English and Ma-Chi-Xian in Chinese. It is a warm-climate, herbaceous succulent annual plant with a cosmopolitan distribution. It is eaten extensively as a potherb and added in soups and salads around the Mediterranean and tropical Asian countries and has been used as a folk medicine in many countries. Diverse compounds have been isolated from Portulaca oleracea, such as flavonoids, alkaloids, polysaccharides, fatty acids, terpenoids, sterols, proteins vitamins and minerals. Portulaca oleracea possesses a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties such as neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerogenic, and anticancer activities. However, few molecular mechanisms of action are known. This review provides a summary of phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of this plant.
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Abstract The current survey investigates the effect of four polysaccharides isolated from fresh leek or alcohol insoluble substances (AIS) of leek on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) from phagocytes. The ability of the polysaccharides to activate serum complement was also investigated. Despite the lack of antioxidant activity, the pectic polysaccharides significantly decreased the production of ROS by human neutrophils. Polysaccharides isolated from AIS markedly activated RAW 264.7 macrophages for RNS production in a concentration-dependent manner. The Western blot analysis revealed that this effect was due to the stimulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression of macrophages. The polysaccharides extracted from AIS with water showed the ability to fix serum complement, especially through the alternative pathway. It was found that the polysaccharide that has the highest complement-fixing effect is characterized by the highest content of uronic acids and the highest molecular weight.
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Extracts of leaves from Clerodendrum have been used for centuries to treat a variety of medicinal problems in tropical Africa. However, little is known about the high-molecular weight active components conferring therapeutic properties to these extracts. Polysaccharides from the leaves of Clerodendrum splendens were extracted and fractionated by ion exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Molecular weight determination, sugar analysis, degree of methyl esterification, and other chemical characterization of the fractions were performed. Immunomodulatory activity of the fractions was evaluated by determining their ability to induce monocyte/macrophage nitric oxide (NO), cytokine production, and mitogen- activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in C57BL/6 mice, and severity of EAE was monitored in mice treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the most active polysaccharide fraction. Lymph nodes (LN) and spleen were harvested, and levels of cytokines in supernatants from LN cells and splenocytes challenged with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide were determined. Fractions containing type II arabinogalactan had potent immunomodulatory activity. Specifically, the high-molecular weight sub-fraction CSP-AU1 (average of 38.5 kDa) induced NO and cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1alpha, -1beta, -6, -10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF; designated previously as TNF-alpha), and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)] production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and monocyte/macrophages. CSP-AU1-induced secretion of TNF was prevented by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist LPS-RS, indicating a role for TLR4 signaling. Treatment with CSP-AU1 also induced phosphorylation of a number of MAPKs in human PBMC and activated AP-1/NF-kappaB. In vivo treatment of mice with CSP-AU1 and CSP-NU1 resulted in increased serum IL-6, IL-10, TNF, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha/CCL3, and MIP-1beta/CCL4. CSP-AU1 treatment of mice with EAE (50 mg/kg, i.p., daily, 13 days) resulted in significantly reduced disease severity in this experimental model of multiple sclerosis. Levels of IL-13, TNF, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-17, and GM-CSF were also significantly decreased, whereas tumor growth factor (TGF)-beta was increased in LN cells from CSP-AU1-treated EAE mice. Polysaccharide CSP-AU1 is a potent natural innate immunomodulator with a broad spectrum of agonist activity in vitro and immunosupressive properties after chronic administration in vivo.
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FcγR mediate the phagocytosis of IgG-coated particles and the clearance of IgG immune complexes. By dissecting binding from internalization of the particles, we found that the binding stage, rather than particle internalization, triggered tyrosine phosphorylation of FcγR and accompanying proteins. High amounts of Lyn kinase were found to associate with particles isolated at the binding stage from J774 cells. PP2 (4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine), an Src kinase inhibitor, but not piceatannol, an inhibitor of Syk kinase, reduced the amount of Lyn associated with the bound particles and simultaneously diminished the binding of IgG-coated particles. Studies of baby hamster kidney cells transfected with wild-type and mutant FcγRIIA revealed that the ability of the receptor to bind particles was significantly reduced when phosphorylation of the receptor was abrogated by Y298F substitution in the receptor signaling motif. Under these conditions, binding of immune complexes of aggregated IgG was depressed to a lesser extent. A similar effect was exerted on the binding ability of wild-type FcγRIIA by PP2. Moreover, expression of mutant kinase-inactive Lyn K275R inhibited both FcγRIIA phosphorylation and IgG-opsonized particle binding. To gain insight into the mechanism by which protein tyrosine phosphorylation can control FcγR-mediated binding, we investigated the efficiency of clustering of wild-type and Y298F-substituted FcγRIIA upon binding of immune complexes. We found that a lack of FcγRIIA phosphorylation led to an impairment of receptor clustering. The results indicate that phosphorylation of FcγR and accompanying proteins, dependent on Src kinase activity, facilitates the clustering of activated receptors that is required for efficient particle binding.
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Bone marrow is thought to be a primary hematopoietic organ. However, accumulated evidences demonstrate that active function and trafficking of immune cells, including regulatory T cells, conventional T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells, neutrophils, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and mesenchymal stem cells, are observed in the bone marrow. Furthermore, bone marrow is a predetermined metastatic location for multiple human tumors. In this review, we discuss the immune network in the bone marrow. We suggest that bone marrow is an immune regulatory organ capable of fine tuning immunity and may be a potential therapeutic target for immunotherapy and immune vaccination.
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The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) consists of isolated or aggregated lymphoid follicles forming Peyer's patches (PPs). By their ability to transport luminal antigens and bacteria, PPs can be considered as the immune sensors of the intestine. PPs functions like induction of immune tolerance or defense against pathogens result from the complex interplay between immune cells located in the lymphoid follicles and the follicle-associated epithelium. This crosstalk seems to be regulated by pathogen recognition receptors, especially Nod2. Although TLR exerts a limited role in PP homeotasis, Nod2 regulates the number, size, and T-cell composition of PPs, in response to the gut flora. In turn, CD4(+) T-cells present in the PP are able to modulate the paracellular and transcellular permeabilities. Two human disorders, Crohn's disease and graft-versus-host disease are thought to be driven by an abnormal response toward the commensal flora. They have been associated with NOD2 mutations and PP dysfunction.
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A traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine, Hochuekkito (Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang in Chinese, TJ-41) is a well-known Kampo formula, and has been found to enhance antigen-specific antibody response in not only local mucosal immune system in upper respiratory tract, but also systemic immune system through upper respiratory mucosal immune system. Although this immunopharmacological effect has been proposed to express by modulation of intestinal immune system including Peyer's patches and intestinal epithelial cells, active ingredients are not known. TJ-41 directly affected the production of bone marrow cell-proliferative growth factors from murine Peyer's patch immunocompetent cells in vitro . Among low molecular, intermediate size and macromolecular weight fractions prepared from TJ-41, only fraction containing macromolecular weight ingredients showed Peyer's patch-mediated bone marrow cell-proliferation enhancing activity. Anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration gave 17 subfractions comprising polysaccharides and lignins from the macromolecular weight fraction of TJ-41, and some of the subfractions showed significant enhancing activities having different degrees. Some of the subfractions also expressed stimulating activity on G-CSF-production from colonic epithelial cells, and statistically significant positive correlation was observed among enhancing activities of the subfractions against Peyer's patch immunocompetent cells and epithelial cells. Among the fractions from TJ-41 oral administration of macromolecular weight ingredient fraction to mice succeeded to enhance antigen-specific antibody response in systemic immune system through upper respiratory mucosal immune system, but all the separated fractions failed to enhance the in vivo antibody response in upper respiratory tract.
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Purpose We conducted a pilot trial to assess the tolerability, clinical benefit and antitumoral efficacy of modified (hydrolysed) citrus pectin (MCP) in 49 patients with various solid tumors in an advanced state of progression. MCP are hydrolysed from polysaccharide pectin fibers, derived from citrus fruits and acting as a ligand for Galectin-3. Preclinical investigations revealed an efficient inhibition of tumor development and metastasis in various tumor models. Patients and Methods The treatment consisted of the oral intake of 5 g MCP three times a day. One cycle of therapy was defined as 4 weeks of treatment. Objectives were clinical benefit (pain, functional performance, weight change), safety, tumor response (RESIST criteria) and quality of life (EORTC QLQ30). Results 49 patients were enrolled, 29 patients were able to be evaluated for clinical benefit after 2 cycles of treatment. All patients tolerated the therapy well without any severe therapy-related adverse events. After 2 cycles of oral intake of MCP, 6/29 patients (20.7%) had an overall clinical benefit response associated with a stabilization or improvement of life quality. On an intent to treat basis 11/49 patients (22,5%) showed a stable disease (SD) after 2 cycles and 6/49 patients (12,3%) had a SD for a period longer than 24 weeks. One patient suffering from metastasized prostate carcinoma showed a 50% decrease in serum PSA level after 16 weeks of treatment associated with a significant increase of clinical benefit, quality of life and decrease in pain. Conclusion MCP seems to have positive impacts especially regarding clinical benefit and life quality for patients with far advanced solid tumors. The presented preliminary data encourage us to further investigate the role of MCP in cancer prevention and treatment.
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Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the parameters for microwave-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Cyphomandra betacea. The results showed a good fit with a second-order polynomial equation that was statistically acceptable at P < 0.05. Optimal conditions for the extraction of polysaccharides were: extraction time, 2 h; microwave power, 400 W; extraction temperature, 60 °C; and ratio of raw material to water 1:40 (g/mL). Under the optimized conditions, the yield of polysaccharides was found to be relatively high (about 36.52%). The in vitro biological activities of antioxidant and antitumor were evaluated. The IC50 value of polysaccharides was found to be 3 mg/mL. The percentage of Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Our results showed that polysaccharides inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 (Breast carcinoma), A549 (Human lung carcinoma) and HepG2 (Liver carcinoma) with an IC50 of 0.23 mg/mL, 0.17 mg/mL and 0.62 mg/mL respectively after 48 h incubation. Polysaccharides were shown to promote apoptosis as seen in the nuclear morphological examination study using acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) staining. The novelty of this study, this is first report on the effects of polysaccharides extracted from Cyphomandra betacea and this polysaccharides exhibited as a stronger antioxidant and antitumor activities.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: Mali is one of the countries in West Africa where the health system rely the most on traditional medicine. The healers are mainly using medicinal plants for their treatments. The studies performed being the basis for this review is of importance as they will contribute to sustaining the traditional knowledge. They contribute to evaluate and improve locally produced herbal remedies, and the review gives also an overview of the plant preparations that will have the most potential to be evaluated for new Improved Traditional Medicines. Aim of the review: The aim of this review is to give an overview of the studies performed related to medicinal plants from Mali in the period 1995-2015. These studies include ethnopharmacology, chemistry and biological studies of the plants that were chosen based on our interviews with the healers in different regions of Mali, and contribute to sustainable knowledge on the medicinal plants. The Department of Traditional Medicine, Bamako, Mali, is responsible for registering the knowledge of the traditional healers on their use of medicinal plants and also identifying compounds in the plants responsible for the bioactivities claimed. The studies reported aimed at getting information from the healers on the use of medicinal plants, and study the biology and chemistry of selected plants for the purpose of verifying the traditional use of the plants. These studies should form the basis for necessary knowledge for the development of registered Improved Traditional Medicines in Mali. Materials and methods: The healers were the ethnopharmacological informants. Questions asked initially were related to wound healing. This was because the immune system is involved when wounds are healed, and additionally the immune system is involved in the majority of the illnesses common in Mali. Based on the results of the interviews the plant material for studies was selected. Studies were performed on the plant parts the healers were using when treating their patients. Conventional chromatographic and spectroscopic methods were used for the isolation and structural elucidation of compounds. The compounds to study were selected based on the bioassays performed concomitant with the fractionation. Results: Our results show that plants traditionally used as wound healing agents contain polysaccharides basically of pectin nature with immunomodulating activities. These pectins all have different and new structures. Several of the plants also contain compounds with effects related to antioxidant properties. These compounds are mainly of polyphenolic nature. Three of these are new compounds from Nature, while 32 was for the first time described from the plant they were isolated from. This review gives an overview of the most important results obtained during the 20 year long collaboration between Department of Traditional Medicine, Bamako, Mali, and Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Norway. Conclusion: Our studies showed that ethnopharmacological information is important for the determination of screening and chemical methods to be used for studies of plants used in traditional medicine.
Article
Tilia tomentosa Moench bud extracts (TTBEs) is used in traditional medicine for centuries as sedative compound. Different plants belonging to the Tilia genus have shown their efficacy in the treatment of anxiety but still little is known about the mechanism of action of their bud extracts. To evaluate the action of TTBEs as anxiolytic and sedative compound on in vitro hippocampal neurons. The anxiolytic effect of TTBEs was assayed by testing the effects of these compounds on GABAA receptor-activated chloride current of hippocampal neurons by means of the patch-clamp technique and microelectrode-arrays (MEAs). TTBEs acutely administered on mouse hippocampal neurons, activated a chloride current comparable to that measured in the presence of GABA (100µM). Bicuculline (100µM) and picrotoxin (100µM) blocked about 90% of this current, while the remaining 10% was blocked by adding the benzodiazepine (BDZ) antagonist flumazenil (30µM). Flumazenil alone blocked nearly 60% of the TTBEs activated current, suggesting that TTBEs binds to both GABAA and BDZ receptor sites. Application of high-doses of TTBEs on spontaneous active hippocampal neurons grown for 3 weeks on MEAs blocked the synchronous activity of these neurons. The effects were mimicked by GABA and prevented by picrotoxin (100µM) and flumazenil (30µM). At minimal doses, TTBEs reduced the frequency of synchronized bursts and increased the cross-correlation index of synchronized neuronal firing. Our data suggest that TTBEs mimics GABA and BDZ agonizts by targeting hippocampal GABAergic synapses and inhibiting network excitability by increasing the strength of inhibitory synaptic outputs. Our results contribute toward the validation of TTBEs as effective sedative and anxiolytic compound. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
Salvia chinensis Benth (S. chinensis) is a traditional herb applied in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Polysaccharides abundantly exist in this plant. However, it remains poorly understood if polysaccharides from S. chinensis (PSSC) contribute to its anti-HCC activity. The in vivo anti-HCC activity of PSSC was evaluated in Kunming mice bearing H22 ascitic hepatoma cells. An array of physiological indexes was measured to evaluate toxicological effects on host animals. Subgroups of immune cells were purified by a magnetic-activated cell sorting system and analyzed by flow cytometry. Reverse transcription real-time PCR and immunoblotting were recruited to determine the effects of PSSC on the cellular signaling of different subgroup of immune cells. PSSC suppressed in vivo proliferation of H22 cells with undetectable toxic effects on tumor-bearing mice. PSSC alleviated tumor transplantation-induced CD4+ T cell apoptosis and dysregulation of serum cytokine profiles, which elevated cytotoxic activities of natural killer and CD8+ T cells. PSSC reduced serum levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Injection of exogenous PGE2 completely abrogated the antitumor immunostimulatory activity of PSSC. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is the second messager of PGE2. In CD4+ T cells, PSSC substantially declined intracellular cAMP. This event elevated protein levels of JAK3, enhancing STAT5 phosphorylation and STAT5-depedent expression of anti-apoptotic genes. Cyclooxygenase-2 is the key enzyme mediating biosynthesis of PGE2. PSSC suppressed the transcription and translation of cyclooxygenase-2 in tumor associated macrophages. Our data clearly showed antitumor immunostimulatory activity of PSSC against transplanted H22 HCC cells. Suppressing tumor transplantation-induced PGE2 production was implicated in the anti-tumor immunostimulatory activity of PSSC. These works provides novel insights into the traditional application of S. chinensis against HCC and supported considering PSSC as an adjuvant reagent in clinical HCC treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Article
In the last three decades, numerous polysaccharides and polysaccharide-protein complexes have been isolated from plant or animal and used as a promising source of therapeutic agents for cancer. In this study, we examined the effects of Purslane polysaccharides (PPs) on the oxidative injury and immune status in N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric cancer rats. PPs administration (200, 400 or 800mg/kg body weight) could not only increase the body weight, peripheral white blood cells (WBC) count, thymus and spleen indexes, but also remarkably promote splenocytes proliferation of gastric cancer rats. Furthermore, the production of serum cytokines in gastric cancer rats, such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), was enhanced by PPs treatment. Besides, treatment with PPs was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against MNNG-induced oxidative injury by enhancing SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activities of gastric cancer rats. Taken together, we concluded that enhancement of antioxidants and immune response might be responsible for the anticancer effect of PPs in gastric cancer.
Article
Portulaca oleracea leaves were found to contain 0.42% of a mucilage mixture. The mucilage was fractionated into an acidic and a neutral fraction. The acidic fraction consists of galacturonic acid residues joined by α-(1→4)-linkages; 60% of these residues are present as the calcium salt, and esterified galacturonic acid residues are absent. The neutral fraction is composed of 41% of arabinose and 43% of galactose residues, besides traces of rhamnose residues.
Article
Pectins are the major component of plant cell walls, and they display diverse biological activities including immunomodulation. The pectin macromolecule contains fragments of linear and branched regions of polysaccharides such as homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan-I, xylogalacturonan, and apiogalacturonan. These structural features determine the effect of pectins on the immune system. The backbones of pectic macromolecules have immunosuppressive activity. Pectins containing greater than 80% galacturonic acid residues were found to decrease macrophage activity and inhibit the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Branched galacturonan fragments result in a biphasic immunomodulatory action. The branched region of pectins mediates both increased phagocytosis and antibody production. The fine structure of the galactan, arabinan, and apiogalacturonan side chains determines the stimulating interaction between pectin and immune cells. This review summarizes data regarding the relationship between the structure and immunomodulatory activity of pectins isolated from the plants of the European north of Russia and elucidates the concept of polypotency of pectins in native plant cell walls to both stimulate and suppress the immune response. The possible mechanisms of the immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of pectins are also discussed.
Article
Linden flowers are known to contain considerable amounts of mucilage. Quantitative determinations of these water soluble polysaccharides were carried out by viscosimetric measurements. It was shown that the mucilage after total hydrolysis in trifluoracetic acid was composed of D-galactose, L-arabinose and L-rhamnose and minor amounts of D-glucose, D-mannose and D-xylose. The high percentage of uronic acid (52%) was due to the presence of both, D-galacturonic acid and D-glucuronic acid. Fractionation of the mucilage polysaccharides on DEAE-cellulose resulted in a separation of five distinct polysaccharide fractions, which showed different sugar compositions and uronic acid content. The homogeneity of the polysaccharide fractions 1-5 was further examined by high voltage electrophoresis and analytical ultracentrifugation.
Article
Portulaca oleracea L. has been used as folk medicine in different countries to treat different ailments in humans. P. oleracea L. polysaccharide (POL-P), extracted from P. oleracea L., is found to have bioactivities such as hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities, antioxidant and antitumor activities. In our study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (POL-P3b) was successfully purified from Galium verum L. by DEAE cellulose and Sephadex G-200 column chromatography. To evaluate the anticancer efficacy and associated mechanisms of POL-P3b on cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo, we showed that treatment of HeLa cell with POL-P3b inhibited cell proliferation. In addition, POL-P3b significantly inhibited tumor growth in U14-bearing mice. Further analysis indicated that POL-P3b possesses the activity of inhibiting cervical cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo at a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and the mechanisms were associated with Sub-G1 phase cell cycle arrest, triggering DNA damage and inducing apoptosis.
Article
A water-soluble polysaccharide (RP-1) was obtained from distilled rose petals of Rosa damascena Mill. as an attempt for valorization of the waste. RP-1 showed in vitro intestinal immune system modulating activity through Peyer's patch cells and IL-6 producing activity from macrophages. RP-1 lost most of its immunomodulating activity by degradation of the carbohydrate moiety with periodate. RP-1 was fractionated by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography and some of the fractions showed significant intestinal immune system modulating activity. The active fractions were suggested to be pectic polysaccharides and type II arabino-3,6 galactan from the component sugar analyses and the reactivity with Yariv antigen. When some active fractions were digested with endo α-D-(1→4)-polygalacturonase, highest molecular weight fragments which were considered as rhamnogalacturonan I, showed potent immunomodulating activities. To our knowledge, this is a first report which explores the possibility for utilization of waste rose petals as a source of immunomodulating pectic polysaccharides.
Article
In the present study, we purified a unique polysaccharide component (POP) from Portulaca oleracea and found that it had pronounced anti-tumor effects in vivo model. Tumor weight, immune organ index and T lymphocyte subsets were employed to detect the immunoregulatory and antitumor effects of POP after administration. Hematological and biochemical analyses were also investigated in order to evaluate the toxicological aspects related to POP treatment. POP could significantly inhibit the growth of transplantable sarcoma 180 and potentiate the animal's immune responses including an increase in the number of white blood cell (WBC) and CD4(+) T-lymphocytes, as well as the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+). Furthermore the serum aspartate transanimase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels in S180-bearing mice were significantly reversed by POP. Considering all these results, it is suggested that the anti-tumor effect elicited by POP could be associated with its immunostimulating properties.
Article
The effects of Juzen-Taiho-To (JTT), a Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine, on Peyer's patch cells mediated hematopoietic response were investigated. When the conditioned medium of Peyer's patch cells obtained from C3H/HeJ mice, which had orally administered JTT for 7 consecutive days, was added to the culture medium for bone marrow cells, the cells significantly proliferated compared with that of mice receiving water alone. Oral administration of JTT for 7 days increased the population of activated T cells in Peyer's patch. The mechanism of Peyer's patch cells mediated proliferation was investigated in vitro. When Peyer's patch cells from untreated C3H/HeJ mice were stimulated with various concentrations of JTT, and the resulting conditioned medium was used for stimulation of bone marrow cells, the cells were proliferated in a dose dependent manner. The contents of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the conditioned medium from JTT stimulated Peyer's patch cells were increased compared with those from controls, and the population of Gr-1 antigen positive cells in the bone marrow cell cultures also increased. These results demonstrate that orally administered JTT can activate T-cells in Peyer's patch cells and enhance the production of colony stimulating factor(s), in which at least GM-CSF and IL-6 may partly contribute to this activity.
Article
The reaction of the ester groups in pectin with alkaline hydroxylamine at room temperature produces hydroxamic acids. Pectin hydroxamic acid forms with ferric ions an insoluble complex and acetohydroxamic acid, produced from secondary acetyl groups of pectin, forms a soluble red complex. These reactions, applied to pectic substances, serve as the basis for a specific and rapid colorimetric method for the determination of up to 450 γ of acetyl per sample, with an accuracy within about ±2%. These reactions apply also to the quantitative determination of acetyl in acetylated carbohydrate polymers.
Article
A colorimetric reagent, 3-5-dimethylphenol, is selective for 5-formyl-2-furancarboxylic acid, a chromogen formed from uronic acids in concentrated H2SO4 at 70°C. Addition of the reagent at 20°C produces within 10 min, a chromophore absorbing at 450 nm. Selectivity is critical because of interferences from neutral sugar products and lignin when uronic acids are at 1-3% levels. D-Galacturonic and 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acids could be measured separately from D-glucuronic acid, by adding H3BO3. About 12% more chromogen was produced from D-galacturonic and 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acids of polymers than from the monomers. Analyses of wood containing 3% uronic anhydride gave 0.5 standard deviation per measurement. The time for dissolution, reaction, and color formation is 30 min for fast reactors, 60 min for glucuronic acid.
Article
A polysaccharide complex has been extracted from the invasive and widespread weedPortulaca oleracea (purslane) in yields of up to 25 g% (dry wt). The clear and viscous mucilage displays physicochemical properties appropriate for industrial uses, such as food extenders and viscosifier. Toxic collateral effects can be precluded because of the already known uses in home remedies and animal feed. Anion exchange chromatography fractionated the crude complex into a neutral arabinogalactan and polydisperse pectin-like polysaccharides. This fractionation brings about a reduction in the viscosity observed for the native complex, whereas saponification ofO-acetyl and/or carboxy-methoxyl groups increases it.
Article
A novel type polysaccharide was isolated from the bark of Cola cordifolia (Cav.) R. Br. (Sterculiaceae), a plant used in traditional medicine in Mali (West Africa). The polysaccharide was isolated from the water extract by ion exchange chromatography. Structural studies showed that this was a highly complex new type polysaccharide containing 20% of 2,3- and 2,4-linked rhamnose, 24% of galacturonic acid mostly 4-linked, 15% of terminal, 3- and 4-linked galactose, 20% of terminal and 3-linked 2-O-methyl galactose, 18% of 4-O-methyl glucuronic acid which was also terminally linked, and 2% of terminal 2-O-methyl fucose. This paper reports in addition to structural features, physical property and complement fixating activity using human serum as target of this novel polysaccharide. This is a first report of a plant polysaccharide containing such a diverse composition and quantity of natively methylated monosaccharides.
Article
The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of polygalacturonic (pectic) acid, potassium pectate and its derivatives, as well as commercial citrus and sugar beet pectins were measured and interpreted. Methyl and acetyl esters of potassium pectate derivatives have several characteristic Raman and IR bands that allow both this groups to be distinguished. The very intense Raman band at 857 cm−1 is sensitive to the state of uronic carboxyls and to O-acetylation. The wavenumber of this band decreases with methylation (min. 850 cm−1) and increases with acetylation (max. 862 cm−1). The acetylation of potassium pectate, as well as its acetylation together with methylation, causes drastic changes in the Raman spectra in the region below 700 cm−1. Sugar beet pectin, but not citrus pectin, showed Raman bands at 1633 and 1602 cm−1 and IR band at 1518 cm−1. All these bands rise from feruloyl groups and can be used for identification of pectins containing feruloyl groups.
Article
Two acidic polysaccharides (ALR-a and ALR-b, former names ALR-5IIb-2-2 and 5IIc-3-1, respectively; although ALR-5IIb-2-2 and 5IIc-3-1 were used as their abbreviations in a previous paper (Planta Med., 64 (1998) 714), here the polysaccharides have been abbreviated to ALR-a and ALR-b, respectively, in order to avoid complexity) have been purified from rhizomes of Atractylodes lancea DC. as intestinal immune system modulating polysaccharides (Planta Med., 64 (1998) 714). Endo-α-d-(1→4)-polygalacturonase digestion of ALR-b gave large proportions of a fragment (PG-1) eluted in the void volume, and the lowest-molecular-weight fraction (PG-3) in addition to a small proportion of intermediate fraction (PG-2). Component sugar and methylation analyses using base-catalyzed β-elimination indicated that PG-1 consisted of a rhamnogalacturonan core with side chains rich in neutral sugars and that PG-3 mainly contained (1→4)-linked galacturono-oligosaccharides. PG-2 comprised characteristic component sugars such as 2-Me-Fuc, 2-Me-Xyl, apiose (Api) and aceric acid (AceA), but PG-2 lacked some glycosidic linkages compared with those of the typical rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II). PG-2 showed potent intestinal immune system modulating activity, but PG-1 and galacturono-oligosaccharides in PG-3 had no activity.Further gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography of ALR-a gave a potent intestinal immune system modulating polysaccharide (ALR-a-Bb). Component sugar and methylation analyses indicated that ALR-a-Bb also comprised unusual component sugars characteristic in RG-II as well as PG-2 derived from ALR-b.ALR-a-Bb or PG-2 from ALR-b little affected directly the proliferation of bone marrow cells. PG-2 from ALR-b expressed similar significant intestinal immune system modulating activity to RG-II (GL-RI) isolated from leaves of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, but RG-II obtained from a pharmacologically active pectin (bupleuran 2IIb) of Bupleurum falcatum L. had no activity.
Article
Pectic polysaccharides and hemicelluloses extracted from plants were studied in highly hydrated films on BaF2 discs. Distinctive absorption band maxima in the mid-infrared region at 1200–800 cm−1 were shown to be useful for the identification of polysaccharides with different structure and composition. Two series of the hexopyranose and pentopyranose monosaccharides, which are the structural units of the plant cell wall polysaccharides, were also studied by FT-IR spectroscopy in solution (i.e. comparable to the amorphous state of the polymers). Their spectral data showed that the main IR band positions are influenced by the relative position of axial and equatorial (OH) groups on the pyranoid ring.
Article
A simple procedure for determining the galacturonic acid and methanol contents of soluble and insoluble pectins, relying on enzymatic pectin hydrolysis and colorimetric quantification, is described. Pectin samples are incubated with a commercial pectinase preparation, Viscozyme, then the galacturonic acid content of the hydrolyzed pectin is quantified colorimetrically using a modification of the Cu reduction procedure originally described by Avigad and Milner. This modification, substituting the commonly used Folin-Ciocalteau reagent for the arsenic containing Nelson reagent, gives a response that is linear, sensitive, and selective for uronic acids over neutral sugars. This method also avoids the use of concentrated acids needed for the commonly used m-phenylphenol method. Methanol, released by the action of the pectin methylesterase found in the Viscozyme, is quantified using alcohol oxidase and Purpald. This combined enzymatic and colorimetric procedure correctly determined the galacturonic acid and methanol content of purified, soluble citrus pectin. Application of the procedure to water insoluble pectins was evaluated with water insoluble material from apples and oranges. In both cases good agreement was obtained between this method and commonly used methods based on chemical pectin hydrolysis. Good agreement between these procedures was also found in the analysis of both soluble and insoluble pectins from several tomato products. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
Rasayana constitutes a very important class of Ayurvedic herbs, which acts as rejuvenators and tonic. Despite intensive research on evaluating the medicinal basis for the purported medical benefits of Rasayana herbs, still a specific chemical guiding principle for the characterization of these herbs in one single category is unclear. Here we explore the possibility that polysaccharides play a key role in Rasayana properties exhibited by medicinal plants. Further on this could be a possible field for exploration for a common factor present in some of the Ayurvedic herbs. The present review covers a literature spanning from 1956 to 2011. Some translations of traditional Ayurvedic texts dating back to the first century AD have been referred to as well. In our assessment of the present literature and studies carried out it is presupposed that the presence of benevolent plant polysaccharides must be one of the important features symbolizing a common effectiveness in most of the Ayurvedic Rasayana herbs. Of the many plant metabolites polysaccharides have not so far been considered and studied effectively compared to other secondary metabolites like saponins, alkaloids, etc. Although all the results reported until now suggest a major contribution of polysaccharide towards the maintenance of physiological homeostasis, which is the guiding principle of Rasayana therapy. The present review is an attempt to find a connective link between the concept of Rasayana and well-being; and the role of plant polysaccharides. Lack of clinical information on number of polysaccharides showing promise is a limiting factor for a complete understanding. It is also important to carry out a molecular interaction study to understand the behavior of polysaccharides discussed in the present review.
Article
The aerial parts of the medicinal plant Biophytum petersianum have a long tradition for being used in Mali and other West-African countries against various ailments such as wound healing and malaria. Previous studies on polysaccharides from water extracts of the aerial parts showed the presence of pectic like polymers with an effect on the human complement system as well as the ability to activate macrophages and dendritic cells. The present study shows that pectic polysaccharide fragments (BPII.1 and BPII.2) as well as the original pectic polysaccharide (BPII) expressed immunomodulating activity against Peyer's patch immunocompetent cells. Exo-β-D-(1→3)-galactanase digestion succeeded to decrease IL-6 production enhancing activity against Peyer's patch cells of BPII.2, but the activity of BPII.1 did not decrease. Endo-β-D-(1→4)-galactanase digestion reduced the activities of both BPII.1 and BPII.2. BPII.1 and BPII.2 also stimulated IL-6 production enhancing activity against macrophages, and the activities of both pectic fragments were significantly decreased by either enzymic digestion with exo-β-D-(1→3)-galactanase or endo-β-D-(1→4)-galactanase. Trimming of terminal GlcA by exo-β-D-glucuronidase digestion did not affect IL-6 production enhancing activity against macrophages of both pectic fragments. Methylation analyses of endo-β-D-(1→4)-galactanase digestion products showed the characteristic decrement of 4-linked Gal residues in the pectic fragments. These results suggest that β-D-(1→4)-galactan-containing side chains in BPII.1 and BPII.2 play an important role for expression of immunomodulating activity against both Peyer's patch immunocompetent cells and macrophages in addition to β-D-(1→3,6)-galactan chains.
Article
Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) isolated from one of the Chinese herbs, Astragalus mongholicus, are known to have a variety of immunomodulatory activities. However, it is not yet clear whether APS can induce the activation and differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs) and subsequently activate T cells. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of APS on the differentiation of splenic DCs and its influence on T cell-mediated immunity through interleukin (IL)-12-producing CD11c(high)CD45RB(low) DCs in vitro. MACS microbeads were used to isolate splenic DCs, CD11c(high)CD45RB(low) DCs, CD11c(low)CD45RB(high) DCs and CD4(+) T cells. Phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry, and cytokine levels were determined with cytometric bead array or ELISA. The percentage of CD11c(high)CD45RB(low) DCs was significantly increased after treatment with APS compared to their counterparts. The cytokine secretion pattern of CD11c(high)CD45RB(low) DCs and CD11c(low)CD45RB(high) DCs was detected, and it was found that unlike the stable IL-10 secretion pattern of CD11c(low)CD45RB(high) DCs induced by APS, CD11c(high)CD45RB(low) DCs showed a dose-dependent relationship between IL-12 production and APS stimulation. In order to verify whether the activation of CD4(+) T was associated with the differentiation of splenic DCs mediated by APS to CD11c(high)CD45RB(low) DCs, anti-IL-12 receptor (IL-12R) as well as anti-IL-10R monoclonal antibody was used to inhibit the effect of CD11c(high)CD45RB(low) DCs and CD11c(low)CD45RB(high) DCs in CD4(+) T mixed lymphocyte reaction culture. After treatment with anti-IL-12R or anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibody in CD4(+) T+CD11c(high)CD45RB(low) DCs or CD11c(low)CD45RB(high) DCs mixed lymphocyte reaction, the inductions of these DCs on T cells were inhibited dramatically. APS might induce the differentiation of splenic DCs to CD11c(high)CD45RB(low) DCs followed by shifting of Th2 to Th1 with enhancement of T lymphocyte immune function in vitro. Also, the effect of APS on T-cell differentiation to Th1 was not associated with the inhibition of IL-10 production in CD11c(low)CD45RB(high) DCs.
Article
Three polysaccharides including a neutral polysaccharide (RN), an acidic polysaccharide (RA) and a pectic polysaccharide (RP) were isolated from aerial part of Portulaca oleracea L. and evaluated for their anti-herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and anti-influenza A virus (IFV-A). RN was found to consist of glucose (Glc), mannose (Man) and arabinose (Ara) with small amounts of galactose (Gal), and identified to be an arabinoglucomannan. RA was mainly composed of Gal and Ara with a small proportion of glucuronic acid (GlcA). It was characterized as a type II arabinogalactan (AGII), which consisted of a 1,3-, 1,6- and 1,3,6-linked galactopyranosyl (Galp) and non-reducing terminal and 1,5-linked arabinofuranosyl (Araf) residues. RP was deduced to be a pectin, which consisted of a predominant amount of galacturonic acid (GalA) with small amounts of Gal, rhamnose (Rha) and Ara. The GalA residues were found to be highly methyl-esterified and partially acetylated. Results of antiviral tests showed that only RP had anti-HSV-2 activity. Furthermore, its anti-HSV-2 target was elucidated to be the step of virus penetration into host cells. No marked virucidal activity of RP was observed.
Article
Thirteen polysaccharides isolated from an extract of the aerial portions of Astragalus mongholics Bunge demonstrated immunomodulating activity against Peyer's patch immunocompetent cells. Nine of the active polysaccharide fractions were composed of either arabinogalactans, pectic arabinogalactans or pectins. The activities of the arabinogalactans and pectic arabinogalactans were associated with beta-D-(1-->3)-galactan moieties branched with beta-D-(1-->6)-galactooligosaccharide side-chains having degrees of polymerization of 8 or less. Degradation of the beta-D-(1-->3)-galactan or beta-D-(1-->6)-galactosyl side-chains in the arabinogalactans significantly decreased immunomodulating activity. Rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) with beta-D-(1-->3,6)-galactosyl side-chains having terminal beta-D-GlcA showed activity in the pectin-enriched fractions. Interestingly, the terminal GlcA was not required for activity of the arabinogalactan-enriched fractions, suggesting at least two different immunomodulating structures.
Article
The Malian medicinal plant Biophytum petersianum Klotzsch (Oxalidaceae) is used as a treatment against various types of illnesses related to the immune system, such as joint pains, inflammations, fever, malaria, and wounds. A pectic polysaccharide obtained from a hot water extract of the aerial parts of B. petersianum has previously been reported to consist of arabinogalactans types I and II (AG-I and AG-II), probably linked to a rhamnogalacturonan backbone. We describe here further structural characteristics of the main polysaccharide fraction (BP1002) and fractions obtained by enzymatic degradations using endo-alpha-d-(1-->4)-polygalacturonase (BP1002-I to IV). The results indicate that in addition to previously reported structures, rhamnogalacturan type II and xylogalacturonan areas appear to be present in the pectic polymer isolated from the plant. Atomic force microscopy confirmed the presence of branched structures, as well as a polydisperse nature. We further tested whether the BP1002 main fraction or the enzymatically degraded products could induce immunomodulating activity through stimulation of subsets of leukocytes. We found that macrophages and dendritic cells were activated by BP1002 fractions, while there was little response of T cells, B cells, and NK cells. The enzymatic treatment of the BP1002 main fraction gave important information on the structure-activity relations. It seems that the presence of rhamnogalacturonan type I is important for the bioactivity, as the bioactivity decreases with the decreased amounts of rhamnose, galactose, and arabinose. The demonstration of bioactivity by the plant extracts might indicate the mechanisms behind the traditional medical use of the plant.
Article
The factors affecting the stability, hydrolysis, reduction, acetylation, quantitation, and identification of the neutral sugars from vegetable fiber preparations have been studied critically and optimized. The recommended method offers a consolidation of the recent modifications of the alditol acetate procedure for the estimation of neutral sugars. The recovery of the sugars was tested by glc and ion-exchange chromatography. Also, the modified carbazole method of Bitter and Muir was adapted to make it applicable for the estimation of uronic acid content of fiber because uronic acid cannot be estimated quantitatively by the acetylation procedure. It is emphasized that the proposed method is applicable only to highly purified fiber preparations which are free of coprecipitated intracellular compounds. Also, the levels of pentoses and hexoses in the fiber must be well defined and a suitable correction made for their interference in the assay.