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E-BRANDING vs. TRADITIONAL BRANDING

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Abstract

Television, radio and press for many years reigned supreme in the marketing market, and made it possible to reach out effectively to a wide audience. However, we are now observing a decreasing effectiveness of traditional forms of brand communication (communication through TV, in the press, on the radio or by the use of outdoor advertising). Young audiences - representatives of generations Y and Z - expect a completely different message from their parents or grandparents. They require a message to be as interactive as possible, as well as personalized, and they have much less trust in traditional forms of advertising. This all means that the importance of e-branding is constantly growing. The objective of this article is to describe the traditional ways of creating brands and of brand management, and to compare them with e-branding, taking into account the characteristics of forms as well as the most common distribution channels and ways of formulating messages. Traditional branding and e-branding are here discussed while remaining in the context of purchase choices, made by representatives of specific generations. Moreover, the article points to important differences in both described forms of brand creation, as well as - based on the newest examples of image campaigns and advertising for household names proves ebranding to have greater effectiveness in the contemporary world. This is happening because e-branding gives far greater possibilities of establishing personal rapports with customers, which is of great significance; but what is even more essential, as those from generation Z expect fully personalized announcements, this will start to dominate the market.
MODERN MANAGEMENT REVIEW 2015
MMR, vol. XX, 22 (4/2015), pp. 89-100 October-December
Mateusz GRZESIAK
1
E-BRANDING vs. TRADITIONAL BRANDING
Television, radio and press for many years reigned supreme in the marketing market,
and made it possible to reach out effectively to a wide audience. However, we are now ob-
serving a decreasing effectiveness of traditional forms of brand communication (communi-
cation through TV, in the press, on the radio or by the use of outdoor advertising). Young
audiences - representatives of generations Y and Z - expect a completely different message
from their parents or grandparents. They require a message to be as interactive as possible,
as well as personalized, and they have much less trust in traditional forms of advertising.
This all means that the importance of e-branding is constantly growing. The objective of
this article is to describe the traditional ways of creating brands and of brand management,
and to compare them with e-branding, taking into account the characteristics of forms as
well as the most common distribution channels and ways of formulating messages. Tradi-
tional branding and e-branding are here discussed while remaining in the context of pur-
chase choices, made by representatives of specific generations. Moreover, the article points
to important differences in both described forms of brand creation, as well as - based on the
newest examples of image campaigns and advertising for household names proves e-
branding to have greater effectiveness in the contemporary world. This is happening be-
cause e-branding gives far greater possibilities of establishing personal rapports with cus-
tomers, which is of great significance; but what is even more essential, as those from gener-
ation Z expect fully personalized announcements, this will start to dominate the market.
Keywords: branding, e-branding, traditional branding, brand awareness, creating a brand.
1. INTRODUCTION
Over the past decades TV, press and radio have allowed advertisers to reach the mass
consumer, providing them with a controlled message. Still into the 1990s, a one-way
marketing communication was applied - a brand usually built its image and its value
through announcements directed at consumers via the press, television, radio or through
traditional outdoor actions: on posters, billboards or leaflets. However, at present, in a
world dominated by new technologies, the effectiveness of traditional announcements is
decreasing. According to the McKinsey survey, the effectiveness of a TV commercial in
the USA is now estimated as on the level of one third of the results that were achieved
only 20 years ago.
2
The Ehrenberg-Baas Institute for Science Marketing has conducted a
survey showing that only every sixth advertisement broadcast on television is remembered
and correctly associated with the brand six days after transmission.
3
The audience of the
1
MD Mateusz Grzesiak, a PhD student in the Department of Consumer Behaviour Research, Institute of Man-
agement, Warsaw School of Economics, ul. Madalińskiego 6/8, 02-554 Warsaw, Poland,
e-mail: mg@starwayinstitute.com
2
J. Kall, Branding on smartphone. Brand mobile communication. Wolters Kluwer SA, Warsaw 2015, p.11
3
Ibidem, p.11.
90 M. Grzesiak
largest TV stations
4
is also dwindling, as well as the average time spent in front of the
television over twenty-four hours falling, especially in the youngest age groups of TV
users.
5
Customers demand the ability to interact, which is why besides traditional brand-
ing, e-branding is increasingly appearing. Effective communication requires that the brand
is present in networks - as the research shows, the revenue growth of businesses that use
social media while communicating with customers is a quarter higher than in the case of
companies which do not use them.
6
Communicating brands online allows interactivity,
which makes it possible to collect feedback on the reaction to the produced message, and
gather opinions of products, activities, services. The Internet facilitates communication
with the online brand-consumer, enabling instant information sharing and a response to
new emerging circumstances. Currently, the potential customer develops their opinion
about the brand, assesses its credibility and forms an opinion whether the brand inspires
confidence primarily on the basis of its image on the Internet.
2. TRADITIONAL BRANDING
As shown by Elliot and Percy a brand actually exists only in the mind of the consum-
er, and therefore its management (branding) is the management of one’s perception. The
brand is the entire range (not only the name, trademark, graphics, etc.), which seeks to
assure buyers of something unique - either in its size, utility or symbolically, and thus
influence the selection process by offering more than a ‘no name’ product ", i.e. one that
does not have a clearly defined brand.
7
The aim of both traditional branding and e-branding is:
8
a) Providing information about the brand
Branding messages addressed to recipients have the aim not only to sell, but to make
the same brand marketable by providing information about its usefulness.
b) Branding
Since people generally prefer what is known, the first step in building a brand image is
to build awareness of it among its consumers.
a) Consumer involvement in a relationship with the brand
The purpose of branding is to create parallels to the line between the brand and receiv-
er, which makes the brand become more attractive, desirable, worthy of recommendation
in the recipient’s eyes and the recipient, therefore, since the brand corresponds to his fan-
tasies, becomes loyal to her.
4
According to a study by Palmieri and Lee it showed that in the years 2010-14 the audience of four largest
television stations in the United States decreased by 21% in the age group 18-49, source:
http://www.bloomberg.com/bw/articles/ 2014-05-15 / tv-networks-fight-with-netflix-miniseries-revival (ac-
cess: 14.10.2015).
5
M. Połowianiuk, Television has no future, source: http://www.spidersweb.pl/2015/07/telewizja-nie-ma-
przyszlosci.html (access: 14.10.2015).
6
J. Kall, op. cit., p. 167.
7
Por. J. Kall, op. cit., p. 16.
8
J. Kall, op. cit., p. 28.
E-branding vs. traditional branding 91
3. TRADITIONAL BRANDING FEATURES
The main distinguishing feature of traditional branding is a one-way communication
channel with the customer. A narrow elite of broadcasters define the content of the mes-
sage. Also linked to this is the monopoly of traditional media communications. In princi-
ple, in transmissions of this kind there is no place for content created by consumers, not
counting those that pass the verification stage by the sender (for example on letter pages
in magazines). A high cost of access to marketing tools is associated with this and as a
result it confines access to a limited group of broadcasters.
9
4. DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS
Traditional branding uses specific channels of communication: television, radio, press
and outdoor advertising. Among traditional ways of branding may also be included spon-
sorship activities and organization of events and entertainments.For years’ traditional
media were successfully used in the process of creating a brand image. Globally, today
the most often used medium in marketing is television, where market shares are 40%,
followed by promotion in the press (magazines and newspapers) - 25% of global advertis-
ing budgets.
10
Although in the last decade a considerable outflow of funds towards new
media has been observed, traditional marketing still accounts for almost 78% of the budg-
et spent on advertising campaigns.
11
Broadcasters happily use traditional channels of
communication, in particular when branding is addressed to the older generations.
1. Personal recommendation
Personal recommendation is the most effective types of marketing. This concerns in
particular the recommendation of friends. Research shows that 90% of consumers trust
other people’s recommendations.
12
In the traditional range of marketing tools it can be
found, among others, as buzz marketing. Its role is to reach out to the recipient with direct
communication, which takes the form of "spontaneous" recommendation. The aim of this
strategy is to create a “noise" around the promoted product, service or person.
13
An exam-
ple of such activities in the traditional form could be sending free products to volunteers
(who then share the experience with friends) or finding a star celebrity who will become a
brand ambassador, supporting the brand with their own image. Nevertheless, still the most
effective form of marketing is friends’ recommendations.
2. Out-of-home commercials
Creating images for OOH (Out-Of-Home) advertising is one of the most dominant
tools of traditional branding. In Poland the money spent on outdoor campaigns for several
years has remained at a similar level in 2013 and 2014 it amounted to 450 million zlo-
9
J. Królewski, P. Sala (red.), E-marketing. Contemporary trends. Starter Pack, PWN, Warsaw 2014, p. 13.
10
J. Kall, op. cit., p. 194.
11
Ibidem, p. 15.
12
Ibidem, p. 17.
13
G. M. Thomas, Building the buzz in the hive mind, „Journal of Consumer Behavior”, vol.4/2004, p. 64-72.
92 M. Grzesiak
tys.
14
This implies an ability to reach preferred groups, primarily urban residents, where
the use of outdoor advertising is rampant. This tool, of OOH advertising, allows a flexible
adaptation to the target audience, by taking into account the criteria of the territory (a
specific city, region, state, but also for example all the private universities in the coun-
try).The message coming from outdoor advertising focuses primarily on an image, so that
the advertiser can determine precisely the image of the brand, promoted by the advertise-
ments. A unique feature of outdoor advertising is its inevitable contact with the content by
the recipient. It is not possible for the recipient not to perceive the communication flowing
from the media, so inadvertently they memorize the broadcasted message. Apart from its
traditional form, outdoor advertising can still be used in innovative branding campaigns.
An example of this is the campaign for the IBM 2013, that used copyrighted elements of
industrial design (e.g. shelters to protect pedestrians from the rain, benches) to place the
brand logo, thus giving it an association with innovation and user-friendliness.
15
3. The internet as the dominant communication channel
Technological development is ensuring that when creating a brand image, a greater
and greater part of the potential target message recipients are Internet users. Especially
among the younger generations, it is the dominant communication channel. Currently in
the European Union, over 70% of people use the Internet, of which 47% do so via
smartphones and tablets, with the Internet constantly at hand.
16
The same thing is happen-
ing in Poland: 63% of Poles use the Internet
17
and 71.9% of households have access to the
network. Nearly two-fifths of Poles (39%) also have an account in social media.
18
Mindshare Poland research has determined that Poles spend every day:
19
a) 3-4 hours in front of a laptop
b) 3 hours in front of a computer
c) 2.6 hours on a smartphone
d) 2 hours in front of a TV
e) 1.6 hours in front of a tablet
These data allow us to notice a huge difference in the time spent on television com-
munication (2 hrs. per day) and online messages (in total on all devices with internet ac-
cess – 12.2 hrs. per day).
In developed countries - the US and the UK over the past five years the amount of
time spent on mobile devices has increased seven times.
20
Devices with network access
have a significant advantage over traditional media (television, radio, press).
14
IGRZ report on the results of OOH advertising in Poland in 2014, source:
http://igrz.home.pl/Raporty/2014%20RAPORT%20ROCZNY%20IGRZ.pdf (access: 10.14.2015).
15
D. Kiefaber, IBM's Outdoor Ads Actually Try to Be Useful and Make Cities Better, source:
http://www.adweek.com/adfreak/ibms-outdoor-ads-actually-try-be-useful-and-make-cities-better-150091 (ac-
cess: 14.10.2015).
16
S. Trzeciak, Public image on the web. Who are you in the network ?, Helion, Gliwice 2015, p. 23.
17
The Communication Research CBOS No. 82/2014, Internet users in 2014, source:
http://www.cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2014/K_082_14.PDF (access 14.10.2015).
18
The Communication Research CBOS No. 82/2014, Internet users in 2014, source:
http://www.cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2014/K_082_14.PDF (accessed 14.10.2015).
19
Por. J. Kall, op.cit., p. 75.
E-branding vs. traditional branding 93
Because of this trend, consumers’ decisions are also increasingly made based on in-
formation available on the Internet; users check goods and services on online forums, they
rely on friends’ recommendations, review the available channels of brand information on
social media.
5. E-BRANDING AND ITS FEATURES
E-branding, like traditional branding, aims to create a specific brand image, but to cre-
ate it and manage it by using the tools and opportunities offered by the internet. It has the
same objectives as traditional branding but both forms are different in many aspects. E-
branding, unlike traditional branding is characterized by:
a) Constant presence
Traditional forms of marketing communications such as TV advertisements, in the
press or on leaflets constitute an instantaneous message. Communication on the Internet is
constant; all the contents are constantly on websites or social media profiles. They can be
reached by every internet user from anywhere in the world. The cost of an online pres-
ence, as opposed to the traditional forms of branding is small, especially considering its
stability.
b) Interactivity
Communication conducted on the internet allows one side of the communication (ra-
dio advertising, television speech) to interact with the customer
21
. Social media users can
follow the channels of individual brands, they are kept informed about the activities of
their favourite brands, have the opportunity to ask questions, evaluate, provide feedback
on products and services so that businesses or individuals can react more quickly on user
ratings, and then match up their actions and branding strategies to the needs and expecta-
tions of their customers.
c) Speed
Image campaigns in the traditional media (TV, press, outdoor advertising) require
more regular planning in advance. Also, public relations and media relations need time.
Building long-term relationships with journalists takes many months. On the Internet it is
possible to have an effect immediately and any information sent over the network (a new
post on a blog, newsletter, a new post on social media) goes to the audience right away.
What's more, attractive messages spread through the network itself, thanks to the possibil-
ities of copying, sharing and forwarding content.
22
d) Constantly expanding audience
We are seeing a gradual decrease in the number of traditional media consumers, for
example TV or the press. Meanwhile, the number of Internet users is constantly increas-
ing.
e) Build trust
In traditional communication cases the range of recommendations of satisfied or dis-
satisfied customers was limited. Currently, the number of reached consumers expressing
their opinions is much bigger, and as a result of this, any recommendation or negative
20
Ibidem, p.77.
21
S. Trzeciak, op. cit., p.25.
22
This is so called viral marketing.
94 M. Grzesiak
message can have a huge impact on the perception of the brand, and of creating its image.
The Internet and especially social media allow consumers to organize themselves into
strong pressure groups, which can promote the brand but also destroy them. That is why it
is so important in e-branding to ensure the creation of a community around the brand,
building trust, caring for loyal customers and having brand ambassadors, who in the event
of a crisis may spontaneously help to provide brand support.
6. E-BRANDING DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS
1. Social media
Channels on social media are now widely used in communication. Their advantage is
the possibility of interaction between users and the brand, but also the creation of relation-
ships between supporters of the brand. DEI Worldwide Research and OTX have shown
that 70% of consumers use social media to search for information about companies and
their offers. 20% of them make purchase decisions on such information. According to
research conducted by Synapse, customers who become friends or fans of a brand on
Facebook are more loyal, and spend more on shopping than other customers.
23
Tracking
your favourite brands on social media is becoming increasingly popular. Four out of ten
representatives of generation Y using social networking add to their favourites a brand’s
page; among generation X the figure is 31%, and of representatives of the post-war baby-
boom generation - 27%. Users want to be up to date, to know what is currently happening
with a given brand. Representatives of generation Y instead of an ad expect the brands to
create exciting services and offer access to sponsored content.
24
2. Content marketing
The growing importance in branding gains of content marketing. The creation and dis-
tribution of high-quality information is one of the most effective marketing strategies in
creating a brand image. Presenting professional and free content favours perception of the
brand as being reliable and professional.
3. Websites
The website is the most important flagship of a brand. Its high visibility and easy
availability increases reliability and customers' willingness to purchase services or prod-
ucts.
25
In mechanisms for research positioning, websites are placed higher than social
media as results on Google; this is why having a website is so crucial for a brand. Addi-
tionally, positioning mechanisms promote pages that contain words related to a search
(for example, when searching for the word “coaching” not only results containing the
single word coaching, but extensive substantive content are placed higher), as well as
being user-friendly services, that are clear, transparent and have a mobile version.
26
23
Online branding - the need for new strategies, source: http://www.migomedia.pl/online-branding-potrzeba-
nowych-strategii (access: 14.10. 2015.).
24
J. Van den Bergh, M. Behrer, how to create brands that love generation Y?, Samo Sedno Edgard, Warsaw
2012, p. 38.
25
Online branding - the need for new strategies, source: http://www.migomedia.pl/online-branding-potrzeba-
nowych-strategii (access: 14.10. 2015.).
26
B. Mazurkiewicz role of opinion leaders in informal communication, "Marketing and Market" No. 11/2014, p. 38.
E-branding vs. traditional branding 95
4. Buzz marketing
The terms "buzz marketing", “viral marketing", "word-of-mouth marketing", "evange-
list marketing" and many others are sometimes used interchangeably. Currently, a signifi-
cant part of recommendation communication takes place over networks, which is why
brands so observantly follow opinions as they appear on social media. Research shows
that 43% of teenagers aged 15-24 recommend their friends to try a brand. Buzz marketing
in generation Y has a huge impact on consumer decisions - up to 60% of people manage
to convince another to try a product for the first time.
27
7. BRANDING AND E-BRANDING IN THE CONTEXT OF CHOICES MADE
BY THE GENERATIONS
1. The silent generation
Variously called the silent generation, depression generation, the swing generation or
traditionalists. People born in the years 1928-1945, the children of World War II and the
period of the Great Depression, the nickname "silent" refers to the conformist attitude,
showing a big difference between them and the loud expression of their beliefs of the next
generations.
28
They value savings and ethics in business, and an important value for them
is social security and family ties. They rely on proven, trusted products and services. Their
preferred communication channels are radio, television, billboards, magazines, traditional
mail and meetings with experts.
29
2. The post-war baby boom generation
This describes people born in the years 1946 to 1964, just after the end of World War
II. Other names of this generation are the love generation, Woodstock generation, baby
boomers and the sandwich generation. They grew up in a period of economic growth, so
did not have to be afraid of unemployment. They enjoyed greater freedom, leisure, and
thus they are more flexible and easier adapt.
30
They are characterized by a need for self-
sufficiency. The representatives of this generation were the creators of the first personal
computers and mobile devices. They appreciate individuality, freedom and live according
to their own rules. Their goal in life is prosperity, good health and happiness. They have
less trust in authorities. Television is still the main and preferred medium of communica-
tion but they also benefit from the internet, though use it mainly for the development of
society; to a small extent they use it as a tool to support decision-making processes when
it comes to and selecting a brand
31
and purchasing.
27
J. van den Bergh, M. Behrer, op. cit., p. 53.
28
Ibidem, p. 22.
29
K. C. Williams, R. A. Page, Marketing to the Generations, “Journal of Behavioral Studies in Business”, April
2011, p. 3, source http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/10575.pdf (access: 14.10.2015).
30
M. McCrindle, D. Hooper, Generation Y. Attracting, engaging and leading a new generation at work, source:
http://avpma.ava.com.au/sites/default/files/AVPMA_website/resources/5.2%20Generation%20Y%20-
%20Attracting,%20Engaging%20%26%20Leading%20a%20New%20Generation%20at%20Work.pdf (ac-
cess: 14.10.2015).
31
K. C. Williams, R. A. Page, op. cit., p. 6.
96 M. Grzesiak
3. Generation X
Generation X consists of people born in the years 1965 to 1979; they are also called:
baby busters, a lost generation, the invisible generation, the "why me” generation. They
began their careers in the early 90s of the twentieth century, during the recession, mass
layoffs and economic transformation. They are characterized by great individualism and a
general pessimism. They are interested in making money using the rule of "buy cheap, sell
expensive." Inclined to believe to a much greater extent than any other generation in the
truth of advertising, they perceive TV commercials as attractive.
32
Television is their
preferred communication channel, but they also use the Internet to educate themselves and
obtain information about products.
4. Generation Y
This consists of people born between 1980 to1996, the first generation growing up in
the era of the new millennium. Otherwise called the Millennium generation, the Why
Generation, Net generation, or the generation of networks. They have a lot of knowledge
about marketing, as advertising and media have accompanied them since birth, and be-
cause of this they are relatively resistant to advertising messages. New technologies are of
great importance to them.
33
Representatives of the generation Y have: environmental
awareness, a distrust of the media, make intensive use of electronic media, have aware-
ness of global trends and use the Internet in making a purchasing decision.
34
Generation
Y, on the basis of research conducted mainly in the United States is now considered the
largest market segment in the world, and its spending power is constantly rising. At the
same time the results of the research show that Generation Y does not tolerate bad experi-
ences with brands; all negative situations can immediately lead to great loss of trust and
loyalty. For Generation Y brand authenticity is very important, and its integrity and hon-
esty - only these provide the potential opportunity of long-term consumer loyalty to the
brand.
35
At the same time the results of the research show that Generation Y does not
tolerate bad experiences with brands, all negative situations can immediately lead to a loss
of trust and loyalty. For Generation Y very important is brand authenticity and its integrity
and honesty - only they provide a potential opportunity for long-term consumer loyalty to
the brand.
36
They use the television selectively, focusing exclusively on programs dedicat-
ed for them. A new, emerging distribution channel for this generation is product place-
ment in computer games.
37
32
J. van den Bergh, M. Behrer, op. cit., p. 22.
33
Ibidem, s. 22.
34
P. Paul, Getting inside Gen Y, “American Demographics”, no. 23(9), p. 42-49.
35
E. Gołąb-Andrzejak Loyalty in the information society on the example of "Millennials", "Marketing and
Market" no. 11/2014, p.13.
36
J. A. Parris, Is your self-service Millennial friendly?, “Speech Technology”, January/February 2010, source:
http://www.speechtechmag.com/Articles/Column/Inside-Outsourcing/Is-Your-Self-Service-Millennial-
Friendly-60407.aspx (access: 14.10.2015)
37
K. C. Williams, R. A. Page, op. cit., p. 9.
E-branding vs. traditional branding 97
5. Generation Z
This generation includes all born after 1996, also called the iGeneration, not only due
to their attachment to iPods, iPhones and iPads but also because of their great need for
individualization. Personalization of communication is the basis of thinking of this gener-
ation.
38
8. TRADITIONAL BRANDING, E-BRANDING vs. BRAND AWARENESS
American research shows that online advertising increases spontaneous brand aware-
ness by 4%, while research in Germany for MSN, conducted by The European Interactive
Advertising Association, has revealed that companies that advertise on the Internet in-
crease their range by an additional 16%.
39
In contrast, the results of "The Branding Value
of A Search's Page One" from 2012 reveal that the most significant increase in building
brand awareness, as much as 30%, occurs when a brand appears simultaneously in the
organic results in a search engine and the results shown on the first screen without scroll-
ing.
40
1. McDonald’s
As an example of the effectiveness of e-branding being more effective compared to
traditional branding, we can look at the sandwich advertising campaign conducted by
McDonald's in the UK. A transfer of 20% of the budget from off-line advertising to online
advertising resulted in a 13% increase in product awareness. If this 20% had been spent
on traditional media, the increasing awareness of the product would be only 2%.
41
2. Pepsi
Pepsi followed a similar path. In 2010 they abandoned traditional advertising during
the final Superbowl match, and funds to an amount of $ 20 million were spent on a big
public campaign, the Pepsi Refresh Project. They created a web platform for the promo-
tion of local projects which required funding. Each platform user could create an account
on the site and upload a video of their own project, collecting votes from other users. The
winning projects received funding to the amount of 5000-25,000 dollars. Because users
gave their votes to the projects they found most interesting, Pepsi could better understand
the needs and preferences of their audience. The activities of the Pepsi Refresh Project
involved well-known the American actress, star of the TV series "Desperate House-
wives”, Eva Longoria, supporting the project for the non-profit organization Address
Contra El Cancer.
42
The project Pepsi perfectly tied in with the expectations of generation
Y, and was a good alternative to traditional advertising, of which this generation is wary
and it engaged users, meeting the criteria of interactivity.
38
J. van den Bergh, M. Behrer M., op. cit., p. 24.
39
Online branding – need of new strategies, source: http://www.migomedia.pl/online-branding-potrzeba-
nowych-strategii (access: 14.10. 2015r.).
40
Ibidem.
41
Ibidem.
42
J. van den Bergh, M. Behrer M., op. cit., p. 45-46.
98 M. Grzesiak
3. True Blood
The premiere of the third season of the TV series "True Blood", produced by HBO, as
opposed to the previous series, was promoted on the network. The campaign was ad-
dressed to network users Flixster film, and on Variety on mobile devices. Touching the
screen while browsing caused an imprint of a bloody mark on the screen, and subsequent
blood dripping down the screen. Then appeared a banner encouraging the viewer to see
the trailer for the new season of the show. The viewership of the third season of "True
Blood" increased by 38% compared to the previous season.
43
This may be related to the
fact that the advertising met the criteria of innovation, as well as, by using the mobile
channel, it went to the representatives of the Y generation, which uses much less televi-
sion.
4. Nike
In 2004 sportswear manufacturer Nike developed an application for runners, Nike +,
which after downloading it on your smartphone enabled the consumer to store information
about each training session, and publish it on the site nikeplus.com. The technology was
in sync with iPods and iPhones. The site nikeplus.com users could benefit from specific
training programs, compare achievements and compete with other users. Through Nike +,
Nike increased the company's turnover - with their 48% market share of the athletic foot-
wear rising to 61% within two years. Thanks to this service many users convinced them-
selves of the brand and its products.
44
The success of the image campaign was associated
first with the fact connection to a different brand, by many considered to be a cult, that is
Apple. Secondly, not without significance was the fact that it provided users with a free
application, and the possibility of sharing results which has helped build a community
around the brand.
9. VISIBLE TRENDS AND FORECASTS FOR THE FUTURE
These examples give reason to believe that the trend away from traditional branding
for e-branding will continue. Comments by generations Y and Z show they are not able to
be attracted by the traditional image campaigns on television, newspapers or radio. It is
related in particular to the fact that the generation Y and Z are focused on new technolo-
gies; what is more generation Z does not know the time without using the Internet, and the
network is their basic medium from which they get information about the world. It is
generations Y and Z that are now the largest consumer market brands.It seems that in the
framework of e-branding the trend towards mobile advertising will strengthen, addressed
to users of smartphones and tablets. With each passing year the lifetime of these devices
increases for consumers, so mobile advertising can reach them at all, at any time - while
watching a show, traveling by public transport or shopping. E-branding also gives much
greater opportunities to establish personal relationships with customers, which will be of
great importance when the generation Z, depending on a fully personalized messages, will
dominate the market.
43
J. Kall, op. cit., p. 129.
44
Ibidem, p. 35.
E-branding vs. traditional branding 99
10. SUMMARY
Network media and social media have become the primary sources of knowledge
about brands and products for many consumers. They also play a key role in the discovery
of new brands through recommendations from friends and unidentified network users.
Nowadays, the creation of a brand campaign is not enough. The real driving force of a
brand today are loyal consumers, people who are well aware of a brand and are eager to
use its products or services. Opinions and recommendations of friends can have a far
greater impact on consumers' decisions than advertising. A good reputation has always
been important for the image of a brand, but now the owners of the brands have little
effect on the nature of comments on their products and services in the network, so hence
the thinking that the image is so important. A strong brand has a bond with the consumer
and makes an interesting offer. Marketing activities of brands should arouse interest and
stimulate positive opinions about the brand, especially on the networks.
LITERATURE
[1] Gołąb-Andrzejak Edyta. 2014. Loyalty in the information society on the example of "Mil-
lennials", Marketing i Rynek 11: 11-21.
[2] Kall Jacek. 2015. „Branding on smartphone. Brand mobile communication”. Warsaw: Wolters
Kluwer SA.
[3] Kiefaber David. 2013. “IBM's Outdoor Ads Actually Try to Be Useful and Make Cities Bet-
ter”. source: http://www.adweek.com/adfreak/ibms-outdoor-ads-actually-try-be-useful-and-
make-cities-better-150091 (access: 14.10.2015).
[4] „CBOS Communication Research No. 82/2014: Internet users”. Source:
http://www.cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2014/K_082_14.PDF (access14.10.2015).
[5] Królewski Jarosław, Sala Paweł (red.).2014. „E-marketing. Contemporary trends. Starter
pack". Warsaw: PWN.
[6] Mazurkiewicz Bartosz. 2014. „The role of leaders' opinion in informal communication.”
[7] McCrindle Mark, Hooper Danica. 2007. “Generation Y. Attracting, engaging and leading a
new generation at work”. Source:
http://avpma.ava.com.au/sites/default/files/AVPMA_website/resources/5.2%20Generation%2
0Y%20%20Attracting,%20Engaging%20%26%20Leading%20a%20New%20Generation%20
at%20Work.pdf (access: 14.10.2015).
[8] Parris Jo Ann. 2010. “Is your self-service Millennial friendly?”. Speech Technology. Source:
http://www.speechtechmag.com/Articles/Column/Inside-Outsourcing/Is-Your-Self-Service-
Millennial-Friendly-60407.aspx (access: 14.10.2015).
[9] Paul Pamela. 2001. “Getting inside Gen Y”. American Demographics 23(9): 42-49.
[10] Połowianiuk Marcin. 2015. „Television has no future”. source:
http://www.spidersweb.pl/2015/07/telewizja-nie-ma-przyszlosci.html(access: 14.10.2015).
[11] „IGRZ report on the results of OOH advertising in Poland in 2014 Report”. source: http://igrz.
home.pl/Raporty/2014%20RAPORT%20ROCZNY%20IGRZ.pdf(access: 14.10.2015).
[12] Thomas Greg Metz. 2004. “Building the buzz in the hive mind”. Journal of Consumer Behav-
iour 4: 64-72.
[13] Trzeciak Sergiusz. 2015. „Public image on the web. Who are you online?”. Gliwice: Helion.
[14] „Online branding – the need of new strategies”. source: http://www.migomedia.pl/online-
branding-potrzeba-nowych-strategii (access: 14.10. 2015r.).
[15] Van den Bergh Joeri, Behrer Mattias. 2012. „How to create brands that generation Y will
love?”. Warsaw: Samo Sedno Edgard.
[16] Williams Kaylene C., Page Robert A. 2011. “Marketing to the Generations”, Journal of Be-
havioral Studies in Business”. source: http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/10575.pdf (access
14.10.2015).
100 M. Grzesiak
E-BRANDING A BRANDING TRADYCYJNY
Telewizja, radio oraz prasa przez wiele lat niepodzielnie panowały na marketingowym
rynku i pozwalały efektywnie docierać do szerokiego grona odbiorców. Jednakże obecnie
obserwujemy spadek skuteczności tradycyjnych form komunikacji marki (poprzez komuni-
katy w telewizji, na łamach prasy, w rozgłośniach radiowych czy z wykorzystaniem reklam
outdoorowych). Młodsi odbiorcy – przedstawiciele pokolenia Y i Z – oczekują od komuni-
katów czegoś zupełnie innego niż ich rodzice czy dziadkowe. Wymagają, aby przekaz był
możliwie jak najbardziej interaktywny i zindywidualizowany oraz mają znacznie mniejsze
zaufanie do tradycyjnych form reklamy. Wszystko to sprawia, że znaczenie e-brandingu sta-
le rośnie. Celem niniejszego artykułu jest próba opisania tradycyjnego sposobu kreowania i
zarządzania marką oraz porównania go z e-brandingiem, uwzględniając cechy obu jego
form, najczęstsze kanały dystrybucji, a także sposoby formułowania komunikatów. Trady-
cyjny branding oraz e-branding omówione zostają w kontekście wyborów zakupowych do-
konywanych przez przedstawicieli poszczególnych generacji. Artykuł wskazuje ponadto na
istotne żnice w obu przedstawionych formach kreowania marki, a także – w oparciu o
najnowsze przykłady kampanii wizerunkowych i reklamowych znanych marek – dowodzi
większej skuteczności e-brandingu we współczesnym świecie. Dzieje się tak dlatego, że e-
branding daje o wiele większe możliwości nawiązywania osobistych relacji z klientami, co
już ma duże znaczenie, a stanie się jeszcze istotniejsze, gdy pokolenie Z, oczekujące pełnej
personalizacji komunikatów, zacznie dominować na rynku.
Słowa kluczowe: branding, e-branding, branding tradycyjny, świadomość marki, kreowanie
marki.
DOI: 10.7862/rz.2015.mmr.56
Tekst złożono w redakcji: październik 2015
Przyjęto do druku: styczeń 2016
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Branding on smartphone. Brand mobile communication
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