ChapterPDF Available

Digital Literacy for the 21st Century


Abstract and Figures

Digital literacy involves any number of digital reading and writing techniques across multiple media forms. These media include words, texts, visual displays, motion graphics, audio, video, and multimodal forms. There are myriad cognitive processes at play, along a continuum from consumption to production when a reader is immersed with digital content as well as with print text. The purpose of this chapter is to (1) define digital literacy from multiple theoretical viewpoints, (2) illustrate how the definition continues to evolve in light of emerging technologies, and (3) discuss the cognitive, social, and affective dimensions of digital literacy as it is a key requirement in contemporary K-12 education.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Encyclopedia of
Information Science
and Technology, Fourth
Mehdi Khosrow-Pour
Information Resources Management Association, USA
Published in the United States of America by
IGI Global
Information Science Reference (an imprint of IGI Global)
701 E. Chocolate Avenue
Hershey PA, USA 17033
Tel: 717-533-8845
Fax: 717-533-8661
Web site:
Copyright © 2018 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or distributed in
any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without written permission from the publisher.
Product or company names used in this set are for identification purposes only. Inclusion of the names of the products or
companies does not indicate a claim of ownership by IGI Global of the trademark or registered trademark.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
British Cataloguing in Publication Data
A Cataloguing in Publication record for this book is available from the British Library.
All work contributed to this book is new, previously-unpublished material. The views expressed in this book are those of the
authors, but not necessarily of the publisher.
For electronic access to this publication, please contact:
Names: Khosrow-Pour, Mehdi, 1951- editor.
Title: Encyclopedia of information science and technology / Mehdi
Khosrow-Pour, editor.
Description: Fourth edition. | Hershey, PA : Information Science Reference,
[2018] | Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2017000834| ISBN 9781522522553 (set : hardcover) | ISBN
9781522522560 (ebook)
Subjects: LCSH: Information science--Encyclopedias. | Information
Classification: LCC Z1006 .E566 2018 | DDC 020.3--dc23 LC record available at
Copyright © 2018, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.
Category: Digital Literacy
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2255-3.ch194
Digital Literacy for the 21st Century
In the past few decades, technology has spanned
the globe, connected people in a whole new way.
As a result, citizens of all countries have not only
had to learn to use new technology, but also learn
how to interact with one another. Skills that com-
prise these abilities have been combined under the
term “digital literacy.The purpose of this chapter
is to (a) define digital literacy and its changing
nature, (b) discuss implications of digital literacy
on contemporary schooling, (c) demonstrate the
impact of digital literacy on digital citizenship,
and (d) analyze the implications of digital literacy
on educational equity.
Almost two decades ago, Gilster (1997) defined
digital literacy as the “ability to understand and use
information in multiple formats from a wide range
of sources when it is presented via computers”
(p. 1). At this time, the Internet was in its infant
stages. More than a decade later with Internet us-
age in full swing, Fieldhouse and Nicholas (2008)
asserted that terms like literacy and fluency can
be used to describe how users find and evaluate
information within digital environments. Digital
literacy involves any number of digital reading
and writing techniques across multiple media
forms, including: words, texts, visual displays,
motion graphics, audio, video, and multimodal
forms. In the same way that literate individuals
can negotiate print text through the processes of
reading and writing, literate users of technology
are able to consume and produce digital compo-
sitions. There are many cognitive processes at
work, along a continuum from consumption to
production when a reader is immersed with digital
content. The digital context is challenging for all
readers due to the fluid nature of the Web and the
demand for critical judgments (Spires & Estes,
2002) as the reader makes decisions about how
to locate information as well how to discern the
reliability and credibility of that same information.
Spires and Bartlett (2012) have divided the vari-
ous intellectual processes associated with digital
literacy into three categories: (a) locating and
consuming digital content, (b) creating digital
content, and (c) communicating digital content
(see Figure 1). Learners must develop evaluative
dispositions as they navigate digital content. A
discerning mindset is essential in order to interact
with online resources with accuracy. Without
critical evaluation, the learner may easily be di-
rected by the technology rather than the learner
directing the inquiry.
Hiller A. Spires
North Carolina State University, USA
Casey Medlock Paul
North Carolina State University, USA
Shea N. Kerkhoff
North Carolina State University, USA
Digital Literacy for the 21st Century
Locating and Consuming
Digital Content
It is essential to develop the skills to locate,
comprehend and consume digital content on the
Web. Central to being effective with the Web is
strategically searching for information and evaluat-
ing its accuracy and relevancy (Leu et al., 2008).
There is consensus that effective Web search
skills must be developed for educational success
in a digital society, and instruments such as The
Teaching Internet Comprehension to Adolescents
(TICA) checklist can ensure that students have the
necessary prerequisite Web search skills (Leu et
al., 2008). However, more challenging is how to
incorporate the effective teaching and development
of Web search skills in the classroom (Moraveji et
al., 2011). Nevertheless, some important skills are
considered necessary for locating and using digital
content: domain knowledge, a working knowledge
of how to use search engines, basic literacy skills,
and a general knowledge of resources available
on the Web (Moraveji et al., 2011). In addition
to building on the ability to craft productive Web
search terms, search lessons should involve direct
modeling of the use of search techniques, differ-
entiating between domain names, and querying
sites for accuracy and transparency.
Creating Content
Digital content is easily created by teachers and
students alike through multiple media and a variety
of Web 2.0 tools. The implementation of digital
content may be an important and effective method
of enhancing teaching and learning (Bakkenes,
Vermunt, & Wubbles, 2010), enabling teachers
to embrace the 21st century skills that students are
expected to master. Digital resources can also free
up teachers, allowing them to spend more time
facilitating student learning and less time lecturing.
Allowing students to create and consume digital
content in the classroom may increase engagement
while also encouraging the development of skills
needed for a technological society. For example,
students can create video content with easy-to-
use video editors such as Animoto, WeVideo, and
Powtoon, just to name a few. Because there is a
low bar for technical expertise, students can spend
more time on the quality of the content rather
than learning the process of a new tool. An added
benefit is that the products look polished and pro-
fessional. Although the creation of digital content
is becoming increasingly simple, personalization
of learning will require teachers to locate and
utilize a variety of digital resources to meet the
needs of every learner. Personalization will also
Figure 1. Digital literacy practices involve the ability to locate and consume, create, and communicate
digital content, while simultaneously employing a process of critical evaluation
Adapted from Spires & Bartlett (2012)
Category: Digital Literacy
put a heavier emphasis on asking students to show
mastery of learning by producing digital content.
This generative process requires more time from
teachers in terms of designing appropriate rubrics
for performance-based learning.
Communicating Digital Content
Digital content must be communicated effectively
in order to be a useful educational medium. Using
social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter,
and Instagram requires users to understand and
manipulate information in multiple formats. Web
2.0 tools are social, participatory, collaborative,
easy to use, and facilitate the creation of online
communities. Being able to communicate digital
content using mobile devices such as cellphones
and tablets provides convenience and immediacy
to the communication process for teachers and
students. Additionally, it provides access to an
infinite set of people and digital content resources
globally to enrich the learning experience. This
type of communication affords the possibilities
of more customization and personalization for
individual learners’ interests and needs, which
has the potential to increase student engagement
in academic learning.
A popular type of digital communication is the
act of curating The capacity to curate at a sophis-
ticated level, both in terms of content and visual
appeal, is quickly becoming a necessity for educa-
tors who engage in online teaching and learning
(Thompson, 2015). The word curate comes from
the Latin root Curare, or “to cure,” and historically
has meant “to preserve” (Mihailidis & Cohen,
2013). As students learn to be creators and cura-
tors of digital content, there is some evidence that
it contributes to their ability to be critical readers
of digital texts (O’Byrne, 2012). The word curate
derives from the Latin root Curare, or ‘to cure.’
To curate, historically, has meant to take charge
of or organize, to pull together, sift through, select
for presentation, to heal and to preserve. Within
digital spaces, organizing and preserving online
content is the purview of the individual (Mihailidis
& Cohen, 2013). This online communication trend
has created a need to understand how individuals
select, sort, synthesize and display content within
these spaces.
The Changing Nature of Digital
Literacy and Learners
Contemporary education is permeated by the mil-
lennial generation, also referred to as Generation
Y and the Net Generation. This group is defined
as those individuals who were born between the
early to mid-1980s and the early to mid-2000s,
possessing the following traits: confident, team
oriented, conventional, pressured and achieving
(Howe & Strauss, 2000). This generation, bigger
than previous generations, is entering the work-
force and contributing to a shift in our society
(Winograd & Hais, 2011). This generation is
immersed in a world of multimodality, or how
individuals make meaning with different modes,
such as print, video, speech, music, or gesture. At
the heart of multimodality, is semiotics, which is
the study of signs (Kress & Van Leeuwen, 1996).
As society has shifted from written to visual texts
in contemporary culture, more demand has been
placed on teachers to learn how to make instruc-
tional changes that take these shifts into account.
Leu and his colleagues (Leu et al., 2015) used
the term deictic to refer to the changing nature
of literacy, which is prompted by the constantly
changing technologies within our society. By all
accounts, these changes will continue to take place
since the total number of Internet users is at over
3 billion worldwide and growing.
Digital Citizenship
As technology has spread across the globe, our
world has become more connected than ever. This
has created a global virtual world that all tech-
nology users inhabit, and as a result, technology
users have had to learn how to become “digital
citizens” (Isman & Canan Gungoren, 2014). Al-
though there are various definitions of this term,
Digital Literacy for the 21st Century
the definitions are similar; they express that first
and foremost, a digital citizen must be able to use
technology intelligently. Furthermore, one should
understand cultural and societal issues as they
relate to technology; as a result, digital citizens
demonstrate various characteristics. For example,
Isman and Canan Gungoren (2014) state:
[They] practice legal and ethical behavior; ad-
vocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible
use of information and technology; exhibit a
positive attitude toward using technology that
supports collaboration, learning and productivity;
demonstrate personal responsibility for lifelong
learning; and exhibit leadership for digital citi-
zenship. (p. 73)
In order to foster the development of these
skills, various organizations have begun to to
develop models and programs designed to assist
in educating people on digital citizenship. For
example, ISTE published a model listing behaviors
associated with digital citizenship (Brichacek,
2014). Such behaviors include “no stealing or
damaging others’ digital work, identity or prop-
erty;” “using digital tools to advance learning and
keeping up with changing technologies;” “protect-
ing personal information from forces that might
cause harm;” and “equal digital rights and access
for all” (Searson, Hancock, Soheil, & Shepherd,
2015, p. 731). Another non-profit organization,
iKeepSafe, worked with Microsoft and AT&T to
develop an online questionnaire that measures
digital safety skills and attitudes in six areas,
known as the BEaPRO index: balancing digital
usage, practicing ethical digital usage, protecting
personal information, maintaining healthy and
safe relationships, building a positive reputation,
and achieving online security (Searson, Hancock,
Soheil, & Shepherd, 2015; iKeepSafe, 2015).
Still, there is much work to be done in develop-
ing global digital citizenship. The findings from
iKeepSafes questionnaire indicated “although
many individuals want to foster good digital citi-
zenship practices, most have limited knowledge
about how to do so” (Searson, Hancock, Soheil,
& Shepherd, 2015, p. 733, emphasis in original).
These authors provide a list of recommendations
and actions needed to help further global digital
citizenship. They suggest that both national and
local leadership organizations, such as public
policy agencies, law enforcement, and industry
leaders, work together in order to tackle the issue.
Furthermore, they recommend that educational
institutions begin to provide professional develop-
ment for teachers in order to educate teachers as
to how they can teach their students to be digital
citizens. They also maintain that stakeholders
must be held accountable for privacy and safety
of community members, and reported incidents
should inform digital citizenship education ser-
vices and policy development.
Although digital citizenship is a fairly new
concept, it is one that is highly important in our
globalized, virtual world. It involves not only
competent technology use, but also responsible
and ethical use of the web. Digital citizenship is
largely considered an aspect of digital literacy,
and many organizations are working to understand
how to include it in digital literacy education.
Digital Literacy and
Educational Equity
The digital divide is a gap in access to or usage
of ICTs between people, demographic groups, or
countries (OECD, 2001). In other words, the global
digital divide is one of access to the Internet and
also one of users’ competence with ICTs. Access
to ICTs continues to be divided within countries
as well as among countries and is often associated
with socioeconomic status. As of January 2015,
only 42% of the world was active Internet users
with Canada holding the highest percentage of
93% and India holding the lowest percentage of
Internet users at 19% (Kemp, 2015). Access and
usage are related in that lack of access leads to
less practice digital literacy skills, whereas more
access leads to more opportunities to practice.
Category: Digital Literacy
Problems of access include cost of computers
and subscriptions, broadband width of the Inter-
net, and restrictedness of content (Tongia, 2005).
Lack of access can be seen at the country-level,
such as governments censoring content on the
Internet and restricting what sources and what
information citizens can obtain. Lack of access
can also be seen at the demographic level when
certain demographic groups are able to spend
more time on the Internet than other groups. In
the US, research has shown that students from
underprivileged schools spent less time using
ICTs even though the amount of computers and
broadband width were similar across schools
(Leu et al., 2015). One reason for this could be
that digital literacy is not tested on government
issued assessments tied to funding; therefore, time
is spent on what is tested in order to score higher
on the assessments and receive needed funding
(Leu et al., 2015). This phenomenon has implica-
tions for future K-12 assessments.
Digital Literacy and the Impact
on Contemporary Schooling
As technology has become more integral to stu-
dents’ lives, there has been an ever-increasing
digital “home-school divide(Honan, 2006, p. 41);
students are using technologies outside of school
that are not available in school, while educators
struggle to effectively use what technology they
have in their classrooms (Henderson, 2011). There
is still great debate on exactly how to integrate
digital literacy instruction into traditional instruc-
tion, and many studies have been and are still being
conducted in an attempt to understand how best
to bridge the two together (Kervin, Verenikina,
Jones, & Beath, 2013; Henderson, 2011; Walsh,
2010; 2008).
Nevertheless, there is little debate on the
value of these skills; many countries have begun
to reform their education programs to include
better digital education. Some countries even
have standards and requirements for students to
achieve digital literacy. In 2008, Australia began
its Digital Education Revolution in order to equip
schools, teachers, and students with the technology
necessary to provide a quality digital education.
England has Computing Programmes of Study
(United Kingdom Dept. of Education, 2013) as part
of its National Curriculum, with part of its stated
goal that “pupils become digitally literate—able
to use, and express themselves and develop their
ideas through, information and communication
technology—at a level suitable for the future
workplace and as active participants in a digital
world” (Purpose of Study section, para. 1). The
International Society for Technology in Education
(ISTE; 2007) has also developed standards for
students, teachers, and administrators.
Not only has digital literacy changed educa-
tional standards, but it has also changed the content
that must be taught in schools. Although today’s
students’ are often considered “digital natives”
(Prensky, 2001), they are not necessarily able to
use these digital tools in a knowledgeable or critical
way (Jones et al., 2010). Students therefore must
be taught such skills and how to use technology
effectively (Leu et al., 2015), including evaluating
and critically analyzing information.
Students must also be taught about cyber safety,
“digital footprints,” and how to be responsible
online (Osborne & Connely, 2015). In fact, many
educational programs are now including standards
that foster the teaching of digital responsibilities,
such as respecting copyright laws, using valid in-
formation, and following safe and ethical behaviors
when online. (American Association of School
Librarians, 2007; ISTE, 2007). Government or-
ganizations are also making sure such education
is available to students. For example, Qatar’s
Ministry of Information and Communications
Technology, known as ictQATAR (2015), works
alongside teachers and parents to teach children
Internet responsibility and safety.
Digital Literacy for the 21st Century
Digital literacy has had—and is continuing
to have—an impact on contemporary education.
Information is readily available to students, and
educators are working to teach adolescents how
to use this information effectively, ethically,
and responsibly. One organization, the Partner-
ship for 21st Century Learning, was developed
in order to help foster 21st century learning for
students through collaborative partnerships. The
21st Century Learning Framework (Partnership
for 21st Century Learning, 2009) has been used
in the U.S. as well as other countries to support
the inclusion of 21st century skills in education.
Although educators are still trying to discover
exactly how digital literacy fits into the classroom,
it is clear that digital literacy has already greatly
altered modern education.
Future research should focus on clarifying best
practices for teaching students how to navigate
digital environments effectively. Specifically,
teachers need to know how to help students lo-
cate, create and communicate digital content in
productive and ethical ways. Additionally, teachers
need best practices for how to integrate game-
based learning into their classrooms and support
students as they navigate virtual spaces related to
content learning. One emerging trend is Online
Reading Comprehension Assessments (ORCA),
in which students capacity to conduct effective
information searches is assessed in a controlled
Web environment (Leu et al., 2015). Online and
offline reading require different skills, so assess-
ments must be sensitive to the distinctions.
In this chapter our aim was to provide a definition
of digital literacy and how it is evolving, discuss
the implications of digital literacy on contempo-
rary schooling, demonstrate the impact of digital
literacy on digital citizenship, and analyze the im-
plications of digital literacy on educational equity.
American Association of School Librarians.
(2007). Standards for the 21st Century Learner.
American Library Association. Retrieved from
Antonio, A., & Tuffley, D. (2014, July 7). Digital
literacy in the developing world: A gender gap.
The Conversation. Retrieved from http://thecon-
Bakkenes, I., Vermunt, J. D., & Wubbles, T.
(2010). Teacher learning in the context of educa-
tional innovation: Learning activities and learn-
ing outcomes of experience teachers. Learning
and Instruction, 20(6), 533–548. doi:10.1016/j.
Brichacek, A. (2014). Infrographic: citizenship in
the digital age. Retrieved from: https://www.iste.
Bunker, B. (2010). Retrieved from http://iitp.
Coiro, J., & Dobler, E. (2007). Exploring the
online reading comprehension strategies used
by sixth‐grade skilled readers to search for and
locate information on the Internet. Reading Re-
search Quarterly, 42(2), 214–257. doi:10.1598/
Fieldhouse, M., & Nicholas, N. (2008). Digital
literacy as information Savvy: The road to infor-
mation literacy. In M. Knobel & C. Lankshear
(Eds.), Digital literacies concepts, policies and
practices (pp. 43–72). New York, NY: Peter Lang
Gilster, P. (1997). Digital literacy. New York:
Wiley and Computer Publishing.
Category: Digital Literacy
Hargittai, E., & Walejko, G. (2008). The
participation divide: Content creation and
sharing in the digital age. Information Com-
munication and Society, 11(2), 239–256.
Henderson, R. (2011). Classroom pedagogies,
digital literacy and the home-school digital divide.
International Journal of Pedagogies and Learn-
ing, 6(2), 152–161. doi:10.5172/ijpl.2011.152
Honan, E. (2006). Deficit discourses within the
digital divide. Engineers Australia, 41(3), 36–43.
Howe, N., & Strauss, W. (2000). Millennials ris-
ing: The next great generation. New York, NY:
Vintage Books.
ictQATAR. (2015). Digital literacy. Retrieved
iKeepSafe. (2015). About BEaPRO. Retrieved
International Society of Technology in Educa-
tion (ISTE). (2007). ISTE Standards. Retrieved
September 23, 2015, from
Isman, A., & Canan Gungoren, O. (2014). Digital
citizenship. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal
of Educational Technology, 13(1), 73–77.
Jones, C., Ramanau, R., Cross, S., & Healing, G.
(2010). Net generation or digital natives: Is there a
distinct new generation entering university? Com-
puters & Education, 54(3), 72–732. doi:10.1016/j.
Kemp, S. (2015, January 21). Digital social & mo-
bile worldwide in 2015. We Are Social. Retrieved
Kervin, L., Verenikina, I., Jones, P., & Beath, O.
(2013). Investigating synergies between literacy,
technology and classroom practice. Australian
Journal of Language and Literacy, 36(3), 135–147.
Kress, G., & Van Leeuwen, T. (1996). Reading
images: The grammar of visual design. London:
Leu, D. J., Coiro, J., Castek, J., Hartman, D., Henry,
L. A., & Reinking, D. (2008). Research on instruc-
tion and assessment in the new literacies of online
reading comprehension. In C. Collins-Block, S.
Parris, & P. Afferbach (Eds.), Comprehension
instruction: research based best practices (pp.
321–346). New York: Guilford Press.
Leu, D. J., Forzani, E., Rhoads, C., Maykel, C.,
Kennedy, C., & Timbrell, N. (2015). The new
literacies of online research and comprehension:
Rethinking the reading achievement gap. Reading
Research Quarterly, 50(1), 37–59.
Mihailidis, P., & Cohen, J. N. (2013). Exploring
Curation as a core competency in digital and media
literacy education. Journal of Interactive Media
in Education. Retrieved from: http://www-jime.
Moraveji, N., Morris, M. R., Morris, D., Czer-
winski, M., & Riche, N. (2011). ClassSearch:
Facilitating the development of Web search skills
through social learning. In Proceedings of the
2011 Annual Conference on Human Factors in
Computing Systems (pp. 1797-1806). New York:
ACM Press. doi:10.1145/1978942.1979203
O’Byrne, I. (2012). Facilitating critical evalua-
tion skills through content creation: Empowering
adolescents as readers and writers of online in-
formation (unpublished dissertation). University
of Connecticut.
OECD. (2001). Understanding the digital divide.
Retrieved from
OECD. (2011). PISA 2009 results: Students on
the line: Digital technologies and performance.
Paris: OECD.
Digital Literacy for the 21st Century
Osborne, N., & Connelly, L. (2015). Managing
Your Digital Footprint: Possible Implications
for Teaching and Learning. In Proceedings of
the 2nd European Conference on Social Media
2015: ECSM 2015 (p. 354). Academic Confer-
ences Limited.
Partnership for 21st Century Learning. (2009).
Framework for 21st Century Learning. Retrieved
Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digi-
tal immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1–6.
Reynolds, R., & Chiu, M. M. (2015). Reducing
digital divide effects through student engagement
in coordinated game design, online resource use,
and social computing activities in school. Journal
of the Association for Information Science and
Searson, M., Hancock, M., Soheil, N., & Shepherd,
G. (2015). Digital citizenship within global con-
texts. Education and Information Technologies,
20(4), 729–741. doi:10.1007/s10639-015-9426-0
Spires, H., & Bartlett, M. (2012). Digital literacies
and learning: Designing a path forward. Friday
Institute White Paper Series. NC State University.
Spires, H., & Estes, T. (2002). Reading in web-
based learning environments. In C. Collins Block
& M. Pressley (Eds.), Comprehension instruction:
Research-based best practices (pp. 115–125). New
York: Guilford Press.
Thompson, T. L. (2015). Digital doings: Curating
work–learning practices and ecologies. Learning,
Media and Technology, 1–21.
Tongia, R. (2005). Access to ICTs for education.
In B. Bracey & T. Culver (Eds.), Harnessing the
potential of ICT for education: A multistakeholder
approach (pp. 143–152). New York: UN ICT
Task Force.
United Kingdom Department of Education.
(2013). National Curriculum in England: Comput-
ing programmes of study. Retrieved from https://
Walsh, M. (2008). Worlds have collided and modes
have merged: Classroom evidence of changed
literacy practices. Literacy, 42(2), 101–108.
Walsh, M. (2010). Multimodal literacy: What does
it mean for classroom practice? Australian Journal
of Language and Literacy, 33(3), 211–239.
Winograd, M., & Hasi, M. D. (2011). Millennial
momentum: How a new generation is remaking
America. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University
Digital Citizenship: The capacity to conduct
oneself in a responsible and ethical manner within
public digital environments.
Digital Content: Content that uses information
and communication technologies.
Digital Curation: The capacity to select, sort,
synthesize and display digital content.
Digital Divide: The gap and access to or usage
of ICTs between people, demographic groups or
Digital Footprint: An individual’s profile that
is depicted to others through the Web.
Digital Literacy: The ability to locate, create,
and communicate digital content.
Online Reading Comprehension: The abil-
ity to locate reliable sources on the Internet and
synthesize for multiple purposes.
Web 2.0 Tools: Technology tools that allow
interactivity among users and digital content.
... Advances in information and communication technologies (ICTs) over the last two decades have connected people across the globe through the internet, digital mediums, and online platforms (Spires et al, 2019). To communicate effectively and thrive in this digital world, one not only needs to have knowledge about these tools and platforms; but also the ability and skills to use them purposefully. ...
... Due to the availability and easy access to these digital mediums, and the fact that the person behind those devices and platforms is invisible; the ethical and social aspects of digital literacy become even more important. Spires et al. (2019) stated that although digital technologies were extensively used in the recent decade, and considered one of the essential competencies of 21 st -century skills; there was a growing concern amongst academia towards its safe and socially responsible use. ...
... Although attitudes and perspectives were one of those dimensions, it was still dominated by the understanding, background knowledge, and ability to use digital tools effectively. Spires et al. (2019) presented a framework that had been adapted from Spires and Bartlett (2012). It divided digital literacy into three categories: searching and using, creating, and communicating using digital tools and contents (Figure i). ...
Full-text available
The study aims to develop and validate Digital Literacy Scale (DLS) based on Chen’s (2015) theoretical framework which includes nine dimensions: communication, collaboration, critical thinking, creativity, citizenship, character, curation, copyright, and connectedness. A question pool consisting of 62 items based on the nine dimensions of digital literacy was generated on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Content validity of the question pool was sought from experts in terms of clarity of items, language understanding, and relevance. SPSS and AMOS were used for statistical analysis. Using a sample of 349 university students, Exploratory Factor Analysis was employed for reliability analysis, construct validation, and factor structure of the scale. EFA confirms the nine dimensions; however, some items were deleted during this process. Finally, Confirmatory Factor Analysis was employed to check the reliability and validity of the factor structure by using a second sample (n=442). CFA showed that all the values were within the acceptable range (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin 0.886, the total variance explained 62.87%, Cronbach Alpha 0.894, and the goodness of fit 0.924). Thus a standardized DLS consisting of 36 items and 9 factors (communication, copyright, critical thinking, character, citizenship, curation, connectedness, creativity, and collaboration) was finalized. DLS is a psychometrically sound, reliable, and valid measurement tool that can be used to measure digital literacy.
... E-readiness among society means that they embrace any new technological advancements which thus creates a new society called "smart society" (Manda & Backhouse, 2016). Smart society is also known as "digital citizen", which in general means society that are able to use technology competently and ethically (Spires et al., 2018). Transformation towards smart society essentially needs e-readiness, digital literacy and network readiness (i.e. ...
... To be e-literate and equipped with e-skills, arguably the society needs to firstly be digital literate (Spires et al., 2018). By definition, digital literacy is the "ability to understand and use information in multiple formats from a wide range of sources when it is presented via computers" (Gilster & Glister, 1997). ...
... By definition, digital literacy is the "ability to understand and use information in multiple formats from a wide range of sources when it is presented via computers" (Gilster & Glister, 1997). Moreover, according to Spires et al (2018), "digital literacy involves any number of digital reading and writing techniques across multiple media forms, including: words, text, visual displays, motion graphics, audio, video and multimodal forms" regardless on any forms of digital devices such as smart phones, computers, laptops, smart televisions, to name a few. ...
Brunei Darussalam has been facing unemployment issue in the past few years. With the upcoming fourth industrial revolution (IR4.0) where there will be extensive use of machineries, robotics, and sensors, a shift in the job market is anticipated. This study aims to investigate the potential challenges on unemployment that Brunei Darussalam will face if it does not move in the necessary direction to embrace IR4.0. In addition to that, this study will analyze the current education system that Brunei implements and the e-readiness of its society to further make conclusion and recommendation on improvements Brunei should focus into as a preparation towards the digitalization era. Literature review is chosen as the most appropriate methodological approach to identify and evaluate the key points of this chosen topic. Multiple systematic literature reviews and research papers revolving around the relevant keywords were used extensively to construct the basic understanding of this paper's topic. Secondary data from previous research papers and national reports from 2014 to 2019 were used for to gain insights of Brunei Darussalam's education system, digital literacy, and e-readiness among the society. In conclusion, this study has shown that unemployment rate in Brunei Darussalam is believed to have not been amplified by the Fourth Industrial Revolution (IR4.0), given that the current employees are retrained and younger generations are equipped with digital literacy-based knowledge and soft skills.
... Gilster (1997) states that digital literacy is the ability to understand and use all forms of information in digital format via the internet on a computer. Digital literacy is important for behavior change and change (Chan et al., 2017); (Spires et al., 2018). Digital literacy skills include competent use of technology, interpretation, and understanding of digital content and assessment of its credibility, creating, researching, and communicating with appropriate tools efficiently and effectively (Sujana & Rachmatin, 2019) effective during the covid 19 pandemic (Irhandayaningsih, 2020) to improve attitudes and behavior. ...
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to examine the model of developing SMEs in the socio-economically unpredictable crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic. Work from home and all activities are carried out online, the implementation of Social Restrictions has an impact on the economic crisis. Many SMEs survive or close their businesses, on the other hand, new entrepreneurs emerge. Economic literacy (EC), digital literacy (DLT), entrepreneurial attitude (EAT), productive economic behavior (PEB), and entrepreneurial business development (EBD) were analyzed as research models with a survey to obtain the latest field data, analyzed by exploratory factor analysis and AMOS confirmatory factor analysis 25. The theory of planned behavior from Ajzen was developed as a predictor behavior model for SMEs in developing businesses. Quantitative research with an entrepreneurial population in garment SMEs, a total of 203 entrepreneurs who have an online production and sales business as a sample. This study succeeded in testing 6 of the proposed hypotheses and one hypothesis was rejected. The model results have met the suitability criteria, that the development of SMEs based on high economic literacy skills will increase good entrepreneurial attitudes so that productive economic behavior is formed which will ultimately increase the ability of SMEs to survive, grow and develop during the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. For further researchers to develop research on a wider sample area as well as other potential factors to develop SMEs such as entrepreneurial skills. Received: 17 April 2022 / Accepted: 16 August 2022 / Published: 2 September 2022
... Western Sydney University (2020) defined Digital literacy as "having the skills you need to live, learn, and work in a society where communication and access to information is increasingly through digital technologies like internet platforms, social media, and mobile devices". Digital Literacy according to Spires et al. (2018) is the ability to locate, create, and communicate digital content. ...
Full-text available
This single variable research was carried out to survey virtual instructional competence among tourism teachers in secondary schools in Calabar South Local Government Area, Nigeria. Five research questions and one hypothesis were posed to assess virtual instructional competence variables. Descriptive Survey design was adopted for the study. Stratified Simple random and purposive sampling techniques were used to select sixty (60) tourism teachers in both public and private secondary schools. The instrument for data collection was a well-structured questionnaire. Mean, simple percentage and independent t-test analysis were considered most appropriate for data analysis. The result of the analysis showed that professional competence has the highest status, followed by knowledge of subject matter and interpersonal skills. Male teachers were more competent with virtual instructional competence than their female tourism counterparts. The teachers with 1-5 years teaching experience and those with above 15 years of teaching experience readily embraced virtual competence. One challenge of virtual instruction is that tourism teachers found it difficult to cope with virtual instructional delivery but prefer the traditional face to face interaction. It was recommended that tourism teachers in secondary schools in Calabar South Local Government Area should be encouraged to adapt to the trending issue of virtual instruction delivery.
... Digital literacy is the ability to observe, select, open, find reading sources from websites, determine reading, including storing and sending reading material and providing suggestions or comments on certain websites, including on social media (Leu et al., 2007;H. A. Spires, C. Medlock Paul, 2018;Cordell, 2013). Digital literacy is related to the ability and capacity to use digital means to access, manage, integrate, analyze, and synthesize digital information (Kaeophanuek et al., 2018). This definition shows that digital literacy skills are related to cognitive, technical, and sociological interactions. It can lead to social int ...
... Gilster [3] introduces and defines digital literacy as the ability to understand and use a wide range of information formats when it is presented via computers. Furthermore, [4] argues that digital literacy involves digital reading writing across multiple platforms, including word. In addition, Radovan [5] defines digital literacy as the skill of using digital technology for investigating, evaluating, and communicating information. ...
... Using social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram requires users to understand and manipulate information in various formats. Being able to communicate digital content using mobile devices such as cellphones and tablets provides convenience and immediacy in the communication process for lecturers and students [7]. The phenomenon of digital social networking in the last decade, mostly refers to internet-based services such as Facebook, Instagram and Twitter which are platforms that are often used by the public, this is interesting when studying the sub-variable relations related to existing social media. ...
Full-text available
This paper explores the important role of technology development in contemporary age for vulnerable communities. Combining the widespread concept of Anthropocene with the philosophical position which considers technology as the environment of humanity, these research aims to understand the challenges for design, architecture, and politics and to get a comprehension how technology can help or harm vulnerable communities in the next decades. The research is based on a deep analysis of the existing literature to highlight, from the perspective of urban-architectural design, the potential risks (technology illiteracy, data production, and exclusion) and benefits (reduction of distances, self-production, transportation, monitoring, and engagement) of technological development for vulnerable communities. Aspects necessary for equitable and sustainable development emerge: the involvement of the vulnerable population in the adoption of technology, the adoption of effective public policies, investments in infrastructure, educational efforts, and attention to generate a non-exclusive market. These needs are added to a scenario in which the designer engaged in activities in vulnerable communities must face other contemporary emergencies (environmental, social crises, etc.) and adopt new methodologies of involving the population (self-construction, participatory design, etc.). This research therefore highlights issues for designers, architects, and policy makers generated by technological development and its possible impacts on vulnerable communities.
Full-text available
Die gesellschaftliche Prägung durch Digitalisierung – vielfältig eng verbunden mit Daten, Informationen und Wissen in zugehörigen Prozessen von deren Entstehung über deren Speicherung bis zu deren Nutzung und Analyse – erfordert Orientierung, die insbesondere auch rund um die Begriffs- und Bedeutungskategorien Data Literacy und Digital Literacy entsteht. Der vorliegende Beitrag versteht sich als Plädoyer für eine verknüpfende Betrachtung dieser beiden Kategorien zusammen und mit Blick auf Wirkungen, die Menschen und eine nachhaltige Entwicklung betreffend entstehen.
Full-text available
In today's hypermedia landscape, youth and young adults are increasingly using social media platforms, online aggregators and mobile applications for daily information use. Communication educators, armed with a host of free, easy-to-use online tools, have the ability to create dynamic approaches to teaching and learning about information and communication flow online. In this paper we explore the concept of curation as a student- and creation-driven pedagogical tool to enhance digital and media literacy education. We present a theoretical justification for curation and present six key ways that curation can be used to teach about critical thinking, analysis and expression online. We utilize a case study of the digital curation platform Storify to explore how curation works in the classroom, and present a framework that integrates curation pedagogy into core media literacy education learning outcomes.
Full-text available
Era in which we live is known and referred as digital age.In this age technology is rapidly changed and developed. In light of these technological advances in 21th century, schools have the responsibility of training "digital citizen" as well as a good citizen. Digital citizens must have extensive skills, knowledge, Internet and technology access and schools must guide the students to be a digital citizens. Ribble and Bailey (2007) described the digital citizens features in schools that need to have in nine touchpoints. Based on these points, this research is aimed to develop a scale about digital citizenship.
Full-text available
In the pervasively connected world of the 21st century, creating and sharing knowledge has never been easier. But the fact remains that many people still lack the skills required to access this information and an inequity gap is growing.
Full-text available
Participating in online social, cultural, and political activities requires digital skill and knowledge. This study investigates how sustained student engagement in game design and social media use can attenuate the relations between socioeconomic factors and digital inequality among youth. This study of 242 middle and high school students participating in the Globaloria project shows that participation eliminates gender effects, and reduces parent education effects in home computer use. Further, students from schools with lower parent education show greater increases in frequency of school technology engagement. Globaloria participation also weakens the link between prior school achievement and advanced technology activities. Results offer evidence that school-based digital literacy programs can attenuate digital divide effects known to occur cross-sectionally in the general U.S. population.
About every eight decades, coincident with the most stressful and perilous events in U.S. history-the Revolutionary and Civil Wars and the Great Depression and World War II-a new, positive, accomplished, and group-oriented "civic generation" emerges to change the course of history and remake America. The Millennial Generation (born 1982-2003) is America's newest civic generation. In their 2008 book, Millennial Makeover, Morley Winograd and Michael D. Hais made a prescient argument that the Millennial Generation would change American politics for good. Later that year, a huge surge of participation from young voters helped to launch Barack Obama into the White House. Now, in Millennial Momentum, Winograd and Hais investigate how the beliefs and practices of the Millennials are transforming other areas of American culture, from education to entertainment, from the workplace to the home, and from business to politics and government. The Millennials' cooperative ethic and can-do spirit have only just begun to make their mark, and are likely to continue to reshape American values for decades to come. Drawing from an impressive array of demographic data, popular texts, and personal interviews, the authors show how the ethnically diverse, socially tolerant, and technologically fluent Millennials can help guide the United States to retain its leadership of the world community and the global marketplace. They also illustrate why this generation's unique blend of civic idealism and savvy pragmatism will enable us to overcome the internal culture wars and institutional malaise currently plaguing the country. Millennial Momentum offers a message of hope for a deeply divided nation. Copyright © 2011 by Morley Winograd and Michael D. Hais. All rights reserved.
EduSummIT 2013 featured a working group that examined digital citizenship within a global context. Group members recognized that, given today’s international, regional, political, and social dynamics, the notion of “global” might be more aspirational than practical. The development of informed policies and practices serving and involving as many sectors of society as possible is desirable since a growing world’s population, including students in classrooms, will have continued access to the Internet, mobile devices and social media. Action steps to guide technology integration into educational settings must address the following factors: national and local policies, bandwidth and technology infrastructure, educational contexts, cyber-safety and cyberwellness practices and privacy accountability. Finally, in the process of developing and implementing positive and productive solutions, as many key members and stakeholders as possible who share in—and benefit from—students’ digital lives should be involved, from families and educators to law enforcement authorities, from telecommunication organizations to local, provincial and national leaders.
Workers are faced with wider networks of knowledge generation amplified by the scale, diffusion, and critical mass of digital artefacts and web technologies globally. In this study of mobilities of work–learning practices, I draw on sociomaterial theorizing to explore how the work and everyday learning practices of self-employed workers or micro-small business entrepreneurs are changing through the infusion of web and mobile technologies. Drawing primarily on Ingold's notion of wayfinding, Law's collateral realities, and Knorr-Cetina's work on epistemic objects, I examine data from 23 contingent workers in Rwanda, Kenya, and Canada to explore emergent practices of curating learning ecologies (mixtures of technologies, artefacts, activities, and people). I conclude with implications for educators and workers of the growing sophistication of digital fluencies that matter: the play of innovation, expertise, and criticality in everyday work–learning practices and a more thoughtful reckoning with the implications of human–technology interactions on practices.
As digital technologies continue to permeate aspects of everyday life, contributing to an increasingly multiliterate world, educators are working to include digital technologies into classroom practices. However, there is evidence that the digital divide between schools and homes continues to widen as more and more technologies become available. This article reports on a small research project that investigated the use of digital technologies in two middle school (young adolescent) classrooms and how the teachers were attempting to bridge the so-called home-school divide. The study explored what the teachers knew about their students’ use of digital technologies and multiliteracies outside of the school context and how the teachers used digital technologies and approached the teaching of multiliteracies within the contexts of their classrooms.