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MEDICINAL BENEFITS OF ANISE SEEDS (PIMPINELLA ANISUM) AND THYMUS VULGARIS IN A SAMPLE OF HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS

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MEDICINAL BENEFITS OF ANISE SEEDS (PIMPINELLA ANISUM) AND THYMUS VULGARIS IN A SAMPLE OF HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS

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Herbal medicine plays an important role in recent therapeutic strategies in different diseases according to estimation of World Health Organization. Anise was first cultivated in Egypt and the Middle East, but was brought to Europe for its medicinal value. It used medicinally as a stimulant, carminative, and flavoring agent, coughs, flatulence, respiratory infections, asthma, indigestion as well as hormone replacement therapy for menopause. In addition, thyme is used widely for different ailments including abscess, acne, appetite stimulant, anxiety, arthritis, asthma, burns, cancer, cellulitis, depression, gastritis, colic, cystitis, dermatitis and many other disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the health benefits of both anise and thyme in a sample of healthy volunteers. Ten healthy volunteers were participated in this study with age 22-24 years. They allowed taking anise seeds and thyme leaves 2g twice daily as hot macerated drinks (tea) for 4 weeks. All biochemical parameters (FBS, CBC, lipid profile, liver, kidney tests and testosterone level) were taking before commencing the trial and after. Body weight and blood pressure were measured weekly. Outcomes of this study showed that most of the biochemical parameters were reduced especially liver, kidney function tests, FBS, lipid profile but insignificantly. Regarding to the blood pressure thyme had showed significant reduction in SBP, DBP and MAP. Both herbs improved the level of testosterone. From this study, it suggested that both herbs had health benefits for different ailments depending on the duration of consumption.
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Ibrahim Doa’a Anwar / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 8 (3), 2017
91
Research Article
www.ijrap.net
MEDICINAL BENEFITS OF ANISE SEEDS (PIMPINELLA ANISUM) AND THYMUS VULGARIS IN
A SAMPLE OF HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS
Ibrahim Doa’a Anwar *
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Science and Technology, Sana’a, Yemen
Received on: 07/05/17 Accepted on: 20/06/17
*Corresponding author
E-mail: dr_d_anwar@hotmail.com
DOI: 10.7897/2277-4343.083150
ABSTRACT
Herbal medicine plays an important role in recent therapeutic strategies in different diseases according to estimation of World Health Organization.
Anise was first cultivated in Egypt and the Middle East, but was brought to Europe for its medicinal value. It used medicinally as a stimulant,
carminative, and flavoring agent, coughs, flatulence, respiratory infections, asthma, indigestion as well as hormone replacement therapy for
menopause. In addition, thyme is used widely for different ailments including abscess, acne, appetite stimulant, anxiety, arthritis, asthma, burns,
cancer, cellulitis, depression, gastritis, colic, cystitis, dermatitis and many other disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the health benefits of
both anise and thyme in a sample of healthy volunteers. Ten healthy volunteers were participated in this study with age 22-24 years. They allowed
taking anise seeds and thyme leaves 2g twice daily as hot macerated drinks (tea) for 4 weeks. All biochemical parameters (FBS, CBC, lipid profile,
liver, kidney tests and testosterone level) were taking before commencing the trial and after. Body weight and blood pressure were measured weekly.
Outcomes of this study showed that most of the biochemical parameters were reduced especially liver, kidney function tests, FBS, lipid profile but
insignificantly. Regarding to the blood pressure thyme had showed significant reduction in SBP, DBP and MAP. Both herbs improved the level of
testosterone. From this study, it suggested that both herbs had health benefits for different ailments depending on the duration of consumption.
Keywords: Medicinal Benefits, Pimpinella anisum, Thymus vulgaris, Healthy Volunteers
INTRODUCTION
Plants have been used as food and for medicinal purposes for
centuries, some of them have played a significant role in
maintaining human health and improving the quality of human
life for thousands of years 1.
The World Health Organization estimated that 80% of the
earth's inhabitants relies on tradition medicine for their primary
health care needs and most of this therapy involves the use of
plants extract or their active components 2. Those extracts are
specifically for their antiseptic properties and beneficial effects
on the digestion 3. Aromatic plants have been used traditionally
in the therapy of some diseases worldwide for a long time. As an
aromatic plants, anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), Cumin (Cuminum
cyminum), Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) is an annual herb
in Iran, India, Turkey, Egypt and many other warm regions in
the world. As a medicinal plants, all of them have been used as
stimulating effect of digestion and anti-parasitic 4 antibacterial5,6
and antifungal 7. However, Anise also called aniseed, 8 is
a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern
Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia 9. Its flavor has
similarities with some other spices, such as star anise, [8] fennel,
and licorice. As with all spices, the composition of anise varies
considerably with origin and cultivation method. These are
typical values for the main constituents. Moisture: 9-13%,
Protein: 18%, Fatty oil: 8-23%, Essential oil: 2-7%, Starch: 5%,
N-free extract 22-28% and Crude fiber: 12-25%. Essential oil
yielded by distillation is generally around 2-3% and anethole
makes up 80-90% of this9. The main use of anise in traditional
European herbal medicine was for its carminative effect4,
diarrhea, menstrual cramps10 and colic11. The essential oil has
reportedly been used as an insecticide against head lice and
mites 12. Additionally, Thyme is of the genus Thymus of the
mint family (Lamiaceae), and a relative of the
oregano genus Origanum 13. Oil of thyme, the essential oil of
common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), contains 2054% thymol 14.
Thyme essential oil also contains a range of additional
compounds, such as p-cymene, myrcene, borneol, and linalool15.
Thymol, an antiseptic, is an active ingredient in various
commercially produced mouthwashes such as Listerine 16. Other
components including carvacrol, and other quantities of
geraniol, terpineol, linalool, trans-tuyanol-terpineol. flavonoids:
derivatives of apigenol and luteolol, phenolic acids: caffeic,
rosmarinic. abundant tannins (10%), Saponosides17.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the health benefits of two
famous plants anise seeds and thyme in a sample of healthy
volunteers through measuring the following parameters:
Complete blood count (CBC), Liver function enzymes (AST and
ALT), and Kidney function tests (Creatinine and urea). Lipid
profile (cholesterol, LDL, TG and HDL), Hormones
(testosterone), Fasting blood sugar, Blood pressure (SBP, DBP
and MAP) and body weight are also measured.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plants: Anise seeds (Pimpinella anisum) and Thymus vulgaris
were purchased from special herbal store in Sana’a City and
identified by Botanist in Faculty of Agriculture-Sana'a
University.
Participants: 10 Yemeni males were participated in this study.
Their ages range from 22-24 years old.
Study Design
Ten male Yemeni individuals participated in this study. Their
ages range from 20-24 years old and the average weight was
(60±2 kg), healthy and did not take any medications or herbal
Ibrahim Doa’a Anwar / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 8 (3), 2017
92
remedies throughout the duration of this study. Food and drinks
were kept in fixed situation. They were randomly divided into
two groups. First group: consumed anise seeds 2g twice daily as
a form of anise tea (n=5) and the second group: consumed
thyme leaves 2g twice daily (n=5), the herbs should steep within
the water for a period of 10 minutes and then strained. Studied
parameters were measured before and after 4 weeks (duration of
this study) 18. Complete blood count (CBC) 19, lipid profile20-22,
Liver function enzymes (AST and total and direct bilirubin) 23, 24
Kidney function tests (Creatinine and urea) 25,26, Hormones
(testosterone) 27, Fasting blood sugar 28. Blood pressure (SBP,
DBP and MAP) and body weight were measured weekly.
University Ethics Committee approved this study and all the
steps were covered the research ethics according to the guideline
before commencing this work.
Data Analysis: Data entry and analyses were carried out using
(SPSS) version 20.0 statistical program using T test with a
significance level less than 0.05.
RESULTS
From the present study, it was found that both herbs had effects
on complete blood count varied from increasing or decreasing
the parameters of complete blood count as shown in Table 1.
With regarding the effect of both herbs on liver function tests, it
was found that they improve liver function tests but
insignificantly as shown in Table 2.
From the outcomes of the present study, it was found that either
anise seeds or thyme had improvement effect on the kidney
function enzymes, especially urea as well as testosterone
hormone as shown in Table 3.
However, the effect of both herbs produced lipid lowering and
hypoglycemic effects as shown in Table 4.
In addition, the results of the present study showed that anise
seeds increased body weight, while thyme reduced it when they
are evaluating weekly through this trial period as shown in
Figure 1.
Table 1: Effect of daily consumption anise seeds and thyme for 4 weeks on (Mean ±SE) Complete Blood Count (CBC) in healthy volunteers
Parameters
Anise seeds
Thyme leaves
Before
Mean ±SE
After
Mean ±SE
Before
Mean ±SE
Hb g/dl
16.08±0.658
15.7500±1.01
17.16±0.478
T.WBC
X109/L
5.0850±0.45
5.3000±0.514
5.50±0.64
Neutrophils %
30.88±2.60
35.3±3.05*
39.84±3.66
Lymphocyte %
51.96±2.41
46.72±3.81*
43.84±2.53
Monocyte %
9.02±0.629
8.66±0.75
9.02±0.711
Eosinophil %
5.32±0.954
4.580±0.83
4.88±0.63
Leucocyte%
2.700±0.108
2.30±0.318*
3.460±0.496
Platelets
X109/L
295.75±.50.94
268.0±35.8
290.6±30.187
*Significant as compared with control (before) at p< 0.05
Table 2: Effect of daily consumption anise seeds and thyme for 4 weeks on (Mean ±SE) Liver function tests in healthy volunteers
Parameters
Anise seeds
Thyme leaves
Before
Mean ±SE
After
Mean ±SE
Before
Mean ±SE
After
Mean ±SE
AST (U/L)
21.86±0.575
19.40±2.84
31.40±5.368
25.80±5.35
T. Bilirubin (U/L)
16.27±4.64
10.53±2.27
13.40±2.46
12.8640±2.786
D. Bilirubin (U/L)
4.050±.68130
3.60±0.573
4.74±.96364
4.260±0.818
Table 3: Effect of daily consumption anise seeds and thyme for 4 weeks on (Mean ±SE) Kidney function and hormone tests in
healthy volunteers
Parameters
Anise seeds
Thyme leaves
Before
Mean ±SE
After
Mean ±SE
Before
Mean ±SE
After
Mean ±SE
Creatinine (mg/dl)
60.48±9.779
63.1000±7.22138
66.06±3.305
61.08±4.808
Urea (mg/dl)
23.25±2.69
21.00±2.429
25.00±3.406
21.20±2.083
Testosterone (ng/dl)
6.56±1.308
7.60±.93702
7.316±1.236
7.78±1.264*
*Significant as compared with control (before) at p< 0.05
Table 4: Effect of daily consumption anise seeds and thyme for 4 weeks on (Mean ±SE) Lipid profile and fasting blood sugar in
healthy volunteers
Parameters
Anise seeds
Thyme leaves
Before
Mean ±SE
After
Mean ±SE
Before
Mean ±SE
After
Mean ±SE
T. cholesterol (mg/dl)
160.9±5.632
156.2±11.1
159.9±8.160
157.0±10.04
LDL-c (mg/dl)
104.2±5.847
97.43±10.549
95.04±9.965
93.80±10.42
TG (mg/dl)
102.34±12.57
80.92±7.058
117.1±24.01
107.70±21.65*
FBS (mg/dl)
4.80± 0.201
4.45±0.170*
4.78± 0.109
4.64±0.24
*Significant as compared with control (before) at p< 0.05
Ibrahim Doa’a Anwar / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 8 (3), 2017
93
Figure 1: weekly evaluation of (Mean ±SE) body weight (kg) through daily consuming anise seeds and thyme leaves for 4 weeks
*Significant as compared with control (before) at p< 0.05
Both herbs produced beneficial effects on blood pressure but it
was significantly with thyme group as it reduced all the
components of blood pressure (DBP, SBP and MAP) as shown
in Table 5.
DISCUSSION
In Middle East, especially Egypt anise seeds are used widely as
a hot drink given daily for mothers when they are nursing for
more production of milk and for many other health purposes 29.
In addition, thyme is used traditionally for health disorders
starting from dental plaque end with diuretic effect. The
outcomes of the present study showed that both herbs (anise and
thyme) had potent health benefits. They improved liver, kidney
function tests as they reduced the important parameters
including AST, total and direct bilirubin, creatinine, urea, and
CBC. This effect is referred to the active constituents present in
both herbs especially essential oil. Anise fruits, called anise
seed, contain around 1.5 to 5.0% essential oil, which is
composed of more than 90% volatile phenylpropanoids like
trans-anethole followed by γ-himachalene, methyl chavicol
(estragol), anisaldehyde, β-himachalene and α-zingiberene 30.
The main essential oil presence in anise seeds is anethole,
estragol, p-anisaldehyde, anise alcohol, acetophenone,
pinene and limonene. Besides that, anise seeds are considered as
rich sources of pyridoxine, calcium, iron, copper,
potassium, manganese, zinc and magnesium. 100 g dry seeds
contain 36.96 mg or 462% daily-required levels of iron.
Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids
that helps control heart rate and blood pressure 31. However,
pods of anise contain the most important chemical substance
that has potent antiviral activity known as shikimic acid that
manufactured Tamiflu which is active against avian and swine
flu 32. One study agreed with outcomes of this study as anise
seeds have different effects on blood pictures. They stimulate
spleen for more production of RBCs, besides that they increase
WBCs which determine the availability the immunological
system that fight bacteria, viruses, parasites or even poisons by
pathological state the superiority of nutrient stimulation of
cytokines secretion 33.
On the other hand, anise showed lower concentration of
lymphocytes and monocytes, lymphocytes divided to T and B-
lymphocytes. They are granulomatous WBCs and taken as
indicator for immunological state of human 34. B-lymphocytes
formed antibodies (Ab) for the most invasive pathogens, which
called immunoglobulin to form humeral immunity. T-
lymphocytes matured in thymus gland and formed cellular
immunity by cytokines secretion that will stimulates
macrophages, Eosinophil, basophiles and Neutrophils 35. With
regarding to thyme, it composed from high level of thymol
which is one of the important essential oil, that is responsible for
the most health benefits, especially that for respiratory
congestion, bronchitis, whooping cough and catarrh
(inflammation of upper respiratory tract mucous membranes) 36.
Additionally, thyme contains many other volatile oils including
carvacol, geraniol and borneol as well as zea-xanthin, lutein,
pigenin, naringenin, luteolin, and thymonin which they are the
important antioxidants phenolic flavonoid present in thyme.
Minerals existing in thyme leaves have many roles in the body,
iron is important in blood formation particularly red blood cells,
while potassium controls heart rate and blood pressure37.
However, thyme is considered as a rich source in vitamins that
play an important role in immune system against infections and
inflammation and as a stress reliever though stabilization the
brain neurotransmitters especially GABA 38
In the present study, anise seeds consumed for four weeks
increased body weight while thyme reduced body weight. In
addition, both herbs reduced blood pressure (SBP, DBP and
MAP) but it was significantly with thyme. Many studies are
supported this findings as they found that thyme can produce
hypotension in human as well as in experimental animals 39, 40.
Reduction of body weight and hypotension accompanied with
thyme uses, may referred to the potent diuretic effect of this
herb that removed excess fluid and salts as well as toxic
materials from the body 41. Additionally, both herbs increased
the production of many hormones. Some studies showed that
essential oil of both herbs is used for many purposes including
milk production in female and relief dysmenorrhea, ease
childbirth, increase sexual drive as well as treatment of
menopause symptoms42, 43, 44. Shanoon A.K and Mahdi S J, 2012
were found that thyme has androgenic activity as it increased in
Ibrahim Doa’a Anwar / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 8 (3), 2017
94
ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, counts, movements and
a significant decrease in motility and abnormality and
significant increase in tests weight 45.
CONCLUSION
From the outcomes of this study, it suggested that both herbs
have closely beneficial effects on human health through
improvement the measuring functional parameters of the most
important organs used in this study. Thyme showed more
reducing effect especially in body weight, lipid profile
especially triglycerides and blood pressure, contradictory anise
seeds were shown more improvement in fasting blood sugar and
increasing in body weight. Both herbs had strengthened the
immunological system as well as hormonal activity. Further
studies are needed in this field that focuses mainly on persons
suffering from some ailments taking in considerations the
sample size.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Author would like to thank all volunteers who were participated
in this study.
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Cite this article as:
Ibrahim Doa’a Anwar. Medicinal benefits of Anise seeds
(Pimpinella anisum) and thymus vulgaris in a sample of healthy
volunteers. Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 2017;8(3):91-95
http://dx.doi.org/10.7897/2277-4343.083150
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... Pimpinella anisum is grown and cultivated in various areas such as Asia, Middle Eastern regions like Iran and Egypt. It has also been reported to grow in Europe and Mexico 77 . Every year, the anise fruit is harvested between August and September. ...
... Every year, the anise fruit is harvested between August and September. Its traditional medicinal uses include alleviation of various conditions such as digestive disorders, GIT spasms, and constipation and also to increase the breast milk production in women 76,77 . The secondary metabolism products of this plant consist of various chemicals with anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities [78][79][80]. ...
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a highly infectious pathogen, which can affect both humans and animals. The metabolic products of this bacterium affect the pulmonary, nervous, lymphatic, and cardiovascular systems. The aim of this review is to provide information on certain local herbs from Iraq, which have been found to be effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this report, we have reviewed 13 medicinal plants and their anti-mycobacterial activities. The family, traditional medicinal uses, common local names, in vitro activity of the crude extract, and information about bioactive chemical composition of these plant species have been described. The crude extracts of these medicinal plants can be used to develop novel drugs against tuberculosis.
... Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region, west and Southwest Asia [1- [2][3]. Anise is also famous in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Ayurveda and Unani medicine. ...
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Seed dormancy is one of the major problems in agricultural studies, especially for medicinal plants. Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.)is an important economic medicinal plant with dormant seeds and distributed only in its natural habitats. An experiment was conducted as a Factorial layout within a completely randomized design with four replications to evaluate the effects of some pretreatment factors on primary growth and germination characteristics of anise.Pre-chilling treatments were 0, 15, 30 and 45 days treatments and hormone treatments were GA3 (Gibberellic Acid), BA (benzyladenine), kinetin (Kinetinnetin), GA3+BA, GA3+kinetin BA+kinetin, GA3+BA+kinetin, KNO3, H2SO4 and distilled water as a control treatment.Prechilling treatment effects on coleoptile and radicle length, seedling length, germination percentage, mean time for germination, germination rate and seed vigor index showed significant differences (p<0.01) among them. Similarly,different hormone treatments also had significantly different influence on coleoptile and radicle length, seedling length, germination percentage, mean time germination, germination rate and seed vigor index. The highest germination percentage and germination rate was related to the usage of BA+ kinetin. The highest values for radicle length and uniformity of seed germination were achieved in BA and kinetin, respectively. Moreover, application of GA3+BA+kinetin had given the highest seed vigor index. It seems that application of exogenous GA3+KİNETİN and BA+kinetin concentration, which is provided mostly by chilling treatment, is the most effective factor for breaking the seed dormancy. On the basis of the results, usage of 45 days moist prechilling accompanied with application of GA3+kinetin and BA+kinetin in Esfahan cultivar was appropriate.
Chapter
Across several civilisations of the world, spices have played a very important role. They are used not only for their culinary benefits but also for their medicinal values. In Africa as well, spices are special part of the cuisine and also a huge part of the traditional medicine system of the continent. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and ageing. Spices have been touted as rich sources of dietary natural antioxidants after vegetables and fruits. Some notable spices which are indigenous to Africa include Tamarindus indica, Trachyspermum ammi and Piper guineense. These spices possess important bioactive components responsible for their biological activities. Some of these compounds are Capsaicin (Capsicum annuum), Piperine (Piper guineense) and Carvacrol (Origanum syriacum). These compounds have been reported to possess biological activities ranging from anticancer, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory and antineurodegenerative. They have also been reported to be instrumental in plant–microbe interactions. These review attempts to look into some indigenous African spices, their bioactive antioxidant components and biological activities and their role in plant–microbe interactions.
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Ionizing radiation is known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in irradiated tissues. This study evaluates the potential therapeutic effect of thyme oil administration against the oxidative stress induced by gamma-ray in male rats supplemented with thyme oil at dose 42.5 mg/kg body wt/day for 21 repeated days before and after irradiation. In gamma-irradiated rats group, dietary thyme essential oil has been shown to protect and maintain levels of triacylglyceride, phospholipids and cell membrane integrity by improving total antioxidant status (TAS) and regulating the levels of lipids alterations in lipid head groups' concentrations. Furthermore, serum and tissues glutathione-Stransferase (GST) activity was found to have increased significantly in the same group. There were also significant increases in the total free fatty acids, protein carbonyl and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in serum and in each tissue examined. General features of the measured antioxidant parameters were similar, where their activities restored in rats whose diets were supplemented with thyme oil before irradiation and to some extend in treated group post gamma-ray exposure suggesting that they retained a more favorable antioxidant capacity during their therapeutic course
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Green tea from the leaves of plant Camellia sinensis has been shown to have wide range of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and antibacterial activity against many pathogens. In addition, Hibiscus sabdariffa (Linn) (HS) (family Malvaceae), showed benefits in the most of body health. This study is aimed to evaluate the effect of daily consumption of green tea and hibiscus on some biochemical parameters in healthy volunteers. Fourteen healthy volunteers were divided randomly into two groups each one contains seven volunteers. They were allowed to drink hot tea of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces and the leaves of green tea 2g three times daily for 2 weeks. Then fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, blood pressure, serum uric acid and testosterone level were measured before and after as well as total body weight was measured daily. Both plants were shown significant reduction in lipid profile, SBP, DBP and mean arterial blood pressure, as well as uric acid only in green tea group, but there is no significant change according to the fasting blood sugar and testosterone level. There is rapid reduction in body weight by using green tea but not significantly. From this study, we conclude that both plants showed potent hypotensive and hypolipidemic effect. These effects made them very efficiently in protection against cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, Green tea showed worthwhile hypouricemic effect compared with hibiscus.
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The new third edition of the Foster and Duke Field Guide to Medicinal Plants has been expanded to include 60 new species not found in previous editions. The book includes 531 species accounts with information on 588 medicinal plant species. With 705 color photographs by Steven Foster, over 88% of the images are new. Over 66% of the plants in the book are native species, while 33% represent non-native, mostly European and Asian aliens.
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To examine the effect of Ginger rhizome and thyme leaf aqueous extract on male reproductive system and the mechanisms of these effects the aqueous were add two drinking water to two groups of male broilers breeder ROSS308, the addition start in 24wk and end in 44wks age at levels 5% and 10% for each plant aqueous where the other group was a control (received a distilled water). ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, counts, movements, motility, abnormality, testes weight and histology measurements were the mean characteristics studied. There were a significant increase (P<0.05) in ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, counts, movements and a significant decrease (P<0.05) in motility and abnormality, also there were a significant increase (P<0.05) in testes weight, percentage and histology measurements, there for my results refer to that extract of ginger and thyme conceder as pro-fertility properties in male broiler which might be a product of both its potent antioxidant properties and androgenic activities.
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To prevent bone loss that occurs with increasing age, nutritional and pharmacological factors are needed. Traditional therapeutic agents (selective estrogen receptor modulators or SERMs, biphosphonates, calcitonin) may have serious side effects or contraindications. In an attempt to find food components potentially acting as SERMs, we submitted four plant aqueous extracts derived from Greek flora (Sideritis euboea, Sideritis clandestina, Marticaria chamomilla, and Pimpinella anisum) in a series of in vitro biological assays reflective of SERM profile. We examined their ability (a) to stimulate the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblastic cell culture by histochemical staining for alkaline phosphatase and Alizarin Red-S staining, (b) to induce, like antiestrogens, the insulin growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and (c) to proliferate cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cells by use of MTT assay. Our data reveal that all the plant extracts studied at a concentration range 10-100 microg/mL stimulate osteoblastic cell differentiation and exhibit antiestrogenic effect on breast cancer cells without proliferative effects on cervical adenocarcinoma cells. The presence of estradiol inhibited the antiestrogenic effect induced by the extracts on MCF-7 cells, suggesting an estrogen receptor-related mechanism. In conclusion, the aqueous extracts derived from Sideritis euboea, Sideritis clandestina, Marticaria chamomilla, and Pimpinella anisum may form the basis to design "functional foods" for the prevention of osteoporosis.
Article
This research was carried out at the University of Ankara, Faculty of Agriculture, Field Crops Department and the laboratories of the Food Engineering Department. Twenty-nine anise seed samples were collected from different locations in 9 producer provinces in Turkey and were used as the study materials in order to determine essential oil and essential oil compositions. According to the results, essential oil levels varied from 1.3% to 3.7%. The major component of the essential oil was trans-anethole. This compound ranged from 78.63% to 95.21%. Population 26 may be recommended for trans-anethole percentage and populations 8 and 22 for essential oil content.
Article
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti bacterial activity of three essential oils Thyme, Peppermint and neem oil on Streptococcus mutans, the potent initiator and leading cause of dental caries world wide. Essential oils are distillates of the volatile compounds of a plant’s secondary metabolism and may act as phytoprotective agents. Their curative effect has been known since antiquity. It is based on a variety of pharmacological properties which are specific for each plant species. Antibacterial activity of the three essential oils, Thyme, Peppermint and neem oil were screened against Streptococcus mutans, using disc diffusion technique. The results of this study showed that the extracts at different concentrations exhibited anti bacterial activity against the bacterial species tested.
Article
The study was conducted to investigate the effect of various addition levels of dietary Anise seeds powder on some immunological aspects and growth parameters of common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio L.). Thirty two at mean Wt. 52.50 gm ranged 30-75 gm were randomly distributed into four duplicate treatments. No Anise powder adding to treatment 1 (control), while T2, T3, T4 had treated with 0.3%, 0.6% and 1.0% of anise seeds powder respectively. Fish were weighed biweekly for ten weeks experiment period. Diets and Flesh of experimental fish was analyzed chemically before and after the experiment. Growth parameters was calculated and blood samples had taken and tested for whole blood picture (Hb, PCV%, R.B.Cs. and differential W.B.Cs. Counts). All data were analyzed statistically by Complete Randomized Design (CRD) and tested with Least Significant Differences (LSD) at p>0.05 Probability. The results showed the best response were in T3 and T4 with significant differences between all treatments, these seeds powder play a positive promoting agent by altering the levels of growth parameters, immunological performances by improving blood components and properties. Because Anise has anethole, Tyrosinase inhibitor activity and shikimic acid, which they slow the spread of pathogenic agents into fish bodies and keep fishes in a constant healthy state by stimulates their immunity.
Article
Both medical students and practitioners recognize Todd and Sanford as one of the leading texts in clinical pathology and laboratory medical science. Its newest edition, the 17th, follows the same format as the previous edition, published in 1979, and has the same editor and many of the same contributors. A comparison between the two versions is in order.For the student, the new edition reflects advances made in medical laboratory science in the intervening five years. These changes are evident in all the major chapters: clinical chemistry, microscopy, immunopathology, microbiology, and hematology. Tables that had blank spaces in the 16th edition are now completed in the newest edition. The student will appreciate this newness; however, the book assumes a basic understanding of patholophysiology.For the practitioner, the 17th edition has a clearer clinical orientation than did the previous one. While some contributors display more clinical orientation than others, all chapters
Article
The composition of the essential oil ofPimpinella anisum L fruit is determined by GC and GC-MS. The volatile oil content obtained by hydrodistillation was 1.91%. Ten compounds representing 98.3% of the oil was identified. The main constituents of he oil obtained from dried fruits were trans-a nethole (93.9%) and estragole (2.4%). The olfactorially valuable constituents that were found with concentration higher than 0.06% were (E)-methyeugenol, α-cuparene, α-himachalene, β-bisabolene, p-anisaldehyde and cis-anethole. Also, the different concentrations of anise oil exerted varying levels of inhibitory effects on the mycelial growth off/ternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger andAspergillus parasiticus used in experimental. The results showed that the most effected fungus from anise oil wasA. parasiticus, which is followed byA. niger andA. alternata. Individual of this plant oil may provide a useful to achive adequate shelf-life of foods.