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The Creative Mind: Myths and Mechanisms

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Abstract

How is it possible to think new thoughts? What is creativity and can science explain it? When The Creative Mind: Myths and Mechanisms was first published, Margaret A. Boden's bold and provocative exploration of creativity broke new ground. Boden uses examples such as jazz improvisation, chess, story writing, physics, and the music of Mozart, together with computing models from the field of artificial intelligence to uncover the nature of human creativity in the arts, science and everyday life. The Second Edition of The Creative Mind has been updated to include recent developments in artificial intelligence, with a new preface, introduction and conclusion by the author. It is an essential work for anyone interested in the creativity of the human mind.
... The dynamic patterns operate as a self-organizing system [3]. 1 1. 1 The bibliography on creativity is full of references to the role of the unconscious mind in the creative process. For example, in the groundbreaking work of the cognitive scientist Margaret Boden [1], the author makes reference to Coleridge's notion of associative memory, Poincaré's famous description of creativity as first and foremost a process of combination of unconscious ideas, and the role of the unconscious in what Arthur Koestler named "bisociation", i.e. the unexpected synthesis of two difference conceptual matrices ( [1], pp. ...
... The combinatorial process involved in generating the outputs is possibly also a dynamic one, containing wave interferences, positive and negative. The dynamic patterns operate as a self-organizing system [3]. 1 1. 1 The bibliography on creativity is full of references to the role of the unconscious mind in the creative process. For example, in the groundbreaking work of the cognitive scientist Margaret Boden [1], the author makes reference to Coleridge's notion of associative memory, Poincaré's famous description of creativity as first and foremost a process of combination of unconscious ideas, and the role of the unconscious in what Arthur Koestler named "bisociation", i.e. the unexpected synthesis of two difference conceptual matrices ( [1], pp. ...
... The dynamic patterns operate as a self-organizing system [3]. 1 1. 1 The bibliography on creativity is full of references to the role of the unconscious mind in the creative process. For example, in the groundbreaking work of the cognitive scientist Margaret Boden [1], the author makes reference to Coleridge's notion of associative memory, Poincaré's famous description of creativity as first and foremost a process of combination of unconscious ideas, and the role of the unconscious in what Arthur Koestler named "bisociation", i.e. the unexpected synthesis of two difference conceptual matrices ( [1], pp. [29][30][31][32][33][34]. ...
Article
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Abstract Sentience, defined as the capacity of feeling, for example, to experience basic sensations such as hunger, thirst and other types of qualitative mental states, is a psychobiological phenomenon that involves dynamic patterns of electrochemical (below 1Hz) and electromagnetic (above 1Hz) waves in living systems. The science we have called Sentiomics studies unconscious dynamic patterns in the brain that define the capacity for feeling. This paper discusses the explanation of creative processes based on unconscious patterns that combine and constructively interfere, generating a conscious output experienced in the living system's first-person perspective. We claim that the Sentiomics approach to wave interferences helps to explain creative intuition, artistic creativity, the formation of dreams, and related phenomena. We raise a hypothesis-based on available evidence, to be experimentally tested-that the dominance of slower synchronized oscillatory frequencies (such as Delta, Theta and Alpha bands) in scalp electroencephalogram spectra makes more room for constructive electrochemical interferences supporting creativity. This research points to the dynamism of the unconscious mind, since such interferences happen without the need of conscious control but are influenced by the degree of attention focusing. Once those dynamic processes are understood, they can be used to enrich mental life, boost creativity in general, and improve decision-making processes.
... Existing research on ideas in science is characterized, first, by a focus on H-creativity (historical creativity, ideas that are creative with respect to the entire human history) [6] or Big-C creativity [29], as in greatest or the most influential people and ideas in scientific evolution and, second, on natural sciences [3,28,41,55]. Third, psychology research has focused mainly on scientific creativity in vitro, studies of the creative individual, or experimental studies of the creative process [44]. ...
... Third, psychology research has focused mainly on scientific creativity in vitro, studies of the creative individual, or experimental studies of the creative process [44]. This leaves a lacuna of dedicated research on in vivo creativity (that is, P-creativity (personal creativity; that which is creative for the individual) and Pro-c [6,29]), as continuous everyday creative practice by professional researchers, including social sciences and the humanities. Personal creativity is essential to historical creativity: ...
... Researchers from seemingly remote fields (and most with little or no relation to creativity research) used remarkably similar words to describe ideas more generally, such as "connecting things", "putting stuff together", which is similar to idea definitions in creativity research [1,6,42]. Many participants also described a sense of a core idea as a simple entity with potential layers of complexity on top: ...
... "To create" has generally been associated with actions such as "to grow", "to make", "to bring forth," or "to produce." Early and contemporary studies revealed that creativity has been seen as an act or ability to be original (Jackson & Shaw, 2006;Torrance, 1962) and to innovate by forming unorthodox relationships between seemingly unconnected ideas, pieces of knowledge and skills (Boden, 2004;Mednick, 1963). Creativity has also been perceived as producing something useful or appropriate (Amabile, 1982;Boden, 2004) particularly when there is a need for solving a problem (Amabile et al., 2012;Sternberg & Lubart, 1991). ...
... Early and contemporary studies revealed that creativity has been seen as an act or ability to be original (Jackson & Shaw, 2006;Torrance, 1962) and to innovate by forming unorthodox relationships between seemingly unconnected ideas, pieces of knowledge and skills (Boden, 2004;Mednick, 1963). Creativity has also been perceived as producing something useful or appropriate (Amabile, 1982;Boden, 2004) particularly when there is a need for solving a problem (Amabile et al., 2012;Sternberg & Lubart, 1991). It has been shown as an ability influenced by the individual's personality (e.g., Batey et al., 2010;Kaufman, 2012;Liu et al., 2016), emotions (e.g., Csikszentmihalyi, 1990;Delgado, 2017;Dörfler & Eden, 2014), cognition (e.g., Chiu, 2014;Guilford, 1950;Wang et al., 2016;Xing & Chen, 2009) and their contextual situations (e.g., Fjaellingsdal et al., 2021;Rock, 2008). ...
... Creativity can also be nurtured and taught (Beghetto, 2017;Dumas et al., 2016;Maksic & Spasenovic, 2018;Sternberg, 2010), or can be an outcome of a collective effort (Kenny, 2014). Therefore, any study of creativity needs to consider these questions: are creative acts and abilities genetically bestowed on a selected few whose ideas and creations have shaped the lives of the masses throughout history (Boden, 2004;Kaufman & Beghetto, 2009)? Is creativity about rearranging, reconnecting and amalgamating multiple interdisciplinary concepts and ideas (Benedek et al., 2021)? ...
Article
Creativity has been recognised as one of the most important skills in the 21st century. Although creativity has been advocated in the context of education, there still seems to be a lack of understanding of the concept of creativity, leading to teaching and learning practices that still encourage uniformity and conformity. The current literature on creativity is insufficient for understanding creativity from a more comprehensive manner, as frameworks and taxonomies for creativity largely focus on either listing a set of components relevant to creativity without explaining strategies that invoke creativity or categorising creative strategies without explaining the factors that support the use of these strategies, and the result of applying these strategies. More importantly, these frameworks are largely theoretical without empirical evidence. While there have been studies that investigate approaches for developing creativity, the effectiveness of these approaches is measured based on the improvement demonstrated through the creative outputs produced by the participants, by mainly looking at the number of solutions being produced and the originality of the solutions. They do not examine the use of strategies in the creative processes. As such, the understanding of how creativity can be supported by the use of set of strategies remains insufficient. In view of these situations, this study aimed to develop a taxonomic framework that could facilitate the understanding and development of creativity, which could serve as a foundation for teaching, learning and assessment. This study viewed creativity from the problem-solving perspective, where problems act as a catalyst for creative thinking. The sample for this study was lecturers and students across various disciplines from an international university in Malaysia. This study aimed at (i) developing a prototype taxonomic framework for creativity through a synthesis of literature on theories, frameworks and research on creativity, (ii) exploring and understanding the meaning of creativity from the higher education lecturers and students’ perspectives, (iii) examining the creativity features and usability of the taxonomic framework based on the perceptions of creativity and the relevance of the framework among a group of higher education lecturers and students, and (iv) examining the use of the creative strategies in the prototype taxonomic framework for creativity through a problem-solving task. The methodology for this study involved a mixed-methods, multiphase design. This study comprised four phases i.e., (i) a systematic synthesis of the literature on creativity through a thematic analysis to develop a prototype taxonomic framework for creativity, (ii) data collection from general higher education lecturers and students through a survey, (iii) data collection from the participant-nominated creative students and lecturers through a series of interviews, and (iv) data collection from higher education students through a problem-solving task. Findings revealed that the prototype taxonomic framework for creativity consisted of 24 features of creativity. Findings gained from the survey and interviews showed that creativity was generally perceived as an ability related to the mental processes and the ability to produce something that has a value – usually innovativeness and originality. Additionally, the taxonomic framework was generally perceived to be relevant for teaching, learning and assessment. Findings from the problem-solving task revealed that the taxonomic framework was able to facilitate creativity, by allowing students to use a wider range of strategies, produce more solutions, provide greater detail to their solutions and generate solutions that are novel, useful and ethical. In general, the overall findings from the study have demonstrated that creativity is a skill that can be taught and learned. The implications of the study offered several contributions of the framework for educational purposes.
... Margaret Boden develops a 'computational' account of creativity. The account is centred on conceptual spaces (Boden 2004). One way of understanding a conceptual space is via the notion of a problem space: some kind of challenge, creating a synthetic burr for example, has a range of possible solutions constrained by different design decisions, materials, and so forth. ...
... The stunning variety of ceratopsid skulls would have been difficult to predict if we only had access to the ancestral form. Third, evolution can be surprising (Boden 2004), and moreover guide inquiry. ...
Article
Common philosophical accounts of creativity align creative products and processes with a particular kind of agency: namely, that deserving of praise or blame. Considering evolutionary examples, we explore two ways of denying that creativity requires forms of agency. First, we argue that decoupling creativity from praiseworthiness comes at little cost: accepting that evolutionary processes are non-agential, they nonetheless exhibit many of the same characteristics and value associated with creativity. Second, we develop a ‘product-first’ account of creativity by which a process is creative just in case it gives rise to products deserving of certain forms of aesthetic engagement.
... Consequently, the antiintellectualist takes this phenomenological experience as a metaphysical criterion of creativity, concluding that the feeling of originality is sufficient for an agent's non-participation. However, this move mistakes the feeling of originality for actual originalityand what matters for creativity is the latter sort: whether or not one feels that something is novel doesn't actually make it so (Boden, 1990). For instance, in a moment of creative illumination we may have forgotten that we already came up with the insight, or alternatively someone else may have developed the very same idea already. ...
... There is some discussion of what sort of 'newness' creativity requires.Boden (1990), for example, distinguishes between historical and psychological novelty in creative acts. Though it could be possible for someone to discover the Pythagorean theorem without ever having been taught it, this discovery would only be new to its discoverer, as the rest of the world has been up to date on triangles since Ancient Greece. If ...
Article
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Perhaps a part of what makes expertise so inspiring to the curious researcher is the possibility of appropriating the structural components of skilled action to draw a roadmap towards their achievement that anyone might be able to follow. Accordingly, the purpose of this essay is to shed light upon the role that creativity plays in the production and environment of skilled action to that foregoing end. In doing so, I suggest that the lessons to be learned from recent empirical research on creativity has much to offer to the cognitive science of skill and expertise. Experts are able to bring their intelligence to bear in controlling fast and seemingly automatic actions by utilizing a form of control often called ‘intelligent automaticity.’ In this spirit, I argue that the environment of intelligently automatic action control curates a similarly ideal environment for the processes of creativity. Moreover, insofar as creativity is ideally operative within the environment of expert action control, I argue further that creativity functions as one representative form of ‘intelligence’ embedded within otherwise fluid, and automatic expert actions. Creativity is able to do so even without conscious representation through the powers of incubated cognition.
... Can the tension be eased or even resolved, and if so, how? Regarding the cause of the tension, cognitively speaking, novel ideas and designs appear in a conceptual space (Boden 2003), where their meanings are interpreted (Drazin et al. 1999) and their values are assessed (Grace et al. 2015). Hence, novelty is confined within the boundary of this conceptual space. ...
... First, divergent ideas, however novel, must be comprehensible to be valuable. The creator and the audience (e.g., the supervisor, employer, consumer, analyst, etc.) make sense of novel ideas and products in a conceptual space (Boden 2003). Ideas or products that deny the basic assumptions and logics commonly accepted in the conceptual space cannot be understood in that space and may be labeled "crazy" or "absurd" (Davis 1971), instead of "novel" or "valuable." ...
Conference Paper
In a creative process, divergent thinking needs to be stimulated to generate novel ideas; yet these ideas must be synthesized to produce something valuable. Hence to foster creativity in developing IT products, creators need to manage the tension between novelty and value. Since the forces affecting the novelty-value tension often exist outside a creator's group or organization, we apply organizational ecology theory to propose an industry-level, ecological model for understanding the novelty of IT products. Analyzing data on 2,903 mobile devices developed by 156 firms worldwide over a ten-year period, we found that legitimation of the products in a market niche and competition between market niches enhanced product novelty. However, not all kinds of competition stimulated novelty. Competition within each niche hampered novelty. This ecological perspective contributes to creative IT/IS research and has the potential to bridge studies of creativity and digital innovation.
... Consequently, the antiintellectualist takes this phenomenological experience as a metaphysical criterion of creativity, concluding that the feeling of originality is sufficient for an agent's non-participation. However, this move mistakes the feeling of originality for actual originalityand what matters for creativity is the latter sort: whether or not one feels that something is novel doesn't actually make it so (Boden, 1990). For instance, in a moment of creative illumination we may have forgotten that we already came up with the insight, or alternatively someone else may have developed the very same idea already. ...
... There is some discussion of what sort of 'newness' creativity requires.Boden (1990), for example, distinguishes between historical and psychological novelty in creative acts. Though it could be possible for someone to discover the Pythagorean theorem without ever having been taught it, this discovery would only be new to its discoverer, as the rest of the world has been up to date on triangles since Ancient Greece. If ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Perhaps a part of what makes expertise so inspiring to the curious researcher is the possibility of appropriating the structural components of skilled action to draw a roadmap towards their achievement that anyone might be able to follow. Accordingly, the purpose of this essay is to shed light upon the role that creativity plays in the production and environment of skilled action to that foregoing end. In doing so, I suggest that the lessons to be learned from recent empirical research on creativity has much to offer to the cognitive science of skill and expertise. Experts are able to bring their intelligence to bear in controlling fast and seemingly automatic actions by utilizing a form of control often called 'intelligent automaticity.' In this spirit, I argue that the environment of intelligently automatic action control curates a similarly ideal environment for the processes of creativity. Moreover, insofar as creativity is ideally operative within the environment of expert action control, I argue further that creativity functions as one representative form of 'intelligence' embedded within otherwise fluid, and automatic expert actions. Creativity is able to do so even without conscious representation through the powers of incubated cognition.
... Responses to the AUT are generally scored in terms of quality, such as the originality and utility of each generated idea, often rated by two or more experts using the Consensual Assessment Technique (Baer and McKool, 2009). In this study, we examine these two quality dimensions, where there is generally a trade-off between originality and utility (Rietzchel, Nijstad and Stroebe, 2019, as well as the surprise elicited by AUT responses as suggested by Boden (2004) and Simonton (2018). Surprise, where a response violates expectations and elicits interest, may be of particular interest when examining AI creativity in the context of LLMs. ...
... We can imagine a future in which GPT-3 and other generative LLMs responses cannot be distinguished from humans, although the creative process will be different. This is where the question arises as to the role of process in defining what is creative and what is not; we agree with Boden (2004) and Simonton (2018), that the process matters, e.g., a brute-force process is not creative, but what is? We hope that this continued line of work will provide insight into what it means to be creative, and perhaps even what it means to be human. ...
Preprint
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AI large language models have (co-)produced amazing written works from newspaper articles to novels and poetry. These works meet the standards of the standard definition of creativity: being original and useful, and sometimes even the additional element of surprise. But can a large language model designed to predict the next text fragment provide creative, out-of-the-box, responses that still solve the problem at hand? We put Open AI's generative natural language model, GPT-3, to the test. Can it provide creative solutions to one of the most commonly used tests in creativity research? We assessed GPT-3's creativity on Guilford's Alternative Uses Test and compared its performance to previously collected human responses on expert ratings of originality, usefulness and surprise of responses, flexibility of each set of ideas as well as an automated method to measure creativity based on the semantic distance between a response and the AUT object in question. Our results show that -- on the whole -- humans currently outperform GPT-3 when it comes to creative output. But, we believe it is only a matter of time before GPT-3 catches up on this particular task. We discuss what this work reveals about human and AI creativity, creativity testing and our definition of creativity.
... a. Exploration. Construct (based on the concept of exploratory creativity [72]): It generates variations within a delimited solution space. This is evaluated because it relates to the core target functionality (see Sec. 4). ...
... c. Surprise. Construct (based on [72]): Are there non-obvious variations? This construct is an important part of an effective divergence process because, if variations are too obvious, then they are presumably less likely to be perceived as evocative or valuable idea catalyzers and cognitive facilitators (see Sec. 2.1). ...
Article
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As a vital element of early shape exploration, divergence can be time-consuming and challenging, with iterative cycles where idea fixation and creative blocks must be overcome for fuzzy ideas to be fully expanded and understood. Despite interesting tools that have been developed for this purpose, some important challenges remain, as it appears that many designers still prefer simple freehand sketching and tend to defer the use of computational tools to later stages. This work presents an exploratory assessment of the perceived value of a new tool, Shapi, developed to assist early shape exploration by addressing some of the pitfalls reported in the literature. Shapi is envisioned as an autonomous assistant that provides local and global shape variations in the form of rough sketches based on an initial human sketch and interactive cycles. These shape variations are What-If scenarios and cognitive facilitators that may spark new ideas or enable a deeper understanding of the shape and the identification of interesting patterns. Shapi’s capabilities are explored in a diverse set of case studies with different purposes: nine implementations in industrial design, three in graphic design, and five with open-ended artistic purposes. These implementations are then used in a survey about initial perceived value in which the majority gave high ratings in terms of exploration (75.5% ≥ 4 out of 5), interpretation (83.7% ≥ 4), adaptation (77.6% ≥ 4), value (73.5% ≥ 4), creativity (69.4% ≥ 4), and general interest in the tool (79.6% ≥ 4). This work brings insight into promising functionalities, opportunities, and risks in the intersection between artificial intelligence, design, and art.
... Söz konusu sürecin işleyişinin sağlanması için ihtiyaç duyulan olgu ise insan dehasının sofistike olarak hayret verici özelliği olan yaratıcılıktır. Boden (2004), sanat eserlerinin yaratımının insan yaşamına dair izlerden beslendiğini ve bu durumun iletişim temelinde insanlar arası bir etkileşimi oluşturduğunu ele alır. Söz konusu tartışmada makinelerin yer alıp almayacağına dair soruyu bize sorar. ...
Article
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İnsanların evrimsel süreçte yaşam şansını artırmak için kullandığı alet icat etme özelliğinin gelişmiş olduğu son nokta olarak karşımıza çıkan yapay zekâ, mevcut durumda insanlığın kendi vasatlığını aşması için önemli bir yardımcı haline gelmiştir. Gelişiminin hızı bazıları için tedirgin edici olabilir. Ancak sonuç olarak sürecin gelişimi bir kez devinmeye başlamıştır. Söz konusu devinim durdurulamaz bir gelişimi kaçınılmaz kılmıştır. Bu bağlamda yapay zekâ ve insan becerileri daima kıyaslanan iki unsur olmuştur. Karşılıklı olarak öğrenen ve birbirini geliştiren bu unsurlar karşıt olmaktan çok birbirlerinin tamamlayıcısı ve geliştiricisi olmak hususunda bağdaşıktırlar. Makine, insan iş birliğinin kapsamlı bir şekilde incelenebildiği sanat alanı açısından söz gelimi karşıtlığın tartışılan boyutu olan yaratıcılık açısından irdelenmiştir. Yapay zekânın derin öğrenme vasıtasıyla gerçekleştirdiği öğrenmelerin sonu olarak üretimlerinin, insan öğrenmesi üzerinden ilişkisi incelenmiştir. Yaratıcılık bağlamında sanatın ve sanatçının çağımızın gelişimine uygun olarak tekrar tartışılması ve sanatın niteliğinin yeniden ele alınması amaçlanmaktadır.
... The uniqueness (or "novelty" or "atypicality") of a creative artifact is an important attribute that determines its artistic value. Products based on either a new combination of existing elements or groundbreaking principles (Boden 2004) can potentially lead to success. However, do consumers really prefer uniqueness in creative artifacts? ...
Preprint
How does our society appreciate the uniqueness of cultural products? This fundamental puzzle has intrigued scholars in many fields, including psychology, sociology, anthropology, and marketing. It has been theorized that cultural products that balance familiarity and novelty are more likely to become popular. However, a cultural product's novelty is typically multifaceted. This paper uses songs as a case study to study the multiple facets of uniqueness and their relationship with success. We first unpack the multiple facets of a song's novelty or uniqueness and, next, measure its impact on a song's popularity. We employ a series of statistical models to study the relationship between a song's popularity and novelty associated with its lyrics, chord progressions, or audio properties. Our analyses performed on a dataset of over fifty thousand songs find a consistently negative association between all types of song novelty and popularity. Overall we found a song's lyrics uniqueness to have the most significant association with its popularity. However, audio uniqueness was the strongest predictor of a song's popularity, conditional on the song's genre. We further found the theme and repetitiveness of a song's lyrics to mediate the relationship between the song's popularity and novelty. Broadly, our results contradict the ''optimal distinctiveness theory'' (balance between novelty and familiarity) and call for an investigation into the multiple dimensions along which a cultural product's uniqueness could manifest.
... But it can also be vice versasomething that was considered to be a valuable creation can lose its value when more similar creations appear. Boden (2004) says that it is important to see the difference between the ideas that are new to the author and the ideas that are tested by time and have a lasting value. A promising creation is a creation which may be evaluated favourably in the future, although many of contemporaries see it as not valuable. ...
... Definitions of creativity often emphasize the originality or novelty of an idea, thought, remark, or artifact; however, an eccentric idea that is different from what precedes it may not be meaningful unless it also has utility or value. As a result, the widely accepted definition of creativity often entails a combination of originality and usefulness/appropriateness (Boden, 2004;Goldstein, 2014;Runco, 1988;Runco and Charles, 1993). Piaget stated that one's capacity for creative imagination is part of intelligence and gained gradually over the course of cognitive development (Piaget, 1981); moreover, the nature of the creative process is dynamic and can change as a child advances through developmental stages. ...
Article
Nature deficit poses critical developmental challenges to the future generations. Louv, for example, stated that children needs adequate nature exposure for healthy development of their sense, learning, and creativity. However, it remains unknown whether individuals having various levels of nature access during childhood may develop different sensory processing patterns. The current study reports relationships between retrospective life course measure of childhood nature exposure and sensory profiles in young adulthood. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shanghai, China, with 700 Chinese young adults (18–25 years old) who grew up in diverse geographies across the country. Sensory Profile was measured using the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP) with four quadrants; creativity using the Alternative Uses Task (AUT), and nature-relatedness using the Nature-Relatedness (NR) scale. Perceived childhood nature exposure was calculated as a cumulative score from up to three childhood home locations, weighted by duration of residency. Ordinary least square (OLS) and structural equation models (SEM) were fitted to examine the direct and indirect relationships. After adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, low childhood nature exposure was associated with low sensory registration. Regarding the relationship between childhood nature exposure and adulthood creativity and nature-relatedness, significant direct paths and indirect paths through low sensory registration were observed. Results suggested that children who had lower levels of nature exposure grew up to exhibit a high tendency to miss subtle sensory stimuli, and this sensory processing pattern in turn is associated with lower levels of affinity to nature and creativity. Notwithstanding the preliminary nature of these findings, this study offers implications for designing child-friendly urban space that facilitates sensory explorations and allows children to acquire the ability to recognize various sensory inputs.
... When reasoning about model performance, students explained patterns learned from the Yelp review data set and described generating patterns from data as machine learning. Before taking the class, students held popular misconceptions of machine learning-in particular, the widely held view that machines learn without human intervention and in ways that are unintelligible (Boden, 2004;Chai et al., 2021;Long & Magerko, 2020). Prompted to discuss their understanding of AI before the lessons began, one student remarked that it 'gets smarter over time and figures out solutions for stuff'. ...
Article
To date, many AI initiatives (eg, AI4K12, CS for All) developed standards and frameworks as guidance for educators to create accessible and engaging Artificial Intelligence (AI) learning experiences for K‐12 students. These efforts revealed a significant need to prepare youth to gain a fundamental understanding of how intelligence is created, applied, and its potential to perpetuate bias and unfairness. This study contributes to the growing interest in K‐12 AI education by examining student learning of modelling real‐world text data. Four students from an Advanced Placement computer science classroom at a public high school participated in this study. Our qualitative analysis reveals that the students developed nuanced and in‐depth understandings of how text classification models—a type of AI application—are trained. Specifically, we found that in modelling texts, students: (1) drew on their social experiences and cultural knowledge to create predictive features, (2) engineered predictive features to address model errors, (3) described model learning patterns from training data and (4) reasoned about noisy features when comparing models. This study contributes to an initial understanding of student learning of modelling unstructured data and offers implications for scaffolding in‐depth reasoning about model decision making. What is already known about this topic Scholarly attention has turned to examining Artificial Intelligence (AI) literacy in K‐12 to help students understand the working mechanism of AI technologies and critically evaluate automated decisions made by computer models. While efforts have been made to engage students in understanding AI through building machine learning models with data, few of them go in‐depth into teaching and learning of feature engineering, a critical concept in modelling data. There is a need for research to examine students' data modelling processes, particularly in the little‐researched realm of unstructured data. What this paper adds Results show that students developed nuanced understandings of models learning patterns in data for automated decision making. Results demonstrate that students drew on prior experience and knowledge in creating features from unstructured data in the learning task of building text classification models. Students needed support in performing feature engineering practices, reasoning about noisy features and exploring features in rich social contexts that the data set is situated in. Implications for practice and/or policy It is important for schools to provide hands‐on model building experiences for students to understand and evaluate automated decisions from AI technologies. Students should be empowered to draw on their cultural and social backgrounds as they create models and evaluate data sources. To extend this work, educators should consider opportunities to integrate AI learning in other disciplinary subjects (ie, outside of computer science classes).
... Because it takes place within a framework of design education that has the intent to practice practice, it reintegrates, as Stein suggested, existing materials or knowledge that result in a combination of both the knowledge surrounding the discipline but also elements that are new (1953). Because it takes place within an educational context, to make the distinction between Boden's (2004) personal (little-c) vs. historical (big-C) creativity seems almost irrelevant. As Davis points out, the goal of design education is to: ...
Thesis
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Designing for one is a form of design participation in which a designer works together with one individual. The result of this interaction is a bespoke design that is responsive to the needs, abilities, preferences and situation of the individual. Applied with design education, this research sought to understand the ways this approach impacted a) student learning, b) the generation of empathy and c) the traditional design educational space. This study involved six methods of inquiry for examining the impact of designing for one on the student experience: four Student Module Cases Studies, one expert design educator workshop with 21 participants, 28 student interviews, seven expert design educator interviews and included mapping (a method used within the workshop), observations and post analysis thick descriptions. In terms of student learning, the study identified seven key learning experiences that students had when designing for one, with the most prevalent being: Process (the students developed knowledge about the design process, research methodology and the act of designing), Design Skills (they learned about and applied specific skills related to their discipline), Soft-Design Skills (they developed understanding regarding using and incorporate soft-skills into their design process) and Interaction (they identified the value of the interaction between themselves and their participant). Regarding empathy, the study identified 11 factors that influence the forming of an empathetic relationship between designer and participant, resulting in a set of empathy factors that can be referred to when seeking to build relationships within design participation. In terms of impacting the routine design space, the study identified 11 variables that design educators can use to disrupt a traditional educational setup with the most important variables identified being participation with real users (bringing students in contact with real users) and the location of the module situation (taking the ‘classroom’ off site into a situation of use). By purposefully placing students within these individual situations of an ‘other’, the result is a form of design participation that emerges from the orchestrated relationship and the exchange. The result of this thesis, then, is the offering of designing for one as pedagogical approach that increases levels of complexity, planning, research and collaboration serving to complement existing design educational practice.
... Boden [22] modelled creative behaviour using the notion of a conceptual space and its exploration by creative agents. He defined a conceptual space as the set of acceptable concepts, exploratory creativity as the process of exploring a given conceptual space and transformational creativity as the process of changing the rules that define the conceptual space. ...
Preprint
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Much like most of cognition research, music cognition is an interdisciplinary field, which attempts to apply methods of cognitive science (neurological, computational and experimental) to understand the perception and process of composition of music. In this paper, we first motivate why music is relevant to cognitive scientists and give an overview of the approaches to computational modelling of music cognition. We then review literature on the various models of music perception, including non-computational models, computational non-cognitive models and computational cognitive models. Lastly, we review literature on modelling the creative behaviour and on computer systems capable of composing music. Since a lot of technical terms from music theory have been used, we have appended a list of relevant terms and their definitions at the end.
... Design, in its broad definition, is the generation of a plan for a change, and as such, it is high-level cognition involving multimodal behavior (Park & Alderman, 2018). Creativity is defined as the ability to generate novel and effective ideas (Runco & Jaeger, 2012), or artifacts that are new, surprising, and valuable (Boden, 2004). Creative thinking is traditionally associated with conceptual expansion implying a creative change in the approach to the request (Abraham, 2019;Abraham et al., 2012). ...
Article
Design space is a common abstraction used in the investigation of design cognition. Characteristic properties of design spaces and how they change are underexplored. Design spaces can vary with the design task and its constraints, which are assumed to result in differences in neuro-cognitive processes. We review general cognition, creative cognition and design neurocognition EEG studies. We analyzed the brain activity of 32 professional mechanical engineers and industrial designers while performing constrained and open design tasks. The neurophysiological activations during reading the task, earliest reaction, and open externalization stages of constrained and open design are compared based on EEG frequency band power. Significant differences between constrained and open design for the beta bands were found in the earliest reaction stage. Significant differences between constrained and open design for alpha 2 and the beta bands were found in the open externalization stage. We discuss the results and relate the higher brain activity and significant differences in open design to cognitive functions of interest to design cognition. We show that EEG brain activation is sensitive to the level of constraints in designing, in particular alpha 2 and beta bands can act as proxies of the change and expansion of design spaces.
... While defining creativity with precision remains highly problematic (see, e.g., Sternberg and Lubart, 1996), this phenomenon might be conceived of as a capacity to think "outside the box" and to act accordingly, giving rise to items (e.g., musical phrases, learning exercises, etc.) that are at the same time innovative, surprising, and task efficient (see Boden, 1990Boden, , 2010. There is excellent work in music performance and music education research addressing such a topic from an interdisciplinary perspective (see Deliège and Wiggins, 2006;Running, 2008;Burnard, 2012Burnard, , 2013Cook, 2018;Barrett et al., 2021). ...
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In a newly designed collaborative online music course, four musical novices unknown to each other learned to play the clarinet starting from zero. Over the course of 12 lessons, a special emphasis was placed on creativity, mutual interaction, and bodily movement. Although addressing these dimensions might be particularly challenging in distance learning contexts, a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with the learners revealed how the teaching approach proposed has generally facilitated learning. Qualitative findings highlight the importance of establishing meaningful relationships with the musical instrument as well as with other students to build musicality, and of the interplay between creativity and control in individual and collective music-making activities. We suggest that remote music tuition with a small group can be a valuable resource to start learning music and that a creative, collaborative, and movement-based approach can contribute to musical growth.
... To obtain a more precise measure of the association between FPC and relational complexity, Green, Kraemer, Fugelsang, Gray, and Dunbar (2010) employed verbal analogy pairings, structured by an "A is to B as C is to D" schema (formalized as [A:B::C:D]). To quantify surface detail dissimilarity between the source (A:B) and target (C:D), latent semantic analysis (LSA) was used to compute the contextual-usage meanings of the words defining the source and target (Boden, 2003;Landauer & Dumais, 1997;Landauer, Foltz, & Laham, 1998). The semantic distance between, for example, Kitten:Cat::Puppy:Dog is less than the semantic distance between Kitten:Cat::Spark:Fire. ...
Article
The objective of this study was to measure the contribution of the left frontopolar cortex (FPC) to analogical reasoning. Our measure of analogical reasoning derives from performance on the radiation problem, a creative problem‐solving task first used in Gestalt psychology (Duncker, 1945). Success on this task is as low as 10 % without the presentation of explicit cues that guide inference toward the solution (Gick & Holyoak, 1980). We assessed whether high‐definition transcranial direct current stimulation of the left FPC would promote the analogical transfer of the radiation problem. We found that anodal stimulation primed analogical transfer and led to improved task performance compared to the cathode and sham control groups. Results from this study offer evidence favoring the hypothesis that stimulating the left FPC facilitates analogical problem‐solving. We investigated the role of the left anterior prefrontal cortex in facilitating creative problem‐solving using analogical solutions. We influenced activity in this brain area via transcranial direct current stimulation, a brain stimulation technique applied locally over the frontal lobes. The results from this study support the important role of the left anterior prefrontal cortex in facilitating creative reasoning using analogies.
... In creative requirements elicitation, the idea is to elicit novel and useful requirements that the stakeholders did not know they wanted or needed. To support this, creative requirements elicitation makes use of a number of standard creativity techniques from design and other areas [18]. For example, the most basic creativity technique is brainstorming, where people work to come up with ideas, often "bouncing" ideas of each other and building on each other's thoughts. ...
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As software engineering (SE) practitioners, we can help society by using our communities of experts to address a software need of a socially conscious organization. Doing so can benefit society in the locale of a SE conference and provide access to international experts for local organizations. Furthermore, established SE researchers as well as practitioners and students have the opportunity for a unique learning experience. While the SE community has already realized the importance of addressing human values and promoting social good objectives in software development, we are unaware of previous attempts to leverage SE conferences for this activity. Conferences present an opportunity to enjoy the assembly of SE practitioners, researchers, and students for the purpose of a philanthropic endeavor. Over the past four years of running a “Requirements Engineering for Social Good” event called RE Cares, co-located with the International Conference on Requirements Engineering, we worked with the stakeholders local to the conference venue. We selected stakeholders who would not necessarily have ready access to requirements engineering, software design, and development expertise otherwise, to build software targeting “good causes.” In the last two years, this event was altered to adapt to the constraints induced by COVID-19, moving to a hybrid mode and changing many of its practices accordingly. This paper summarizes and generalizes our experiences, discussing our lessons learned in the context of the pandemic and beyond and providing a framework for conducting similar social contribution in any SE conferences in general.
... We are developing generative models capable of augmenting human performance during this uniquely fluid cognitive process. Existing computational models of this creative design have developed the notion of "creative meta-search" [9,10]: the exploration of a problem-space that serves to define the subsequent solution-space. Changes in problem-space have also been suggested as a way to evaluate whether a solution is in fact creative -"transformational creativity", solutions that exist outside of the solution space as originally formulated [11]. ...
Preprint
Recent advances in text-conditioned generative models have provided us with neural networks capable of creating images of astonishing quality, be they realistic, abstract, or even creative. These models have in common that (more or less explicitly) they all aim to produce a high-quality one-off output given certain conditions, and in that they are not well suited for a creative collaboration framework. Drawing on theories from cognitive science that model how professional designers and artists think, we argue how this setting differs from the former and introduce CICADA: a Collaborative, Interactive Context-Aware Drawing Agent. CICADA uses a vector-based synthesis-by-optimisation method to take a partial sketch (such as might be provided by a user) and develop it towards a goal by adding and/or sensibly modifying traces. Given that this topic has been scarcely explored, we also introduce a way to evaluate desired characteristics of a model in this context by means of proposing a diversity measure. CICADA is shown to produce sketches of quality comparable to a human user's, enhanced diversity and most importantly to be able to cope with change by continuing the sketch minding the user's contributions in a flexible manner.
... The study of creativity reveals patterns to this type of creative burst. Creativity is often thought to exist on at least two levels, big C versus little c, eminent versus every day (Boden 2004). We can view creativity in terms of brilliance, personal creativity, paradigm or domain creativity, and forced or industrial creativity. ...
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There are many facets to creativity, and the topic has a profound impact on society. Substantial and sustained study on creativity has been undertaken, and much is now known about the fundamentals and how creativity can be augmented. To draw these elements together, a framework was developed called the creativity diamond, formulated on the basis of reviews of prior work, as well as the consideration of 20 PhD studies on the topics of creativity, design, innovation, and product development. The framework embodies the principles that quantity of ideas breeds quality through selection, and that a range of creativity tools can provoke additional ideas to augment our innate creativity. The creativity diamond proposed is a tool consisting of a divergent phase associated with the development of many distinctive ideas and a convergent phase associated with the refinement of ideas. The creativity diamond framework can be used to prompt and help select which tool or approach to use in a creative environment for innovative tasks. The framework has now been used by many students and professionals in diverse contexts.
... A logisztikai szak-és felsőoktatási képzései keretében éppen ezért változatos módszertannal zajlik a jövőbeli szakemberek kompetenciafejlesztése (Munkácsi & Demeter, 2019). A szellemi munkák részbeni vagy teljes kiváltásával kevesen foglalkoztak eddig, és a kiválthatóság mértéke is vita tárgya (Boden, 2003;Chelliah, 2017), ezért igényel alaposabb vizsgálatot. ...
Article
A szerzők tanulmányukban az Ipar 4.0 logisztikai vonatkozásainak, a Logisztika 4.0-nak a szállítmányozásra gyakorolt hatásait vizsgálják, munkaerőpiaci nézőpontból. A fuvarszervezés és szállítmányozás gyökeres átalakulás alatt áll, a fuvarszervezői, valamint szállítmányozói feladatkörökre jelentős fenyegetést jelenthet a jövőben a mesterséges intelligencia, a gépi tanulás és ez által a feladatok részbeni vagy teljes automatizációja. A szerzők célja azt megvizsgálni, hogy a különféle, szállítmányozásban végzett szellemi munkakörök mennyire vannak kitéve a gépesítés veszélyének. A tanulmányban a Nemzeti Foglalkoztatási Szolgálat FEOR-jegyzéke szerinti foglalkozásleírásokon szövegelemzési szoftverrel elemzést végrehajtva azt az eredményt kapták, hogy a szállítmányozás szellemi feladatait nem fenyegeti az automatizálás veszélye, és a többi emberi kreativitást, rugalmasságot igénylő szakma esetén is csak részbeni automatizáció lehetséges. Regresszióelemzéssel ugyanakkor azt is kimutatták, hogy a gépesítés nagyobb mértékben fenyegeti az alacsony iskolázottságot igénylő és kereseti lehetőséggel bíró munkákat, és a tipikusan férfiak által végzett munkakörök is gyakrabban esnek ebbe a kategóriába.
... A criatividade é tradicionalmente associada às artes, música e literatura, o que pode levar a consequências práticas, incluindo a dificuldade de promovê-la no contexto fora dessas áreas, como a computação [6]. Entretanto, a criatividade pode ser desenvolvida transversalmente em diversas áreas de ensino [7], incluindo a educação em computação [8,9,10]. O ensino de computação por meio uma abordagem baseada em problemas (Problem-Based Learning) na qual os alunos criam artefatos computacionais pode permitir que os alunos expressem suas ideias de forma criativa [11]. ...
Conference Paper
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A criatividade é considerada uma competência essencial do século XXI. Apesar de ser tipicamente associada às artes, ela também pode ser desenvolvida como parte da educação em computação. No entanto, essa associação com as artes pode gerar um viés, resultando em dificuldade no reconhecimento da criatividade em artefatos típicos de computação. Isso pode desestimular professores e alunos que buscam desenvolver artefatos computacionais criativos. Assim, este artigo investiga um potencial viés artístico sobre a percepção da criatividade em artefatos computacionais com base em um survey com 213 professores e alunos de computação. Os resultados indicam que a percepção da criatividade nos artefatos computacionais tende a ficar atenuada devido a um viés associado às artes. Os resultados deste estudo podem ser utilizados para motivar maior reconhecimento da criatividade em artefatos computacionais, auxiliando pesquisadores e professores a promover o desenvolvimento da criatividade como parte do ensino de computação.
... ranging from "Not at all" to "Very much"). These criteria were selected as they are among the most frequently used by professional short story evaluators (Boden, 2004), and because they represent a balanced mix of both objective (grammar, plot structure) and subjective (interest, originality, overall impression) axes (Díaz Suarez, 2015). ...
Article
As the volume and complexity of distributed online work increases, collaboration among people who have never worked together in the past is becoming increasingly necessary. Recent research has proposed algorithms to maximize the performance of online collaborations by grouping workers in a top-down fashion and according to a set of predefined decision criteria. This approach often means that workers have little say in the collaboration formation process. Depriving users of control over whom they will work with can stifle creativity and initiative-taking, increase psychological discomfort, and, overall, result in less-than-optimal collaboration results—especially when the task concerned is open-ended, creative, and complex. In this work, we propose an alternative model, called Self-Organizing Pairs (SOPs), which relies on the crowd of online workers themselves to organize into effective work dyads. Supported but not guided by an algorithm, SOPs are a new human-centered computational structure, which enables participants to control, correct, and guide the output of their collaboration as a collective. Experimental results, comparing SOPs to two benchmarks that do not allow user agency, and on an iterative task of fictional story writing, reveal that participants in the SOPs condition produce creative outcomes of higher quality, and report higher satisfaction with their collaboration. Finally, we find that similarly to machine learning-based self-organization, human SOPs exhibit emergent collective properties, including the presence of an objective function and the tendency to form more distinct clusters of compatible collaborators.
... They suggest mental representations are patterns of neural activity and that combining unconnected neural patterns may produce novel representations. Creativity as a combination of representations has also been suggested elsewhere [100][101][102]. Thagard and Stewart describe computer simulations that produce new patterns of neural activity whereby concepts combine to form a novel representation. ...
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This paper briefly surveys several prominent modeling approaches to knowledge-based intelligent systems (KBIS) design and, especially, expert systems and the breakthroughs that have most broadened and improved their applications. We argue that the implementation of technology that aims to emulate rudimentary aspects of human intelligence has enhanced KBIS design, but that weaknesses remain that could be addressed with existing research in cognitive science. For example, we propose that systems based on representational plasticity, functional dynamism, domain specificity, creativity, and concept learning, with their theoretical and experimental rigor, can best characterize the problem-solving capabilities of humans and can best overcome five key limitations currently exhibited by knowledge-based intelligent systems. We begin with a brief survey of the relevant work related to KBIS design and then discuss these five shortcomings with new suggestions for how to integrate results from cognitive science to resolve each of them. Our ultimate goal is to increase awareness and direct attention to areas of theoretical and experimental cognitive research that are fundamentally relevant to the goals underlying KBISes.
... 6) Students' knowledge base of English in the four English skills is not of the appropriate standard for university study. 7) Teaching staff is often ill-prepared and ill-qualified due to lack of training. 8) Inappropriate teaching methods and approaches to teaching English writing skills due to lack of workshops to coordinate and communicate best practice. ...
... In a Bodenian sense, computational textual humor creation might be novel in a combinatorial, exploratory or transformational manner (Boden 2004). Textual humor generation systems are often combinatorial (Valitutti et al. 2016;Stock and Strapparava 2003). ...
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Humor - as well as language in general - is by nature social and tied to a context. To better engage with context , computational humor could draw inspiration from the concept of intersubjectivity: the sharing of perspectives. This paper focuses on discussing the possible advantages of utilizing the concept of intersubjectivity to contextualize computational humor. Intersubjectivity in humor generation system design is discussed as a possible means of evaluation of the creative product, as well as a potential approach to generating more impressive humoristic content. Firstly, evaluation of computational humor has been wanting for more effective and versatile methods. To this problem, an implementation of sharing perspectives between the system and its users offers a viable solution. Secondly, approaches to humor generation are contrasted with interactive dialogue systems, to analyze how they contextualize humor. The comparisons show that well defined interactive design and evaluation methods that enable perspective sharing between the producer and the press would greatly benefit humor-generating systems. The final section theorizes on the possible foundations for modeling intersubjectivity in computational humor.
... At the same time, however, the ability of artificial intelligences to act autonomously creative is often questioned. Margret Boden (1991) argues for their theoretical possibility of becoming 'really' creative as there is no magic involved in the function of the (human) brain and it can thus be computationally modelled. Even if this affirms the basic technical prerequisites for a speculative future, it still contains the clear objective of simulating human creativity. ...
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This article sketches a theoretical framework that allows the conceptual inclusion of non-human animals and artificial intelligences in human sonic collaborations. Post-humanist concepts that question the categorical divide between nature and culture, following Donna Haraway and Bruno Latour, converge with contemporary, non-adaptationist evolutionary aesthetics. Therefore, the anthropocentric 'othering' of non-humans gives way to a concept of a more-than-human sociality of sound. We offer some theoretical propositions for the extension of socially engaged sound practices to collaborations between humans and non-human animals and between humans and artificial intelligences, and then exemplify such multispecies sonic collaborations by analysing some existing projects from the fields of sound art and musical performance. After drawing some more general conclusions from these analyses, we hint at potential aesthetical and ethical parallels between animal and AI creative agency. Finally, we point out a few questions we see as important for future advanced settings of such collaborations, especially when it comes to assemblages of different AI technologies and to future concepts of animal-computer interaction that might enable non-human animals and artificial intelligence to cooperate creatively.
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This dissertation presents three years of research on how design processes in game jams and hackathons can be understood as accelerated. Hackathons and game jams can both be described as formats where participants engage in designing and developing prototypes during an intentionally short time frame, such as 48 hours, which is meant to facilitate creativity, and encourage fast decision making and rapid prototyping. Game jams and hackathons are organised in many different contexts and for many different purposes as well, such as: internally in companies to spark new ideas; for fostering citizen innovation for municipalities; in cultural and governmental agencies; integral parts of education; entry points for developers wanting to enter especially the game industry (Olesen, 2020; Kultima, 2015). During the recent decade, game jams and hackathons have been introduced to academia as well, as formats for teaching and learning, and as research platforms as well. Only few research contributions engage with understanding how accelerated design processes in game jams and hackathons unfold, or how the organisation of game jam and hackathon formats influence these accelerated design processes. The main contributions of my PhD project are: 1) Descriptive process-level knowledge, which contextualise and solidify how accelerated design processes unfold under the circumstances of a game jam and a hackathon. 2) Overviews of how game jams have been organised for supporting participants' creativity and of how hackathons have been used as means and as research focus within academia. 3) Exploring how game jam and hackathon formats may be organised in order to support knowledge generation such as within academia, and in order to support creativity.
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Einführung in die moderne philosophische Anthropologie zwischen Bio-, Techno- und Kulturwissenschaften
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Computational thinking (CT) is an important and essential skill for human beings to master in the 21st century. Although CT has received wide attention since this concept was proposed, the current theoretical models have not well defined the complex relations between CT and other cognitive abilities for young children. To provide insight into this gap, the current study proposed a model in which we hypothesized that CT was significantly related to arithmetic fluency that is viewed as an important domain of mathematics. Additionally, arithmetic fluency was predicted to mediate the relations of CT to other cognitive abilities, including reasoning and creativity. This study tested such direct and indirect relations in children aged 5-6 years. Consistent with previous studies on older age groups, the results showed that CT and arithmetic fluency were significantly related to each other and both were significantly related to reasoning ability and creative thinking as well. Moreover, this study, for the first time, indicated that arithmetic fluency totally mediated the relation between CT and reasoning ability, suggesting that these concepts share conceptual commonalities, such as the cognitive processes related to mathematics or/and abstraction; in contrast, arithmetic fluency did not mediate the relation between CT and creative thinking, suggesting that gaining CT skill may exert direct positive effect on the development of creativity. Therefore, despite the root in computer science, CT is associated with many cognitive and learning abilities in other domains, supporting the importance of including CT into early school education.
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The chapter explores the impact of artificial intelligence on art creation and on the manners in which AI art challenges our understanding of beauty and artistic value.
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Stratified properties such as ‘happy unhappiness’, ‘ungrounded ground’, ‘fortunate misfortune’, and evidently ‘true falsity’ may generate dialetheias (true contradictions). The aim of the article is to show that if this is the case, then we will have a special, conjunctive , kind of dialetheia: a true state description of the form ‘Fa and not Fa’ (for some property F and object a), wherein the two conjuncts, separately taken, are to be held untrue. The particular focus of the article is on happy unhappiness: people suffering from (or enjoying) happy unhappiness (if there is some situation or state of mind of this kind) cannot be truly said ‘happy’ or ‘unhappy’, but we can say they are both. In the first section three cases of conjunctive stratification are presented; in the second section the logic of stratified contradictions is explored. The last section focuses on eudemonistic ascriptions: stated that a is happy to be unhappy (or unhappy to be happy), should we say a is happy? unhappy? both? neither?
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Metaphors are found all throughout science: in published papers, working hypotheses, policy documents, lecture slides, grant proposals, and press releases. They serve different functions, but perhaps most striking is the way they enable understanding, of a theory, phenomenon, or idea. In this paper, we leverage recent advances on the nature of metaphor and the nature of understanding to explore how they accomplish this feat. We attempt to shift the focus away from the epistemic value of the content of metaphors, to the epistemic value of the metaphor’s consequences. Many famous scientific metaphors are epistemically good, not primarily because of what they say about the world, but because of how they cause us to think. Specifically, metaphors increase understanding either by improving our sets of representations (by making them more minimal or more accurate), or by making it easier for us to encode and process data about complex subjects by changing how we are disposed to conceptualize those subjects. This view hints towards new positions concerning testimonial understanding, factivity, abilities, discovery via metaphor, and the relation between metaphors and models.
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The pursuit of progress has been a distinct feature of civilization at least over the last three hundred years. Yet the appeal of progress is now in decline. Many attribute several major problems we face today to our relentless pursuit of progress, including the degradation of the environment and climate change, the growing gap between the rich and the poor, the increasing control of governments over the life of their citizens, social instability, economic decline, and much else. Widespread criticism has raised fundamental questions about progress that even relatively recently we would not dare to raise without risking our intellectual credibility. The intense questioning encourages, indeed necessitates, a revisiting of the theory and practice of our pursuit of progress. This article represents an attempt at reexamining some critical issues that are related to progress. There are several questions to be addressed in the following pages: Is progress really necessary? What fundamental purpose does it serve? Can our civilization survive without progressing? Does progress have roots in nature or is it merely a human fancy? In answering these questions, this article will explain the important relationship between our idea and practice of progress, on one hand, and nature, on the other. It will show that progress is not a human fancy; it has deep roots in the evolution of nature and the universe. Substantive criticisms should not only point to mistakes and flaws. They should also lead to alternatives. This article will conclude by outlining some fundamental principles to be used in reshaping our progressive practice. The main feature of this reformed practice, as argued in the pages that follow, should be the process of creation that plays a vital role in the survival and evolution of our universe. The failure to embrace and understand this process has generated major flaws that that continue to plague our pursuit of progress. The article will explain that the reason for this failure is not an accident but a necessary result of anthropocentrism that has dominated and continues to dominate our civilization. By using the process of creation as the main organizing principle of our theory and practice of progress will make possible to eliminate the main cause of our numerous problems with progress.
Chapter
We learn to choose and while choosing in changing and demanding scenarios, we keep on learning. Computational social choice could have a distinguishing learning component that tries to deliver value through learning by improved choosing. In real life, there are a number of choice scenarios where learning can improve choosing abilities to deliver desired economic impact. There could be simple choice scenarios where parents guide kids to choose or teachers guide students to choose. It could range from choosing books or courses to choosing some toy. In this case neither economic aspects are considered nor full freedom is offered to kids while choosing. The freedom index here impacts on outcome and overall economics. There is a sort of expert intervention throughout this process. It is more like a guided choosing. One of the well-known teachers and social activists from Jalgaon, RK Raravikar thinks that human development takes place through this choosing exercise. He used to teach English language and history through experiments. He used to make “articulation choices” available for architecting students to take them to the best articulation. He even had an idea of creating choice experiments and choice gardens to facilitate learning and choosing. Similarly Prof RD Kharadkar and I started an idea room at GHRIET, GHR Group to allow students to learn by exercising choices. These choices at a later stage mapped to scientific experiments resulting in interesting products. Another teacher “Pravara Naik” who has been teaching kids in an innovative way for the last fifty years, thinks that “choice should be part of every learning activity”. She looks at it more from a cultural and behavioral growth perspective. Another great teacher and well-known academician of last century, DB Joshi used to teach languages through guided choice experiments. He used to begin with a theme and kids were supposed to choose the articles, objects, books or words which they like in association with the theme. Then they were supposed to formulate a story from the articles they had chosen.
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Making machine intelligence was an objective of the last few decades. Here, researchers tried to find out human ways of learning to embed intelligence into machines. There has been a competition to develop autonomous machines. Autonomous machines were expected to do complex and demanding tasks themselves without active human interventions. Slowly we have gone beyond this objective with more expectations from machines. We wanted to deal with scenarios where multiple machines were in the focus. Machine intelligence took the world by storm. Even at times researchers and philosophers debated on singularity. This debate was so hot that books were written, read and became popular—claiming that singularity is near. Are machines really overpowering us, i.e. homo sapiens? The question on these lines was asked to me even during my talks at many prominent venues across the globe. In my opinion, the challenge was not to overcome machines or compete with them but to remain homo sapiens. Becoming homo sapiens means learning from uncertainty, going for choice rather than selection and working cooperatively to deal with the problems and above all evolving strategies and learning. Definitely learning cooperatively is one of the key attributes.
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Choice is core to learning as well as creativity. We learn through choosing and through exposure to a number of available choices. The choice-making results in learning and learning further enhances our choice making. Learning abilities represent our intelligence and improve our abilities of delivering intelligent solutions. Choices are made based on our experience, past data, repetition of events and patterns. Creativity and intelligence have a close association.
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Human beings have the ability to choose. Can machines learn to choose the way human being choose from given choices? We had a discussion with “Yutaka Yamagashi”, a car racer and entrepreneur. He elaborated on possible choice architecting while racing the cars. He claims that right now it is driven by analytics and bringing behavioral aspects into play could do wonders. He started racing at much later age but this choice was not a sudden outcome. But it was a choice journey for him. We asked him how he chose this career—even we discussed with him regarding his choosing of different cars.
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What would you do—when you are in a super shop with a plenty of money and abundant opportunities to spend? You will try to choose the best products or articles to the best of your knowledge. Of course, from the products available in that shop. Here the only constraints are the availability and reachability. Similarly, let us take a scenario when you are in the same shop with 200 USD in your pocket. Now, you will still try to choose the best articles you need but now under more constraints. One is the available money, second is the reachability and third is the articles available in the super shop. There could be other hidden behavioural aspects monitoring and restricting your choosing like your past experiences. In a hypothetical scenario, even though we remove all the constraints—there are behavioural, knowledge and cognitive constraints. Even a person with the huge amount of money may not always choose the best article. To extend it further, if your friend, more or less like you, when enter the same shop with 200 USD, he/she may end up in choosing different articles than you did.
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What action would you take when you are surrounded by a number of interesting and highly tempting food options? On one side there are ice creams of different flavours, on other side delicious deserts and on top of it some protein shakes, juices and colourful drinks. What would you choose? The healthiest drink or the calorie-rich tempting desert with attractive packaging you see on the table next to you. Or you are keen to try out something new which you have never tried before. Here, in this case, there are no restrictions to choose apart from appetite, your food habits, available choices and presentation of food items. How exactly would you go about it?—is nothing but choosing. There may be some food items that tempt you the most but your health consciousness tries to pull you away from them. In the battle of health consciousness, tempting food item and easy reachability one of the choices wins! Rather you choose it. There are many facets of choosing and unfolding these aspects could be an interesting journey….
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To what extent can we understand and account for music perception as a creative process? In this paper we draw on recent work in music, creativity, and the cognitive humanities to suggest that the fundamentally creative aspect of music perception is not yet satisfactorily examined in existing research. We briefly review the state of scholarship into both creativity and music perception, and identify key points of convergence, which are prominent in work that investigates the mutuality of action and perception, and the exploratory bases of the latter, among others. Inspired by a growing number of contributions in 4E music cognition research, we argue that listening to music can involve mechanisms of active bodily engagement, along with the imaginative exploration of novel possibilities for thought and action. We put forward the view that this approach is important because of the way in which it can bring to the analytical centre stage a creative dimension that may not otherwise be apparent. The contribution of this paper involves this presentation of a multidisciplinary framework for the study of music perception, highlighting the integration of perception and action, and foregrounding this conception of creative cognition as a central aspect of music perception.
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This paper was designed to investigate the Pakistani secondary science teachers' understanding about the definition of creativity. The design of study was qualitative based on grounded theory method. This study recruited 20 (08 males & 12 females) teachers, which wereselected purely based on the purposive sampling technique. All the recruited teachers were from District Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The teachers were interviewed through a semi-structured interview guide, and their responses were recorded in the researcher's cell phone through their consent. Data were analyzed according to the coding method of Miles and Huberman (1994). All the interviews were transcribed word by word from which themes were generated. Totally four themes, i.e., newness, new tutoring methods, practicality, and natural/God-gifted phenomenon, were drawn from the interviews. This made the theory of creativity that exclusively grounded in Pakistani context on which an explicit definition of creativity was made.The other astonishing finding that
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This chapter aims to analyze the efficiency and productivity performance of all the standalone health insurance companies for the period 2014-15 to 2018-19 using slacks-based measure of data envelopment analysis based on secondary data collected from the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority’s annual reports. The study brings into light the operating characteristics, efficiencies and productivity of the Indian standalone health insurance companies during the period 2015-2019 and therefore holds important insights for policy makers and practitioners as well as for the decision makers. This study has found that on constant returns to scale, the average efficiency of standalone health insurers was 64.78% and there was a 30.19% variation in the efficiency levels during the study period. Excessive operating expenses, Commission expenses and equity capital were found the main reasons for inefficiency. The results further indicated that the total factor productivity increased at an average rate of 19.11% per year during the entire study period. On average, this improvement was ascribed to the technological improvement of 12.11% and efficiency improvement of 6.19% per year during the study period.
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