Study the Effect of Inhalation of Peppermint Oil on Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Myocardial Infarction who are Hospitalized in Intensive Care Units of Sirjan

To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.


Background: A psychological reaction such as depression and anxiety is a complication of a heart attack. The aromatherapy is one of the processes in Complementary medicine to maintain mental health of diseases. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of inhalation of essential oil on depression and anxiety in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods: This Clinical trial study was conducted in 70 heart attack patients by purposive sampling method and randomly divided in two groups (Intervention and control) who were hospitalized in intensive care units of Sirjan in year 2015. Data were collected by self-report DASS-21 questionnaires. In intervention group 0.2 ml of peppermint oil mixed with 2 ml of Normal saline and in control group 2 ml of normal Saline was poured on a gas and attached with clamp to the collar of patients for 20 minutes and inhaled it for 5 days. Before and after the intervention patients completed DASS-21 questionnaire. After collecting the data Inter to SPSS 21 software and using chi-square tests, t-test were analyzed. Results: The age of control and intervention groups was 57.62±11.48, 54.94±10.53 respectively. After aromatherapy in the intervention group in comparative of before intervention and control group, the level of anxiety and depression in patients significantly showed decreased (P=0.001). Conclusion: According to the results of this study, treatment with peppermint oil can reduce depression and anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction, so its use is recommended in clinical situations.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... There are, however, a number of studies whose findings disagree with the findings in the present study [15][16][17]. [20], and Vaezi et al. investigated the effect of inhalation of peppermint oil on depression and anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction who were hospitalized in intensive care units of Sirjan, reporting that aromatherapy was significant in reducing the anxiety level of the patients [21]. ...
... The reason for the difference in the findings of the recent studies could be the difference in the type of the aroma [21][22][23], difference in the patients or disease [23], difference in the population of the study [24] or difference in the experiences of the patients with different aromas. Although there is disagreement on the effects of aromatherapy on reducing anxiety, researchers believe that through activating olfactory neural cells, aroma stimulates limbic system so that neurotransmitter like noradrenaline, serotonin and endorphin are released [22]. ...
Full-text available
Background: Invasive diagnostic tests such as angiography cause stress and anxiety in patient and most of them experience relatively high levels of anxiety. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aromatherapy on anxety and physiologic parameters of patients undergoing angiography. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed in the angiography department of Heshmat hospital in north of Iran. Eighty patients with anxiety score of above 43 were randomly assigned into two groups of aromatherapy and placebo groups. Fifteen minutes Before and then angiography, the physiologic parameter and anxiety of the patients were measured, and the intervention group sniffed three drops of essential oil of orange blossom for three minutes. Results: In the intervention group, there was no significant difference between the mean score of the manifest and hidden anxiety and the physiological indices before and after the intervention. The adjusted post-intervention values showed that systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the control group were significantly lower than intervention group (P
... In addition, menthol is effective in soothing the pain through increasing the stimulation threshold of cells and decreasing synoptic stimulations and transmits. 20 There is no consensus about the effects of aromatherapy with peppermint on pain and anxiety so that some believe in its effectiveness [18][19][20][21] and some argue that it is ineffective. 22,23 It appears that more studies are needed in this area. ...
... A clinical study reported that inhalation of peppermint essence had a significant effect on the attenuation of anxiety in heart attack patients. 21 Another clinical trial showed that peppermint aromatherapy can attenuate the anxiety before colonoscopy. 38 With regard to the effectiveness of inhalation of peppermint essence in attenuation of anxiety, the results of the present study are consistent with similar studies. ...
Full-text available
Background: The effects of the peppermint essence on the pain and anxiety caused by intravenous catheterization have not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to determine effect of inhaling peppermint essence on the pain and anxiety. Methods: In this study, 80 cardiac patients were selected through convenient sampling and randomly allocated to aromatherapy and control groups. Data gathering tools were numeric pain rating scale and visual analogue scale for anxiety. The aromatherapy and control groups received inhaled aromatherapy with peppermint essence and distilled water, respectively. Results: Mean severity of the pain in the aromatherapy and control groups was 2.95±0.98 and 3.42±1.33, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p=0.048). The mean score of anxiety before the intervention in the aromatherapy and control groups was 3.75±1.08 and 4.70±1.43, respectively; these figures after the intervention were 2.32±0.97 and 2.10±1.42, respectively. The two groups were not significantly different before and after the intervention in terms of the level of anxiety. However, the level of anxiety before and after the intervention was significantly different in each group (p<0.001). Conclusion: Aromatherapy attenuated the pain and anxiety caused by intravenous catheterization. Before catheterization, peppermint essence aromatherapy is recommended.
Introduction Anxiety is an unpleasant feeling that increases the myocardial oxygen demand in acute coronary syndrome. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of peppermint aromatherapy on anxiety in patients with acute coronary syndrome in the emergency department. Materials and methods In this clinical trial study, 64 patients with acute coronary syndrome were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. In the intervention group, a cotton ball was soaked in 100% peppermint essential oil and placed about 20 cm from the patient's nose for 1 h while in the control group, the cotton ball was soaked in water. Anxiety was measured before and after the intervention with The Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory. The data were analyzed in SPSS ver.23 software. Results No significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of patients’ demographic data. The mean score of trait and state anxiety before the intervention was not significantly different between the two groups. After the intervention, anxiety was significantly lower in the intervention group (37.72 ± 10.41) compared to the control group (42.62 ± 5.99) (P = 0.021). Results indicated a significant decrease in anxiety after the intervention (P < 0.001) in the intervention group. Such a difference was not significant in the control group. Conclusion Peppermint essential oil inhalation significantly reduces anxiety of patients with acute coronary syndrome in emergency department.
Introduction Fatigue is one of the main symptoms of heart failure, which leads to activity intolerance and self-care impairment. Aromatherapy is one of the most popular and widely used methods among patients with chronic diseases. One reason for the popularity of complementary medicine methods is the ease of use and attention to patient preferences, so in this study, the effect of two herbal derivatives with two methods of consumption (oral and inhalation) was investigated. This study compared the effect of Lavender essence inhalation and oral Sedamin on fatigue severity in patients with heart failure. Methods The three arm randomized controlled trial was conducted for 15 days on 120 patients with Heart Failure. The patients were selected by the convenience sampling method and randomly assigned to three groups of Sedamin (containing 530 mg of Valerian root), Lavender (essence), and Control (routine care). The fatigue severity was measured using the Fatigue Severity Scale. Descriptive and inferential statistics including the Friedman test, Fisher's exact test, Chi-square, one-way ANOVA, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS-22 software. Results Fatigue severity was lower in the two intervention groups in the first week (P < 0.0001) and the second week (P < 0.0001) than in the control group. The fatigue severity was decreased in the two intervention groups in the first and the second weeks of intervention compared to baseline (P < 0.0001) and increased in the control group (P < 0.0001). Conclusion Aromatherapy with Lavender essence or oral Sedamin capsule are inexpensive and easy methods and were effective in alleviating fatigue in Patients with Heart Failure. To confirm the findings, further studies are recommended.
Full-text available
Functional limitations, altered cardiac autonomic activity, and psychological distress are known disorders in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients, relating to increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of an exercise training program on emotional parameters and heart rate variability (HRV) indices, as well as to determine whether emotional stress contributes to autonomic dysfunction in these patients. Forty-four HD patients were randomly assigned into group A (24 patients, aged 46.3+/-11.2 years), who participated in a 1-year intradialytic exercise training program and group B (20 patients, aged 45.8+/-10.8 years), who were used as controls. At baseline and a year after, measures of HRV were obtained for the estimation of standard deviation of RR intervals, the mean square successive differences, percentage of RR intervals differing by more than 50 ms from the preceding RR interval (pNN50), and low to high frequency components. Emotional parameters (Beck Depression Inventory - BDI and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - HADS) were also assessed by validated questionnaires. Moreover, all patients performed a spiroergometric study for the estimation of VO2peak. At baseline, all measurements were similar in the two groups and remained almost unchanged after a year in group B. After a year of training, VO2peak increased from 16.79+/-5.24 to 22.33+/-4.90 ml/kg per min (P<0.001) in group A. Trained patients also showed an increase in standard deviation of RR intervals by 58.8% (P<0.001), the mean square successive differences by 68.1% (P<0.001), pNN50 by 23.5% (P<0.001), and a low to high frequency ratio by 17.3% (P<0.001). Finally, at the end of the study, group A showed a decrease in BDI score by 34.5% (P<0.001) and HADS by 23.9% (P<0.001). Canonical correlation revealed significant inverse correlation among depression (in BDI and HADS) and HRV indices before and after exercise training. Cardiac autonomic modulation seemed to be sensitive to the experience of persistent depression in HD patients. Significantly, exercise training reduced emotional distress and concomitantly improved HRV.
Background and purpose: Coping strategies, anxiety and depressive symptoms are major problems of post myocardial infarction patients. As the number of investigations studying on such complications was limited, this study was to determine the prevalence of anxiety, depressive symptoms and coping styles among post-MI patients. Materials and methods: In a cross-sectional study one hundred consecutive MI patients admitted to the CCU wards of hospitals in Isfahan were recruited. The patients completed Jalowiec Coping questionnaire and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) sheets. Then the data was analyzed using Chi-squared test, Pearson correlation coefficient, MANCOVA and Covariance. Results: The mean anxiety and depression subscales were 10.22 and 9.28 respectively. Of all cases, 42% and 31% showed anxiety and depressive symptoms, respectively. The means of proportional scores for coping styles were 0.68 for self-reliant and 0.49 for emotive coping styles, which are the most used and the least used methods by the post myocardial infarction patients respectively. Conclusion: Self-reliant, Optimistic, Confrontive and Supportant coping styles were the most coping styles used by post MI patients, in that order. The problem-oriented function of these coping styles dominates the emotional-oriented function.
Background: Psychological disorders and particularly depression are common in chronic renal failure and hemodialysis (HD) patients. These disorders have important influences on quality of life and increased mortality rate. This study was performed to evaluate the frequency of depression and its related factors among HD patients. Methods: The study population consisted of 120 patients on conventional maintenance hemodialysis who filled Beck's questionnaires in order to screening of depression. Data were collected by a questionnaire, medical history and laboratory findings. The SPSS v.16 was used for data analysis and Chi square and based on Spearman's tests were applied. Results: Frequency of depression among study population was 70% and 26.7% of them suffered from severe depression. There was no correlation between age; gender; underlying disease; HD duration; history of renal transplantation; marital status; occupation; hemoglobin; serum albumin levels and depression (p > 0.05). Frequency of HD sessions per week and dialysis adequacy (Kt/V) significantly correlated with depression severity (p = 0.01 and p = 0.04). Conclusion: With regard to high prevalence of depression among HD patients, depression screening seems necessary in this population. Early diagnosis and treatment of depression could improve patients' quality of life. © 2011 SEDYT. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
The power of music to relieve anxiety or pain has been widely used throughout history. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of music on anxiety and pain in patients on invasive mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial with repeated measures. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This was a randomized, experimental prospective study in a tertiary hospital conducted from January 2009 to June 2010. The sample was made up of 44 participants. Intervention consisted in a 30-minute musical session in which the subject used a headset and was in an individual room. For the control group, the usual setting of an intensive care unit was maintained unchanged. Each patient underwent a minimum of 3 and maximum of 5 sessions. The patient per se selected the music from among a selection prepared by the investigator team. Anxiety and pain and hemodynamic variables of heart rate, respiratory rate systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at baseline, after the music session and then one-hour later. RESULTS: Music therapy significantly decreased anxiety score (P=.000) when measured with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scale. There were no differences in pain in the experimental group (P=.157) when measured with the visual analogue scale. No summative effects were demonstrated during multiple sessions. CONCLUSION: Music reduces anxiety in patients with invasive mechanical ventilation. Invasive mechanical ventilation can be established as a non-pharmacologic tool added to the available therapeutic options.
To evaluate the effects of hand massage on patient anxiety during cataract surgery. Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul, Korea. This study comprised 59 patients having cataract surgery from December 11, 1996, to February 12, 1997. The patients were divided into those having a hand massage 5 minutes before surgery (experimental group, n = 29) and those not receiving a hand massage (control group, n = 30). Patients' anxiety levels were measured using the Visual Analog Scale and by assessing the systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate before and after the hand massage and 5 minutes before the end of surgery. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, blood sugar levels, neutrophil, and lymphocyte percentages in white blood cells were also measured. After the hand massage, the psychological anxiety levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and pulse rate were significantly lower than before the massage. The hand massage significantly decreased epinephrine and norepinephrine levels in the experimental group. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol levels increased in the control group. The differences between groups were significant. There were no significant between-group differences in blood sugar levels or neutrophil and lymphocyte percentages in white blood cells. The findings indicate that hand massage decreases the psychological and physiological anxiety levels in patients having cataract surgery under local anesthesia.
Relationship between Post-Myocardial Infarction Depression and Left Ventricular Function
  • H Ehsan
  • H Saneei
Ehsan H and Saneei H. Relationship between Post-Myocardial Infarction Depression and Left Ventricular Function. Iran. J. Psychiatry Psychol. 2008; 13 (4): 320 -27.
The Relationship Between Mental Health and Quality of Life of Hemodialysis Patients Referred to Hospitals Affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
  • F Sharif
  • F Vedad
Sharif F and Vedad F. [The Relationship Between Mental Health and Quality of Life of Hemodialysis Patients Referred to Hospitals Affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences]. Iran. J. Nurse. 2007; 20 (51): 61-9. Persian.
Effect of Foot Reflexology Massage and Bensone Relaxation on Anxiety
  • J Mokhtari
  • M Siratinayer
  • M Sadeghishermeh
Mokhtari J, Siratinayer M, SadeghiShermeh M and et al. [Effect of Foot Reflexology Massage and Bensone Relaxation on Anxiety]. J. Behave. Sci. 2009; 3 (2): 159 -65. Persian.
Study of The Effect of Hatha Yoga Exercises on Stress, Anxiety and Depression Among Hemodialysis Patients. Iran
  • A Tayyebi
  • M Babahaji
  • M Sadeghisherme
Tayyebi A, Babahaji M, Sadeghisherme M and et al. Study of The Effect of Hatha Yoga Exercises on Stress, Anxiety and Depression Among Hemodialysis Patients. Iran. J. Crit. Care Nurse. 2011; 3 (3): 67 -72.