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Effects of supportive work environment on employee retention: Mediating role of organizational engagement

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Abstract

Purpose The purpose of the present study is to investigate the mediating effect of organizational engagement in relationship between supportive work environment and employee retention. Design/methodology/approach Primary data of 211 respondents from 67 organizations were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to check out the dimensionality and validity of study variables. Further, the hypothesized model was tested with the help of multiple regression analysis. Findings The findings suggest that supportive work environment plays a crucial role in predicting the employee retention. Organizational engagement partially mediates the relationship between supportive work environment and employee retention. Research limitations/implications The data were limited to Indian setting and of cross-sectional design only, so, it may not be generalized across the world. Further, sample size is also comparatively smaller but results are not affected adversely. Originality/value The role of supportive work environment along with organizational engagement is currently under-researched in the Indian context. The present study is an intense effort to analyze the mediating effect of organizational engagement in the relationship between supportive work environment and employee retention.

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... Investment in facilitating mechanisms for SC can benefit the organisation in retaining talented employees because SC can create a mechanism to transfer knowledge and skills among employees, subsequently preventing burnout. It has been further stated that a SC can create a pivotal role in developing employees with a positive mind and attitude, which further contributes to organisation's performance (Kundu & Lata, 2017). ...
... Past studies have suggested the importance of creating mechanisms to develop or facilitate SC in organisations to enable employees to transfer knowledge and skills among peers, subsequently reducing job burnout (Kundu & Lata, 2017;McKinley et al., 2017). SC is reflected in terms of creating harmony, teamwork, and relationships among employees, which can elevate organisational performance (Yiing & Zaman, 2009) and increase organisational commitment (Lok & Crawford, 1999;Silverthorne, 2003). ...
... It has been conceptualised that the importance of SC as a mode of intervention is to alleviate or prevent job burnout (Lingard & Francis, 2007). Thus, an organisation needs to facilitate a supportive cultural atmosphere in terms of teamwork and cooperation to encourage altruism among peers as a tool to minimise job burnout (Lingard & Francis, 2007;Kundu & Lata, 2017;Cheng & Yi, 2018). Based on the discussion above, this study hypothesised that: ...
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This study aims to study the effect of occupational commitment (OC) toward work-life balance (WLB) and job burnout with the mediating effect of a supportive culture (SC) in the context of employees in the private higher education sector in Malaysia. This paper adopted a purposive sampling technique among academics in private higher education in Malaysia. A quantitative approach using Partial Least Square PLS-SEM (Structural Equation Modelling) method was applied to analyse the data. The results show that OC is positively related to SC and SC has a high potential for lowering job burnout. The study also found that SC positively affects WLB. Furthermore, SC was found to elucidate the effect between OC, WLB and job burnout among employees in the private higher education sector. The study has two major theoretical implications. The study reaffirms the existing theory by demonstrating that OC, WLB, and job burnout are significantly related through support culture as a mediator. In addition, the study extends the existing theory by putting forward that understanding the effect of OC on employees' work behaviour in the private higher education research model can account for the variations in different sectors and contexts.
... Research proved that employee JM has positive associations with FLEs' job outcomes. Previous studies have found that JM directly impacts employee job satisfaction and turnover intention (Kundu & Lata, 2017) and encourages workers to use emotional intelligence on the job for good performance (Othman et al., 2009). Job satisfaction (JS) is described as a group of emotions that a person has about his or her job (Robbins & Judge, 2012). ...
... JM acts as a predictor of hospitality FLEs' turnover (Richer et al., 2002); therefore understanding the possible impact JM has on their TI is of optimum importance. Past research reported the significant effect of JM on employees retention (Kundu & Lata, 2017). JM was found to serve as a strategy to avoid turnover (De Sousa Sabbagha et al., 2018). ...
... Third, this study found that when FLEs exhibit a high degree of JM at work, they are less likely to leave. The results support previous researches indicating that FLEs JM has a negative relationship with FLEs TI (e.g., Kundu & Lata, 2017;De Sousa Sabbagha et al., 2018). ...
This study applied the principles of the role theory and the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) to examine the impacts of job standardization on job motivation, as well as the influence of job motivation on emotional labor, turnover intention, and job satisfaction of guest-contact employees in a hospitality context. This research also analyzed the mediating function of job motivation on the relationship between job standardization and stated job outcomes. The data was gathered in casual food service operations in Lebanon. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) outcomes revealed a direct favorable impact of job standardization on job motivation, and a negative association between job motivation and job outcomes of emotional labor and turnover intention, but a positive link to job satisfaction. Job motivation was also found to mediate the relationship between job standardization and emotional labor, turnover intention, and job satisfaction. The analysis offers operational and theoretical suggestions, as well as directions for future inquiries.
... These factors of a supportive work environment can be categorized further as perceived working climate, supervisory relationships, peer group interaction and perceived organizational support. These were found to improve engagement and retention level among workers (Kundu & Lata, 2017;Yang, 2013;Ganz & Toren, 2014;Zhang, et l., 2014), job satisfaction (Tnay, et al., 2013;Lambrou, et al., 2014), and employees feeling supported and encouraged (Prieto and Perez-Santana, 2014). Previous researches revealed that the higher the level of organizational engagement and support is, the higher the level of employee retention rate will be (Islam, et al., 2018;Gevrek, et al., 2017;Ramalho, et al., 2018;Adikiah, 2018). ...
... This theory is applied to and translates the belief that employees will be committed to an organization and stay to reciprocate the supporting treatment by the organization. This study responds to the call of the previous research (Kundu & Lata, 2017) by fortifying the broader view of a supportive work environment where organizational engagement plays the role as mediator to resolve the issue of employee retention. ...
... Peer relationship, supervisory relationship, organizational policies and procedures, supportive work climate, and workplace environment are considered part of a positive work climate that promotes employee engagement (Shuck, et al., 2010). Perceived organizational support (Saks, 2006) and support from colleagues (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004) predict organizational engagement among employees (Kundu & Lata, 2017) and perceived organizational justice, good employee-job fit, and perceived organizational support increase organizational engagement (Richman et al., 2008). Thus, ...
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The study aims to examine the effects of organizational engagement on the relationship between supportive work environment and employee retention. The participants of the study were employees from business process outsourcing (BPO) companies within the National Capital Region, Philippines. The paper implemented a predictive causal research approach to measure the relationships of organizational engagement, supportive work environment, and employee retention. To estimate the parameters of the proposed structural model, a partial least squares-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) using WarpPLS 7.0 was used. The findings revealed that a supportive work environment positively and significantly influences employee retention and organizational engagement. Moreover, organizational engagement also significantly and positively influenced employee retention. Furthermore, the mediation analysis showed that organizational engagement has an indirect effect on the relationship between supportive work environment and employee retention.
... These factors of a supportive work environment can be categorized further as perceived working climate, supervisory relationships, peer group interaction and perceived organizational support. These were found to improve engagement and retention level among workers (Kundu & Lata, 2017;Yang, 2013;Ganz & Toren, 2014;Zhang, et l., 2014), job satisfaction (Tnay, et al., 2013;Lambrou, et al., 2014), and employees feeling supported and encouraged (Prieto and Perez-Santana, 2014). Previous researches revealed that the higher the level of organizational engagement and support is, the higher the level of employee retention rate will be (Islam, et al., 2018;Gevrek, et al., 2017;Ramalho, et al., 2018;Adikiah, 2018). ...
... This theory is applied to and translates the belief that employees will be committed to an organization and stay to reciprocate the supporting treatment by the organization. This study responds to the call of the previous research (Kundu & Lata, 2017) by fortifying the broader view of a supportive work environment where organizational engagement plays the role as mediator to resolve the issue of employee retention. ...
... Peer relationship, supervisory relationship, organizational policies and procedures, supportive work climate, and workplace environment are considered part of a positive work climate that promotes employee engagement (Shuck, et al., 2010). Perceived organizational support (Saks, 2006) and support from colleagues (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004) predict organizational engagement among employees (Kundu & Lata, 2017) and perceived organizational justice, good employee-job fit, and perceived organizational support increase organizational engagement (Richman et al., 2008). Thus, ...
... Finally, Palmer and Gignac (2012) developed a 3-item scale (e.g. I tell others how proud I am to work for this organization, whenever I have the chance; alpha 5 0.68) that was also used by Kundu and Lata (2017) (alpha 5 0.76). ...
... In addition, perceived supervisor support (PSS) (Rasheed et al., 2013;Torabi et al., 2019) and co-employee support (Andrew and Sofian, 2012) have also been found to be positively related to organization engagement. Kundu and Lata (2017) found that a supportive work environment (SWE) (perceived climate, supervisory relationship, peergroup interaction and POS) was positively related to organization engagement. ...
... In addition, many studies have found organization engagement to be negatively (or positively) related to intention to quit (remain) (Akingbola and van den Berg, 2019; Andrew and Sofian, 2012;Juhdi et al., 2013;Malinen and Harjue, 2017;Malinen et al., 2013;Shah and Beh, 2016;Torabi et al., 2019;Kundu and Lata, 2017). One study found that organization engagement is positively related to service climate in a sample of informant service employees in service organizations (Musgrove et al., 2014). ...
Article
Purpose Employee engagement has received a considerable amount of research attention over the last decade. However, most of the research has been on job or work engagement. Much less attention has been given to organization engagement, which is a distinct but related target of employee engagement. In this paper, we review the research on organization engagement and identify how it has been measured, its antecedents and consequences and how it compares to job engagement. Design/methodology/approach This paper provides a narrative review of 40 studies that have measured organization engagement. Most of these studies have been published in the last five years, and they come from 20 different countries. The majority of studies also measured job or work engagement. Findings Most studies used Saks' (2006) measure of organization engagement. Many antecedents have been found to be related to organization engagement; however, those most often studied and consistently related to organization engagement are organizational-related resources such as perceived organizational support (POS), justice perceptions, corporate social responsibility (CSR), organizational structural factors, organizational climate and HR practices. Organization engagement has been found to be positively related to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), job performance and organizational performance and negatively related to intention to quit. Organization engagement has also been found to partially or fully mediate the relationship between antecedents and consequences. In comparison to job engagement, organization engagement scores tend to be lower, and there are meaningful differences in the antecedents and consequences of organization engagement and job engagement. A number of studies found that organization engagement was more strongly related to several of the consequences than job engagement. Practical implications The results of this review indicate that organization engagement is as important if not more important than job engagement when it comes to its relationship to some of the consequences of employee engagement. Organizations should include a measure of organization engagement in employee surveys and focus on improving organization engagement by providing a supportive work environment, ensuring that employees have positive perceptions of justice, increasing CSR initiatives, providing a variety of human resources (HR) practices and improving organizational climate. Originality/value This paper provides the first comprehensive review of research on organization engagement and offers a new model of the antecedents and consequences of organization engagement and compares organization engagement to job engagement.
... Previous study that carried out by Olaimat and Awwad (2017) on the relationship between human resource practices towards employee retention showed positive relationship correlation between recruitment and selection with employee retention, as companies must ensure that the most suitable candidate for a job vacancy is taken to reduce employee inefficiencies and associated costs. Recruitment and selection are positive related to employee retention because choosing the an ability employee is a way to gain competitive advantage and also decreased employee turnover (Kundu & Lata, 2017). According to a research on the effect of recruitment practices on employee retention in large scale firms by Chandrasekara and Perera (2016), it showed the recruitment and selection practices is positively linked with employee retention. ...
... Next, the result indicated that there is a positive relationship between the recruitment and the selection with employee retention. This finding is supported by a previous study conducted by Kundu and Lata (2017) who indicated that recruitment and selection were related to retaining employees. Since choosing the right talents can gain competitive advantage through employees and reduce the employee quitting. ...
Article
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Manufacturing companies encountered the challenge to retain and hire the most talented workforce to maintain market leadership. Besides, the voluntary attrition rate in the year 2019 was 6.5% and manufacturing sectors in Malaysia had the highest turnover rate, which is 24%. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between employee retention and human resource practices will help organizations to construct better verdicts to achieve their business goals. This study aims to determine the level of employee retention, human resource practices, and examine the relationship between human resource practice and employee retention. This study was conducted among 284 employees from manufacturing companies in Selangor. Quantitative approach had been employed and online data collection were sent by email. Descriptive analysis and Spearman correlation analysis were engaged to achieve the objectives. The results indicated there is a high level of employee retention and human resource practices among the manufacturing employees. The findings also showed a significant positive correlation between employee retention and human resource practices, thus supporting all the hypotheses. These results will give better guidance to the manufacturing organization and future researchers. It also helps the management in better understanding on how to manage human resources well, while also considering the employee retention scale.
... Furthermore, supervisors give employees the advantage of family-friendly activities and those who assess employees' job results (Arifin et al., 2020;Abas et al., 2020). Additionally, supervisor support decreases employee fear and promotes job satisfaction (Kundu & Lata, 2017;Saputra & Riana, 2021), as well as the intention to stay (Dabke & Patole, 2014). Therefore, high supervisory support has a positive effect on employee attitudes (Kundu & Lata, 2017) and encourages employees to stay with the organization (Mohsin et al., 2021). ...
... Additionally, supervisor support decreases employee fear and promotes job satisfaction (Kundu & Lata, 2017;Saputra & Riana, 2021), as well as the intention to stay (Dabke & Patole, 2014). Therefore, high supervisory support has a positive effect on employee attitudes (Kundu & Lata, 2017) and encourages employees to stay with the organization (Mohsin et al., 2021). According to Ferreira et al. (2015) and Abas et al. (2020), individuals who perceive greater support from their supervisors are more likely to feel grateful to their organizations. ...
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This article aims to show how supportive work environment predictors (organizational support, supervisor support, and job satisfaction) influence employees' intentions to stay in five-star hotels in Cairo, Egypt. The current study relied on one type of data collection (questionnaire forms). Of these, 363 questionnaire forms were valid for further analysis. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25. According to the findings of this study, there is a significant and positive relationship between supervisor support and hotel employees' intention to stay. The results of the study also confirmed that there is a significant and positive relationship between job satisfaction and the intention to stay among hotel employees. However, there is no significant relationship between organizational support and the intention to stay among hotel employees. The study shows that job satisfaction has the strongest effect on the intention to stay among hotel employees. The study highlights several implications for hotel management and covers a gap in previous research studies by examining the supportive work environment in hotels in Egypt.
... Furthermore, supervisors give employees the advantage of family-friendly activities and those who assess employees' job results (Arifin et al., 2020;Abas et al., 2020). Furthermore, supervisor support decreases employee fear and promotes job satisfaction (Karatepe, 2013, EL-Banan, 2017Kundu & Lata, 2017;Saputra & Riana, 2021), as well as the intention to stay (Dabke & Patole, 2014). Therefore, high supervisor support has a positive effect on employee attitudes (Eisenberger et al., 2002;Kundu & Lata, 2017) and encourages employees to stay with the organization (Mohsin et al., 2021). ...
... Furthermore, supervisor support decreases employee fear and promotes job satisfaction (Karatepe, 2013, EL-Banan, 2017Kundu & Lata, 2017;Saputra & Riana, 2021), as well as the intention to stay (Dabke & Patole, 2014). Therefore, high supervisor support has a positive effect on employee attitudes (Eisenberger et al., 2002;Kundu & Lata, 2017) and encourages employees to stay with the organization (Mohsin et al., 2021). According to Ferreira et al. (2015) and Abas et al. (2020), individuals who perceive greater support from their supervisors are more likely to feel grateful to their organizations. ...
... Kondisi lingkungan kerja yang baik merupakan salah satu faktor pendukung produktivitas karyawan milenial yang pada akhirnya berdampak pada peningkatan tingkat kinerja (Duque et al., 2020;Kundu & Lata, 2017;Rasool et al., 2021). Kondisi lingkungan kerja dapat dibedakan menjadi dua, yaitu lingkungan kerja fisik dan lingkungan kerja non fisik. ...
... Strategi lain yang bisa dilakukan adalah menata ruang kerja dengan format co-working space agar para karyawan milenial bisa lebih leluasa berdiskusi dan berbagi ide. Penelitian sebelumnya menekankan pentingnya lingkungan kerja yang menyenangkan dan fleksibel (Hanaysha, 2016;Kossivi et al., 2016;Kumar & Sia, 2012;Kundu & Lata, 2017). ...
Article
This study aims to identify and explore the perceptions of millennial employees regarding the intersection between personal life and work (work-life interface) during the COVID-19 pandemic. The dominance of millennial workers in the hotel industry in Bali is a challenge for hotel management to identify the factors that contribute to the intention to quit of millennial employees through enriching the domains of personal and work life, which so far have not been widely studied. In-depth interviews with ten informants chosen using a purposive sampling method were used to collect data. The data analysis technique was carried out qualitatively. The data is then triangulated through several methods to meet the rules of qualitative research. The most significant finding in this study is that the work domain can enrich the personal lives of millennial employees. Through work context that is in accordance with the core values of the millennial generation, employees gain reinforcement to be able to carry out personal activities better. Work values can enrich the personal domain if employees have meaningful work, have positive support from the work environment, and if there are growth opportunities to develop their self-capacity.
... When EE improves, the formation of desirable good behaviours improves their overall motives, which in turn promotes their favourable attitude of keeping their existing job. The result of the current study findings is consistent with the previous studies which indicates that rewards and compensation, work condition are related with EE which in turn affect and ER (Malik et al., 2018;Jackson & Fransman, 2018;Mabaso & Dlamini, 2018;Chen et al., 2017;Kundu & Lata, 2017;Al-Kasasbeh, 2016;Bussin & Toerien, 2015;Bedarkar & Pandita, 2014;Jacobs et al., 2014;Sousa-Lima, Michel, & Caetano, 2013;Balakrishnan et al., 2013;Beukes & Botha, 2013). Schneider, Macey, Barbera and Martin (2009) suggested that organisations should engage their employees if they want their market share. ...
... In this regard, it may claim that its empirical findings reveal a very important dimension in the health sector, notably among nursing employees, who strive for excellence in health as a service sector. The findings of the research are supported by previous studies (Sikawa, 2018;Kundu & Lata, 2017;Arnoux-Nicolas et al., 2016). Furthermore, according to the SET theory, a satisfactory exchange can be performed without sacrificing the perceived desires of the group involved (Albrecht et al., 2015;Krot & Lewicka, 2012). ...
Article
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This study investigated the effects of reward system (RS) and job conditions (JC) on employee retention (ER). In particular, this study addressed the mediating effect of employee engagement (EE) on the relationship between RS, JC and ER. This paper employed descriptive survey approach and the unit of analysis consisted of public hospital nursing staff. Data were collected using questionnaires with a sample of 370 nurse respondents. Structural equation modelling with Smart-Partial Least Squares (PLS) 3.3.8 was used in a statistical analysis. The results revealed that RS and JC significantly related to ER. The study also showed the direct effect of RS and JC on EE. These findings indicate that (EE) has a partial mediating role in the relationship between RS, JC and ER. The study offers important policy insights for public nursing stakeholders who seek to increase retention of skills among their nursing staff. The findings are also crucial because they may help the health sector improve their ER strategies, especially in dynamic and competitive business situations where organisations are challenged to retain personnel from a limited skilled workforce.
... In addition, there are other factors that affect employee retention, namely the Work Environment. According to [6] work environment plays an important role in predicting employee retention. The purpose of this study was to see the effect of training on employee retention, work environment on employee retention, and compensation on employee retention According to social exchange theory, proper training, development and supervisor support, organized by an organization should theoretically be able to increase employee retention rates, as individuals and organizations enter into exchange relationships where the provision of benefits creates an obligation to reciprocate [7]. ...
... This is also found by [16] also stated that the work environment has a significant relationship to employee retention. This is in accordance with [6] which states that the work environment has a significant positive relationship to employee retention. Compensation has a positive and significant effect on employee retention. ...
... Bibi, Ahmad and Majid (2018) pointed out that compensation, training and development, and performance appraisal had a positive influence on the retention of employees. Kundu and Lata (2017) stated that to retain employees, organisations must provide a supportive work environment. Career and professional growth are identified as one of the determinants of employee commitment and retention (Naim and Lenka, 2018;Herman, 2005). ...
... Schaufeli, Bakker, and Salanova (2006) noted that a short version of UWES could be used as an overall or unidimensional measure for employee engagement. The questions on employee retention were adapted from a study by Kundu and Lata (2017). The questions on work-life balance were adapted from a study by Helmle, et al. (2014). ...
... Shuck et al. (2011b) describe employee engagement as a connection to a certain work environment. Peer group interaction, organizational environment and work climate help developing a positive attitude towards the organization, leading to higher levels of employee engagement (Kundu andLata, 2017, Shuck et al., 2011b). ...
... (Presbitero et al., 2016, Fletcher et al., 2018, Kundu and Lata, 2017, Haldorai, et al., 2019:1. I am actively looking for alternative employment. ...
Article
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Purpose: The purpose of the present empirical study is to examine the factors that have an impact on the turnover intention of European employees, with an emphasis on the mediating role of working conditions. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study follows a quantitative approach. An original conceptual framework (research model) has been developed and empirically tested, using primary data collected from employees in five different European countries. Findings: The study, among others, underlines the huge impact of employee commitment and job satisfaction on increasing the intention of employees to stay in the same company, while it also highlights the mechanism that impacts employee retention. Practical Implications: The study suggests that companies should built supportive working relationships, good organizational climate, and develop supportive HR practices. Retention can be indirectly influenced by focusing on the overall conditions of the workplace (e.g., work environment, supervisor support) and on HR initiatives (e.g., career opportunities). Originality/value: The proposed conceptual framework synthesizes the finding of numerous previous studies, offering a holistic approach that can enhance the understanding about the issue of employee retention. It categorizes the antecedents of retention in three dimensions; tangible, intangible and strategic. Finally, the present study collects empirical data from five European countries, an approach rarely adopted in the existing literature.
... My work supervisor really cares about my well-being Kundu and Lata (2017) My supervisor cares about my opinions. Employees can collectively influence many important issues in the department. ...
... Employee Retention I am likely to stay in this organization for the next five years. Kundu and Lata (2017) I will not change the organization easily. For me, this organization is the best of all possible organization to work for. ...
... Learning and development process is proved to be a significant retention activity in comparison with others, especially selective promotion and salary action [21]. Moreover, Kundu and Lata [22] denoted the indirect impact of career opportunities, training and development procedures, and physical working condition on retention. Besides, Learning and Development (L&D) has been shown to improve retention levels [23][24][25] because employees tend to look for opportunities offered by other employers when they perceive a lack of growth in their current organisation [26]. ...
Article
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This research investigates the relationship between relational psychological contract and the retention of young talents in Vietnam. The study surveyed young employees pertaining to (Generations Y and Z) at BBB Company. The results show an equal weight of transactional and relational psychological contracts in the job satisfaction and retention of young Vietnamese employees. The research compared the relative importance of future growth potential against existing good practices. The results indicate that these two constructs have equal importance, as the value for r square is almost equal. This suggests that from a strategic standpoint, Human Resource Management (HRM) ought to prioritise the development of practices that enhance both relational and transactional psychological contracts among young talents in Vietnam. This derives from a cultural transition, which means that both the weights of national culture and globalisation are influencing the choices and loyalty of the younger generations in the workplace. These findings have significant implications for the understanding of how generational differences and culture influence how a company retains their young talents and the importance of psychological contract for young employee commitment in Vietnam in an increasingly competitive environment.
... It was further revealed that "authentic leadership is defined as a leader's behavior pattern that refers to and promotes a positive psychological capacity and a positive ethical climate, to encourage greater self-awareness, an internalized moral perspective, information processing balance, and relational transparency between leaders and followers" (Hsieh & Wang, 2015;Lyu et al., 2019). Authentic leadership can contribute to employee retention by creating trust and authentic relationships among working group members (Bhat & Bharel, 2018;Kundu & Lata, 2017). ...
Article
This research aims to explore the work-life balance of millennial hoteliers in the Sarbagita area (Denpasar, Badung, Gianyar, and Tabanan) and its role as a mediator in the relationship between authentic leadership and turnover intention. To answer the objectives of this study, multiple linear regression analysis techniques with the assistance of the SPSS version 28 program were applied. Data collection techniques were carried out by distributing questionnaires to 100 millennial employees and validated through interviews with the general managers of five-star hotels. The main finding of the current study was that work-life balance was not proven to mediate the effect of authentic leadership on the intention of turnover of the millennial hotelier. This study recommends that hotel management elaborates on a clear, transparent, directed, and structured work-life balance program for millennial employees who will dominate the workforce in the Society 5.0 era. The results of this study contribute practically to the decision-making of five-star hotel management in the Sarbagita area to retain the best talent of the millennial generation, which emphasizes the quality of human resources. Keywords: Work-Life Balance, Authentic Leadership, Turnover Intention, Hotel
... It entails having managers who make time to assist employees in their personal and professional development. It promotes loyalty and good working relationships in a safe and enjoyable environment (Kundu & Lata, 2017). Whereas organisational environments are made up of forces or institutions that surround an organisation and have an impact on its performance, operations, and resources. ...
Article
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This study investigates the influence of a supportive work environment and organisational learning culture (OLC) on organisational performance with a serial mediation of learning agility and organisational innovation. Data was collected from 379 entry and middle-level information technology (IT) professionals. Structural equation modelling (SEM) and bootstrapping approach were utilised to assess the proposed hypotheses. Results indicate that both a supportive work environment and learning agility have a significant and positive impact on organisational innovation. In addition, learning agility was significantly correlated with organisational performance. Learning agility and organisational innovation had a serial mediating role in the indirect effect of a supportive work environment and OLC on organisational performance. This is the first known study to highlight that both a supportive work environment and OLC are essential for enhancing organisational performance through learning agility and organisational innovation in IT companies.
... Another study revealed that supervisor support has a direct negative effect on employees' intention to take sabbaticals (Altmann and Kröll, 2018). Supportive management can be related to the creation of a supportive work environment and a study by Kundu and Lata (2017) found a supportive work environment plays a crucial role in predicting employee retention. According to Cook (2014), supportive management is a critical aspect for organizations to hold the generation Y employees as they have easy access to other job opportunities. ...
Article
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Kazakhstan's public sector has changed rapidly since the country gained independence and in 2016 there were 90,730 employees in this sector. The present study examined the influence of growth opportunity, supportive management and meaningful work towards turnover intention among Generation Y Employees in the Public Sector in Astana, Kazakhstan. This was a quantitative research that used a survey method. Data was collected from a sample of 211 Gen Y employees in the public sector in Astana, Kazakhstan. The findings revealed that meaningful work and supportive management had a significant impact on turnover intention. However, the results revealed that growth opportunity had an insignificant relationship towards the turnover intention. The findings supported the results from some earlier studies and bring out several new ideas such as the importance of supportive management. The findings have significantly contributed to the advancement of knowledge in the turnover intention of public sector employees. As for practical implication, the significant and positive impact of supportive management and meaningful work suggests the importance of these factors in retention of Gen Y employees. It is recommended that organizations implement policies to support meaningful work and supportive management policies and practices. The results of this study will add to the current body of knowledge. The paper's primary contribution is that it provides an understanding that supportive management and meaningful work have an impact on reducing the turnover intention of Gen Y employees in Astana, Kazakhstan.
... he present business markets across the globe face a lot of difficulties and confront significant choices that will likely lead to their success or failure and either ensure their survival or closure. One such choice and challenge is retention of highly talented and experienced employees in the workforce that will give an organization an opportunity to improve its performance and sustain its operations (Kundu & Lata, 2017). The demand for highly skilled, knowledgeable, motivated and experienced employees is at an all-time high. ...
... Meanwhile, a qualitative study in Singapore suggested that a supportive work environment strongly predicts employee retention in its education sector (Pek-Greer and Wallace, 2017). In China, the work environment indirectly influences employee turnover through workplace violence (Wu et al., 2020) and India's organisational engagement (Kundu and Lata, 2017). Other studies supported the positive impact of the work environment on the employee turnover intention in China's health sector (Wan et al., 2018;Wu et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Sketching on the Social Exchange Theory (SET), the present study aims to investigate the direct relationship between training and development, work environment, and job satisfaction with employee retention. The contingent role of transformational leadership was also analysed under the Situational Leadership Theory (SLT). Accordingly, we collected data from 287 employees of SMEs in northern China by employing a convenience sampling approach, exhibiting a response rate of 57.40 percent. The Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) analysis was then run to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings revealed a significant positive impact of training and development, work environment, and job satisfaction on employee retention. However, no moderating effect of transformational leadership was indicated on their direct relationship. This study has enriched the literature on employee retention and the leadership arena. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is no prior evidence concerning the study’s integrated relationship of the continuous variables. The implications and limitations were finally expressed at the end of this manuscript.
... This indicates that compensation, training, and performance appraisal all have a favorable effect on employee retention (Bibi et al., 2018). In order to retain employees, organizations must also provide a supportive work environment (Kundu and Lata, 2017;Naz et al., 2020). Employees today are different; they are not short of choices (Priya and Sudhamathi, 2019). ...
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This study aims to investigate the effects of work-life balance, work environment, and reward and compensation on employee retention in Malaysia. A total of 400 questionnaires were collected online from employees within the service industry in Malaysia. Partial least square structure equation modeling was used to test the model and hypotheses. The results reveal that work-life balance and work environment had a strong positive effect on employee retention, but reward and compensation had a much stronger positive effect on employee retention. This research provides unique theoretical contributions by investigating these factors in the midst of the COVID-19 outbreak as components of the reciprocal process between employee and employer, and their effects on employee retention. This study also provides vital insights to business organizations to consider designing effective employee retention plans for a successful business.
... In the same line, Meng and Berger (2018) claim that engaged communication practitioners view their organization's culture as more supportive, rate leader performance higher, place greater trust in their organization, and express greater job satisfaction. Work engagement also is associated with important areas of work-life, such as workload, control, recognition and reward, communication and social support, perceived fairness, and valued work (Kundu and Lata, 2017;Maslach et al., 2001). ...
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As the Millennial generation becomes the largest generation of the global workforce, it is vital that organizations understand Millennials’ work values, motivational factors, and expectations to adjust existing employee retention techniques that may not suit this generation. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the major factors that affect employee retention among Latin American Millennials working in the public relations industry. Additionally, we examine generational differences in work attitudes across three generations, with an emphasis on the nature of the similarities and differences of Millennials when compared to prior generations. Findings show a highly significant positive relationship among job satisfaction, trust in the organization, job engagement, excellent leader performance, and supportive organizational culture and Latin American Millennial turnover intentions. Compared to Boomers and Gen-Xers, Millennials reported lower levels of overall job satisfaction, work engagement, and organizational trust.
... An organization's ability to maintain its employees depends entirely on managing them (Kaliprasad, 2006). In addition to management, several factors such as compensation (Kumar & Arora, 2012;Moncarz et al., 2009), reward (Alhmoud & Rjoub, 2019;Silbert, 2005), promotion (Eyster, 2008), participation in decision making (Khalid & Nawab, 2018;Noah, 2008), work-life balance (Hyman & Summers, 2004), work environment (Kundu & Lata, 2017;Ramlall, 2003), training and development (Diah et al., 2020;Handy, 2008), leadership (Fang et al., 2009;Rao et al., 2018), job-security (Rosenblatt & Ruvio, 1996), and economic, psychological, affiliation, and self-actualization (Kurdi & Alshurideh, 2020) affect employee retention. Patgar and Kumar (2015) identified the main factors of retention management strategies in companies, the most important of which was participation in management. ...
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Identifying productive employees and analyzing their turnover by data mining tools without human intervention is an attractive research field in human resource management. This study develops an innovative auxiliary system for automatic labeling of numerical data by providing a hybrid clustering algorithm of K-means and partition around medoids (PAM) methods to identify organizational productive employees and to divide them into different productivity levels. The model is evaluated by calculating the differences between actual and labeled values (93% labeling accuracy) and an innovative criterion for image processing of the final clusters using the singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm. Ultimately, the results of the algorithm determine four labels of middle and good productive employees who leave the organization and excellent and weak productive employees who stay in the organization; according to each cluster, policies are adopted for their retaining, productivity improvement, and replacement.
... It has been discovered that a leader who demonstrates a high level of concern for her subordinates contributes to greater employee satisfaction because both can sense the respect and warm relationship [20]. It has been shown that when an employee receives positive supervisory, peer and organisational support, they will feel more engaged within the organisation and will be more loyal as it is fulfilling in job satisfaction and will remain with the same organisation for a long period of time [32]. When it comes to employee retention, the working environment and condition had the strongest correlation with employee retention (r=0.688, ...
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Background: Keeping nurses in their jobs was crucial to building up the healthcare sector nationwide. Objective: The study's goal was to find out if variables associated with job satisfaction and nurse retention in the healthcare industry in one of Kuala Lumpur's tertiary private hospitals were linked. Methods: A cross-sectional study is what this is. The research examines the relationship between job satisfaction and employee retention and variables such as family social support, employee engagement, working environment and conditions, manager and peer support, and development opportunities. Results: A total of 104 questionnaires were handed out to registered nurses working in medical surgical wards. The data was analysed using descriptive analysis, reliability analysis, and validity analysis. The Cronbach's alpha result showed a range of 0.837 – 0.967 for each construct and the 42 total items from all the constructs. Employee retention (r=0.336, pvalue0.05) and job satisfaction (r=0.223, p-value0.05) had the least in common. Conclusion: According to the findings, job satisfaction and employee retention are strongly influenced by family social support, employee engagement, working environment and conditions, manager and peer support, and development opportunities.
... As human resources are limited, organizations have to be able to retain their high performers in order to achieve the desired organizational outcomes (Hsu, 2008). Although previous studies (e.g., Bhatnagar, 2007;Kundu & Lata, 2017) investigated the impact of employee engagement on talent retention, further research is needed to examine talent retention in ICT sector. In fact, there is limited research regarding talent retention in ICT sector, in which the "war for talent" is relentless, as organizations compete to attract and retain the most capable employees. ...
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This study examines talent retention in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector by focusing on the relationships between human resource management (HRM), knowledge management (KM), change management (CM) and employee engagement. In this respect, a conceptual framework is proposed to understand the relationships between these constructs. The proposed framework highlights the importance of implementing specific talent retention practices in knowledge-intensive sectors like ICT, in order for employees to be engaged both with their work and their organization.
... Employee retention rates are also influenced by the work environment (Kundu & Lata, 2017). The work environment is everything outside the organization that has the potential to affect employees at work and ultimately affect organizational performance (Yusliza et al., 2021). ...
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This study aims to analyze the effect of leadership style, work environment on employee retention with non-physical work environment as a moderating variable. The research design used is associative. The research was conducted at Ayodya Resort Bali. The population of this study was 501 employees with 84 employees as samples. The sample selection technique is proportional stratified. The data collection method used is Observation, Interview, Questionnaire and analyzed by Moderated Regression Analysis (MRA). The results show that leadership style has a positive and significant effect on employee retention, the better the leadership style applied by the company, the employee's desire to remain in the company will also increase. The non-physical work environment strengthens the influence of leadership style on employee retention, the better the leadership style supported by a good non-physical work environment, the employee's desire to remain in the company will increase. Companies must always pay attention to the relationship between employees and the relationship between employees and superiors so that they continue to run well and harmoniously.
... At the same time, HRD professionals can encourage management in manufacturing to increase their investments into developing relationships with their employees, as part of improving communication and overall support of the workforce. As reported earlier, employees who feel supported by management are more likely to be engaged and satisfied with their work and ultimately more productive (Arasanmi and Krishna, 2019;Ghosh and Sahney, 2011;Kundu and Lata, 2017). Strategies for increasing perceived support could include scheduled one-on-one meetings with employees to hear their concerns, offering suggestion boxes where employees can confidentially share their ideas or frustrations and increasing individual recognition of employees on an ongoing basis. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify primary issues related to employee onboarding and satisfaction in US-based manufacturing companies. Design/methodology/approach In total, 19 focus groups using semi-structured interviews with senior management, middle management, tenured employees and new employees were conducted with personnel from five manufacturing companies located in the Midwest USA. Onboarding procedures, training manuals, employee satisfaction surveys and performance evaluations were subsequently reviewed. Findings Insufficient onboarding, poor communication and a perceived lack of support were reported as satisfaction concerns by manufacturing employees. In addition, management had vastly differing perspectives regarding the work environment when responses were contrasted with those from new or tenured employees. Originality/value This paper reveals contributing factors that influence satisfaction early and throughout an employee’s tenure with small- to medium-sized US manufacturing companies.
... Many studies have been conducted on employee retention in many different industries (Khalid & Nawab, 2018;Papa, et al., 2018;Kundu & Lata, 2017). However, there are still gaps to be filled by the researchers related to the mediating effect of job satisfaction on employee retention. ...
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Employee retention in Government hospitals in Malaysia has become a concern due to more employees leaving for the private healthcare sector. Many factors have contributed to this phenomenon, such as salary discrepancy, work-life balance, working environment and job satisfaction. The objective of this study is to examine the mediating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between the influencing factors and employee retention on medical doctors in government hospitals in Johor. Through this study, the relationship between the influencing factors and employee retention in government hospitals in Malaysia was explored and analyzed, while the mediating effect of job satisfaction was determined. By analyzing the factors that influence employee retention, this study aims to provide a guide for the government to handle the employee retention issue, and perhaps, help in introducing more effective retention strategies. The independent variable is working environment and the mediating variable is job satisfaction in this study. This is a cross-sectional research using the quantitative and descriptive method. Data was collected through an online questionnaire distributed to respondents to test the significance of the study. Results indicate that the working environment has no direct relationship with employee retention, but has a significant effect on job satisfaction. Also, job satisfaction has a significant effect on employee retention. Finally, the findings of this study show that the working environment predicts employee retention indirectly through job satisfaction
... In order to calculate the Turnover Intention TI, the 4-item scale of the MacIntosh $ Doherty studies was adopted (2010). A 6-item measurement scale was used to assess the Working Environment WE (perceived atmosphere, supervisory relationships) adopted by the Kundu & Lata (2017). ...
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Small and medium enterprises have an essential role in the progress of countries. Therefore, the researchers should also focus on their organizational behavior issues or the managerial and environmental issues that affect their employees' commitment. This research aims to examine the impact of responsible leadership on the affective commitment of staff working in small and medium enterprises of Jordan; this relation was also analyzed with mediating role of employee turnover intention and moderating role of the work environment. The study's more concern was on manufacturing SMEs and, thus, data were collected from employees working in these SMEs. AMOS analyzed this gathered data, and results accepted all the hypothesis which were developed by study. The research highlighted that affective commitment depends upon responsible leadership, and this relation can be strengthened if the work environment provided to employees is better. If employees do not have the turnover intention, then they will remain committed to SMEs. Thus, this research will be a guideline for managers, owners, and supervisors working in SMEs. Moreover, the research provided insights to development authorities that work for the betterment of SMEs. In terms of limitations, this study is limited to manufacturing SMEs of Jordan. The research also focused on a broad definition of responsible leadership that can improve the affective contribution of workers in small and medium-sized businesses and reduce their turnover intentions.
... Accordingly, there has been substantial research interest found over the past decades on the factors that increase employees' engagement with their work yet the issue of low employee engagement is still an important consideration for organizations around the world (Albrecht et al., 2015). Thus, in order to improve the level of engagement among employees, it is essential to have a better practical and theoretical understanding of the antecedents and underlying mechanisms that increase and explain employee engagement in the organization (Akhtar et al., 2015;Kundu & Lata, 2016;Robertson & Cooper, 2009). ...
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The purpose of conducting this research is to investigate the impact of servant leadership (SL) on employee engagement (EE) through the mediating role of self-efficacy (SE) among Pakistani bank employees. The literature suggests that servant leadership leads to increased self-efficiency, which in turn enhances employee engagement. However, the direct and indirect relationship between this leadership style and employee engagement remains under-researched. The purpose of this research was therefore to investigate the impact of servant leadership on Pakistani bank employees’ engagement through the mediating role of self-efficacy. Survey data was collected from public and private bank employees using the multistage sampling method. Data analysis using SmartPLS revealed that servant leadership has a direct positive impact on employee engagement. The mediating role of self-efficacy between this relationship was also found to be positive and significant, in line with the conservation of resources theory. Thus, bank managers should practice servant leadership in interacting with their employees to improve the latter’s involvement in their jobs.
... Although previous studies (e.g., Bhatnagar, 2007;Kundu & Lata, 2017) investigated the impact of employee engagement on talent retention, further research is needed to examine talent retention in ICT sector. In fact, there is limited research regarding talent retention in ICT sector, in which the "war for talent" is relentless, as organizations compete to attract and retain the most capable employees. ...
Conference Paper
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This study examines talent retention in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector by focusing on the relationships between human resource management (HRM), knowledge management (KM), change management (CM) and employee engagement. In this respect, a conceptual framework is proposed to understand the relationships between these constructs. The proposed framework highlights the importance of implementing specific talent retention practices in knowledge-intensive sectors like ICT, in order for employees to be engaged both with their work and their organization.
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Existe uma aquiescência de que as práticas de Gestão de Pessoas [GP] devem resultar em novas abordagens estratégicas para o papel da área de GP. Nesse sentido, o presente artigo tem por objetivo analisar como as práticas de GP são percebidas por trabalhadores ocupantes de posições de gestão e não gestão em unidades distintas de uma empresa do setor têxtil. Para a realização do estudo, foi aplicada uma survey descritiva, aplicada por intermédio da plataforma virtual do “Google Forms”. A amostra foi composta por 101 profissionais da empresa, sendo coletada por acessibilidade e conveniência. Com abordagem quantitativa, os participantes foram selecionados e distribuídos em dois grupos: gestores e não gestores das unidades A e B. Os dados obtidos foram relacionados com cinco práticas de GP: Captação, Retenção, Desenvolvimento, Contrato e Ambiente de Trabalho. Como resultados, a pesquisa evidenciou uniformidade quanto ao nível de percepção das práticas de GP em ambos os grupos, trabalhadores com posição de gestão e não gestão. No entanto, as unidades A e B demonstraram desconformidade quanto às práticas de GP em relação ao nível de percepção dos trabalhadores com posição de gestão entre unidades.
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Achieving goals requires empowered individuals all around the world since competitive advantage is characterised by innovation, speed to market, and productivity. Employee morale is declining due to a lack of top management support, inadequate human resource practices, lack of recognition and success, and lack of support for limited resources. Employers are boosting expenditures in employee engagement to obtain a competitive advantage. However, research shows that more investment does not improve employee engagement, putting employee-generated competitive advantage at risk. As a result, the current study examines factors influencing employee engagement, and makes recommendations for boosting employee engagement to improve organizational performance. The study is exploratory in nature and seeks to discover the elements impacting print media retention techniques. The study employs a well-structured questionnaire developed after a literature review and validated by a panel of five experts. The questionnaire had demographic data and Likert scale questions (1=Strong Disagreement, 5=Strong Agreement). There is no accurate data on the number of print media enterprises in Bangalore. According to KOMPASS, there are 215 print media enterprises in Bangalore, 56 of which have over 250 employees. Using the Cochran formula, a Convenience sample of 100 people is picked with a 10% margin of error and a 95% confidence. After removing the outliers, 121 replies were chosen for the research out of 117 responses (Glenn D isreal). Data was analysed using SPSS for descriptive statistics and AMOS for SEM. Only permanent personnel completed and returned the questionnaires. The study concluded that recognition and appreciation, the organisational climate, and the interaction between subordinates and superiors influence employee happiness. Well-being of employees is affected by several things, such as how they are treated by their employers and how much money they get. Employee engagement techniques for the Business Environment and superior subordinate collaboration are vital in the print media business, where work must be approved and supported by immediate superiors for magazines and other processes.
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Retention is more significant than acquisition as it takes more cash and period than any process. Female employees are the greatest worthy and valued asset, particularly for any organisation. Female employee exiting, is a indication of deeper subjects that have not been fixed, which may include low worker confidence, absence of a clear job route, absence of acknowledgement, poor employee-manager associations or many other problems. Employee retention is connected to the labours by which bosses challenge to hold the workers in their labour force. In this sense, retaining becomes the policies rather than the consequence for an organisation. The necessity of the organisation is to entice the best female talent and to hold them for a long time in the organisation. Organizations will endure to be in a rotating gate for female employees unless HR managers arrange and offer plans and creativities to retain the female workers through their job. The major factor in the retention of female workers, would require organizations to think about best applies which leads to female employees grow in their career with one association. The paper focuses on studying the women retaining strategies and how to retain more women employees in an organisation (Shabnam K, (2017)).
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Purpose This study examines the relationship between HR practices and millennial employee retention in the tourism industry in Bangladesh. It investigates the moderating role of the work environment in the relationship between HR practices and employee retention in the industry. Design/methodology/approach The researchers used non-probability judgemental sampling to collect 384 questionnaires through a survey of millennial employees. Partial least square-based structural equation model (PLS-SEM) was used to analyse the data. Findings The results reveal that HR practices included in this paper have significant relationships with millennial employee retention in the tourism industry in Bangladesh, except employee participation in decision-making. In addition, the results show that the work environment only moderates the relationship between two HR practices (compensation, training and development) and millennial employee retention. Practical implications The results suggest that managers in tourism organisations must develop HR practices and foster a positive work environment to retain millennials. Originality/value This is the only study that examines the moderating role of the work environment on the relationship between five selected HR practices (training and development, job security, performance appraisal, employee participation, compensation) and millennial employee retention. Previous studies used fewer HR variables.
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This research investigates the antecedents of employee engagement in Pakistan’s banks to conceptualize the idea of employee engagement. For this, the study examines the relationship between transformational leadership (TL), despotic leadership (DL), and the mediation of psychological distress (PD) with an outcome variable, employee engagement (EE). The study focused on first-line bank managers based in Punjab province using a cluster sampling technique. A questionnaire survey was used, and 341 respondents were selected for analysis using PLS-SEM. The study’s findings confirmed that all seven hypotheses tested were statistically significant. The results revealed that the transforming role of transformational leadership is more effective than despotic leadership in promoting employee engagement. The indirect link of psychological distress between transformational leadership, despotic leadership, and employee engagement also acts vice versa. The current study findings have implications for advancing our understanding of the effects of transformational leadership because of their positivity, which can reduce psychological distress and increase employee engagement in the service sector. In contrast, despotic leadership undermines employees’ abilities by increasing psychological distress and disengagement among employees. Our findings will help the banking industry understand how despotic and transformational leadership can negatively and positively affect employee outcomes.
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Compensation management is often referred as salary and wage administration. Human resource management department designs compensation policy. Organizations can be competitive if they update their compensation package according to market conditions. Standard human resource policy gives high priority for better compensation package. The parameters considered while designing compensation management are job responsibilities, experience, company budget and job market. Human resource managers design compensation strategy through scorecard. Pay equity can be attained with competitive compensation package. The research was conducted to the employee working in Hyderabad digital marketing companies. The hypotheses were tested using chi square test, ANOVA & other statistical testing tools.
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The journal publishes conference proceedings. The journal publishes original research by domestic and foreign authors in the field of science and innovation, as well as articles reflecting the application of these original research in the field of education. The management of the journal gives preference to articles on original and relevant topics. Articles on art, philology and humanities are not accepted. However, in 2019 and 2020, the number of articles on the pandemic (COVID 19) was low. There is no special edition. The publishing policy is not mass, but innovative. Our motto: success cannot be accidental. The journal is published entirely in English so that foreign authors can read it.
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Brazilian police officers’ increasing levels of work anxiety and intention to leave the job are consistent with other police forces around the world. Among the important variables that appear to be antecedents of these unwanted organizational outcomes are increasing role stressors associated with police work. We conjecture that how police officers appraise stressors would affect whether adverse outcomes prevail. Specifically, stressors appraised as challenges result in weaker adverse outcomes compared with stressors appraised as hindrances. We also anticipate that a boundary condition that might further attenuate adverse outcomes is having meaningfulness in life (MIL). Likewise, having low MIL can intensify the potential adverse outcomes of stressors appraised as hindrances. This study aims to investigate how role stressors appraised as either challenges or hindrances may influence anxiety and intention to leave among state police officers in the Brazilian Federal District (DF), as well as implications of MIL as a moderator variable of these relationships. Our hypotheses supported the mediating effect of role stressors’ appraisals in their prediction of police officers’ anxiety and intention to leave their job, and the moderator effects of MIL in these same relationships. Findings are discussed in terms of changes in police regulations and training programs aimed at increasing officers’ MIL and coping strategies to redirect how they appraise role stressors as challenges rather than as hindrances, which may lead to a healthier work experience for DF State Police officers.
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Purpose This study explored moderating effects of employee generations on factors related to employee retention and motivation in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach The authors developed a survey instrument and collected the survey data via Amazon Mechanical Turk. After filtering out bad responses, the authors ended up with 489 sample cases for this study. The authors used structural equation modeling for data analysis. Findings Evidence showed that only transformational leadership was significantly related to retention of Generation X employees and only work–life balance had a significant relationship with intrinsic motivation. For Generation Y employees, transformational leadership was the only factor affecting their retention while both transformational leadership and autonomy showed significant impacts on their intrinsic motivation. Generation Z employees reported that only transformation leadership affected their retention while transformational leadership, corporate social responsibility and autonomy were significantly related to their intrinsic motivation in the workplace. All three generations showed statistical significance between intrinsic motivation and employee retention. Practical implications This study could help business practitioners increase employees' work motivation and retention. Originality/value First, our results revealed interesting similarities and differences between generations in terms of the factors that affected employees' retention and motivation. Second, this study proved that employees' generation affects the impacts of transformational leadership, CSR, autonomy, WLB and technology on their motivation and retention in the workplace. Third, the results of our study also showed that employees of different generations are intrinsically motivated by different factors, proving the importance of considering generational differences in motivation literature.
Purpose This study aims to explore how professional event associations’ recovery strategies are perceived by members and to measure the consequent influence of the perceived fit of recovery strategies on organizational identification (OI), consistent behavioral intentions and long-term commitment intentions. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from current members of professional event management associations who work not only as event planners but also as service providers in the hospitality and tourism industry. The authors used partial least squares structural equation modeling to test the proposed model. Findings The perceived fit between recovery strategy and internal domains, the self in particular, was found to be the most important in exerting effects directly on OI, and its indirect effects are significant on all the behavioral intentions toward the association, while the perceived fit of recovery strategy with external domains, especially the industry, was not significant with any of the other factors. Practical implications The findings from the present study provide professional event association leaderships with significant managerial implications in establishing a sustainable business model to retain current members and increase their intentions toward consistent engagement and long-term commitment. Originality/value Stepping forward from the strategic management and organizational behavior literature in the private sector, the authors shed light on a crisis recovery mechanism of professional associations in the event industry, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the first such attempt in the event management literature.
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Lack of funds and difficult to access to formal loans from banks are problems faced by Vietnamese enterprises in general and Hanoi enterprises in particular. There have been many domestic and international studies on accessing to bank credit capital. While the research works focused on the analysis from a corporate perspective, no specific corporate disclosure has been made in Hanoi, in the context of the Covid pandemic. This study aims to identify the important factors affecting access to bank credit capital in Hanoi, through interviews with 200 customers, and to use a quantitative study method (linear regression). The results showed that there were five factors affecting access to bank credit capital in Hanoi: (1) Economic background, (2) Secured Assets (3) Business Plan, (4) Productivity and (5) the relationship between companies with banks.
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The International Journal of Organizational Analysis (IJOA) is a leading journal that has published high-quality research focused on various facets of organizational analysis since 1993. This paper aims to conduct a retrospective analysis of the IJOA journey from 2005 to 2020. The data used in this study was extracted using the Scopus database. The bibliometric analysis, using several indicators, is adopted to reveal the major trends and themes of the journal. The mapping of bibliographic data is carried using VOSviewer and Biblioshiny. The study findings indicate that IJOA has grown for publications and citations since its inception. Five significant research directions emerged, i.e. organizational diagnostics, organization citizenship behaviour, organizational commitment to employee retention, psychological capital and firm performance, based on cluster analysis of IJOA’s publications.
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Employing workers with disabilities is a mandate contained in the law. The mandate also provides rights and obligations for persons with disabilities to be able to carry out their lives, including getting decent work without discrimination. Disability workforce is one of the diversity that must be managed properly in an agency in order to help achieve organizational goals, in particular, in Regency/City Local Government Agencies. In this literature, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the factors that influence morale. This study aims to explain the role of work motivation as a mediator of the influence of the non-physical work environment and communication on the morale of workers with disabilities in Regency / City Government Agencies throughout Bali. Respondents from this study were 33 people, using a saturated/census sampling technique, namely all workers with special disabilities in Regency/City Government Agencies throughout Bali. Data was collected through unstructured interviews and using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Model (SEM) using PLS (Partial Least Square) analysis technique. The results of this study indicate that the non-physical work environment, communication and work motivation have a positive and significant effect on morale. Non-physical work environment and communication have a positive and significant effect on work motivation. Work motivation partially mediates the influence of the non-physical work environment on morale and the influence of communication on morale.
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The chapter examines the manner in which COVID-19 is affecting employee productivity given to the global organizational restructuring. This chapter focuses on the general impact it has had on organizations, particularly SMEs in Karachi, Pakistan. A review of the current literature indicates organizations have been constrained into projects of quick and revolutionary change. In basically all cases, there will be further significant changes ahead for those organizations that endure the impact of COVID-19. This study quantitatively tests the link between organizational restructuring and the impact it holds on employee productivity. This is done through questionnaires being distributed amongst the sample of employees working at different FMCG companies going through organizational restructuring. The expected findings suggest that employee output has decreased as there has been a drastic work environment shift; they are not as motivated and focused working from home as compared to the formal work setup they've been working in for years.
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El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer, en una dependencia del sector público mexicano, si el apoyo que brinda el supervisor influye en la percepción de apoyo organizacional, la autonomía y la cohesión grupal. El método de investigación fue cuantitativo, descriptivo, no experimental y transversal con un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales. Los resultados evidencian que la percepción del apoyo que brinda el supervisor favorece la autonomía, la cohesión y la percepción de apoyo organizacional. Estos hallazgos permiten avanzar en el conocimiento de sus efectos en el sector gubernamental, contexto en el cual esta clase de trabajos son escasos. Se recomienda profundizar en el efecto de la edad en la relación entre la percepción del apoyo que brinda el supervisor y la cohesión, dado que se encontraron diferencias significativas asociadas a ella.
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The study was conducted to evaluate the impact of perceived threat of COVID-19 upon the retention of doctors of twin cities'' hospitals of Pakistan. Two moderator's compensation and training and development were assessed as moderating the relationship between perceived threat of COVID-19 and employee retention. The model is tested on healthcare sector of Pakistan and the data was collected by the doctors of twin cities of Pakistan. A sample of 208 doctors was collected using random sampling technique. Sem-PLS software was used to analyze the statistics. Perceived Threat of COVID-19 have a positive significant impact on employee's retention whereas compensation is negatively and significantly moderating the relationship between perceived threat of COVID-19 and employee retention. Training and development are insignificantly moderating the relationship between perceived threat of COVID-19 and employee retention. Doctors were found to be not intended to leave their hospitals in threat of COVID-19. Compensation was found to moderate the relation between the both variables, such that weakening the relationship. Training and development were found to be ineffective as a moderator in the relation of perceived threat of COVID-19 and employee retention.
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Employee Retention has gained importance in recent years, particularly as part of talent management programs, and its relevance can be seen so much that the HR practitioner who integrates it into a talent program may grow bewildered by the huge volume of research about it. Employee retention is more than just keeping employees on the job. It is also about sustaining employees, primarily by enhancing their job satisfaction. This paper tries to document the practices followed by a select Indian MNCs in retaining their employees and also highlights the opinions of the employees about such retention practices mass.
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Purpose This paper aims to test the effects of perception of organizational politics (POPS) on work outcomes–work engagement, innovative work behaviour and turnover intention. Mediating role of work engagement and the moderating role of locus of control (LOC) on perceived organizational politics–outcome (innovative work behaviour and turnover intention) relationship was investigated. Design/methodology/approach Data were gathered from a sample of 302 full-time managerial employees in India. Results suggest that perceived organizational politics is significantly related to intention to quit and innovative work behaviour, and this relationship is partially mediated by work engagement. LOC moderates the organizational politics–work outcomes (work engagement and innovative work behaviour) relationship. Findings The current research demonstrates that availability of a work environment, where there are unfair decisions, nepotism and favoritism, is an impediment to engagement, innovative work behaviour and retention of managers. It behooves of top management therefore focusing on reducing POPS and subsequent deficits in motivation by providing clear feedback regarding which behaviours their organization desires. Research limitations/implications The study focused on POPS as reported by the employees and not on actual political behaviours. As the study did not cover all sectors, the results of this study should be interpreted with caution. Originality/value The study extended the current research stream of perceived organizational politics research to one of the underrepresented developing Asian countries, India. The study also contributes in terms of its sample characteristics. Managerial employees working across different sectors, served as the setting of our empirical study.
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As a postscript to this HRM Special Issue on. HR strategy in five leading firms, three preeminent experts in the field of human resources provide their reactions and comments. Mike Losey is President and Chief Executive Officer of the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM), Tony Rucci is Dean of the College of Business Administration at the University of Illinois at Chicago, and Dave Ulrich is Professor of Business at the University of Michigan. (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Purpose – The aim of this study was to examine the factors that employees perceived were important in creating a supportive learning environment in a recently merged organisation. The study provides rich qualitative data from the employees’ perspective. Design/methodology/approach – This case study used a qualitative phenomenological constructivist approach. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analysed with the aid of NVivo. The study was conducted in a large government-owned organisation in Australia and the sample consisted of 24 recent graduates of leadership development programs. Findings – The results suggested that together with the organisation’s leadership, there are several distinguishing characteristics of a learning environment. These include learning with colleagues, openness to new ideas and change, building relationships, open communication, sharing the learning, coaching and reflection. Providing support for managers to gain confidence and self-awareness was important to their ability to apply their learning. The results also suggest that learning with colleagues from different regional and functional areas helps to reform subcultures and contributes to an overarching learning culture and hence to creating a supportive learning environment. Some hindrances were also discovered. Originality/value – This study gives voice to employee perceptions of the important factors required to create a supportive learning environment. The authors used a qualitative methodology in a field dominated by quantitative studies to provide rich data that extends the extant literature.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Few studies have presented structural turnover models including both job satisfaction and organizational commitment measures. Recent research suggests that perceived supervisor leadership may contribute to employee well-being, job satisfaction and organizational commitment. This study proposes a structural turnover intention model including supervisory behavior (person-oriented and task-oriented dimensions), job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Furthermore, the study proposes to test whether this model fits in both small- and medium-sized enterprises and in large enterprises. The sample included 763 employees from different types of organizations who have completed a measure of their perception of their supervisor’s behavior and self-administrated measures of job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention. Results show that person-oriented leadership behavior affects turnover intentions through job satisfaction and organizational commitment more than task-oriented leadership behavior. Only organizational commitment had a direct effect in explaining turnover intention. Finally, results indicate that the model is applicable both in small- and medium-sized enterprises and large enterprises.
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This paper argues that the effectiveness of HRM practices in tackling employee retention can be enhanced by improving the compatibility between employee and organisational values. We test our hypothesis using structural equation modelling on a sample of 258 employees in business process outsourcing (BPO) firms in the Philippines. The results show that the fit between employee and organisation values positively and partially mediates the effects of HRM practices on employee retention. However, employee-organisation value clash in US-owned BPOs was found to have a negative effect on employee retention. Because employees are less likely to leave when they share similar values as their organisations, HRM practices can be used strategically to improve the employee-organisation value fit to improve retention. The implications of the findings for HR managers of BPOs in developing countries are fully discussed.
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Purpose – Employee engagement has become a hot topic in recent years among consulting firms and in the popular business press. However, employee engagement has rarely been studied in the academic literature and relatively little is known about its antecedents and consequences. The purpose of this study was to test a model of the antecedents and consequences of job and organization engagements based on social exchange theory. Design/methodology/approach – A survey was completed by 102 employees working in a variety of jobs and organizations. The average age was 34 and 60 percent were female. Participants had been in their current job for an average of four years, in their organization an average of five years, and had on average 12 years of work experience. The survey included measures of job and organization engagement as well as the antecedents and consequences of engagement. Findings – Results indicate that there is a meaningful difference between job and organization engagements and that perceived organizational support predicts both job and organization engagement; job characteristics predicts job engagement; and procedural justice predicts organization engagement. In addition, job and organization engagement mediated the relationships between the antecedents and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, intentions to quit, and organizational citizenship behavior. Originality/value – This is the first study to make a distinction between job and organization engagement and to measure a variety of antecedents and consequences of job and organization engagement. As a result, this study addresses concerns about that lack of academic research on employee engagement and speculation that it might just be the latest management fad.
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Purpose Past research has found meaningful differences between job and organisational engagement. However, research to date has mainly focused on job engagement, whereas the construct of organisational engagement has been largely neglected. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antecedents of organisational engagement and its influence on withdrawal attitudes. Design/methodology/approach Using an on‐line survey, the authors investigated employees’ perceptions of fairness and trust in senior management, 12 months prior to the measurement of organisational engagement and withdrawal attitudes. The study was conducted in a professional services public organisation, characterised by frequent change and uncertainty. Findings The authors showed that perceptions of procedural justice and trust in senior management predicted organisational engagement 12 months later. In addition, organisational engagement partially mediated the relationship between procedural justice perceptions, trust in senior management, and withdrawal attitudes. Practical implications The authors’ research suggests that monitoring and influencing employees’ levels of engagement can benefit organisations, and that leaders in particular can influence employees’ level of engagement. Indeed, the present research showed that employees who had trust in senior management and felt that they had a voice in the organisation showed higher levels of engagement and lower intentions to exit the organisation. Originality/value This research contributes to our understanding of the drivers of engagement, and demonstrates the importance of organisational‐level, in addition to job‐level engagement.
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This study examined the mediating effects of organizational commitment (OC) and organizational engagement (OE) on the relationship between human resource (HR) practices (career management, performance appraisal, compensation, person–job fit and job control) and turnover intention. A total of 457 employees working in various sectors in a selected region in Malaysia participated in this study. It was found that all the variables used to measure HR practices have significant effects on OC and OE. However, multiple regression analyses indicated that career management and job control did not have any significant influence on turnover intention. OC and OE were discovered to give partial mediating effects on the relationship between HR practices and turnover intention.
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Purpose Research on organizational climate has shown a significant upward trend in the recent past. The purpose of the present study is to propose a conceptual model that empirically examines the relationship of dimensions of organizational climate with managerial effectiveness in Indian organizations. Design/methodology/approach A data set of 245 managers/executives was collected from Indian organizations through a survey instrument. The collected responses were subsequently tested by using structural equation modeling (SEM). Further, the hypothesized model was tested by employing five stages of hierarchical multiple regressions. Findings The findings suggest that organizational climate dimensions, i.e. organizational process, altruistic behaviour, role clarity and communication, results‐rewards orientation and certain aspects of interpersonal relationships play a significant role in increasing managerial effectiveness. Research limitations/implications The results indicate ways in which organizations might develop supportive climates in order to reinforce effectiveness of the organizational members. Originality/value The role of organizational climate in employee effectiveness is currently under‐researched in the Indian context. The present study is an earnest effort in this direction to analyse the link between organizational climate and managerial effectiveness.
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Purpose – The study was conducted with the aim of discovering the factors which maximally discriminate between those employees who intend to leave the organization and those who intend to stay with the organization. The primary motive was to find those factors which are strong predictors of intention to stay, so that employees who intend quitting are identified in advance, and remedial measures are taken to retain them, especially if they are key performers. Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire covering several aspects relating to employee retention was designed and distributed amongst a sample of 100 employees chosen through incidental sampling. Data thus collected was subjected to factor analysis, which yielded seven factors: Goal Clarity, Autonomy, Employee Engagement, Affective Commitment, Organizational Culture, Compensation and Benefits, and Normative Commitment. Discriminant analysis was done on these factors to identify the best predictors of employees' intention to leave or stay, by creating a discriminant function. Findings – Results showed that Affective Commitment, Normative Commitment and Goal Clarity were the best predictors of employees' intention to stay or leave the organization. Originality/value – Increasing employee turnover rates have necessitated the formulation and implementation of a robust retention strategy to effectively reduce employee turnover. By building a decision rule and a cut‐off score to classify an employee into one of the two groups – “intend to leave” or “intend to stay” – an organization would be able to invest its resources in the right employees.
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Service quality has become essential for the survival of service companies in the emerging world without borders. Effective delivery of quality services involves finding customers, identifying their needs, and meeting or exceeding their expectations. This article discusses challenges to delivering service quality. It proposes that employees are the key to delivering excellent quality services and suggests ways to create a talented and motivated workforce. HR strategies like attracting the right people, developing people, providing relevant support systems, and retaining the best people are discussed comprehensively as a means of creating a talented workforce. Finally, the article presents the major steps needed to implement a quality service program in order to gain a strategic competitive advantage.
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This article explores the phenomenon of best employer studies, including origins, meaning, and implications of such studies through a literature review and a case study of Hewitt's Best Employers in Asia study. A conceptual model is suggested of the relationships among business strategy, HR practices, engaged employees, HR reputation, and financial performance, based on theoretical backgrounds, such as the resource-based view of the firm, strategic HR management, signaling theory, and social identity theory. Finally, implications for practice in HRD and for future research are presented.
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In the contemporary business environment, human resource (HR) is an indispensable input for organizational effectiveness. Hence, an effective management of human resources has an important role to play in the performance and success of organizations. Competitive pressures have encouraged organizations to be proactive in diagnosing HR problems and to adopt more innovative HR practices since these were no longer a matter of trend, but rather of survival. The present study attempted to explore the relationship of three dimensions of innovative human resource practices (IHRPs): that is, the extent of introduction of IHRPs, their importance for organizational goal achievement and satisfaction with implementation of IHRPs, with organizational commitment (OC). Regression analyses showed that the perceived extent of introduction of innovative human resource practices by the organizations was the most significant predictor of organizational commitment.
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One of the primary challenges the hospitality industry faces continues to be high levels of turnover. In this study, the authors examine turnover intentions of one of the most critical groups of employees: management staff. Using a sample of Cornell University School of Hotel Administration graduates from 1987 through 2002, the authors identify the job features that enhance managers' commitment levels to their organizations and to the overall industry, as well as reduce their likelihood of leaving both. Results suggest that hospitality managers are taking charge of their careers. They are looking for challenging jobs that offer growth opportunities, as well as competent leadership and fair compensation. To the degree these job features are in place, hospitality managers' commitment levels will rise. Managers' commitment to performing challenging work especially reduces their likelihood of leaving their companies and the industry.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present research on the relationship between the emotional intelligence (EI) of managers and levels of engagement amongst their direct reports. The findings are discussed in terms of a business case for EI development as a strategy to improve employment brand, talent retention and productivity. Design/methodology/approach Within three different organisations, employees completed an assessment of their engagement and the EI of their manager via an online web survey system. Correlation analyses were then performed with the data. Findings The EI of managers was found to meaningfully correlate with employee engagement scores. A substantial amount of the variability in direct report engagement scores was accounted for by managers' EI. Research limitations/implications Future research needs to establish whether the EI of managers correlates with direct report engagement scores whilst controlling for direct reports' EI. Additionally, whether employee engagement scores improve as a result of improvements in managers' EI needs to be examined. Practical implications Organisations may be able to improve their employment brand, talent retention and productivity by developing the EI of management. Originality/value This paper is the first to report on the empirical relationship between managers' EI and employee engagement. It will be of interest to those who are challenged with the task of improving leadership and employee engagement more broadly.
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Purpose – The industrial organizations all over the world are operating in a highly competitive and challenging business environment. Achieving customer satisfaction on a continual basis keeping in view of the increasing expectations of the customers has been the key to the growth of business and operations. Customer satisfaction and business development can only be achieved by retaining the competent and capable managers at different hierarchical levels of the organizations. But with the growing career opportunities and better employment prospects available, turnover of managerial personnel has become an increasingly important industrial problem worth studying in the recent years. The purpose of this paper is to examine the industry‐wide problem of managerial turnover. Design/methodology/approach – The paper describes a study which is diagnostic in nature and which follows a causal design approach to empirically examine if the impacts of both the organizational social and technical subsystem elements on managerial retention are significant or not. In the first phase, a pilot survey was conducted on a sample of 93 managerial respondents at junior and middle levels in order to test the validity and reliability of the survey instrument. The second phase of the study was conducted on a sample of 444 junior and middle‐level managers from various organizations located in India to determine the causal impacts of the organizational social and technical subsystem factors on managerial retention through developing an integrated model by using the general linear modeling technique. Findings – The results were in the expected direction and fulfilled the research aim of the current study. The factor analysis had grouped the items into seven constructs with a total of 53 items. Studies indicate that in industrial organizations the design of managerial jobs by balancing both the organizational social and technical subsystem elements does impact managerial retention. The empirical model developed through general linear modeling technique supports the proposed relationships. Originality/value – Through identifying and empirically establishing the impacts of organizational social and technical subsystem elements on managerial retention in Indian context, this paper helps to understand the managerial expectations from their prospective employers. The top management of the business organizations may use the findings as guiding criteria, while constructing, managing, and evaluating their managerial retention strategies in Indian context.
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The present study among 242 professionals working in a lung clinic and nursing home was designed to test a model that links supervisory behavior (i.e. leader member exchange (LMX) behavior and conflict management behavior) and reciprocity in the supervisor/subordinate relationship to objectively registered subordinate absenteeism. With respect to LMX-behavior, a distinction was made between consideration and coaching of a subordinate by the supervisor and filling an assistant role by a subordinate. With respect to conflict management behavior, a distinction was made between openness, distribution, and control. It was hypothesized that subordinates’ feelings of reciprocity with respect to the relationship with their direct supervisor mediate the relation between supervisory behavior and subordinate absenteeism. Results of structural equation modeling showed that this was indeed the case for the relation between LMX-behavior and subordinate absenteeism. Supervisory conflict management behavior was not directly related to subordinates’ feelings of reciprocity, but only indirectly through LMX-behavior. Finally, and quite surprisingly, subordinates’ feelings of reciprocity turned out to be positively related to their absence frequency.
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Purpose – With talent management becoming an area of growing concern in the literature, the purpose of this paper is to investigate talent management and its relationship to levels of employee engagement using a mixed method research design. Design/methodology/approach – The first phase was a survey on a sample of 272 BPO/ITES employees, using Gallup q12 or Gallup Workplace Audit. Focus group interview discussion was based on reasons for attrition and the unique problems of employee engagement. In the second phase, one of the BPO organizations from the phase I sample was chosen at random and exit interview data was analyzed using factor analysis and content analysis. Findings – The results were in the expected direction and fulfilled the research aims of the current study. In the first phase low factor loadings indicated low engagement scores at the beginning of the career and at completion of 16 months with the organization. High factor loadings at intermediate stages of employment were indicative of high engagement levels, but the interview data reflected that this may mean high loyalty, but only for a limited time. In the second phase factor loadings indicated three distinct factors of organizational culture, career planning along with incentives and organizational support. The first two were indicative of high attrition. Research limitations/implications – A limitation of the research design was a sample size of 272 respondents. Some of the Cronbach's alpha scores of the subscales of Gallup q12 were low. The strength of the study lies in data triangulation, which was obtained through a mixed method approach, a survey and unstructured focus group interviews. There are theoretical implications for the construct of employee engagement. There seems to be a construct contamination from the fields of employee satisfaction, employee commitment and employee involvement, which is beyond the scope of this paper. Future studies in India may look into this area and construct an independent scale of employee engagement, focusing on the antecedent variables and testing them for theoretical underpinnings. Originality/value – The present study indicated that a good level of engagement may lead to high retention, but only for a limited time in the ITES sector. The need for a more rigorous employee engagement construct is indicated by the study. Practical implications for retention in the BPO/ITES sector are referred to.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine an employee's unique experience of being engaged in their work. Design/methodology/approach Following Yin's case study design method, researchers collected documents, conducted semi‐structured interviews and recorded observations at a large multinational service corporation ranked as one of the best places to work. Post data collection, content analysis is used to interpret engagement efforts and experiences. Work by Kahn and Maslow are integrated as conceptual frameworks. Findings Post analysis, three themes emerged: relationship development and attachment to co‐workers, workplace climate and opportunities for learning. Findings highlighted the development of relationships in the workplace, the importance of an employee's direct manager and their role in shaping organizational culture and the critical role of learning in an engaged employee's interpretation of their work. Scaffolding and discussion of an emergent model is provided. Research limitations/implications Three propositions for human resource development (HRD) research and practice are presented: first, environment and person interact to create engagement or disengagement; second, an employee's manager plays a critical role in developing engagement; and third, personality can effect engagement, however, everyone can engage. An integrated model is proposed as a synthesis of findings providing HRD researchers and practitioner's opportunity to re‐examine current engagement efforts. Specific action steps are outlined to spur further theory building and organizational practice. Originality/value The objective of the emergent model is to provide researchers and practitioners a new framework to consider, grounded in both early and contemporary theories of engagement. The emergent model could serve as the basis for new strategies and structures related to engagement development and could shed new light on how employees interpret the experience of engagement in work. This research is the first known qualitative study of employee engagement in the HRD literature, second only to the original qualitative research by Kahn.
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The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the effects of various workplace characteristics on work-family conflict among dual-career couples in India. Design/methodology/approach Primary data based on 393 employees belonging to dual-career couples were analyzed. Using multiple regression analysis, the study has attempted to find out the effects of workplace characteristics on work-family conflict in dual-career couples. Findings The findings indicate that not all workplace characteristics effect work-family conflict in dual-career couples. Out of 13 characteristics, 8 workplace characteristics, namely, development and flexibility, co-worker support, supervisory support, job competence, self-employee control, practicing overtime, flexibility and discrimination, are found to have significant effects on work-family conflict in dual-career couples. Research limitations/implications As this study is limited to the dual-career couples employed mainly in organizations operating in India, these results may not be generalized to other areas such as traditional career couples, self-employed member of couples and in other national contexts. Practical implications It would be beneficial for organizations to understand and implicate that adoption of certain workplace characteristics provide appropriate choices, freedom and environment for dual-career employees, which further encourage them to build effective amalgamation of work and family roles suiting their individual circumstances. Originality/value This study is an important and almost first study on dual-career couples in India on such issues. As a very scant number of researches have examined the impact of workplace characteristics on work-family conflict on such extensive basis, it definitely contributes to HR literature.
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The current study purports to establish the linkage between various retention practices and perceived firm performance and innovation performance. Using multiple regression analysis on a sample of 563 respondents from 204 organisations operating in India, the study has highlighted that employee retention practices in the form of ‘development and empowerment’ and ‘supportive organisational culture’ are positively related to perceived firm performance. Findings have also highlighted the positive relationship between ‘development and empowerment’ and innovation performance. However, no such relationship has been found between supportive organisational culture and innovation performance. Implications for HR practitioners and further researches are discussed. Keywords: retention; firm performance; innovation; development and empowerment; supportive culture; India.
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Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
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This study began with the premise that people can use varying degrees of their selves. physically. cognitively. and emotionally. in work role performances. which has implications for both their work and experi­ ences. Two qualitative. theory-generating studies of summer camp counselors and members of an architecture firm were conducted to explore the conditions at work in which people personally engage. or express and employ their personal selves. and disengage. or withdraw and defend their personal selves. This article describes and illustrates three psychological conditions-meaningfulness. safety. and availabil­ ity-and their individual and contextual sources. These psychological conditions are linked to existing theoretical concepts. and directions for future research are described. People occupy roles at work; they are the occupants of the houses that roles provide. These events are relatively well understood; researchers have focused on "role sending" and "receiving" (Katz & Kahn. 1978). role sets (Merton. 1957). role taking and socialization (Van Maanen. 1976), and on how people and their roles shape each other (Graen. 1976). Researchers have given less attention to how people occupy roles to varying degrees-to how fully they are psychologically present during particular moments of role performances. People can use varying degrees of their selves. physically, cognitively, and emotionally. in the roles they perform. even as they main­ tain the integrity of the boundaries between who they are and the roles they occupy. Presumably, the more people draw on their selves to perform their roles within those boundaries. the more stirring are their performances and the more content they are with the fit of the costumes they don. The research reported here was designed to generate a theoretical frame­ work within which to understand these "self-in-role" processes and to sug­ gest directions for future research. My specific concern was the moments in which people bring themselves into or remove themselves from particular task behaviors, My guiding assumption was that people are constantly bring­ ing in and leaving out various depths of their selves during the course of The guidance and support of David Berg, Richard Hackman, and Seymour Sarason in the research described here are gratefully acknowledged. I also greatly appreciated the personal engagements of this journal's two anonymous reviewers in their roles, as well as the comments on an earlier draft of Tim Hall, Kathy Kram, and Vicky Parker.
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The degree to which organizational climate mediates the relationship between human resource practices and customer satisfaction is investigated for 351 small businesses in the same industry. Results indicated support for the hypothesized mediated relationship. The indirect effects of HR practices on customer satisfaction were significant and relatively large while the direct effect was nonsignificant and near zero. The results were supportive of a social context model of the impact of human resource practices on organizational outcomes. Limitations of the study and implications for future research are discussed.
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The role of human resource management practices dealing with employee turnover has been widely explored and examined in the existing literature. The majority of human resource management researchers have focused on the role of policies and practices in different sectors related to employee retention. However, less attention has been given to identify the practices and policies common across all industries and sectors. The present study attempts to identify and examine the most important practices of employee retention management and proposes a comprehensive structural equation model to measure the impact of these practices on employee’s turnover intentions. After an extensive review of literature, compensation, job characteristics, training, career opportunities and work–life balance have been identified as five important practices dealing with employee turnover and are common across all industries. These practices constitute the component factors of an employee retention management predicting employee’s turnover intentions. A five-factor scale with a 33-item measurement model has been validated in the study. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed in the light of the findings.
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Sustainable competitive advantage has proved elusive for companies in the 1990s. While making enormous investments in technology, research, and state-of-the-art marketing, many of today's managers continue to ignore the single most important factor in achieving and maintaining competitive success: people. Yet all evidence indicates that the source of competitive advantage is shifting from technology, patents, or strategic position to how a company manages its employees. In this excerpt from his newly published book, Competitive Advantage through People, Jeffrey Pfeffer describes how successful companies have overcome the barriers to change and offers a solid framework—with specific actions—for implementing these changes in any industry.
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Research indicates that the total cost of employee turnover is about 150% of an employee's salary. Because of this high cost of turnover, the organization that is the focus of this article sought to understand their employee's turnover intentions and the reasons for the potential turnover. Through a series of surveys, observations, and interviews, it was determined that the location of the company and its compensation package were the most common factors in remaining with the company and that compensation and lack of challenge and opportunity were the most common factors in contemplating leaving the organization. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that most significantly influence employees' decisions to remain employed at a particular organization and possible reasons for choosing to leave. In addition, the study sought to describe the importance of retaining critical employees and developing strategies to enhance employee retention practices. The importance of this issue is demonstrated by the finding that 86% of employers experience difficulty attracting new employees and 58% experience difficulty retaining their employees (Hale, 1998). The results of the current study can be used by organizations to develop policies, practices, and strategies that would enable higher levels of employee retention and create greater efficiencies in meeting strategic business objectives.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present an organizational engagement model that highlights the design process of the homeroom teacher (HRT) role in Israeli high schools. Design/methodology/approach – The model was constructed as a grounded theory during a qualitative research work conducted during 2007-2011. Findings – The model is based on Maslow's and Schein's frameworks of personal needs and organizational culture, respectively, as well as on the principal's role. Originality/value – The authors propose that the model contributes to the literature on organizational behavior and leadership in general and to the study of educational organizations in particular, in three ways: first, it stresses the principal's role in the design process of leadership roles; second, it deepens the understanding of the concept of engagement by examining it through a qualitative lens; and third, it suggests a hierarchical organizational engagement ladder for the HRT role.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of high-involvement human resource practices in the innovative work behavior of employees, with the mediation of supportive work environment conditions. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses regression analysis to test the hypotheses in a sample of 198 Spanish firms. Findings – The results indicate that ability-enhancing and opportunity-enhancing human resource practices are positively related to innovative work behaviors with the mediation of two work environment variables: management support and coworkers support. This study discusses results and highlights limitations and future research directions. Originality/value – Previous researchers have identified employees as important sources of innovation, but systemic empirical research has not been fully applied to examine the relationship between human resource management (HRM) and employees' innovative work behavior.
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Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of organizational practices on employee engagement based on 97 sample respondents from a multinational electronics firm that is based in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses a survey; SPSS and multiple regression analysis. Findings – The three dimensions of organizational practices, namely organizational communication, reward and recognition and employee development, explained 43.2 percent of the variance in employee engagement. This study also evidenced the significant relationship between organizational practices and employee engagement. Originality/value – This study contributes to the body of knowledge regarding the important influence of organizational practices on employee engagement. The management may use the findings to further enhance organizational practices that lead to more engaged employees.
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Evidence is presented that (a) employees in an organization form global beliefs concerning the extent to which the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being, (b) such perceived organizational support reduces absenteeism, and (c) the relation between perceived organizational support and absenteeism is greater for employees with a strong exchange ideology than those with a weak exchange ideology. These findings support the social exchange view that employees’ commitment to the organization is strongly influenced by their perception of the organization’s commitment to them. Perceived organizational support is assumed to increase the employee’s affective attachment to the organization and his or her expectancy that greater effort toward meeting organizational goals will be rewarded. The extent to which these factors increase work effort would depend on the strength of the employee’s exchange ideology favoring the trade of work effort for material and symbolic benefits.
In order to gain competitive advantage, companies must determine the relationship between human resource practices and firm performance. This conceptual article proposes a model that highlights the importance of selecting people who “fit” within the organizational culture and climate of the firm. The authors propose combining established scales of hospitality culture and climate in order to assess a candidate's fit to the organization. Ideally, these people would be more hospitality service oriented and could foster the “spirit of hospitality” through the organization and thus, on to the customer. Hiring the right people will also lead to increased organizational commitment, consequently, reducing turnover levels. This in turn will lead to higher service levels, increased customer satisfaction, and loyalty.
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The degree to which organizational climate mediates the relationship between human resource practices and customer satisfaction is investigated for 351 small businesses in the same industry. Results indicated support for the hypothesized mediated relationship. The indirect effects of HR practices on customer satisfaction were significant and relatively large while the direct effect was nonsignificant and near zero. The results were supportive of a social context model of the impact of human resource practices on organizational outcomes. Limitations of the study and implications for future research are discussed.
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Recent studies show that manufacturing firms can select suppliers according to suppliers' market-oriented behaviors. Based on market orientation literature and research on inter-firm relationships, a model is developed to examine the impact of supplier's market orientation on manufacturer's trust. The framework is tested using Structural E