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Abstract

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to carry out a review of the academic literature about corporate social irresponsibility (CSIR) highlighting aspects that help us to define socially irresponsible behaviour and its relationship with socially responsible behaviour. Design/methodology/approach Through a Boolean search of studies related to terms of irresponsibility undertaken from 1956 to October 2016, the authors develop a review of the literature focussing on the main perspectives used for defining the term of CSIR. Findings The paper provides a framework of three main dimensions for understanding the differences in the literature that defines CSIR: who defines irresponsible behaviour, an impartial observer or a specific group of stakeholders, whether it is a firm strategy or a punctual action and which is the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and CSIR, continuity vs orthogonal relationship. Originality/value The paper provides and extensive and original review of a key construct, CSIR, and develops some insights about its antecedents and consequences. The authors try to provide light to the contradictory situation where a growing interest in CSR and the increase in voluntary commitments adopted by company leaders incorporating CSR into their strategies are, paradoxically, increasingly associated with CSIR.
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... CSR refers to organizational activities and policies that take into account stakeholders' expectations or welfare rather than serving the interests of shareholders only (Srivastava & Singh, 2021). Conversely, organizations are perceived as socially irresponsible, their employees may misbehave (Riera & Iborra, 2017). Social irresponsibility includes firms' intentional strategies to increase their own profits rather than harmonizing with the profits of others (e.g., reminders to signal customers to turn off lights to protect the earth, when the firm's main focus is on reducing its utility bill). ...
... Social irresponsibility includes firms' intentional strategies to increase their own profits rather than harmonizing with the profits of others (e.g., reminders to signal customers to turn off lights to protect the earth, when the firm's main focus is on reducing its utility bill). This may cause unethical behaviors among stakeholders, including employees (Chen et al., 2019;Riera & Iborra, 2017). Since hospitality firms with economic CSR strive for high-level economic functioning, performance, and effectiveness (Carroll, 1991), they try to find ways of increasing employee productivity (C.K. Lee et al., 2013;J.S Kim et al., 2020) by boosting their skills and quality of work or overall life (C.K. Lee et al., 2013;H. ...
... Research has revealed illegal gains that organizations obtain at the expense of employees' interests. For example, employees are sources of exploitation, leading to their engagement in unethical behaviors (Chen et al., 2019;Riera & Iborra, 2017). Legal CSR requires hospitality firms to abide by regulation-oriented initiatives -for example, being associated with employment-related contracts and fulfilling agreed-upon terms of employee benefits (H. ...
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Hospitality studies on corporate social responsibility (CSR) have largely examined its role in stimulating positive behaviors but overlooked its role in preventing negative behaviors among employees. Drawing from social identity theory, the present study addresses this gap by investigating four CSR dimensions’ impact on employee opportunistic behavior. The joint use of covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) supported examining the research model. Using two-wave data from 281 U.S. hospitality employees, SEM findings reveal that legal and philanthropic dimensions of CSR serve as a valuable shield against opportunistic behavior. Moreover, organizational identification (OI) fully mediates the effects of economic, legal, and ethical CSR on opportunistic behavior, whereas philanthropic CSR exerts no effect through OI. This study advances CSR studies by examining the CSR–opportunistic behavior nexus using combined symmetric and asymmetric approaches. FsQCA findings make a methodological contribution to the net effects of CSR, by determining two configurations that explain opportunistic behavior. 关于企业社会责任(CSR)的酒店研究在很大程度上考察了其在激励积极行为方面的作用,但忽略了其在防止员工消极行为方面的角色. 借鉴社会认同理论,本研究通过调查企业社会责任的四个维度对员工机会主义行为的影响来解决这一差距. 基于协方差的结构方程建模(SEM)和模糊集定性比较分析(fsQCA)的联合使用支持检验研究模型. 使用来自281名美国酒店业员工的两波数据,结构方程模型发现,企业社会责任的法律和慈善层面是防范机会主义行为的宝贵屏障. 此外,组织认同(OI)完全中介了经济、法律和道德CSR对机会主义行为的影响,而慈善CSR通过OI不起作用. 本研究通过结合对称和不对称方法研究企业社会责任-机会主义行为关系,推进了企业社会责任研究. FsQCA的发现通过确定解释机会主义行为的两种配置,为CSR的净效应做出了方法学贡献.
... However, these viewpoints are often contradictory in practice (Macke & Genari, 2019). Authors like Riera & Iborra (2017) have discussed this ethical dilemma from the perspective of the corporate social irresponsibility (CSIR). Accordingly, CSIR is opposite to CSR as it focuses on the actions that can be considered irresponsible from the viewpoint of the environmental, economic and social sustainability. ...
... Accordingly, CSIR is opposite to CSR as it focuses on the actions that can be considered irresponsible from the viewpoint of the environmental, economic and social sustainability. (Riera & Iborra 2017, Carroll & Brown, 2018). ...
... Concerning such irresponsible behaviour, the worker was often left in a vulnerable position. These findings contribute to the discussion on the paradigms of CSR and CSIR that urge to seek better understanding on CSIR control and prevention mechanisms (e.g., Riera & Iborra 2017). Irresponsible behaviour might relate to agency workers' own actions, but they may also relate to the possibilities that the triangular and joint ownership employer arrangement provides. ...
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Ever expanding use of temporary agency work (TAW) easily attracts irresponsible actors on the business field in the hopes of making big profits and many narratives frame the emergence of contingent agency work as a positive evolution for employers and workers alike. The purpose of this study is to examine corporate social responsibility (CSR) in temporary agency work (TAW) in a small restaurant context to consider what kinds of challenges and opportunities can be identified from the perspectives of the workers, agencies, and user companies. A directed content analysis method was used on semi-structured interviews collected from restaurant workers, managers, and temporary agency experts, including a pension insurer and a labour union in Finland. To gain a new holistic understanding of this phenomenon, the pressures–disorganization–regulatory failure (PDR) model was used as a research framework. The CSR challenges identified were multifaceted, and conflicting views were common. A wide variety of CSR challenges and evolving strategies were found to avoid TAW regulations.
... Despite the detrimental impact of CSI on organizations' financial performance and reputation (Jones et al., 2009), CSI has received scant attention from researchers, which stands in contrast with the richness in corporate social responsibility (hereinafter CSR) research (Riera & Iborra, 2017). As Voliotis et al. (2016) stated, "we now have some knowledge of how stakeholders react to CSR (Glavas, 2016), yet we know less about stakeholders' reactions to CSiR [i.e., corporate social irresponsibility]" (p. ...
... Nevertheless, the co-presence of CSR and CSI in the same company is ubiquitous (Janney & Gove, 2011;Lenz et al., 2017). In real life, a company can engage in both CSR and CSI, especially in different time sequences (i.e., CSI followed by CSR or CSR followed by CSI) (Riera & Iborra, 2017). The resultant consequences of the potential interactions between CSR and CSI are an underexplored area worthy of research attention. ...
... They found that CSI attenuated the positive relationship between CSR and company performance when both CSI and CSR were high, and that market value was lower compared to when these factors were low in combination. These findings suggest the crucial role of CSI as the tipping point that deteriorates perceived credibility and overall company reputation (Riera & Iborra, 2017). ...
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The questions of when and what consumer outcomes corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate social irresponsibility (CSI) would elicit when both are present in the same company remain unclear. This study conducted two between-subjects experiments that explored the independent and interaction effects of CSR/CSI order (CSI first, CSR first, or CSR/CSR at the same time), CSR-CSI domain congruity (congruent or incongruent), and the CSR commitment (high or low) on different consumer reactions. Based on two samples (Study 1 N = 361, Study 2 N = 291) recruited in the United States, the results showed that consumers' negative responses toward the company were stronger when CSI followed CSR than vice versa. Specifically, CSI following CSR triggered consumers' perceived corporate hypocrisy, which in turn led to negative behavioral intentions. Furthermore, we found that companies face more backlash from consumers if their irresponsible behavior was in the same issue domain (versus different domain) as prior CSR.
... Therefore, the notion of moral licensing closely relates to the vast body of literature dealing with the relationship between CSR and irresponsibility. Several authors have already gone after the question of how CSR eventually leads to irresponsibility and provided compelling evidence for this relationship (Kang, Germann, & Grewal, 2016;Kotchen & Moon, 2012;Price & Sun, 2017;Riera & Iborra, 2017;Strike, Gao, & Bansal, 2006). In this paper, we extend this knowledge by introducing moral licensing as a mechanism that explains why CSR and irresponsibility are potentially related and how this ultimately might lead to organizational misconduct. ...
... As illustrated in the Introduction section, there are anecdotal practical cases that demonstrate this behavior. Hence, our proposed conceptual framework might help to better understand the antecedents of organizational misconduct and enriches the ample research on the relationship between CSR and irresponsibility (Kang et al., 2016;Kotchen & Moon, 2012;Price & Sun, 2017;Riera & Iborra, 2017;Strike et al., 2006). Accordingly, future research should consider the moral licensing effect when examining the antecedents of organizational misconduct (Feldmann et al., 2022). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize how past corporate social responsibility (CSR) affects the occurrence of organizational misconduct by the means of moral licensing. Design/methodology/approach To this end, the authors conduct a conceptual review and develop a framework illustrating how moral credits and moral credentials (moral licensing) may institutionalize irresponsibility and lead to subsequent misconduct. Findings The authors propose a conceptual framework that describes the relationship between past CSR and organizational misconduct by the means of moral licensing. Based on initial literature-based findings, this paper provides confirmatory evidence for the authors’ framework and illustrates that past CSR might be used as a moral licensing tool that eventually fosters the occurrence of organizational misconduct. Research limitations/implications The authors propose future researchers account for the moral licensing effect when examining the antecedents of misconduct and explore the potential moderators of this effect. Practical implications The authors recommend that organizations establish management control systems that specifically address the issue of moral licensing when evaluating CSR initiatives. The authors also propose that organizations should adhere to a consistent CSR strategy that potentially fosters the selection of moral leaders who are not prone to moral licensing. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to connect corporate social responsibility, moral licensing and organizational misconduct from a conceptual perspective.
... While we add to the growing body of research on consumer responses to corporate social irresponsibility (Antonetti & Maklan, 2016;Lange & Washburn, 2012;Riera & Iborra, 2017), we also believe our study offers relevant insights for those interested in the attribution of greed as a negative motive in service encounters (Voorhees et al., 2017). Furthermore, based on our findings, we offer recommendations on branding and positioning strategies that, when properly and responsibly used, can help organizations manage or even prevent perceptions of organizational greed. ...
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This article extends current models of how consumers judge or perceive organizations as greedy by employing the theoretical framework of motivated moral reasoning. We show that inherent features of an organization (size and “black sheep” status) and its behavior (relative frequency) bias consumer perceptions of organizational greed. We use an experimental methodology, present subjects with vignettes describing different scenarios, validate our questionnaire using confirmatory factor analysis, and test our hypotheses by employing a general linear model with covariates. Our findings suggest that consumer perceptions of organizational greed are subject to three effects: the underdog effect (Study 1, n = 496), the black sheep effect (Study 2, n = 229), and the “common is moral” heuristic (Study 3, n = 249). This is the first study to investigate greed under a motivated reasoning paradigm and to show that perceptions of organizational greed are subject to socio‐psychological biases. This study also provides advice on branding and positioning strategies that appeal to the underdog status of an organization or its local origins.
... In order to achieve our research objectives, we build a dataset by combining several databases (Refinitiv Eikon, Standard and Poor's Compustat, and Bloomberg), focusing in "sensitive" sectors. Several scandals have raised the societal awareness to supplier practices, lowering the tolerance for irresponsible behaviors, especially in sensitive industries (Riera and Iborra, 2017). We consider "sensitive" as industries which are "under increased scrutiny and regulatory pressure", e.g. ...
Article
The aim of this study is to analyze how environmental and social sustainability asymmetries in buyer-supplier relationships affect the buyer financial and market performance. In particular, we draw from legitimacy theory to explain how sustainability asymmetries affect firm performance. The hypotheses are tested using a longitudinal dataset of 516 buyer firms belonging to sensitive industries and their top suppliers. Results suggest that, contrary to earlier studies, sustainability asymmetries may have a positive effect on financial performance. Moreover, we detected that whereas environmental asymmetries have a significant impact on firm performance, social asymmetries do not. In addition, results suggest that, within the environmental dimension, asymmetries have different effects, depending on the environmental sub-dimension. For example, while having a higher buyer-supplier asymmetry in the resource reduction area improves buyer profitability, in the area of emissions it leads to a negative performance. Also, research shows that such impact will depend on which party is leading the sustainability initiatives (i.e. buyer or supplier). The main managerial implication is that investing in reducing buyer-supplier sustainability asymmetries can be counterproductive in certain dimensions, whereas in other ones it could actually improve financial and market performance.
... Predominantly in emerging economies where regulatory structures may not be fully developed, managerial beliefs, values and attitudes are critical for the diffusion of environmental management practices (Rivera and De Leon, 2005). Given the importance of MEC in enterprise development, major enterprises (such as Apple, and Google among others) have adopted the concept to regulate their activities (Riera and Iborra, 2017;MacNeil et al., 2021). Prior studies have attested to how MEC affects the innovation performance of enterprises (Qi et al., 2010;Xue et al., 2019;Song et al., 2021). ...
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From the environmental sustainability perspective, scholars have considered corporate social responsibility activities as an essential mechanism for enhancing enterprise performance and innovation outcomes. However, how and under what conditions corporate social responsibility activities influence green innovation performance in emerging economies is still unclear. From the perspective of the theory of planned behavior, we construct a theoretical model to assess how corporate social responsibility activities affect enterprises’ green innovation performance. Explicitly, we investigate the mediating and moderating effects of managerial environmental concern and green absorptive capacity on the relationship between corporate social responsibility activities and enterprises’ green innovation performance. This research relies on a sample of 358 enterprises from the manufacturing and service sectors in China, and uses regression analysis and bootstrap to test the hypotheses proposed. The empirical results demonstrate that (1) corporate social responsibility activities positively enhance enterprises’ green innovation performance; (2) corporate social responsibility activities have a positive influence on managerial environmental concern; (3) managerial environmental concern has a mediating role between corporate social responsibility activities and green innovation performance; (4) managerial environmental concern has a powerful influence on green innovation performance; (5) green absorptive capacity positively moderates the association between managerial environmental concern and green innovation performance. This research work proposes that managerial environmental concern and green absorptive capacity play a mediating and moderating function on the linkage amongst corporate social responsibility activities and green innovation performance.
... However, some authors stated that CSR might be considered a strategy for diverting attention away from unethical behaviour, that is, counterbalancing CSI behaviour (Kotchen & Moon, 2012;Lin-Hi & Muller, 2013;Riera & Iborra, 2017).Our starting point is that the CSR measure is often a combination of irresponsible and responsible metrics, which might bias analysis. So the mechanisms that motivate CSR's mediating role in driving the relationship between board gender diversity and financial performance might differ from those that support CSI's role in that relationship. ...
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This paper aims to examine whether the corporate social practices (CSP) affect the board gender diversity–financial performance relationship. Taking a sample of French firms listed in the SBF 120 index during 2005–2019 period, we used the mediation effect steps analysis to test the mediation effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) versus corporate social irresponsibility (CSI) on the relationship between board gender diversity and the firm's performance. First, our findings show that board gender diversity has a stronger impact on CSI than CSR. Second, we confirm that CSP exert an asymmetric effect on financial performance in favour of CSI. Finally, we show that CSI plays a mediating role between board gender diversity and financial performance.
Article
Purpose Drawing on expectancy violation theory, this study aims to assess the impact of corporate environmental irresponsibility (CEI) on workplace deviant behaviors (WDB) of Generation Z and Millennials through the mediation of moral outrage. Design/methodology/approach The data were collected from 328 nonmanagerial employees working in the refinery, petroleum and power distribution companies who have been convicted for committing environmental irresponsibility by a court of law. Multigroup analysis (MGA) was used to estimate the hypothesized relationships. Findings Results revealed that CEI affects WDBs positively. Moreover, the MGA results demonstrated that the deviant behavior of Generation Z in response to environmental irresponsibility is higher than of the Millennials. Research limitations/implications Theoretically, the findings implicate that harming the environment will cost organizational performance through deviant behaviors. Practical implications This study provides a new lens for the executive management that eliminating social irresponsibility is more important than incurring sustainability initiatives, especially from the new generation’s perspective. Originality/value The originality of this study is that it confirmed the impact of CEI on employees’ deviant behaviors; and extended the scope of expectancy violation theory to the field of human resources.
Article
Many studies on the impact of boards of directors on corporate social responsibility have focused on the human capital of board members (i.e., structures and characteristics). However, the relational capital of board members (i.e., board interlock centrality) has yet to be fully explored. This study examines the extent to which board members are connected in their networks (i.e., board interlock centrality) on corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance in the restaurant industry. It also recognizes the moderating role of board effectiveness on the relationship between board centrality and CSR performance. On the basis of organization legitimacy theory and resource dependence theory, this study found that high-centrality boards increase positive CSR performance. The effect is more substantial when a firm has more standing board committees. The theories view firms as components of the larger social environment, and their performance depends on their ability to procure crucial resources from other firms through mutual exchange. No significant link was found between negative CSR performance and the moderating effect of board committees.
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Este artículo se centra en el estudio de la dimensión internacional de la responsabilidad social corporativa (RSC). Se estudia el proceso de difusión que han experimentado las prácticas de RSC en el plano internacional, se identifican distintas concepciones de RSC y se analizan sus efectos sobre la eficiencia. Adicionalmente, se analizan los problemas específicos que plantea a las empresas multinacionales la adopción de criterios socialmente responsables. This article focuses on the international dimension of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The diffusion process of CSR practices in an international context is studied, and different views of CSR are identified. Moreover, this paper analyzes how CSR practices affect firm's efficiency and it also explores the specific problems multinational companies face when adopting socially responsible criteria.<br /
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Scholars hypothesize that retaliations against corporate social irresponsibility (CSI) are more likely when observers share the social identity of the victims. We present a model that explains in-group bias against irresponsibility and identify collective narcissism as a moderator of this effect. Experiment 1 demonstrates that the effect of identity on retaliations is mediated by the perceived similarity of the victims which reinforces feelings of sympathy towards the victims and anger towards the corporation. These emotions drive stakeholders' attitudes and retaliations. Our study shows that appraisals of the victims of CSI are an important antecedent of stakeholders' emotions and behavioural intentions. Our evidence also demonstrates that sympathy, an emotion neglected by past research in this area, has a unique effect on individuals' reactions. Experiment 2 demonstrates that social identity biases in individual punitive intentions are moderated by individuals' level of collective narcissism. Collective narcissists see out-group victims as very dissimilar from the self, whereas individuals with low levels of collective narcissism do not differentiate between victims of CSI on the basis of their identity. We extend knowledge on stakeholders' reactions to CSI and offer insights to organizations promoting campaigns against irresponsible behaviour or managing the fallout from cases of corporate irresponsibility.
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This article presents a structured review of the literature about corporate social responsibility, from the origins and evolution of the discipline, as a field of research, until the present. A review is also presented on the main contributions of authors and institutions in relation to the promotion of social responsibility, focusing on two complementary trends that have gained prominence as theoretical support: institutional theory and stakeholder approach. Some controversies and discussions generated in the years around the concept are also discussed.
Chapter
It is not uncommon for multinational companies (MNCs) to be accused of corporate wrongdoing in connection with their international operations. However, there is very little international business (IB) research on MNCs’ wrongdoing , possibly because most IB scholars are interested in why MNCs exist, how they grow and how they are managed, and in the gains from international expansion for the MNCs or for other constituents in the home and host countries. In this chapter, we reverse this perspective and propose a novel agenda for further research in IB on the negative impacts generated by MNCs and their subsidiaries on the natural environment and on different constituents’ human rights.
Chapter
Companies rely on both tangible and intangible resources to gain competitive advantage against rivals.
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Significance We identify a consistent reduction in the clarity and vividness of people’s memory of their past unethical actions, which explains why they behave dishonestly repeatedly over time. Across nine studies using diverse sample populations and more than 2,100 participants, we find that, as compared with people who engaged in ethical behavior and those who engaged in positive or negative actions, people who acted unethically are the least likely to remember the details of their actions. That is, people experience unethical amnesia: unethical actions tend to be forgotten and, when remembered, memories of unethical behavior become less clear and vivid over time than memories of other types of behaviors. Our findings advance the science of dishonesty, memory, and decision making.
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