Therapeutic Potential of Milk Whey
Charu Gupta * and Dhan Prakash
Amity Institute for Herbal Research and Studies, Amity University Uttar Pradesh,
Sector-125, Noida-201313, India; firstname.lastname@example.org
*Correspondence: email@example.com; Tel.: +91-120-439-2549
Academic Editor: Alessandra Durazzo
Received: 25 April 2017; Accepted: 27 June 2017; Published: 5 July 2017
Milk whey—commonly known as cheese whey—is a by-product of cheese or casein in the
dairy industry and contains usually high levels of lactose, low levels of nitrogenous compounds,
protein, salts, lactic acid and small amounts of vitamins and minerals. Milk whey contains
several unique components like immunoglobulins (Igs), lactoferrin (Lf), lactoperoxidase (Lp),
glycomacropeptide (GMP) and sphingolipids that possess some important antimicrobial and antiviral
properties. Some whey components possess anticancer properties such as sphingomyelin, which have
the potential to inhibit colon cancer. Immunoglobulin-G (IgGs), Lp and Lf concentrated from whey
participates in host immunity. IgGs binds with bacterial toxins and lowers the bacterial load in
the large bowel. There are some whey-derived carbohydrate components that possess prebiotic
activity. Lactose support lactic acid bacteria (such as Biﬁdobacteria and Lactobacilli). Stallic acids,
an oligosaccharide in whey, are typically attached to proteins, and possess prebiotic properties. The
uniqueness of whey proteins is due to their ability to boost the level of glutathione (GSH) in various
tissues and also to optimize various processes of the immune system. The role of GSH is very critical
as it protects the cells against free radical damage, infections, toxins, pollution and UV exposure.
Overall GSH acts as a centerpiece of the body’s antioxidant defense system. It has been widely
observed that individuals suffering from cancer, HIV, chronic fatigue syndrome and many other
immune-compromising conditions have very poor levels of glutathione. The sulphur-containing
amino-acids (cysteine and methionine) are also found in high levels in whey protein. Thus, the
present review will focus on the therapeutic potential of milk whey such as antibiotic, anti-cancer,
anti-toxin, immune-enhancer, prebiotic property etc.
milk whey; therapeutic potential; cheese whey; antimicrobial; immune-enhancer;
Whey is generally released as a by-product during cheese manufacturing. The typical composition
of milk comprises about 3.6% protein, out of which casein predominates to around 80% and rest 20%
are called as the whey proteins. Whey proteins are unique as they contain all the essential amino
acids of good quality protein. Milk whey and whey proteins have different biological and functional
properties. Consequently, milk whey proteins are used in the manufacture of various products such as
infant foods, nutritional products for athletes, tailor made specialized products for controlling obesity,
mood control and other clinical protein supplements such as for enteral disturbances. (Yalcin, 2006 [
Bioactive peptides present in milk whey are one of the most studied compounds in different dairy
products. Bioactive peptides from dairy sources are majorly classiﬁed on the basis of their biological
roles as anti-hypertensive, anti-oxidative, immmuno-modulant, anti-mutagenic, anti-microbial, opioid,
anti-thrombotic, anti-obesity and mineral-binding agents. These bioactive peptides are produced
by enzymatic hydrolysis during fermentation and gastrointestinal digestion. Thus, fermented dairy
Beverages 2017,3, 31; doi:10.3390/beverages3030031 www.mdpi.com/journal/beverages
Beverages 2017,3, 31 2 of 14
products like yogurt, cheese and buttermilk are gaining popularity worldwide and are considered as
an excellent source of dairy peptides. Furthermore, these dairy products are also associated with lower
risks of hypertension, coagulopathy, stroke and cancer insurgences (Sultan et al., 2014 ).
2. Historical Background
Historically, whey was considered as a cure for all common ailments ranging from gastrointestinal
complaints to joint and ligament problems.
Nanna Rognvaldardottir, a food expert from Iceland, described whey (also called syra in Iceland),
as fermented liquid that is stored in barrels.
Before its consumption, Syra is diluted with water. It is also used as a marinade or preservative
for meat and other food.
Syra was the most common beverage of Icelandic people and replaced ale due to the lack of grains
in that region (Rognvaldardottir, 2001 ).
3. Milk Whey Components
The major components of milk whey of nutraceutical potential includes beta-lactoglobulin,
alpha-lactalbumin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), lactoferrin (Lf), immunoglobulins (Igs),
lactoperoxidase (Lp) enzymes, glycomacropeptides (GMP), lactose and minerals. The composition of
the whey liquid also depends upon the source of milk e.g., whey derived from buttermilk contains more
lipid sphingomyelin as compared to those derived from cheese. Whey is a popular dietary protein
supplement that is well known to possess antimicrobial activity, immune modulation, improved
muscle strength and body composition. Furthermore, whey is known to prevent cardiovascular
disease and osteoporosis.
The nutrient content of milk whey types (sweet whey and whey permeate) is described in Appedix
Table A1 and the whey characteristics are highlighted in Appedix Table A2.
Beta-lactoglobulin comprises approximately half of the total protein content in bovine whey,
while it is absent in human milk. It is a source of both essential and branched chain amino acids.
A retinol binding protein (a carrier of small hydrophobic molecules including retinoic acid) is present
within the beta-lactoglobulin structure. This protein, has an ability to modulate lymphatic responses
(Gupta et al., 2012; Yolken et al., 1985 [
]). It also has the property to bind to hydrophobic ligands
such as fatty acids.
Recently, Le Maux et al. demonstrated that beta-lactoglobulin acts as a carrier molecule that alters
the bio-accessibility of linoleate and linoleic acid (Le Maux et al., 2012 ). It also provides resistance
against gastric- and simulated duodenal digestions. It also serves as a potential carrier for delivering
gastric labile hydrophobic drugs. Thus it has a great potential to serve as a realistic protein candidate
for safe delivery and protection of pH-sensitive drugs in the stomach (Mehraban et al., 2013 ).
Alpha-lactalbumin is reported to be the second most important protein in whey quantitatively
and it represents approx. 20% (w/w) of the total whey protein. It is completely synthesized in the
mammary gland. It has signiﬁcant anti-proliferative effects in human adenocarcinoma cell lines such
as Caco-2 and HT-29 (Brück et al., 2014 [
]). It also kills tumour cells and has bactericidal effects in the
upper respiratory systems and protective effects on gastric mucosa.
Alpha-lactalbumin plays a vital role in reducing the risk of some cancers as it constrains cell
division (Ganjam et al., 1997 [
]). In yet another study, it has also been found effective in the treatment
of cognitive declination. This is due to the high tryptophan content in alpha-lactalbumin, that increases
the plasma tryptophan-large neutral amino acids ration (Markus et al., 2002 ).
Beverages 2017,3, 31 3 of 14
3.3. Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA)
Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is not produced in the mammary gland, but is secreted in milk after
its passive leakage from the blood stream. The most important property of bovine serum albumin is
its ability to bind to various ligands reversibly. It is the principal carrier of fatty acids and can bind to
free fatty acids and other lipids as well as ﬂavoring compounds (Huang et al., 2004 [
this property is impaired upon denaturation on heating. BSA also inhibits tumor growth due to the
modulation of activities of the autocrine growth regulatory factors (Laursen et al., 1990 ).
BSA also binds to fatty acids stored in the human body; and thus it also participates in lipid
synthesis (Choi et al., 2002 [
]). In addition, BSA possess antioxidant activities (Tong et al., 2000 [
BSA is a source of all major essential amino acids, whose therapeutic potential is still
3.4. Lactoferrin (Lf)
Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein that is present in whey fraction of milk and colostrum.
It is a non-enzymatic antioxidant and consists of approximately 689 amino acid residues (Pierce et al.,
]). The concentration of lactoferrin in human milk and colostrum is reported to be about
2 mg/mL and 7 mg/mL, respectively, whereas in bovine milk and colostrum it is around 0.2 mg/mL
and 1.5 mg/mL, respectively (Levay et al., 1995 [
]). Lactoferrin is a pre-dominant component of
whey protein in human breast milk.
Lactoferrin is also known to be an important host defense molecule and performs a range
of physiological functions such as antimicrobial, antiviral, immuno-modulatory and antioxidant
activity. It has been shown in several scientiﬁc studies that lactoferrin, if administered orally, exerts
several beneﬁcial health effects on humans and animals, including anti-infective, anti-cancer and
anti-inﬂammatory effects. Thus, lactoferrin possess the potential to be used as a food additive (El-Loly
and Mahfouz, 2011 ).
3.5. Immunoglobulins (Igs)
Immunoglobulins (Ig) are antibodies and chemically gamma-globulins. The whey fraction of
milk contains a major amount of immunoglobulins, comprising approximately 10%–15% of total whey
proteins. Numerous studies have proved the therapeutic potential of immunoglobulins. They are
known to possess vital biological properties.
study, it was shown that bovine milk-derived IgG suppresses human lymphocyte
proliferative response to T cells at concentrations as low as 0.3 mg/mL of IgG. It was further concluded
that bovine milk IgG concentration varies between 0.6–0.9 mg/mL and therefore confer immunity that
is transmitted to humans (El-Loly, 2007 [
]). Previous studies have shown that unpasteurized cow
milk contain speciﬁc antibodies to human rotavirus, and against bacteria such as E. coli,Salmonella
enteriditis,S. typhimurium, and Shigella ﬂexneri (Losso et al., 1993 ).
Nowadays, commercial colostral whey-derived immunoglobulin preparations are widely
available in the market that are marketed under the category of feed supplements and newborn
farm animal substitutes (Scammell, 2001 ).
There are few studies that have reported that the efﬁcacy of these non-speciﬁc immunoglobulin
products in the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal infections is variable in different animal
studies (Garry et al., 1996 ).
However, Hilpert et al. [
] described the production of ‘hyper-immune milk’ by immunizing the
cows with speciﬁc antibodies and to prepare a whey protein concentrate for protecting young animals
An increasing number of controlled clinical studies have shown that the oral administration of
immune milk preparations containing high titers of speciﬁc antibodies can provide effective protection
Beverages 2017,3, 31 4 of 14
and, to some extent, may also have therapeutic value against gastrointestinal infections in humans
(Korhonen et al., 2000; Lilius and Marnila, 2001 [23,24]).
3.6. Lactoperoxidase (LPO) Enzymes
Milk whey contains many types of enzymes, such as lactoperoxidase, hydrolases, transferases,
lyases, proteases and lipases. Lactoperoxidase accounts for 0.25–0.5 percent of total protein found in
whey. Lactoperoxidase is an important enzyme present in the whey fraction of milk. It is the most
abundant enzyme in whey following the curding process. It has the property to catalyze certain
molecules, and reduction of hydrogen peroxide. This enzyme system catalyzes peroxidation of
thiocyanate and some halides (such as iodine and bromium), which ultimately generates products that
inhibit and/or kill a range of bacterial species. It is heat tolerant and therefore lactoperoxidase is not
inactivated during the pasteurization process, thereby suggesting its stability as a preservative.
The biological signiﬁcance of this enzyme is that it has a natural protection system against the
invasion of microorganisms. Besides its antiviral effect, it protects animal cells against various damages
and peroxidative effects (de Wit and Van Hooydonk, 1996 ).
Lactoperoxidase also provides defense system against pathogen microorganisms from the
digestive system of neonatal babies. The LPO enzyme functions as a non-immune biological
defense system of mammals and catalyzes the oxidation of the thiocyanate ion into the antibacterial
hypothiocyanate (Reiter and Perraudin, 1991 [
]). In yet another study, the oral administration of
lactoperoxidase attenuated pneumonia in inﬂuenza virus-infected mice suppressed the inﬁltration of
inﬂammatory cells in the lungs (Shin et al., 2005 ).
Thus the major application of lactoperoxidase is a protective factor against infectious microbes.
3.7. Glycomacropeptides (GMP)
Glycomacropeptides are also known as Casein Macro-Peptide (CMP) and constitutes about
10%–15% of protein in whey. It is produced in whey due to the breakdown of casein by chymosin
enzyme during cheese-making process. It contains large numbers of branched chain amino acids;
but lacks the aromatic amino acids such as phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine.
The other advantage is that it can be safely administered to patients suffering with
phenylketonuria (PKU) as it lacks phenylalanine (Marshall, 2004 ).
The GMP inhibits gastric acid secretions and modiﬁes the blood concentration of regulatory
digestive peptides. It induces satiety as it induces the release of cholecystokinin but similar results
were not observed in human-fed GMP (Gustafson et al., 2001 [
]). The other role of GMP is to inhibit
the adhesion of cariogenic bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans,Sanguis and Sobrinus to oral surfaces
and therefore can modify the composition of plaque bacteria to control its acid production and, in turn,
reduce the demineralization of enamel and promote re-mineralization. The GMP is also a source of
N-acetyl-necromatic acid and its dietary intake can increase the sialic acid content of saliva that effects
its viscosity and protective function (Gupta et al., 2012 ).
3.8. Lysozyme (N-Acetylmuramide Glycan-Hydrolase)
Lysozyme is a hydrolytic enzyme that is widely distributed in nature and occurs in many body
ﬂuids and tissues of living organisms (Fox and Kelly, 2006 [
]). Although the highest concentration
of the enzyme is found in tears and egg white protein, but is also present in human milk. It exhibits
antibacterial activity only against gram-positive bacteria.
This enzyme has wider industrial applications as a food additive, in medical diagnostics,
pharmacology and veterinary medicine. It is also used in the treatment of bacterial and viral
infections, skin and eye diseases, periodontitis, leukemia and cancer (Lesnierowsk, 2009; Benkerroum,
Beverages 2017,3, 31 5 of 14
3.9. Proteose Peptone Component 3 (PP3)
These are those proteins that are left in solution after the milk is heated at high temperature
followed by its acidiﬁcation up to pH 4.7.
The proteose peptone 3 component is found only in whey excluding from the human source. It is
produced during the fermentation of fat-free bovine milk and enhances the production of monoclonal
antibodies by human hybridoma cells (Krissansen, 2007 ).
4. Therapeutic Properties of Milk Whey
Milk whey—also known as cheese whey (Lactoserum)—contains several unique components that
possess some important antimicrobial and antiviral properties. These are immunoglobulins, lactoferrin,
lactoperoxidase, glycomacropeptide and sphingolopids. All these compounds are able to survive
after their passage through stomach and small intestine and exert their biological effects in the large
intestine. The important whey components that provide antimicrobial action in the intestinal tract
are the immunoglobulins like IgG, IgM and IgA. IgG binds to toxin produced by Clostridium difﬁcile,
thereby reducing diarrhoea, dehydration and muscle aches. GMP inhibits binding of cholera toxin to
receptors in the intestinal tract.
Lactoferrin, an iron binding protein present in milk whey, possesses antibacterial properties.
It sequesters iron from bacteria (Troost et al., 2001 [
]). Since pathogens in particular have high iron
requirements for metabolism and growth, this property of lactoferrin makes it broadly antimicrobial
in nature. Lactobacilli can utilize lactoferrin-bound iron, thus allowing lactoferrin to both inhibit
pathogenic bacteria and support the growth of lactobacilli.
Moreover, lactoferrin possess important antiviral activity as.it directly interacts with selected
viral pathogens, inhibits virus replication and their ability to attach to colonic epithelial cells. Viral
inhibition also results through immune modulation beneﬁts of lactoferrin.
Another whey-derived important protein component is lactoperoxidase (Lp) with potent
antimicrobial properties. It catalyzes the oxidation of thiocyanate into hypothiocynate ion,
which is a strong oxidizing agent. Hypothiocynate ions disrupts bacterial cell membranes.
This ”Lactoperoxidasesystem” is therefore used in a milk-preservation system. Whey-derived
phospholipids such as sphingolipids are metabolized in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and produce
sphingosine and lysosphingomyelin. These compounds possess powerful bactericidal agents
Cheese whey (Lactoserum) was used as an inexpensive medium to produce bacteriocin by
Bacillus sp. P11 (Leães et al., 2010 [
]). Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid
-Lactglobulin were also studied for their antagonistic activity
against Human Immunodeﬁciency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) (Chatterton et al., 2006 [
]). In particular,
-Lactglobulin is potential agent for preventing the transmission of genital herpes virus infections and
the spread of HIV. The lactoferrin and lactoferricin exhibit inhibitory activity against a broad range
of microorganisms including Gram-negativeand, Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, fungi and parasitic
protozoa (Takakura et al., 2003 [
]). They also inhibit the growth of food-borne pathogens such as
E. coli and Listeria monocytogenes (Floris et al., 2003 ).
The Lf exhibits antiviral property against HIV, Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV), herpes viruses,
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), alpha-virus and hepatitis C, B and G viruses. Overall, whey proteins
activate immune cell and/or prevent infection. They show promise to help combat rota-viral diarrhea,
which is a common infection in children (Wolber et al., 2005 [
]). The natural antimicrobial action of
Lp is used in a range of oral healthcare products and in the prevention and treatment of xerostimia
(dry mouth). Whey protein concentrate supplementation can thus decrease the occurrence of associated
co-infections (Solak and Akin, 2012 ).
Beverages 2017,3, 31 6 of 14
Some cheese whey components possess anticancer properties. The sulphur-containing
amino-acids including cysteine and methionine, are found in good amounts in whey protein. Cysteine
and methionine are utilized in glutathione synthesis. Glutathione is a substrate for two classes of
enzymes that catalyze detoxiﬁcation compounds and bind mutagens and carcinogens, thus facilitating
their elimination from the body. The ability of lactoferrinto bind iron is another added advantage in
the prevention of colon cancer. They induce apoptosis in tumour cells and so are useful adjunct in
colon cancer therapy.
Sphingomyelin, one of the most abundant whey-derived sphingolipids, have potential to inhibit
colon cancer. Sphingomyelins also regulate growth factor receptors, such as the transforming growth
factor beta family (TGF-β).
s are a multifunctional family of growth factors that regulate cell growth in normal
and tumour cells by suppressing proliferation, inducing differentiation and apoptosis. TGF-
passes out unaffected through the stomach and maintains bioactivity in colon by withstanding
Several scientiﬁc studies, based on experiments on animal experiments have shown the
therapeutic effect of bovine lactoferrin (BLF) in treating distinct types of cancer (Gill & Cross, 2000 [
including colon cancer (Masuda et al., 2000 [
]). Besides this, the iron-binding capacity of bovine
lactoferrin is responsible for its anticancer activity. The proposed mechanisms are that free iron act
as a mutagenic promoter, by inducing oxidative damage to the nucleic acid structure; hence, when
bovine lactoferrin binds iron in tissues, it reduces the risk of oxidant-induced carcinomas and colon
adenocarcinomas. Studies are also available that pertain to such other cancers as lung, bladder, tongue
and oesophagus, and which convey similar results (Masuda et al., 2000; Tanaka et al., 2000 [42,43]).
IgGs, Lp and Lf concentrated from whey participates in host immunity. IgGs binds with bacterial
toxins and lowers the bacterial load in the large bowel. Dietary Lp and Lf plays a vital role in host
immunity through their antibacterial action on pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, supplementing
diets with whey-derived adjuncts shifts the balance of intestinal microﬂora and aids in immune
enhancement. Calcium, by virtue of its probiotic activity and inﬂuence on macrophages, neutrophils
and other white blood cell (WBC) subtypes are also classiﬁed as immune-modifying minerals.
Lf provides immune modulation as it is a natural component of the human immune system and
is found in the body’s mucous substances including saliva.
TGFs are abundant in milk (1–2 mg/L) and colostrum (20–40 mg/L) and serve a major role in GI
integrity of newborn animals.
TGF-beta2 resides locally near the top of the intestinal villi, and inhibits the proliferation and
signaling neutrophils as a part of innate host immunity.
Bovine lactoferrin upon stimulation of the immune system increases macrophage activity, causes
induction of inﬂammatory cytokines, including IL-8, TNF-a and nitric oxide, stimulates proliferation of
lymphocytes, and activates monocytes, natural killer (NK) cells and neutrophils (Gahr et al., 1991 [
4.4. Prebiotic Properties
There are some whey-derived carbohydrate components that possess prebiotic activity. Lactose
support LAB (such as Biﬁdobacteria &Lactobacilli). Stallic acids (type of oligosaccharides that are
commonly found in whey), are typically attached to proteins that have been shown to possess
prebiotic properties. Besides, three other non-carbohydrate prebiotics from whey are a protein called
glycomacropeptide (GMP) that is derived from the partial enzymatic breakdown of kappa-casein
during cheese production that supports the growth of biﬁdobacteria; second is lactoferrin (Lf), which
supports the growth of biﬁdobacteria and lactobacilli and third component with prebiotic potential
Beverages 2017,3, 31 7 of 14
is mineral, calcium in form of calcium phosphate. It selectively stimulates the growth of intestinal
lactobacilli and decreases the severity of Salmonella infections in rats (Kassem et al., 2015 ).
4.5. Anti-Inﬂammatory Properties
The role of whey proteins on hypertension is due to its effect on inﬂammation and
Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS). The Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors possess
anti-inﬂammatory properties (Sousa et al., 2012 [
]). In a study it was found that the consumption of
whey proteins depleted the plasma levels of pro-inﬂammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta: 59% and IL-6: 29%)
as compared to the consumption of same amount of casein. Thus, reduction of pro-inﬂammatory
cytokines can also be associated with weight loss after consumption of whey proteins and its amino
acids (Luhovyy et al., 2007 ).
4.6. Cardiovascular and Related Diseases
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with number of factors such as age, genetic
constitution, obesity, sedentary lifestyle and alcohol intake and quality of dietary fat. Milk contains
more than 12 different types of fat, including sphingolipids, free sterols, cholesterol and oleic acid.
Several studies have shown that intake of milk and dairy products lower blood pressure and reduce
the risk of hypertension (Groziak and Miller, 2000 ).
A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fermented milk (Lactobacillus casei and
Streptococcus thermophiles) supplement with an added whey protein concentrate on serum lipids
and blood pressure on a group of 20 healthy adult males (Kawase et al., 2000 [
]). During the course
of eight weeks, volunteers consumed 200 mL of fermented milk with whey protein concentrate or
a placebo in the morning and evening. The placebo consisted of a non-fermented milk product without
the addition of whey protein concentrate. After eight weeks, the fermented-milk group showed
signiﬁcantly higher High Density Lipoproteins (HDLs) and lower triglycerides and systolic blood
pressure than did the placebo group.
In yet another study, the aim was to investigate the acute effects of dietary whey proteins on lipids,
glucose and insulin, and resting energy expenditure in overweight and obese post-menopausal women,
a population that is highly susceptible to cardiovascular disease. The ﬁndings suggested that a single
dose of whey protein can decrease arterial exposure to smaller triglycerides-enriched lipoprotein
particles compared to the glucose and casein meals in the postprandial period in overweight and obese,
post-menopausal women (Pal et al., 2010 ).
4.7. GastroIntestinal Health
Whey proteins exert a therapeutic effect on the gastric mucosa. This effect is due to the presence
of sulfhydryl group in aminoacid cysteine and its linkage with glutamic acid in the production
In a research by Rosaneli et al. [
], it was observed that when rats showed a 41% reduction in
ulcerative lesions caused by ethanol ingestion when they were fed a whey protein concentrate, while
a 73% reduction rate was observed following repeat doses of whey (McGregor and Poppitt, 2013 [
Whey proteins are absorbed faster in body than casein. The lower absorption rate of casein in
its native micellar form is due to the low pH conditions in the stomach that cause casein clotting and
delays gastric emptying (Dangin et al., 2001 [
]). Therefore, plasma amino acids are more rapidly
elevated following whey proteins consumption; whereas changes in plasma amino acids are lower
and more sustained following micellar casein consumption. Thus, processing of whey proteins or
casein fractions through hydrolysis can markedly inﬂuence absorption and subsequent plasma amino
Beverages 2017,3, 31 8 of 14
4.8. Physical Strength and Performance for Athletes
Several studies have shown that whey proteins have tremendous nutraceutical potential for
athletes. They are often referred to as ‘gold standard’ or ‘fast protein’ for their unique ability to
provide nourishment to muscles. This is due to several factors such as their solubility, easily digestible,
efﬁcient absorption. They contain all the essential amino acids required in daily diet and have an ideal
combination of amino acids to help to improve body composition and enhance athletic performance.
Whey protein is a rich source of branched chain amino acids that are important for athletes since
they are metabolized directly into muscle tissue and repair and rebuild lean muscle tissue. Whey
protein is an excellent source of leucine (an essential amino acid) that plays a key role in promoting
muscle protein synthesis and muscle growth in athletes. It has been reported that whey protein isolate
has approximately 50% more leucine than soy protein isolate. Whey protein increases the level of
glutathione in the body and helps to maintain a healthy immune system (Gupta et al., 2012 ).
4.9. Obesity Control
Numerous studies have proved that whey proteins help in weight management and obesity
control. The mechanism involved is through the inﬂuence of whey proteins on the hormones that
controls appetite and hunger (Hall et al., 2003 [
]). Consumption of a high-protein diet has a greater
satiety thereby reducing energy intake and subsequent adiposity. It has been found that whey proteins
are even more effective than red meat in reducing weight gain and also increases insulin sensitivity
of the body. The other proposed mode of action is that diet rich in
-lactalbumin enhances the lipid
oxidation and rapidly delivers amino acids for use during exercise, thereby decreasing adiposity
(Bouthegourd et al., 2002 [
]). Calcium is also known to inﬂuence energy metabolism as it regulates
adipocyte lipid metabolism and triglyceride storage. This has been experimentally supported by
Zemel 2002 [
] who demonstrated a greater effect of dairy versus non-dairy sources of calcium for
improving body composition.
4.10. Protection against Human Immunodeﬁciency Virus (HIV)
Research has shown that individuals infected with HIV exhibit glutathione deﬁciency.
Supplementation of whey elevates the levels of glutathione (GSH) and helps in increasing the immune
defense mechanism of the host.
A research was undertaken by Micke et al. [
] on 30 subjects infected with HIV. They were
randomized and received a daily dose of 45 g whey proteins from one of two sources Protectamin
Immunocal. These two products are commercially available and possess different amino acid proﬁles.
The oral supplementation was given for two weeks. After two weeks, the Protectamin-supplemented
group demonstrated signiﬁcantly elevated glutathione levels while the Immunocal group had
statistically non-signiﬁcant elevations. These results clearly showed that high levels of glutathione
supplementation provide protection against HIV.
Numerous studies have proved that whey proteins help to control the blood glucose levels and
provide additional beneﬁts for weight management. This is a main concern for type-2 diabetics
(Shankar and Bansal, 2013 [
]). Whey proteins are thus high biological, high-quality and value protein
suitable for diabetic patients. Ingestion of whey proteins leads to more rapid secretion of insulin than
micellar casein (McGregor and Poppitt, 2013 ).
4.12. Appetite Suppression
It has been mentioned earlier that whey based beverages regulates body weight and helps in
controlling obesity. This is due to some amino acids liberated from whey proteins during
digestion that also stimulate the release of hormones including insulin. Its secretion directly affects
Beverages 2017,3, 31 9 of 14
food intake regulation by modifying glycemic response and suppressing appetite and, consequently
reduces body weight... Some other hormones are also involved in appetite suppression either directly
in the hypothalamus, such as ghrelin, or indirectly through the vagal nerve, such as cholecystokinin
(CCK) and Peptide YY (PYY) (Jakubowicz and Froy, 2013 [
]). Glyco-macropeptide is a powerful
stimulator of CCK, which is an appetite-suppressing hormone that plays essential roles related to
gastrointestinal function; including the regulation of food intake. Further research is required to study
the effects of GMP and CCK as an appetite suppressant (Walzem, 1999 ).
Numerous studies have shown that whey protein based drinks play an important role in delaying
the ageing process. During ageing, there is a continuous but slow degeneration of skeletal muscle mass
(sarcopenia). In elderly population the skeletal muscle mass is completely impaired and inhibited.
Whey proteins are a rich source of essential amino acids that contributes to its anabolic properties.
There is an increase in availability of postprandial plasma amino acids that stimulates synthesis of
muscle proteins (Pennings et al., 2011 [
]). Whey proteins contain glutathione that is an important
antioxidant involved in the maintenance of functional and structural integrity of muscular tissue
undergoing oxidative damage during exercise and aging.
4.14. Wound Healing
Wound healing involves the growth of new skin through the use of proteins and their amino
acids. Healing process is delayed when there are inadequate amounts of protein or diets high in
poor-quality proteins, such as gelatin are present. Whey proteins comprises of good quality proteins
and are therefore often recommended by physicians after any surgery or burn therapy (Gupta et al.,
5. Therapeutic Applications of Fermented Whey
The therapeutic potential and functional properties of milk whey can be improved through
fermentation (Yang and Silva, 1995 [
]). During fermentation by probiotic bacteria, the percentage
of essential and digestible amino acids increases to a marked level, thus making these fermented
dairy products ideal nutritional supplements for diarrhea and other conditions (Hitchins and Mc
Donough, 1989 [
]). Various compounds including ﬂavouring compounds and acids are produced
due to the metabolic activity of these microorganisms. This also increases their palatability and
consumer acceptability as compared to non-fermented products. The organic acids produced during
the fermentation possess great health beneﬁts. These organic acids comprise of short-chain fatty acids
such as acetic, citric and lactic acid produced during the fermentation of protein and carbohydrate
components. The organic acids possess antimicrobial properties particularly against E. coli in the
intestine. The organic acids helps to lower the pH of the intestine that helps in the secretion of bile
juices, absorption of nutrients and also reduce the concentration of pathogenic microglora in the gut.
The SCFA is used in the colon to promote water and electrolyte absorption for diarrhoea treatment
(Desjeux, 2000 ).
In a study in rats it was also reported that dietary calcium, preferably as calcium phosphate,
also selectively favours the growth of intestinal lactobacilli and decreases the severity of Salmonella
infections (Bovee-Oudenhoven et al., 1999 ).
In a study, Lactobacillus acidophilus subsp. johnsonii (La1) has been shown to effectively suppress
the growth of Helicobacter pylori
. The results were conﬁrmed by conducting a hydrogen breath
test. The whey-drink based on L. acidophilus (johnsonii) culture was given to some volunteers and a
marked decrease in test values was observed (Michetti, 1999 ).
Beverages 2017,3, 31 10 of 14
6. Whey-Based Probiotic Products
During recent years there has been great awareness about the consumption of dairy products
amongst the consumers worldwide. Dairy products containing probiotic bacteria of selected strains
preferably belonging from the group of Lactobacillus spp. and Biﬁdobacterium spp. are generally
preferable. Fermented dairy products such as whey have a greater consumer appeal as they are
nutritious, thirst-quenching, less acidic and low in calories. Since dairy products are highly perishable
they are susceptible to microbial spoilage during storage. Nowadays, liquid whey is therefore
concentrated by spray drying or by evaporation, ultraﬁltration or reverse osmosis thereby increasing
their shelf life.
Besides, these whey drinks are further fortiﬁed with the friendly probiotic bacteria for their health
promoting properties, and provide unique texture and ﬂavor to them. Some whey-based probiotic
products available in the market are Yakult and Sofyl (manufactured by Yakult), Chamyto (by Nestlé),
Activia, Actimel, Danito (by Danone), Vigor-Club (by Vigor) (Katz, 2001 ).
The most common method of producing whey drinks is to remove excess of whey during cheese
manufacturing process. The liquid whey is then ﬁltered, pasteurized and fermented with the desired
probiotic strain. It has been commonly observed that sweet whey (prepared after coagulation with
rennet) is tastier than acid whey. The whey obtained through this process is clearer and is thus not
sedimented during long term storage. This is called deproteinised whey. Such whey drinks can also be
easily carbonated similar to soft drinks due to their low viscosity. (Wilson and Temple, 2004 ).
In a study, when a whey based beverages fortiﬁed with probiotic culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus
was administered to diarrheal children, positive results were reported (Goyal and Gandhi, 2008 ).
It is necessary that the whey based beverages should be fortiﬁed with only speciﬁc viable probiotic
strain(s) in sufﬁcient numbers and scientiﬁcally validated with appropriate labeling in order to ensure
therapeutic results (Reid et al, 2006 ).
From the above discussion, it is imperative that milk whey possess tremendous therapeutic
properties such as antimicrobial, anticancer, immune-enhancer, prebiotic property, anti-inﬂammatory,
cardiovascular, gastro-intestinal health, physical strength, obesity control and weight-management,
HIV, diabetes, appetite suppression, ageing, and wound healing. There are several whey-based
probiotic products available in the market today that can serve as attractive health-promoting food
supplements. Keﬁr, yogurts, frozen yogurts and desserts are all well-known examples.
The authors greatly acknowledge and thank respected Founder President Ashok K. Chauhan,
and Atul Chauhan, Chancellor, Amity University UP, Noida, India, for their constant motivation, support and,
Charu Gupta has contributed towards data collection, drafting and compiling of the
manuscript while Dhan Prakash has critically reviewed the manuscript for its accuracy and completeness.
Conﬂicts of Interest: The authors declare no conﬂict of interest.
Table A1. Nutrient content of cheese whey types (dry matter basis).
Nutrient Content Sweet Whey (%) Whey Permeate (%)
Total nitrogen (TN) 1.30 0.26
Non-protein nitrogen (NPN) 0.34 0.24
Calcium 0.058 0.055
Phosphorus 0.052 0.045
Net energy lactation (Mcal/lb) 0.90 0.85
Total digestible energy (Mcal/lb)
Beverages 2017,3, 31 11 of 14
Table A2. Whey Characteristics.
Characteristics Chemical Composition Sweet Whey Whey Permeate
Speciﬁc gravity (kg/L) 1.025 1.030
pH 6.40 6.55
Titrable acidity 0.05 0.089
Water (%) 91.95 94.45
Dry matter (DM%) 8.05 5.55
- Solid not fat (SNF%) 7.55 5.55
- Fat (%) 0.50 0.00
Crude protein (CP%) 1.10 0.25
Soluble carbohydrates (%) 5.20 4.90
Total ash (%) 0.52 0.50
Yalcin, A.S. Emerging therapeutic potential of whey proteins and peptides. Curr. Pharm. Des.
1637–1643. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sultan, S.; Huma, N.; Butt, M.S.; Aleem, M.; Abbas, M. Therapeutic potential of dairy bioactive peptides:
A Contemporary Perspectives. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2016. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
3. Rognvaldardottir, N. Icelandic Food and Cookery; Hippocrene Books: New York, NY, USA, 2001.
Gupta, C.; Prakash, D.; Garg, A.P.; Gupta, S. Whey Proteins: A novel source of Bioceuticals. Mid. East J.
Sci. Res. 2012,12, 365–375.
Yolken, R.H.; Losonsky, G.A.; Vonderfecht, S.; Leister, F.; Wee, S.B. Antibody to human rotavirus in cow’s
milk. N. Engl. J. Med. 1985,312, 605–610. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Le Maux, S.; Giblin, L.; Croguennec, T.; Bouhallab, S.; Brodkorb, A.
-Lactoglobulin as a molecular carrier
of linoleate: Characterization and effects on intestinal epithelial cells
.J. Agric. Food Chem.
9476–9483. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mehraban, M.H.; Youseﬁ, R.; Taheri-Kafrani, A.; Panahi, F.; Khalaﬁ-Nezhad, A. Binding study of novel
anti-diabetic pyrimidine fused heterocycles to
-lactoglobulin as a carrier protein. Coll. Surf. B Biointerfaces
2013,112, 374–379. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Brück, W.M.; Gibson, G.R.; Brück, T.B. The effect of proteolysis on the induction of cell death by monomeric
alpha-lactalbumin. Biochimie 2014,97, 138–143. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ganjam, L.S.; Thornton, W.H.; Marshall, R.T.; MacDonald, R.S. Antiproliferative effects of yoghurt fractions
obtained by membrane dialysis on cultured mammalian intestinal cells. J. Dairy Sci.
Markus, C.R.; Olivier, B.; de Haan, E.H. Whey protein rich in a-lactalbumin increases the ratio of plasma
tryptophan to the sum of the other large neutral amino acids and improves cognitive performance in
stress-vulnerable subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2002,75, 1051–1056. [PubMed]
Huang, B.X.; Kim, H.; Dass, C. Probing three-dimensional structure of bovine serum albumin by chemical
cross-linking and mass spectrometry. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2004,15, 1237–1247. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Laursen, I.; Briand, P.; Lykkesfeldt, A.E. Serum albumin as a modulator of the human breast cancer cell line
MCF-7. Anticancer Res. 1990,10, 343–352. [PubMed]
Choi, J.K.; Ho, J.; Curry, S.; Qin, D.; Bittman, R.; Hamilton, J.A. Interactions of very long chain saturated fatty
acids with serum albumin. J. Lipid Res. 2002,43, 1000–1010. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Tong, L.M.; Sasaki, S.; McClements, D.J.; Decker, E.A. Mechanisms of the antioxidant activity of a high
molecular weight fraction of whey. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2000,48, 1473–1478. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Pierce, A.; Colavizza, D.; Benaissa, M.; Maes, P.; Tartar, A.; Montreuil, J.; Spik, G. Molecular cloning and
sequence analysis of bovine lactotransferrin. Eur. J. Biochem. 1991,196, 177–184. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
16. Levay, P.F.; Viljoen, M. Lactoferrin: A general review. Haematologica 1995,80, 252–267. [PubMed]
El-Loly, M.M.; Mahfouz, M.B. Lactoferrin in Relation to Biological Functions and Applications: A Review.
Int. J. Dairy Sci. 2011,6, 79–111. [CrossRef]
El-Loly, M.M. Identiﬁcation and Quantiﬁcation of Whey Immunoglobulins by Reversed Phase
Chromatography. Int. J. Dairy Sci. 2007,2, 268–274.
Beverages 2017,3, 31 12 of 14
Losso, J.N.; Dhar, J.; Kummer, A.; Li-Chan, E.; Nakai, S. Detection of antibody speciﬁcity of raw bovine and
human milk to bacterial lipopolysaccharides using PCFIA. Food Agric. Immunol.
,5, 231–239. [CrossRef]
20. Scammell, A.W. Production and uses of colostrum. Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 2001,56, 74–82.
Garry, F.B.; Adams, R.; Cattell, M.B.; Dinsmore, R.P. Comparison of passive immunoglobulin transfer to
dairy calves fed colostrum or commercially available colostral supplement products. JAVMA
Hilpert, H.; Brussow, H.; Mietens, C.; Sidoti, J.; Lerner, L.; Werchau, H. Use of bovine milk concentrate
containing antibody to rotavirus to treat rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants. J. Infect. Dis.
Korhonen, H.; Marnila, P.; Gill, H.S. Milk immunoglobulins and complement factors. Br. J. Nutr.
S75–S80. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lilius, E.M.; Marnila, P. The role of colostral antibodies in prevention of microbial infections. Curr. Opin.
Infect. Dis. 2001,14, 295–300. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
De Wit, J.N.; van Hooydonk, A.C.M. Structure, functions and applications of lactoperoxidase in natural
antimicrobial systems. Neth. Milk Dairy J. 1996,50, 227–244.
Reiter, B.; Perraudin, J.P. Lactoperoxidase, Biological Functions. In Peroxidases in Chemistry and Biology;
Everse, J., Everse, K.E., Grisham, M.B., Eds.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 1991; pp. 144–180.
Shin, K.; Wakabayashi, H.; Yamauchi, K.; Teraguchi, S.; Tamura, Y.; Kurokawa, M.; Shiraki, K. Effects of orally
administered bovine lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase on inﬂuenza virus infection in mice. J. Med. Microbiol.
2005,54, 717–723. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
28. Marshall, K. Therapeutic applications of whey protein. Altern. Med. Rev. 2004,9, 136–156. [PubMed]
Gustafson, D.R.; McMahon, D.J.; Morrey, J.; Nan, R. Appetite is not inﬂuenced by a unique milk peptide:
Caseinomacropeptide (CMP). Appetite 2001,36, 157–163. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fox, P.F.; Kelly, A.L. Indigenous enzymes in milk: Overview and historical aspects-Part 2. Int. Dairy J.
16, 517–532. [CrossRef]
Lesnierowsk, G. New manners of physical-chemical modiﬁcation of lysozyme. Nauka Przyr. Technol.
Benkerroum, N. Antimicrobial activity of lysozyme with special relevance to milk. Afr. J. Biotechnol.
Krissansen, G.W. Emerging health properties of whey proteins and their clinical implications. J. Am.
Coll. Nutr. 2007,26, 713–723. [CrossRef]
Troost, F.J.; Steijns, J.; Saris, W.H.; Brummer, R.J. Gastric digestion of bovine lactoferrin
J. Nutr. 2001,131, 2101–2104. [PubMed]
Leães, F.L.; Vanin, N.G.; Sant’Anna, V.; Brandelli, A. Use of Byproducts of Food Industry for Production of
Antimicrobial Activity by Bacillus sp. P11. Food Bioprocess Technol. 2010,4, 822–828. [CrossRef]
Chatterton, D.E.W.; Smithers, G.; Roupas, P.; Brodkrob, A. Bioactivity of
α-lactalbumin-technological implications for processing. Int. Dairy J. 2006,16, 1229–1240. [CrossRef]
Takakura, N.; Wakabayashi, H.; Ishibashi, H.; Teraguchi, S.; Tamura, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Abe, S. Oral
lactoferrin treatment of experimental oral candidiasis in mice. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
2619–2623. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Floris, R.; Recio, I.; Berkhout, B.; Visser, S. Antibacterial and antiviral effects of milk proteins and derivatives
thereof. Curr. Pharm. Des. 2003,9, 1257–1275. [CrossRef]
Wolber, F.M.; Broomﬁeld, A.M.; Fray, L.; Cross, M.L.; Dey, D. Supplemental dietary whey protein concentrate
reduces rotavirus-induced disease symptoms in suckling mice. J. Nutr. 2005,135, 1470–1474. [PubMed]
40. Solak, B.B.; Akin, N. Health beneﬁts of whey protein: A review. J. Food Sci. Eng. 2012,2, 129–137.
Gill, H.S.; Cross, M.L. Anticancer properties of bovine milk. Br. J. Nutr.
,84, S161–S166. [CrossRef]
Masuda, C.; Wanibushi, H.; Sekine, K.; Yano, Y.; Otani, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Fukushima, S. Chemo-preventive
effect of bovine lactoferrin on N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine-induced bladder carcinogenesis.
Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 2000,91, 582–588. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Tanaka, T.; Kawabata, K.; Kohno, H.; Honjo, S.; Murakami, M.; Ota, T.; Tsuda, H. Chemo-preventive effect
of bovine lactoferrin on 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide induced tongue carcinogenesis in male F344 rats. Jpn. J.
Cancer Res. 2000,91, 25–33. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Beverages 2017,3, 31 13 of 14
Gahr, M.; Speer, C.P.; Damerau, B.; Sawatzki, G. Inﬂuence of lactoferrin on the function of human
polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes. J. Leucoc. Biol. 1991,49, 427–433.
45. Kassem, J.M. Future Challenges of Whey Proteins. Int. J. Dairy Sci. 2015,10, 139–159. [CrossRef]
Sousa, G.T.D.; Lira, F.S.; Rosa, J.C.; de Oliveira, E.P.; Oyama, L.M.; Santos, R.V.; Pimente, G.D. Dietary whey
protein lessens several risk factors for metabolic diseases: A review. Lipids Health Dis.
,11, 67. [CrossRef]
Luhovyy, B.L.; Akhavan, T.; Anderson, G.H. Whey proteins in the regulation of food intake and satiety.
J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 2007,26, 704S–712S. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Groziak, S.M.; Miller, G.D. Natural bioactive substances in milk and colostrum: effects on the arterial blood
pressure system. Br. J. Nutr. 2000,84, S119–S125. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kawase, M.; Hashimoto, H.; Hosoda, M.; Morita, H.; Hosono, A. Effect of administration of fermented milk
containing whey protein concentrate to rats and healthy men on serum lipids and blood pressure. J. Dairy Sci.
2000,83, 255–263. [CrossRef]
Pal, S.; Ellis, V.; Ho, S. Acute effects of whey protein isolate on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight,
post-menopausal women. Atherosclerosis 2010,212, 339–344. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rosaneli, C.F.; Bighetti, A.E.; Antonio, M.A.; Carvalho, J.E.; Sgarbieri, V.C. Efﬁcacy of a Whey protein
concentrate on the inhibition of stomach ulcerative Lesions caused by ethanol ingestion. J. Med. Food
221–228. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
McGregor, R.A.; Poppitt, S.D. Milk protein for improved metabolic health: A review of the evidence.
Nutr. Metab. 2013,10, 46. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Dangin, M.; Boirie, Y.; Garcia-Rodenas, C.; Gachon, P.; Fauquant, J.; Callier, P.; Ballèvre, O.; Beaufrère, B. The
digestion rate of protein is an independent regulating factor of postprandial protein retention. Am. J. Physiol.
Endocrinol. Metab. 2001,280, E340–E348. [PubMed]
Hall, W.L.; Millward, D.J.; Long, S.J.; Morgan, L.M. Casein and whey exert different effects on plasma amino
acid proﬁles, gastrointestinal hormone secretion and appetite. Br. J. Nutr.
,89, 239–248. [CrossRef]
Bouthegourd, J.C.J.; Roseau, S.M.; Makarios-Lahham, L.; Leruyet, P.M.; Tome, D.G.; Even, P.C. A preexercise
-lactalbumin-enriched whey protein meal preserves lipid oxidation and decreases adiposity in rats. Am. J.
Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 2002,283, E565–E572. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
56. Zemel, M.B. Mechanisms of dairy modulation of adiposity. J. Nutr. 2002,133, 252–256.
Micke, P.; Beeh, K.M.; Buhl, R. Effects of long-term supplementation with whey proteins on plasma
glutathione levels of HIV-infected patients. Eur. J. Nutr. 2002,41, 12–18. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Shankar, J.R.; Bansal, G.K. A study on health beneﬁts of whey proteins. Int. J. Adv. Biotechnol. Res.
Jakubowicz, D.; Froy, O. Biochemical and metabolic mechanisms by which dietary whey protein may combat
obesity and Type 2 diabetes. J. Nutr. Biochem. 2013,24, 1–5. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Walzem, R.L. Health Enhancing Properties of Whey Proteins and Whey Fractions; USA Dairy Export Council:
Arlington, VA, USA, 1999.
Pennings, B.; Boirie, Y.; Senden, J.M.G.; Gijsen, A.P.; Kuipers, H.; van Loon, L.J.C. Whey protein stimulates
postprandial muscle protein accretion more effectively than do casein and casein hydrolysate in older men.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2011,93, 997–1005. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Yang, S.T.; Silva, E.M. Novel products and new technologies for use of a familiar carbohydrate, milk lactose.
J. Dairy Sci. 1995,78, 2541–2562. [CrossRef]
Hitchins, A.D.; Mc Donough, F.E. Prophylactic and therapeutic aspects of fermented milk. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
1989,49, 675–684. [PubMed]
Desjeux, J.F. Can mal-absorbed carbohydrates be useful in the treatment of acute diarrhoea? J. Pediatr.
Gastroenterol. Nutr. 2000,31, 503–507. [CrossRef]
Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.; Wissink, M.L.; Wouters, J.T.; Van der Meer, R. Dietary calcium phosphate stimulates
intestinal lactobacilli and decreases the severity of Salmonella infections. J. Nutr.
,129, 607–612. [PubMed]
Michetti, P.; Dorta, G.; Wiesel, P.H.; Brassart, D.; Verdu, E.; Herranz, M.; Felley, C.; Porta, N.; Rouvet, M.;
Blum, A.L.; et al. Effect of whey based culture supernatant of Lactobacillus acidophilus (johnsonii) LA1 on the
Helicobacter pylori infection in human. Digestion 1999,60, 203–209. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
67. Katz, F. Active cultures add function to yogurt and other foods. Food Technol. 2001,55, 46–49.
Beverages 2017,3, 31 14 of 14
Wilson, T.; Temple, N.J. Beverages in Nutrition and Health; Humana Press: New York, NY, USA, 2004; p. 427,
Goyal, N.; Gandhi, D.N. Whey, a Carrier of Probiotics against Diarrhoea. Available online: http://www.
dairyscience.info/probiotics/110-whey-probiotics.html?showall=1 (accessed on 17 May 2011).
Reid, G.; Kim, S.O.; Kohler, G.A. Selecting, testing and understanding probiotic microorganisms.
FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 2006,46, 149–157. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access
article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution
(CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).