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Milk whey—commonly known as cheese whey—is a by-product of cheese or casein in the dairy industry and contains usually high levels of lactose, low levels of nitrogenous compounds, protein, salts, lactic acid and small amounts of vitamins and minerals. Milk whey contains several unique components like immunoglobulins (Igs), lactoferrin (Lf), lactoperoxidase (Lp), glycomacropeptide (GMP) and sphingolipids that possess some important antimicrobial and antiviral properties. Some whey components possess anticancer properties such as sphingomyelin, which have the potential to inhibit colon cancer. Immunoglobulin-G (IgGs), Lp and Lf concentrated from whey participates in host immunity. IgGs binds with bacterial toxins and lowers the bacterial load in the large bowel. There are some whey-derived carbohydrate components that possess prebiotic activity. Lactose support lactic acid bacteria (such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli). Stallic acids, an oligosaccharide in whey, are typically attached to proteins, and possess prebiotic properties. The uniqueness of whey proteins is due to their ability to boost the level of glutathione (GSH) in various tissues and also to optimize various processes of the immune system. The role of GSH is very critical as it protects the cells against free radical damage, infections, toxins, pollution and UV exposure. Overall GSH acts as a centerpiece of the body’s antioxidant defense system. It has been widely observed that individuals suffering from cancer, HIV, chronic fatigue syndrome and many other immune-compromising conditions have very poor levels of glutathione. The sulphur-containing amino-acids (cysteine and methionine) are also found in high levels in whey protein. Thus, the present review will focus on the therapeutic potential of milk whey such as antibiotic, anti-cancer, anti-toxin, immune-enhancer, prebiotic property etc.
Therapeutic Potential of Milk Whey
Charu Gupta * and Dhan Prakash
Amity Institute for Herbal Research and Studies, Amity University Uttar Pradesh,
Sector-125, Noida-201313, India;
*Correspondence:; Tel.: +91-120-439-2549
Academic Editor: Alessandra Durazzo
Received: 25 April 2017; Accepted: 27 June 2017; Published: 5 July 2017
Milk whey—commonly known as cheese whey—is a by-product of cheese or casein in the
dairy industry and contains usually high levels of lactose, low levels of nitrogenous compounds,
protein, salts, lactic acid and small amounts of vitamins and minerals. Milk whey contains
several unique components like immunoglobulins (Igs), lactoferrin (Lf), lactoperoxidase (Lp),
glycomacropeptide (GMP) and sphingolipids that possess some important antimicrobial and antiviral
properties. Some whey components possess anticancer properties such as sphingomyelin, which have
the potential to inhibit colon cancer. Immunoglobulin-G (IgGs), Lp and Lf concentrated from whey
participates in host immunity. IgGs binds with bacterial toxins and lowers the bacterial load in
the large bowel. There are some whey-derived carbohydrate components that possess prebiotic
activity. Lactose support lactic acid bacteria (such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli). Stallic acids,
an oligosaccharide in whey, are typically attached to proteins, and possess prebiotic properties. The
uniqueness of whey proteins is due to their ability to boost the level of glutathione (GSH) in various
tissues and also to optimize various processes of the immune system. The role of GSH is very critical
as it protects the cells against free radical damage, infections, toxins, pollution and UV exposure.
Overall GSH acts as a centerpiece of the body’s antioxidant defense system. It has been widely
observed that individuals suffering from cancer, HIV, chronic fatigue syndrome and many other
immune-compromising conditions have very poor levels of glutathione. The sulphur-containing
amino-acids (cysteine and methionine) are also found in high levels in whey protein. Thus, the
present review will focus on the therapeutic potential of milk whey such as antibiotic, anti-cancer,
anti-toxin, immune-enhancer, prebiotic property etc.
milk whey; therapeutic potential; cheese whey; antimicrobial; immune-enhancer;
bioactive peptides
1. Introduction
Whey is generally released as a by-product during cheese manufacturing. The typical composition
of milk comprises about 3.6% protein, out of which casein predominates to around 80% and rest 20%
are called as the whey proteins. Whey proteins are unique as they contain all the essential amino
acids of good quality protein. Milk whey and whey proteins have different biological and functional
properties. Consequently, milk whey proteins are used in the manufacture of various products such as
infant foods, nutritional products for athletes, tailor made specialized products for controlling obesity,
mood control and other clinical protein supplements such as for enteral disturbances. (Yalcin, 2006 [
Bioactive peptides present in milk whey are one of the most studied compounds in different dairy
products. Bioactive peptides from dairy sources are majorly classified on the basis of their biological
roles as anti-hypertensive, anti-oxidative, immmuno-modulant, anti-mutagenic, anti-microbial, opioid,
anti-thrombotic, anti-obesity and mineral-binding agents. These bioactive peptides are produced
by enzymatic hydrolysis during fermentation and gastrointestinal digestion. Thus, fermented dairy
Beverages 2017,3, 31; doi:10.3390/beverages3030031
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products like yogurt, cheese and buttermilk are gaining popularity worldwide and are considered as
an excellent source of dairy peptides. Furthermore, these dairy products are also associated with lower
risks of hypertension, coagulopathy, stroke and cancer insurgences (Sultan et al., 2014 [2]).
2. Historical Background
Historically, whey was considered as a cure for all common ailments ranging from gastrointestinal
complaints to joint and ligament problems.
Nanna Rognvaldardottir, a food expert from Iceland, described whey (also called syra in Iceland),
as fermented liquid that is stored in barrels.
Before its consumption, Syra is diluted with water. It is also used as a marinade or preservative
for meat and other food.
Syra was the most common beverage of Icelandic people and replaced ale due to the lack of grains
in that region (Rognvaldardottir, 2001 [3]).
3. Milk Whey Components
The major components of milk whey of nutraceutical potential includes beta-lactoglobulin,
alpha-lactalbumin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), lactoferrin (Lf), immunoglobulins (Igs),
lactoperoxidase (Lp) enzymes, glycomacropeptides (GMP), lactose and minerals. The composition of
the whey liquid also depends upon the source of milk e.g., whey derived from buttermilk contains more
lipid sphingomyelin as compared to those derived from cheese. Whey is a popular dietary protein
supplement that is well known to possess antimicrobial activity, immune modulation, improved
muscle strength and body composition. Furthermore, whey is known to prevent cardiovascular
disease and osteoporosis.
The nutrient content of milk whey types (sweet whey and whey permeate) is described in Appedix
Table A1 and the whey characteristics are highlighted in Appedix Table A2.
3.1. Beta-Lactoglobulin
Beta-lactoglobulin comprises approximately half of the total protein content in bovine whey,
while it is absent in human milk. It is a source of both essential and branched chain amino acids.
A retinol binding protein (a carrier of small hydrophobic molecules including retinoic acid) is present
within the beta-lactoglobulin structure. This protein, has an ability to modulate lymphatic responses
(Gupta et al., 2012; Yolken et al., 1985 [
]). It also has the property to bind to hydrophobic ligands
such as fatty acids.
Recently, Le Maux et al. demonstrated that beta-lactoglobulin acts as a carrier molecule that alters
the bio-accessibility of linoleate and linoleic acid (Le Maux et al., 2012 [6]). It also provides resistance
against gastric- and simulated duodenal digestions. It also serves as a potential carrier for delivering
gastric labile hydrophobic drugs. Thus it has a great potential to serve as a realistic protein candidate
for safe delivery and protection of pH-sensitive drugs in the stomach (Mehraban et al., 2013 [7]).
3.2. Alpha-Lactalbumin
Alpha-lactalbumin is reported to be the second most important protein in whey quantitatively
and it represents approx. 20% (w/w) of the total whey protein. It is completely synthesized in the
mammary gland. It has significant anti-proliferative effects in human adenocarcinoma cell lines such
as Caco-2 and HT-29 (Brück et al., 2014 [
]). It also kills tumour cells and has bactericidal effects in the
upper respiratory systems and protective effects on gastric mucosa.
Alpha-lactalbumin plays a vital role in reducing the risk of some cancers as it constrains cell
division (Ganjam et al., 1997 [
]). In yet another study, it has also been found effective in the treatment
of cognitive declination. This is due to the high tryptophan content in alpha-lactalbumin, that increases
the plasma tryptophan-large neutral amino acids ration (Markus et al., 2002 [10]).
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3.3. Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA)
Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is not produced in the mammary gland, but is secreted in milk after
its passive leakage from the blood stream. The most important property of bovine serum albumin is
its ability to bind to various ligands reversibly. It is the principal carrier of fatty acids and can bind to
free fatty acids and other lipids as well as flavoring compounds (Huang et al., 2004 [
]). However,
this property is impaired upon denaturation on heating. BSA also inhibits tumor growth due to the
modulation of activities of the autocrine growth regulatory factors (Laursen et al., 1990 [12]).
BSA also binds to fatty acids stored in the human body; and thus it also participates in lipid
synthesis (Choi et al., 2002 [
]). In addition, BSA possess antioxidant activities (Tong et al., 2000 [
BSA is a source of all major essential amino acids, whose therapeutic potential is still
largely unexplored.
3.4. Lactoferrin (Lf)
Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein that is present in whey fraction of milk and colostrum.
It is a non-enzymatic antioxidant and consists of approximately 689 amino acid residues (Pierce et al.,
1991 [
]). The concentration of lactoferrin in human milk and colostrum is reported to be about
2 mg/mL and 7 mg/mL, respectively, whereas in bovine milk and colostrum it is around 0.2 mg/mL
and 1.5 mg/mL, respectively (Levay et al., 1995 [
]). Lactoferrin is a pre-dominant component of
whey protein in human breast milk.
Lactoferrin is also known to be an important host defense molecule and performs a range
of physiological functions such as antimicrobial, antiviral, immuno-modulatory and antioxidant
activity. It has been shown in several scientific studies that lactoferrin, if administered orally, exerts
several beneficial health effects on humans and animals, including anti-infective, anti-cancer and
anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, lactoferrin possess the potential to be used as a food additive (El-Loly
and Mahfouz, 2011 [17]).
3.5. Immunoglobulins (Igs)
Immunoglobulins (Ig) are antibodies and chemically gamma-globulins. The whey fraction of
milk contains a major amount of immunoglobulins, comprising approximately 10%–15% of total whey
proteins. Numerous studies have proved the therapeutic potential of immunoglobulins. They are
known to possess vital biological properties.
In an
in vitro
study, it was shown that bovine milk-derived IgG suppresses human lymphocyte
proliferative response to T cells at concentrations as low as 0.3 mg/mL of IgG. It was further concluded
that bovine milk IgG concentration varies between 0.6–0.9 mg/mL and therefore confer immunity that
is transmitted to humans (El-Loly, 2007 [
]). Previous studies have shown that unpasteurized cow
milk contain specific antibodies to human rotavirus, and against bacteria such as E. coli,Salmonella
enteriditis,S. typhimurium, and Shigella flexneri (Losso et al., 1993 [19]).
Nowadays, commercial colostral whey-derived immunoglobulin preparations are widely
available in the market that are marketed under the category of feed supplements and newborn
farm animal substitutes (Scammell, 2001 [20]).
There are few studies that have reported that the efficacy of these non-specific immunoglobulin
products in the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal infections is variable in different animal
studies (Garry et al., 1996 [21]).
However, Hilpert et al. [
] described the production of ‘hyper-immune milk’ by immunizing the
cows with specific antibodies and to prepare a whey protein concentrate for protecting young animals
from disease.
An increasing number of controlled clinical studies have shown that the oral administration of
immune milk preparations containing high titers of specific antibodies can provide effective protection
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and, to some extent, may also have therapeutic value against gastrointestinal infections in humans
(Korhonen et al., 2000; Lilius and Marnila, 2001 [23,24]).
3.6. Lactoperoxidase (LPO) Enzymes
Milk whey contains many types of enzymes, such as lactoperoxidase, hydrolases, transferases,
lyases, proteases and lipases. Lactoperoxidase accounts for 0.25–0.5 percent of total protein found in
whey. Lactoperoxidase is an important enzyme present in the whey fraction of milk. It is the most
abundant enzyme in whey following the curding process. It has the property to catalyze certain
molecules, and reduction of hydrogen peroxide. This enzyme system catalyzes peroxidation of
thiocyanate and some halides (such as iodine and bromium), which ultimately generates products that
inhibit and/or kill a range of bacterial species. It is heat tolerant and therefore lactoperoxidase is not
inactivated during the pasteurization process, thereby suggesting its stability as a preservative.
The biological significance of this enzyme is that it has a natural protection system against the
invasion of microorganisms. Besides its antiviral effect, it protects animal cells against various damages
and peroxidative effects (de Wit and Van Hooydonk, 1996 [25]).
Lactoperoxidase also provides defense system against pathogen microorganisms from the
digestive system of neonatal babies. The LPO enzyme functions as a non-immune biological
defense system of mammals and catalyzes the oxidation of the thiocyanate ion into the antibacterial
hypothiocyanate (Reiter and Perraudin, 1991 [
]). In yet another study, the oral administration of
lactoperoxidase attenuated pneumonia in influenza virus-infected mice suppressed the infiltration of
inflammatory cells in the lungs (Shin et al., 2005 [27]).
Thus the major application of lactoperoxidase is a protective factor against infectious microbes.
3.7. Glycomacropeptides (GMP)
Glycomacropeptides are also known as Casein Macro-Peptide (CMP) and constitutes about
10%–15% of protein in whey. It is produced in whey due to the breakdown of casein by chymosin
enzyme during cheese-making process. It contains large numbers of branched chain amino acids;
but lacks the aromatic amino acids such as phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine.
The other advantage is that it can be safely administered to patients suffering with
phenylketonuria (PKU) as it lacks phenylalanine (Marshall, 2004 [28]).
The GMP inhibits gastric acid secretions and modifies the blood concentration of regulatory
digestive peptides. It induces satiety as it induces the release of cholecystokinin but similar results
were not observed in human-fed GMP (Gustafson et al., 2001 [
]). The other role of GMP is to inhibit
the adhesion of cariogenic bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans,Sanguis and Sobrinus to oral surfaces
and therefore can modify the composition of plaque bacteria to control its acid production and, in turn,
reduce the demineralization of enamel and promote re-mineralization. The GMP is also a source of
N-acetyl-necromatic acid and its dietary intake can increase the sialic acid content of saliva that effects
its viscosity and protective function (Gupta et al., 2012 [4]).
3.8. Lysozyme (N-Acetylmuramide Glycan-Hydrolase)
Lysozyme is a hydrolytic enzyme that is widely distributed in nature and occurs in many body
fluids and tissues of living organisms (Fox and Kelly, 2006 [
]). Although the highest concentration
of the enzyme is found in tears and egg white protein, but is also present in human milk. It exhibits
antibacterial activity only against gram-positive bacteria.
This enzyme has wider industrial applications as a food additive, in medical diagnostics,
pharmacology and veterinary medicine. It is also used in the treatment of bacterial and viral
infections, skin and eye diseases, periodontitis, leukemia and cancer (Lesnierowsk, 2009; Benkerroum,
2008 [31,32]).
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3.9. Proteose Peptone Component 3 (PP3)
These are those proteins that are left in solution after the milk is heated at high temperature
followed by its acidification up to pH 4.7.
The proteose peptone 3 component is found only in whey excluding from the human source. It is
produced during the fermentation of fat-free bovine milk and enhances the production of monoclonal
antibodies by human hybridoma cells (Krissansen, 2007 [33]).
4. Therapeutic Properties of Milk Whey
4.1. Antimicrobial
Milk whey—also known as cheese whey (Lactoserum)—contains several unique components that
possess some important antimicrobial and antiviral properties. These are immunoglobulins, lactoferrin,
lactoperoxidase, glycomacropeptide and sphingolopids. All these compounds are able to survive
after their passage through stomach and small intestine and exert their biological effects in the large
intestine. The important whey components that provide antimicrobial action in the intestinal tract
are the immunoglobulins like IgG, IgM and IgA. IgG binds to toxin produced by Clostridium difficile,
thereby reducing diarrhoea, dehydration and muscle aches. GMP inhibits binding of cholera toxin to
receptors in the intestinal tract.
Lactoferrin, an iron binding protein present in milk whey, possesses antibacterial properties.
It sequesters iron from bacteria (Troost et al., 2001 [
]). Since pathogens in particular have high iron
requirements for metabolism and growth, this property of lactoferrin makes it broadly antimicrobial
in nature. Lactobacilli can utilize lactoferrin-bound iron, thus allowing lactoferrin to both inhibit
pathogenic bacteria and support the growth of lactobacilli.
Moreover, lactoferrin possess important antiviral activity directly interacts with selected
viral pathogens, inhibits virus replication and their ability to attach to colonic epithelial cells. Viral
inhibition also results through immune modulation benefits of lactoferrin.
Another whey-derived important protein component is lactoperoxidase (Lp) with potent
antimicrobial properties. It catalyzes the oxidation of thiocyanate into hypothiocynate ion,
which is a strong oxidizing agent. Hypothiocynate ions disrupts bacterial cell membranes.
This ”Lactoperoxidasesystem” is therefore used in a milk-preservation system. Whey-derived
phospholipids such as sphingolipids are metabolized in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and produce
sphingosine and lysosphingomyelin. These compounds possess powerful bactericidal agents
in vitro
Cheese whey (Lactoserum) was used as an inexpensive medium to produce bacteriocin by
Bacillus sp. P11 (Leães et al., 2010 [
]). Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid
bacteria group.
The lactoferrin,
-Lactalbumin and
-Lactglobulin were also studied for their antagonistic activity
against Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) (Chatterton et al., 2006 [
]). In particular,
-Lactglobulin is potential agent for preventing the transmission of genital herpes virus infections and
the spread of HIV. The lactoferrin and lactoferricin exhibit inhibitory activity against a broad range
of microorganisms including Gram-negativeand, Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, fungi and parasitic
protozoa (Takakura et al., 2003 [
]). They also inhibit the growth of food-borne pathogens such as
E. coli and Listeria monocytogenes (Floris et al., 2003 [38]).
The Lf exhibits antiviral property against HIV, Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV), herpes viruses,
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), alpha-virus and hepatitis C, B and G viruses. Overall, whey proteins
activate immune cell and/or prevent infection. They show promise to help combat rota-viral diarrhea,
which is a common infection in children (Wolber et al., 2005 [
]). The natural antimicrobial action of
Lp is used in a range of oral healthcare products and in the prevention and treatment of xerostimia
(dry mouth). Whey protein concentrate supplementation can thus decrease the occurrence of associated
co-infections (Solak and Akin, 2012 [40]).
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4.2. Anti-Cancerous
Some cheese whey components possess anticancer properties. The sulphur-containing
amino-acids including cysteine and methionine, are found in good amounts in whey protein. Cysteine
and methionine are utilized in glutathione synthesis. Glutathione is a substrate for two classes of
enzymes that catalyze detoxification compounds and bind mutagens and carcinogens, thus facilitating
their elimination from the body. The ability of lactoferrinto bind iron is another added advantage in
the prevention of colon cancer. They induce apoptosis in tumour cells and so are useful adjunct in
colon cancer therapy.
Sphingomyelin, one of the most abundant whey-derived sphingolipids, have potential to inhibit
colon cancer. Sphingomyelins also regulate growth factor receptors, such as the transforming growth
factor beta family (TGF-β).
s are a multifunctional family of growth factors that regulate cell growth in normal
and tumour cells by suppressing proliferation, inducing differentiation and apoptosis. TGF-
passes out unaffected through the stomach and maintains bioactivity in colon by withstanding
enzymatic proteolysis.
Several scientific studies, based on experiments on animal experiments have shown the
therapeutic effect of bovine lactoferrin (BLF) in treating distinct types of cancer (Gill & Cross, 2000 [
including colon cancer (Masuda et al., 2000 [
]). Besides this, the iron-binding capacity of bovine
lactoferrin is responsible for its anticancer activity. The proposed mechanisms are that free iron act
as a mutagenic promoter, by inducing oxidative damage to the nucleic acid structure; hence, when
bovine lactoferrin binds iron in tissues, it reduces the risk of oxidant-induced carcinomas and colon
adenocarcinomas. Studies are also available that pertain to such other cancers as lung, bladder, tongue
and oesophagus, and which convey similar results (Masuda et al., 2000; Tanaka et al., 2000 [42,43]).
4.3. Immune-Enhancer
IgGs, Lp and Lf concentrated from whey participates in host immunity. IgGs binds with bacterial
toxins and lowers the bacterial load in the large bowel. Dietary Lp and Lf plays a vital role in host
immunity through their antibacterial action on pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, supplementing
diets with whey-derived adjuncts shifts the balance of intestinal microflora and aids in immune
enhancement. Calcium, by virtue of its probiotic activity and influence on macrophages, neutrophils
and other white blood cell (WBC) subtypes are also classified as immune-modifying minerals.
Lf provides immune modulation as it is a natural component of the human immune system and
is found in the body’s mucous substances including saliva.
TGFs are abundant in milk (1–2 mg/L) and colostrum (20–40 mg/L) and serve a major role in GI
integrity of newborn animals.
TGF-beta2 resides locally near the top of the intestinal villi, and inhibits the proliferation and
signaling neutrophils as a part of innate host immunity.
Bovine lactoferrin upon stimulation of the immune system increases macrophage activity, causes
induction of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-8, TNF-a and nitric oxide, stimulates proliferation of
lymphocytes, and activates monocytes, natural killer (NK) cells and neutrophils (Gahr et al., 1991 [
4.4. Prebiotic Properties
There are some whey-derived carbohydrate components that possess prebiotic activity. Lactose
support LAB (such as Bifidobacteria &Lactobacilli). Stallic acids (type of oligosaccharides that are
commonly found in whey), are typically attached to proteins that have been shown to possess
prebiotic properties. Besides, three other non-carbohydrate prebiotics from whey are a protein called
glycomacropeptide (GMP) that is derived from the partial enzymatic breakdown of kappa-casein
during cheese production that supports the growth of bifidobacteria; second is lactoferrin (Lf), which
supports the growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and third component with prebiotic potential
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is mineral, calcium in form of calcium phosphate. It selectively stimulates the growth of intestinal
lactobacilli and decreases the severity of Salmonella infections in rats (Kassem et al., 2015 [45]).
4.5. Anti-Inflammatory Properties
The role of whey proteins on hypertension is due to its effect on inflammation and
Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS). The Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors possess
anti-inflammatory properties (Sousa et al., 2012 [
]). In a study it was found that the consumption of
whey proteins depleted the plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta: 59% and IL-6: 29%)
as compared to the consumption of same amount of casein. Thus, reduction of pro-inflammatory
cytokines can also be associated with weight loss after consumption of whey proteins and its amino
acids (Luhovyy et al., 2007 [47]).
4.6. Cardiovascular and Related Diseases
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with number of factors such as age, genetic
constitution, obesity, sedentary lifestyle and alcohol intake and quality of dietary fat. Milk contains
more than 12 different types of fat, including sphingolipids, free sterols, cholesterol and oleic acid.
Several studies have shown that intake of milk and dairy products lower blood pressure and reduce
the risk of hypertension (Groziak and Miller, 2000 [48]).
A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fermented milk (Lactobacillus casei and
Streptococcus thermophiles) supplement with an added whey protein concentrate on serum lipids
and blood pressure on a group of 20 healthy adult males (Kawase et al., 2000 [
]). During the course
of eight weeks, volunteers consumed 200 mL of fermented milk with whey protein concentrate or
a placebo in the morning and evening. The placebo consisted of a non-fermented milk product without
the addition of whey protein concentrate. After eight weeks, the fermented-milk group showed
significantly higher High Density Lipoproteins (HDLs) and lower triglycerides and systolic blood
pressure than did the placebo group.
In yet another study, the aim was to investigate the acute effects of dietary whey proteins on lipids,
glucose and insulin, and resting energy expenditure in overweight and obese post-menopausal women,
a population that is highly susceptible to cardiovascular disease. The findings suggested that a single
dose of whey protein can decrease arterial exposure to smaller triglycerides-enriched lipoprotein
particles compared to the glucose and casein meals in the postprandial period in overweight and obese,
post-menopausal women (Pal et al., 2010 [50]).
4.7. GastroIntestinal Health
Whey proteins exert a therapeutic effect on the gastric mucosa. This effect is due to the presence
of sulfhydryl group in aminoacid cysteine and its linkage with glutamic acid in the production
of glutathione.
In a research by Rosaneli et al. [
], it was observed that when rats showed a 41% reduction in
ulcerative lesions caused by ethanol ingestion when they were fed a whey protein concentrate, while
a 73% reduction rate was observed following repeat doses of whey (McGregor and Poppitt, 2013 [
Whey proteins are absorbed faster in body than casein. The lower absorption rate of casein in
its native micellar form is due to the low pH conditions in the stomach that cause casein clotting and
delays gastric emptying (Dangin et al., 2001 [
]). Therefore, plasma amino acids are more rapidly
elevated following whey proteins consumption; whereas changes in plasma amino acids are lower
and more sustained following micellar casein consumption. Thus, processing of whey proteins or
casein fractions through hydrolysis can markedly influence absorption and subsequent plasma amino
acid profiles.
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4.8. Physical Strength and Performance for Athletes
Several studies have shown that whey proteins have tremendous nutraceutical potential for
athletes. They are often referred to as ‘gold standard’ or ‘fast protein’ for their unique ability to
provide nourishment to muscles. This is due to several factors such as their solubility, easily digestible,
efficient absorption. They contain all the essential amino acids required in daily diet and have an ideal
combination of amino acids to help to improve body composition and enhance athletic performance.
Whey protein is a rich source of branched chain amino acids that are important for athletes since
they are metabolized directly into muscle tissue and repair and rebuild lean muscle tissue. Whey
protein is an excellent source of leucine (an essential amino acid) that plays a key role in promoting
muscle protein synthesis and muscle growth in athletes. It has been reported that whey protein isolate
has approximately 50% more leucine than soy protein isolate. Whey protein increases the level of
glutathione in the body and helps to maintain a healthy immune system (Gupta et al., 2012 [4]).
4.9. Obesity Control
Numerous studies have proved that whey proteins help in weight management and obesity
control. The mechanism involved is through the influence of whey proteins on the hormones that
controls appetite and hunger (Hall et al., 2003 [
]). Consumption of a high-protein diet has a greater
satiety thereby reducing energy intake and subsequent adiposity. It has been found that whey proteins
are even more effective than red meat in reducing weight gain and also increases insulin sensitivity
of the body. The other proposed mode of action is that diet rich in
-lactalbumin enhances the lipid
oxidation and rapidly delivers amino acids for use during exercise, thereby decreasing adiposity
(Bouthegourd et al., 2002 [
]). Calcium is also known to influence energy metabolism as it regulates
adipocyte lipid metabolism and triglyceride storage. This has been experimentally supported by
Zemel 2002 [
] who demonstrated a greater effect of dairy versus non-dairy sources of calcium for
improving body composition.
4.10. Protection against Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Research has shown that individuals infected with HIV exhibit glutathione deficiency.
Supplementation of whey elevates the levels of glutathione (GSH) and helps in increasing the immune
defense mechanism of the host.
A research was undertaken by Micke et al. [
] on 30 subjects infected with HIV. They were
randomized and received a daily dose of 45 g whey proteins from one of two sources Protectamin
Immunocal. These two products are commercially available and possess different amino acid profiles.
The oral supplementation was given for two weeks. After two weeks, the Protectamin-supplemented
group demonstrated significantly elevated glutathione levels while the Immunocal group had
statistically non-significant elevations. These results clearly showed that high levels of glutathione
supplementation provide protection against HIV.
4.11. Diabetes
Numerous studies have proved that whey proteins help to control the blood glucose levels and
provide additional benefits for weight management. This is a main concern for type-2 diabetics
(Shankar and Bansal, 2013 [
]). Whey proteins are thus high biological, high-quality and value protein
suitable for diabetic patients. Ingestion of whey proteins leads to more rapid secretion of insulin than
micellar casein (McGregor and Poppitt, 2013 [52]).
4.12. Appetite Suppression
It has been mentioned earlier that whey based beverages regulates body weight and helps in
controlling obesity. This is due to some amino acids liberated from whey proteins during
in vivo
digestion that also stimulate the release of hormones including insulin. Its secretion directly affects
Beverages 2017,3, 31 9 of 14
food intake regulation by modifying glycemic response and suppressing appetite and, consequently
reduces body weight... Some other hormones are also involved in appetite suppression either directly
in the hypothalamus, such as ghrelin, or indirectly through the vagal nerve, such as cholecystokinin
(CCK) and Peptide YY (PYY) (Jakubowicz and Froy, 2013 [
]). Glyco-macropeptide is a powerful
stimulator of CCK, which is an appetite-suppressing hormone that plays essential roles related to
gastrointestinal function; including the regulation of food intake. Further research is required to study
the effects of GMP and CCK as an appetite suppressant (Walzem, 1999 [60]).
4.13. Ageing
Numerous studies have shown that whey protein based drinks play an important role in delaying
the ageing process. During ageing, there is a continuous but slow degeneration of skeletal muscle mass
(sarcopenia). In elderly population the skeletal muscle mass is completely impaired and inhibited.
Whey proteins are a rich source of essential amino acids that contributes to its anabolic properties.
There is an increase in availability of postprandial plasma amino acids that stimulates synthesis of
muscle proteins (Pennings et al., 2011 [
]). Whey proteins contain glutathione that is an important
antioxidant involved in the maintenance of functional and structural integrity of muscular tissue
undergoing oxidative damage during exercise and aging.
4.14. Wound Healing
Wound healing involves the growth of new skin through the use of proteins and their amino
acids. Healing process is delayed when there are inadequate amounts of protein or diets high in
poor-quality proteins, such as gelatin are present. Whey proteins comprises of good quality proteins
and are therefore often recommended by physicians after any surgery or burn therapy (Gupta et al.,
2012 [4]).
5. Therapeutic Applications of Fermented Whey
The therapeutic potential and functional properties of milk whey can be improved through
fermentation (Yang and Silva, 1995 [
]). During fermentation by probiotic bacteria, the percentage
of essential and digestible amino acids increases to a marked level, thus making these fermented
dairy products ideal nutritional supplements for diarrhea and other conditions (Hitchins and Mc
Donough, 1989 [
]). Various compounds including flavouring compounds and acids are produced
due to the metabolic activity of these microorganisms. This also increases their palatability and
consumer acceptability as compared to non-fermented products. The organic acids produced during
the fermentation possess great health benefits. These organic acids comprise of short-chain fatty acids
such as acetic, citric and lactic acid produced during the fermentation of protein and carbohydrate
components. The organic acids possess antimicrobial properties particularly against E. coli in the
intestine. The organic acids helps to lower the pH of the intestine that helps in the secretion of bile
juices, absorption of nutrients and also reduce the concentration of pathogenic microglora in the gut.
The SCFA is used in the colon to promote water and electrolyte absorption for diarrhoea treatment
(Desjeux, 2000 [64]).
In a study in rats it was also reported that dietary calcium, preferably as calcium phosphate,
also selectively favours the growth of intestinal lactobacilli and decreases the severity of Salmonella
infections (Bovee-Oudenhoven et al., 1999 [65]).
In a study, Lactobacillus acidophilus subsp. johnsonii (La1) has been shown to effectively suppress
the growth of Helicobacter pylori
in vitro
. The results were confirmed by conducting a hydrogen breath
test. The whey-drink based on L. acidophilus (johnsonii) culture was given to some volunteers and a
marked decrease in test values was observed (Michetti, 1999 [66]).
Beverages 2017,3, 31 10 of 14
6. Whey-Based Probiotic Products
During recent years there has been great awareness about the consumption of dairy products
amongst the consumers worldwide. Dairy products containing probiotic bacteria of selected strains
preferably belonging from the group of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. are generally
preferable. Fermented dairy products such as whey have a greater consumer appeal as they are
nutritious, thirst-quenching, less acidic and low in calories. Since dairy products are highly perishable
they are susceptible to microbial spoilage during storage. Nowadays, liquid whey is therefore
concentrated by spray drying or by evaporation, ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis thereby increasing
their shelf life.
Besides, these whey drinks are further fortified with the friendly probiotic bacteria for their health
promoting properties, and provide unique texture and flavor to them. Some whey-based probiotic
products available in the market are Yakult and Sofyl (manufactured by Yakult), Chamyto (by Nestlé),
Activia, Actimel, Danito (by Danone), Vigor-Club (by Vigor) (Katz, 2001 [67]).
The most common method of producing whey drinks is to remove excess of whey during cheese
manufacturing process. The liquid whey is then filtered, pasteurized and fermented with the desired
probiotic strain. It has been commonly observed that sweet whey (prepared after coagulation with
rennet) is tastier than acid whey. The whey obtained through this process is clearer and is thus not
sedimented during long term storage. This is called deproteinised whey. Such whey drinks can also be
easily carbonated similar to soft drinks due to their low viscosity. (Wilson and Temple, 2004 [68]).
In a study, when a whey based beverages fortified with probiotic culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus
was administered to diarrheal children, positive results were reported (Goyal and Gandhi, 2008 [69]).
It is necessary that the whey based beverages should be fortified with only specific viable probiotic
strain(s) in sufficient numbers and scientifically validated with appropriate labeling in order to ensure
therapeutic results (Reid et al, 2006 [70]).
7. Conclusions
From the above discussion, it is imperative that milk whey possess tremendous therapeutic
properties such as antimicrobial, anticancer, immune-enhancer, prebiotic property, anti-inflammatory,
cardiovascular, gastro-intestinal health, physical strength, obesity control and weight-management,
HIV, diabetes, appetite suppression, ageing, and wound healing. There are several whey-based
probiotic products available in the market today that can serve as attractive health-promoting food
supplements. Kefir, yogurts, frozen yogurts and desserts are all well-known examples.
The authors greatly acknowledge and thank respected Founder President Ashok K. Chauhan,
and Atul Chauhan, Chancellor, Amity University UP, Noida, India, for their constant motivation, support and,
research facilities.
Author Contributions:
Charu Gupta has contributed towards data collection, drafting and compiling of the
manuscript while Dhan Prakash has critically reviewed the manuscript for its accuracy and completeness.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Appendix A
Table A1. Nutrient content of cheese whey types (dry matter basis).
Nutrient Content Sweet Whey (%) Whey Permeate (%)
Total nitrogen (TN) 1.30 0.26
Non-protein nitrogen (NPN) 0.34 0.24
Calcium 0.058 0.055
Phosphorus 0.052 0.045
Net energy lactation (Mcal/lb) 0.90 0.85
Total digestible energy (Mcal/lb)
1.86 1.7
Beverages 2017,3, 31 11 of 14
Table A2. Whey Characteristics.
Characteristics Chemical Composition Sweet Whey Whey Permeate
Specific gravity (kg/L) 1.025 1.030
pH 6.40 6.55
Titrable acidity 0.05 0.089
Water (%) 91.95 94.45
Dry matter (DM%) 8.05 5.55
- Solid not fat (SNF%) 7.55 5.55
- Fat (%) 0.50 0.00
Crude protein (CP%) 1.10 0.25
Soluble carbohydrates (%) 5.20 4.90
Total ash (%) 0.52 0.50
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(CC BY) license (
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... In addition to essential nutrients, fermented whey includes a wide range of natural bioactive chemicals such as lactalbumin, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, lysozyme, EGF, and TGF [58]. A milk-derived whey protein concentrate rich in TGF has been developed by the food industry to stabilize epithelial barrier function and protect the intestinal barrier from inflammatory damage in infants and children [59]. ...
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Numerous studies have shown a link between the consumption of fermented dairy foods and improved health outcomes. Since the early 2000s, especially probiotic-based fermented functional foods, have had a revival in popularity, mostly as a consequence of claims made about their health benefits. Among them, fermented dairy foods have been associated with obesity prevention and in other conditions such as chronic diarrhea, hypersensitivity, irritable bowel syndrome, Heli-cobacter pylori infection, lactose intolerance, and gastroenteritis which all are intimately linked with an unhealthy way of life. A malfunctioning inflammatory response may affect the intestinal epithe-lial barrier's ability to function by interfering with the normal metabolic processes. In this regard, several studies have shown that fermented dairy probiotics products improve human health by stimulating the growth of good bacteria in the gut at the same time increasing the production of metabolic byproducts. The fermented functional food matrix around probiotic bacteria plays an important role in the survival of these strains by buffering and protecting them from intestinal conditions such as low pH, bile acids, and other harsh conditions. On average, cultured dairy products included higher concentrations of lactic acid bacteria, with some products having as much as 10 9 /mL or g. The focus of this review is on fermented dairy foods and associated probiotic products and their mechanisms of action, including their impact on microbiota and regulation of the immune system. First, we discussed whey and whey-based fermented products, as well as the organisms associated with them. Followed by the role of probiotics, fermented-product-mediated modulation of dendritic cells, natural killer cells, neutrophils, cytokines, immunoglobulins, and reinforcement of gut barrier functions through tight junction. In turn, providing the ample evidence that supports their benefits for gastrointestinal health and related disorders.
... Milk whey is a by-product of the dairy industry with high nutritional values and represents an important source of functional compounds, such as antifungal peptides. Milk whey is also an optimum substrate for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation (Gupta and Prakash, 2017). Therefore, pumpkin and milk whey have been recently proposed as excellent bio-preservative candidates in food production (Sharma et al., 2020;Escrivá et al., 2021). ...
Food and feed are daily exposed to mycotoxin contamination which effects may be counteracted by functional compounds like carotenoids and fermented whey. Among mycotoxins, the most toxic and studied are aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA), which neurotoxicity is not well reported. Therefore, SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells ongoing differentiation were exposed during 7 days to digested bread extracts contained pumpkin and fermented whey, individually and in combination, along with AFB1 and OTA and their combination, in order to evaluate their presumed effects on neuronal differentiation. The immunofluorescence analysis of βIII-tubulin and dopamine markers pointed to OTA as the most damaging treatment for cell differentiation. Cell cycle analysis reported the highest significant differences for OTA-contained bread compared to the control in phase G0/G1. Lastly, RNA extraction was performed and gene expression was analyzed by qPCR. The selected genes were related to neuronal differentiation and cell cycle. The addition of functional ingredients in breads not only enhancing the expression of neuronal markers, but also induced an overall improvement of gene expression compromised by mycotoxins activity. These data confirm that in vitro neuronal differentiation may be impaired by AFB1 and OTA-exposure, which could be modulated by bioactive compounds naturally found in diet.
... 25,26 Whey protein, a significant milk protein, which includes several unique components such as lactoferrin, alpha-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, and sphingolipid has anti-microbial and anti-viral effects and a wide spectrum of effects on boosting the immune system. 27 In one study, whey protein increased natural inflammatory response in the process of ulcer healing among rats. Also, this substance decreased malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). ...
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Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a very serious side effect among the diabetic patients with substantial clinical and economic consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of cows’ milk topical ointment, as an available and cost-effective natural product, on accelerating the healing of DFU. In this randomized controlled clinical trial, patients with grade 1 or 2 DFU were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (n = 50) and control (n = 49). For patients of intervention group, cows’ milk 20% topical ointment was applied on the ulcer once daily for two weeks, while a type of novel dressing was used for control group with the same frequency and duration. Both groups received usual standard wound care measures. The percentage of change in the ulcer size and the number of cases with complete wound healing (>90% reduction in the ulcer size) were recorded in the both groups. The ulcer size significantly reduced in both groups on the seventh and 14 th days of intervention; however, the percentage of reduction was significantly higher in the intervention (milk) group compared to control at both time points (44.64 ± 15.98 vs. 24.95 ± 12.78, P < .001; 67.67 ± 22.15 vs. 42.87 ± 19.74, P < .001). Furthermore, although more patients in the intervention group (n = 4, 8%) showed complete healing of the ulcer compared to control (n = 0), the difference was not statistically significant ( P = .117). Cow's milk 20% topical ointment improves and accelerates the healing of diabetic foot ulcers. However, more clinical studies are required to confirm these effects.
... Antimicrobial and antiviral activities of whey-derived bioactive components boost immunological defense and bone health, increase antioxidative activity, protect against cancer and cardiovascular disease, and improve the performance of physically active persons, among other advantages (Bulut and Akın, 2012;Gupta and Prakash, 2017). The purpose here to address scientific elements of the health advantages of whey proteins and to evaluate some of the most important study findings linked with them yet. ...
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Milk proteins have been studied extensively for several years. In recent decades, technological breakthroughs have allowed us to gain a better grasp of this complicated protein system. Proteomics and related developments make it possible to learn more about milk proteins. Milk proteins can be detected, identified, and characterized using proteomics. The first section of this report includes an overview of the primary techniques utilised in proteomic methodology. We examine current proteomics applications to milk proteins in the second section. Finally, we highlight the value of gel electrophoresis (two-dimensional) in conjunction with numerous mass spectrometry methods for the accurate characterization of milk proteins.
... The protein fraction of bovine milk contains about 95 percent of six major milk proteins: four caseins (alpha S1 -casein (αs1-CN), beta-casein (β-CN), alpha S2 -casein (αs2-CN), kappa-casein (κ-CN) and two whey proteins: α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) (11). Beta-Lactoglobulinmakes up approximately 10 percent of the total milk protein and contains about 50 percent of the total whey protein (14,15,16]. The primary structure of β-LG was established by Braunitzer et al. (17) and its reference protein is β-LG B and it contains 162 amino acids residues with a molecular weight of 18,277 Daltons and is coded by the LGB gene [14,15]. ...
The dairy cattle breeding programs have been focused on the use of molecular genetics techniques to identify specific DNA markers that associate with economically important traits; these markers have been used to supplement conventional breeding methods and has resulted in the selection of young animals for future breeding stock as well as enhanced production. The present study was designed to identify the most common genetic variants of beta lactoglobulin gene and assess their significant effects on milk traits in Friesian X Buanji cows. The polymorphism of β-lactoglobulin geneswas detected via Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) in 30 Friesian X Bunaji cows. Two SNPs LGB_64 and LGB_118 at position 103303475 and 103304757 of the beta-lactoglobulin gene locus were genotyped. The results of this study revealed that the 30 Friesian X Bunaji cows were polymorphic and had two alleles A and B with frequencies of 68.3 and 31.7 percent respectively; allele B occurred more frequent than A. In addition, three genotypes homozygote AA(2 cows), heterozygote AB (15 cows), and homozygote BB (13 cows) were found with frequencies of 6.7, 50.0 and 43.3 percent respectively. The most frequent genotype was AB (50.0 percent) followed by BB (43.3 percent), while the least common was AA (6.9 percent). Furthermore, the β-LG genotypes (AA, AB, and BB) significantly affected daily milk yield (P˂0.01), and content of milk fat (P˂0.05). It might be concluded that in the Friesian X Bunaji cows the β-lactoglobulin may be documented as genetic marker in selection programs to enhanced milk production traits in dairy cattle.
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Probiotics are live microorganisms present in naturally fermented food products, and also added to other products as supplements to improve the hosts' health and microbial balance. Bacteria are considered as probiotics based on selection criteria that include the ability to survive the transition through the gastrointestinal tract conditions (pH and bile salt concentration), adhesion to the intestinal epithelium, auto-aggregation, and antibiotic resistance. The industrial properties of probiotic bacteria associated with their incorporation into food products are essential for the application of probiotic cultures in the development of functional foods. Probiotic bacteria must survive industrial applications, grow adequately in food products during their shelf life, and be technologically suitable for their incorporation into foods products so that they retain viability and efficacy. The antimicrobial activity of probiotic bacterial strains against foodborne pathogenic bacteria may also be a characteristic parameter for probiotics to be included in the composition of probiotic preparations and probiotic foods. This review discusses the in vitro and industrial properties of bacteria isolated from a variety of fermented food products.
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An increasing interest is being focused on whey proteins and its products particularly as functional ingredients in food and pharmaceutical applications and as nutrients in dietetic supplements and health foods. It is obtained from cheese whey that was considered as waste material. The biological components of whey, including lactoferrin, beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, glycomacropeptide and immunoglobulins, demonstrate a range of immune-enhancing properties. In addition, whey has the ability to act as an antioxidant, antihypertensive, antitumor, hypolipidemic, antiviral, antibacterial and chelating agent. The nutritional value of this product as animal feed has already been appreciated for a long time. The demand for whey products have increased faster in the food as well as in the feed sector and forecasts indicate that human applications of whey (products) may surpass the utilization of other nutraceuticals in the near future. In the present article, an attempt has been made to provide an insight view on the use of whey proteins as a com15-16plete bioceutical.
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Whey, that amazing solution, was considered in the past as a waste byproduct. Recently, scientists had discovered that whey have powerful components; which are whey proteins. Nutritional value of whey proteins had been recognized many years ago. Whey proteins have different fractions, some of them are in large concentration like (β-lactoglobulin, α- lactalbumin, serum albumin, immunoglobulins and glycomacropeptide) and others are in low concentration, such as (lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, lysozyme and proteose peptone component. Now a days, consumers become more aware of interest, nutritious, healthy foods, has driven much of the research into the healthful effects of whey protein and whey fractions. Whey proteins are magic, potent, promise and active components, which have many various nutritional and therapeutic benefits that encourage to search about them and collect the researches in a review paper to be a guide for all the requires and students. This review is focused on whey protein, its fractions and the therapeutic effect and their application in food processing and pharmaceutical field.
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A perfusion reversed phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method was carried out for the rapid separation and quantitative determination of immunoglobulins (Igs) from ultrafiltration retentate of sweet whey, using Hypersill column. The elution profile of whey Igs showed the presence of three classes of Igs namely, IgG, IgM and IgA. The highest Igs content was found for IgG, while the lowest was for IgA. Considerable differences were found in the classes and total Igs of different samples of UF retentate of sweet whey.
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Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein member of the Transferrin (TF) family which present in milk, other exocrine secretions and neutrophil granules in mammals, it is highly conserved among human and other mammals' species. First identified in milk as the red milk protein due to its iron content, LF has since attracted much interest over the past fifty years. LF is considered to be an important host defense molecule and has a diverse range of physiological functions such as antimicrobial/antiviral activities, immunomodulatory activity and antioxidant activity. During the past decade, it has become evident that oral administration of LF exerts several beneficial effects on the health of humans and animals, including anti-infective, anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects. This has enlarged the application potential of LF as a food additive. The technology of producing bovine LF on a large scale was established over 20 years ago. This review summarizes our current understanding of the properties of physico-chemical of LF, physiological functions and technological characteristics as well as nutritional and applications relationships that explain the roles of LF in host defense.
Beverages are consumed in every human culture and, as a major part of the new diet of affluence, can either enhance our health or be the cause of acute and chronic diseases. In Beverages in Nutrition and Health, an international panel of renowned authors-drawn from universities, research institutions, industry, and public advocacy and health care organizations-comprehensively reviews how the beverages we drink affect our health and nutrition. The authors discuss the health effects of a wide range of popular beverages, including alcohol, wine, fruit and vegetable juices, coffee and tea, chocolate, milk and milk products, weight management beverages, and soft drinks. Among the topics of major current interest considered are the beneficial effects of wine, the harmful interactions of citrus juices with prescription drugs, tomato juice as an anticancer agent, the benefits of herbal teas, probiotic organisms in dairy and fermented dairy products, the value of sports beverages, the risks associated with the consumption of soft drinks, and the quality and content of bottled water. Additional chapters detail the regulation of both beverage content and the marketing practices used to promote their consumption. Comprehensive and authoritative, Beverages in Nutrition and Health offers food scientists, nutritionists, public health specialists, and those involved in the research and development of new beverages an exhaustive survey of how common beverages impact our health and nutrition, as well as a basis for research designed to produce healthier beverages.
Mammalian colostrum offers passive protection to the newborn against a variety of microbial pathogens, in the form of specific immunoglobulin A, G and M antibodies. Sharing maternal immunological memory is in many cases vital for the infant, but may have disastrous consequences, such as involuntary transfer of disease and disturbance of the developing immune system. In most published studies, immune milk preparations are reported to be effective in the prevention of various gastroenteric infections, but not in the treatment of an established infection. Curr Opin Infect Dis 14:295-300. (C) 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
We have shown recently that dietary calcium phosphate (CaPi) has a trophic effect on the intestinal microflora and strongly protects against salmonella infection. It was speculated that precipitation by CaPi of intestinal surfactants, such as bile acids and fatty acids, reduced the cytotoxicity of intestinal contents and favored growth of the microflora, Because lactobacilli may have antagonistic activity against pathogens, the main purpose of the present study was to examine whether this CaPi-induced protection coincides with a reinforcement of the endogenous lactobacilli. In vitro, Salmonella enteritidis appeared to be insensitive to bile acids and fatty acids, whereas Lactobacillus acidophilus was killed by physiologically relevant concentrations of these surfactants. Additionally, after adaptation to a purified diet differing only in CaPi concentration (20 and 180 mmol CaHPO4. 2H(2)O/kg), rats (n = 8) were orally infected with S. enteritidis. Besides reducing the cytotoxicity and the concentration of bile acids and fatty acids of ileal contents and fecal water, CaPi notably changed the composition of ileal bile acids in a less cell-damaging direction. Significantly greater numbers of ileal and fecal lactobacilli were detected in noninfected, CaPi-supplemented rats. As judged by the lower urinary NOx excretion, which is a biomarker of intestinal bacterial translocation, dietary CaPi reduced the invasion of salmonella, Additionally, the colonization resistance was improved considering the reduction of excreted fecal salmonella. In accordance, fewer viable salmonella were detected in ileal contents and on the ileal mucosa in the CaPi group. In conclusion, reducing the intestinal surfactant concentration by dietary CaPi strengthens the endogenous lactobacilli and increases the resistance to salmonella.
Dairy products are associated with numerous health benefits. They are good source of nutrients like carbohydrates, protein (bioactive peptides), lipids, minerals and vitamins which are essential for growth, development and maintenance of the human body. Accordingly, dairy bioactive peptides are one of targeted compounds present in different dairy products. Dairy bioactive compounds can be classified as anti-hypertensive, anti-oxidative, immmunomodulant, anti-mutagenic, anti-microbial, opoid, anti-thrombotic, anti-obesity and mineral-binding agents depending upon biological functions. These bioactive peptides can easily be produced by enzymatic hydrolysis, during fermentation and gastrointestinal digestion. For the reason, fermented dairy products like yogurt, cheese and sour milk are gaining popularity worldwide and considered excellent sources of dairy peptides. Furthermore, fermented and non-fermented dairy products are associated with lower risks of hypertension, coagulopathy, stroke and cancer insurgences. The current review article is an attempt to disseminate general information about dairy peptides and their health claims to scientists, allied stakeholders and certainly readers.
Colostrum accounts for approximately 0.5% of a cow's annual output and must be withheld from the calf, then milked, collected, processed and marketed separately from milk. For animals and humans, colostrum is generally sold to end users with health claims attached and seriously addressing who benefits from taking a particular colostrum product, how and why, is complex. Profitable production and use of bovine colostrum therefore creates new demands right through a unique dairy value chain where margins must be greater than for typical dairy products. Colostrum demand is growing from promotion and consumer acceptance of health benefits for humans in taking a natural product rich in bioactive components. As the market develops, retention of high margins will depend upon logistic efficiencies linked to the relative competitiveness of seasonal and year round dairying practices and on differentiation arising from research confirming health benefits and linking those to enhanced processes or formulations of colostrum.