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Abstract

‘A thoughtful study of the importance of language choice for making scholarly findings known to the world.’ — Dr Florian Coulmas, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany This book presents a sociolinguistics of academic publishing from an historical and contemporary perspective. Using Swedish academia as a case study, it focuses on publishing practices within history and psychology. The author demonstrates how new regimes of research evaluation and performance-based funding are impinging on university life. His central argument, following the French sociologist Bourdieu, is that the trend towards publishing in English should be understood as a social strategy, developed in response to such transformations. Thought-provoking and challenging, this book will interest students and scholars of sociolinguistics, language planning and language policy, research policy, sociology of science, history and psychology.

Chapters (6)

Worldwide, academic values and practices are currently undergoing a process of profound transformation, driven by new forms of global competitiveness, as well as new notions of accountability , productivity, and knowledge dissemination. This chapter introduces this issue and explicates its sociolinguistic relevance. It then introduces the question of language choice in publishing in Swedish academia. It reviews scholarly literature related to this topic and highlights the structure–agency opposition that runs throughout this type of work. Secondly, the chapter presents Bourdieu’s stance on language choice. Bourdieu’s position demands that attention is paid to the values circulating in different disciplinary fields. In this light, the chapter discusses disciplinary variations in publishing language practices and accounts for these differences in terms of Bourdieu’s sociology of science.
This chapter introduces the principles of Bourdieu’s relational sociology of science . The scientific field is depicted as a locus of struggle between agents with differing symbolic and material assets. This chapter accounts conceptually for the interests, strategies, and investments of those who act in scientific fields: Homo Academicus. It also makes salient the struggles between newcomers and dominant agents as a key facet of scientific fields. It is proposed that understanding language choice entails understanding discipline-specific values. Bourdieu’s idea of ‘relational thinking’ brings forth the understanding that discipline-specific values have two modes of existence: in disciplinary fields and in field agents—that is, researchers. The chapter explicates how this conception is translated into the study’s design and provides information on the study’s procedure and dataset.
This chapter presents the first part of the empirical material drawn on in this book: historical data. It presents a historical sociolinguistics of science from the viewpoint of Swedish academic life. It begins by providing a broad historical description of language use in the early days of Swedish academic life. Subsequently, a more detailed account of publishing language is presented through the histories of two disciplinary fields: history and psychology. It is shown that Swedish dominated the historical field from the time it established itself as an autonomous field in its own right. The field of psychology , for the most part, used Swedish in publishing up until the post-war era, when English swiftly gained currency as the language used for written scientific production.
This chapter accounts for patterns in contemporary language use in publishing and focuses particularly on the effects of neoliberal research policies, which impinge upon the contemporary university field. This is done with a view to foregrounding recent trends in research management that define the preconditions for publishing practices in Swedish academia, such as an increased focus on internationalization and accountability . The chapter outlines a number of sociolinguistic consequences that arise from contemporary research policies, and the measures used to enforce this vision. The chapter points to some of the ways in which performance-based evaluation on the basis of publication and citation measures is used as an instrument in the distribution of research funding, and argues that this managerial regime is unfavorable for Swedish-language publishing practices.
This chapter presents the second part of the empirical material drawn on in this book: interview data. It presents interview accounts from professors and doctors in the two disciplinary fields of history and psychology. The chapter shows that the professors of each field behave academically in ways which align with the values of their respective fields, and that the investment strategies of the doctor of psychology are akin to those the professor of his field. The doctor of history, however, behaves and reasons in ways that differ from the professor of his field. The chapter interprets this nonalignment as a manifestation of changing dispositions and practices among junior scholars of the historical field , for whom publishing in English is a way of asserting their difference.
This chapter discusses both sets of empirical data presented thus far. It discusses convergences and divergences between the two fields studied by foregrounding two axes of relationships. The first relationship pertains to disciplinary differences between the two fields, while the second relationship pertains to the hierarchies in each field that manifest as a difference between dominant agents and newcomers . It is argued that the managerial structures imposed upon the university field affect the two fields differently. The field of history , owing to externally imposed values, faces obstacles set up by contemporary research policies. However, within the field, young historians can harness these changes and subvert them through strategically publishing in English. As such, in history publishing in English reflects a new scientific habitus.
... As sites of struggles, fields appear in Bourdieu's analyses as 'structured spaces of positions' (Bourdieu, 1993:72). Core examples of such social spaces include literature (Bourdieu, 1996) or science (Bourdieu, 1988(Bourdieu, , 2004, but the notion of field has merits also in denoting the social worlds constituted by language planning and policy, LPP (Salö, 2014), and by academic disciplines, each characterized by their distinct symbolic capital (Salö, 2017). The notion of capital is inherently relational, in that a capital 'does not exist and function except in relation to a field' (Bourdieu and Wacquant, 1992:101). ...
... From this perspective, human agents are seen as 'historical animals who carry within their bodies acquired sensibilities and categories that are the sedimented products of their past social experiences' (Wacquant, 2009:138). By this logic, for instance, analysts can draw on the foundations of habitus to make the claim that researchers are 'fields made flesh' (Bourdieu, 2004:41), and that, methodologically, they can therefore be studied as a complementary inroad into understanding the capital valorization of different disciplinary fields, as embodied in professors and scholars alike (Salö, 2017). ...
... Consequently, people's choices, actions, practices, and discursive products need to be understood relationally, that is, in conjunction with the fields and the markets in which they act, and the dispositions to action incorporated in people's habitus. By this logic, Salö (2017) attempts to account for language choice in academic publishing by accounting both for the structure and possibilities of different fields and for the ensuing investment strategies of agents acting there; that is, their dispositions toward communicative practices. Since representations are born out of that relation, too (e.g., Wacquant, 1989a:44), language ideological discourses can be taken as the relational outcome of socialized agents acting in the value-imbued social space of fields (e.g., Salö, 2014). ...
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This paper presents Pierre Bourdieu's sociological gaze, agenda and toolkit to scholars of language, so as to offer a social theoretical framework within which sociolinguistic questions can be fruitfully investigated. It outlines Bourdieu's dual conception of social life and presents the key thinking tools-field and habitus-with which this dualism can be explored empirically. In addition, it locates work produced at the nexus of sociolinguistics and linguistic anthropology where Bourdieusian insights have been productively employed. It also discusses Bourdieu's reputation as a macro theorist, and argues that this image must be supplemented with an understanding of his idea that social reality also has a mode of existence in people's bodies, habitus, and practices. The paper argues that Bourdieu's gaze and thinking tools import with them a solid social theoretical base of the comprehension of human practice, including linguistic practice, which therefore offers some purchase to account for the relationship between the market side of language and its embodied manifestations.
... The "loss" part of the concept consequently refers to the national Nordic language being replaced by English in such "at risk" domains, primarily academia and multinational corporations. Domain loss as a concept has attracted its fair share of criticism (Hultgren 2013;Preisler 2009;Haberland 2005), often on the grounds of being too imprecise and crude and for disregarding the fact that "domains" are far from monolithic constructs but are made up of a range of activities, such as disseminating research to a variety of audiences, collaborating with colleagues within and outside the department, meetings and other administration activities, each of which is associated with their own patterns of language choice (Salö 2017). Garcia (2009) argues that in bi/multilingual situations, languages are constantly negotiated in a way that the construct of "domains" is made irrelevant in these contexts. ...
... In between these two extremes come, in descending order, making up one's own translation in the local language, explaining what is meant using other words, commenting explicitly on the lack of existing local language terminology, and, finally, other options. This reported behaviour seems to be largely in line with actual behaviour as observed at the internationalised Nordic universities (Salö 2017). ...
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In the context of an ongoing Englishization of higher education in the Nordic countries, much of the language policy discourse has centred on the notion of "domain loss", a di?use and under-defned concept based on the idea that English encroaches on the status and functionality of the national languages. In response to such concerns, "parallel language use" has been launched as a language policy concept to ensure the continued use and functionality of the national languages. In such language policy debates, however, the voices of the scientists themselves are rarely heard, which prompts questions about the extent to which alarmist discourses about threats to national languages have any purchase among the key stakeholders in this domain, i.e. The scientists themselves. Within a theoretical framework of critical language policy, this study investigates the attitudes to Englishization among Nordic scientists, and reports on the fndings from a questionnaire of over 200 physicists, chemists and computer scientists working at universities in Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland. The overarching aim is to investigate if concerns about "domain loss", operationalised here as a lack of national language scientifc terminology, are replicated by scientists. Findings suggest that Nordic scientists do believe that local language terminology is missing, but the extent to which they fnd this problematic is less clear. Some possible reasons for this apparent lack of concern among scientists compared to other participants in the debate are discussed, as are the implications for language policy.
... The "loss" part of the concept consequently refers to the national Nordic language being replaced by English in such "at risk" domains, primarily academia and multinational corporations. Domain loss as a concept has attracted its fair share of criticism (Hultgren 2013;Preisler 2009;Haberland 2005), often on the grounds of being too imprecise and crude and for disregarding the fact that "domains" are far from monolithic constructs but are made up of a range of activities, such as disseminating research to a variety of audiences, collaborating with colleagues within and outside the department, meetings and other administration activities, each of which is associated with their own patterns of language choice (Salö 2017). Garcia (2009) argues that in bi/multilingual situations, languages are constantly negotiated in a way that the construct of "domains" is made irrelevant in these contexts. ...
... In between these two extremes come, in descending order, making up one's own translation in the local language, explaining what is meant using other words, commenting explicitly on the lack of existing local language terminology, and, finally, other options. This reported behaviour seems to be largely in line with actual behaviour as observed at the internationalised Nordic universities (Salö 2017). ...
Conference Paper
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The risk of overgeneralising the speech behaviour of men and women and of reinforcing gender stereotypes led to a postmodern turn in Language and Gender research away from an essentialist understanding of gender, whether the framework was one of dominance or difference. Where current trends assume that gender does not exist pre-discursively, but is produced and negotiated in discourse, I will argue that as long as gender is a binary reality to most people, research in Language and Gender needs to be anchored in those beliefs. I will argue that, while not supplanting approaches that capture the nuances of gender, there should be scope within Language and Gender research for treating gender as a pre-discursive variable and that there are scientific, political and moral reasons for doing so. By way of illustration I have chosen the method of ?Correlational Sociolinguistics? to examine whether the use of selected interactional variables correlates with the demographic variable ?sex?. The method will be employed to data consisting of 78 customer service transactions collected from a British call centre. Call centres are places, like most others, where beliefs about what men and women are ?naturally? good at flourish. Cameron (2000), for instance, has shown that the speech style required of call centre workers orients to what can be described as an ideal ?women?s language? and there is indication that those who recruit to the call centre industry believe that women are more suited for carrying out the job. Since call centre jobs are low in status and prestige and high in staff turnover and absenteeism, these beliefs, if left uninvestigated and possibly refuted, will feed into a gender order that subordinates women.
... Consequently, newcomers who do not learn the language are faced with two possibilities-they can either accept the values, beliefs, perceptions, and decisions of the dominant symbolic order in society, which Bourdieu (1991) refers to as "symbolic violence," or they can work to change the existing symbolic order, for example, through confrontation or disorder (Hilgers & Mangez, 2015). That is, newcomers may begin to challenge and question the unequal distributions of different kinds of capital to their benefit by suggesting unconventional notions about how to deal with political, social, and economic issues or by reorienting their day-to-day life practices to include adhering to or resisting the norms and conventions of the host country (Salö, 2017;De Clercq & Voronov, 2009). For Syrian refugees, it's not only a matter of learning a new language and readapting to a completely new way of life but also having to deal with the idea that Islam usually goes against modernity. ...
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Framed by Bourdieu’s work, this article focuses on the intersections between language learning experiences, capital, and identities of Syrian refugees now living in Regina, Saskatchewan. In this qualitative study, data were collected during a series of focus groups with Syrian women and men. Based on the study findings, we contend that the participants’ multiple identities as hard-working, employed, independent, Muslim mothers or fathers, and wives or husbands developed in Syria were gradually eroded or altered by the realities they experienced in Canada, yet they had a strong desire to re-establish their identity constructions from back home in the new context. We assert that the loss of their linguistic capital from back home limited their employment prospects, impacted their abilities to form social relationships with native English speakers, and led to a shift in traditional gender roles. It is imperative to adapt language training programs in order to support refugees in re-establishing themselves in their professional fields and daily living activities.
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In recent years, an intense debate in English for research publication purposes (ERPP) has developed around the question of whether linguistic injustice exists or not in academic publishing in English. In this Perspectives piece, I wish to engage in this debate by first situating the terms in which it is being developed, and then pointing out some of its limitations. In doing that, I argue that the view of language that is currently held in the debate seems problematic, and that a more explicit attention to the socially stratified nature of academic publishing seems missing from the debate. Suggesting potential ways forward, I propose that it seems crucial to adopt a view of language that anchors it more firmly as a social phenomenon, inherently connected to its speakers and the socially situated and stratified position that they inhabit. Remembering this is important in order to remain aware of the fact that both linguistic and non-linguistic factors are at play in shaping the uneven nature of academic publishing in English.
Article
Based on quantitative and qualitative data and analyses, this article highlights how research in the discipline of history in Sweden has been affected by imperatives of internationalization in recent decades. Four central dimensions of the internationalization of research are discussed in some depth, based on empirically observable changes in the discipline since 2000: (i) geographical areas of research, (ii) international publications, (iii) international researcher mobility, and (iv) international research funding. It is concluded that for the first two dimensions there has been a significant shift towards more internationalization of research in the Swedish discipline of history since 2000, and particularly since 2010, but for the latter two, internationalization is less prominent, even though the opportunities for international mobility and securing international research funding have increased significantly since 2000. The article also highlights some controversies and debates pertaining to the internationalization of historical research in Sweden and the other Nordic countries. It is concluded that Swedish historians have come a long way in overcoming the methodological nationalism that characterized the discipline for most of the twentieth century, and that they now participate more than ever before on the international frontlines of historical research.
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In this article, I deal with the notion of ‘academic identity’ holistically, seeking to bring together the teacher and researcher roles of academics in the neoliberal university. The article begins from the perspective of early-career academics who occupy the majority of fixed-term, teaching-only contracts in Higher Education, arguing that such casualisation of academic labour entrenches the role of the academic as Homo economicus . Drawing on the work of Foucault, I demonstrate how a neoliberal governmentality is now not only exerted upon academics from without, but increasingly they are subjecting themselves to the logic of efficiency and effectiveness too. The neoliberal governmentality of the university thus influences and shapes academic subjectivities, such that what it means to be an academic is confined to this marketised logic. Despite the pressures placed on academics to ‘produce’ measurable outputs and demonstrate their impact, I argue that moving beyond Homo economicus is possible, arguing instead for a re-claiming of ‘the academic’ as Homo academicus . The idea of Homo academicus can only be supported when three conditions are present: collegiality is afforded greater importance than competition; the discourses of ‘productivity’ and performativity are balanced against simply ‘doing good work well’ (Pirrie in Virtue and the quiet art of scholarship, Routledge, London, 2019), and; academics are mindful to practice the ‘quieter’ intellectual virtues, including the virtue of ‘unknowing’ (Smith in J Philos Educ 50:272–284, 2016).
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There is a lack of objective evaluative standards for academic work. While this has been recognized in studies of how gatekeepers pass judgment on the works of others, little is known about how scholars deal with the uncertainty about how their work will be evaluated by gatekeepers. Building upon 35 interviews with early career academics in political science and history, this paper explores how junior scholars use appraisal devices to navigate this kind of uncertainty. Appraisal devices offer trusted and knowledgeable appraisals through which scholars are informed whether their work and they themselves are good enough to succeed in academia. Investigating how early career academics rely upon appraisals from assessors (i.e., 'academic mentors'), the study adds to existing literature on uncertainty and worth in academic life by drawing attention to how scholars' anticipatory practices are informed by trusting the judgment of others. The empirical analysis demonstrates that early career academics are confronted with multiple and conflicting appraisals that they must interpret and differentiate between. However, the institutional conditions for dealing with uncertainty about what counts in future evaluations , as well as which individuals generally come to function as assessors, differ between political science and history. This has an impact on both valuation practices and socialization structures. Focusing on what I call practices of appraisal devices, the paper provides a conceptual understanding of how scholars cope with uncertainties about their future. Furthermore, it expands existing theory by demonstrating how scholars' self-concept and desired identities are key to the reflexive ways appraisal devices are used in the course of action.
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The chapter explores the lived experience of students with diverse linguistic and educational backgrounds in Swedish higher education through in-depth interviews with three students who migrated to Sweden. Reflections on language ideologies and practices across social spaces in multilingual university settings are discussed. While the students align with the monolingual ideologies of the institution especially with regard to high-stakes tasks, such as assignments, this position is not fixed. The study reveals how various languages can play significant roles for learning in different social spaces. It also highlights the role of previous academic knowledge for the transition into tertiary education irrespective of language codes used. Harnessing the use of some of the translingual learning strategies might support a more inclusive course design.
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This chapter investigates the ways in which various discursive processes within and about Swedish Higher Education (HE) are rendering some value-laden linguistic practices and processes invisible. Previous studies in the field of Language Policy and Panning (LPP) have focused on the ‘internationalisation’ of HE with a pre-occupation for opposing linguistic systems, for example Swedish and English. However, this study reveals how such dualistic thinking can (re)produce essentializing and highly ideologized monolingual and monocultural categories, over-simplifying what is understood by the ‘international’ and ‘national’ in contemporary HE. Drawing on data from an interview-based study carried out in a sciences department at a major Swedish university, this chapter demonstrates the potential in taking a multilingual approach when seeking to better understand the affordances and constraints of internationalization.
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Sámi University of Applied Sciences (SUAS) in Norway is one of few institutions of higher education worldwide that mainly operates in an Indigenous language. According to the institution’s vision, Indigenous peoples’ values stand at the centre, and the Sámi language is heard and read daily. However, as an academic institution operating nationally and internationally, SUAS faces numerous expectations and demands that challenge its vision and language policy. This paper investigates how linguistic choices made for publications reflect SUAS’ vision and the academic communities the institution is a part of. Drawing on policy documents, observation and interviews with staff and students, the paper shows how linguistic choices are influenced by discourses that circulate in different academic communities: local, national, international and Indigenous. It further shows how the language practices are shaped by and occur in the intersection of agency and structure. For the Sámi language to persist and develop, staff must publish in Sámi. Yet, there is a demand – and partly a wish – to also publish in English and Norwegian. The strategy for SUAS’ staff is to maintain a diverse language practice. Additionally, this study indicates that Norwegian national language policies do provide some supportive structures for revitalisation of Sámi.
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This article outlines findings from a case study investigating attitudes toward English as the dominant language of scientific research writing. Survey and interview data were collected from 55 Latin American health and life scientists and 7 North American scientific journal editors connected to an intensive scholarly writing for publication course. Study findings point to competing perceptions (scientists vs. editors) of fairness in the adjudication of Latin American scientists’ research at international scientific journals. Adopting a critical, plurilingual lens, I argue that these findings demand a space for more equity-driven pedagogies, policies, and reflective practices aimed at supporting the robust participation of plurilingual scientists who use English as an additional language (EAL). In particular, if equity is indeed a shared goal, there is a clear need for commitment to ongoing critical self-reflection on the part of scientific journal gatekeepers and research writing support specialists.
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Notions of research quality are contextual in many respects: they vary between fields of research, between review contexts and between policy contexts. Yet, the role of these co-existing notions in research, and in research policy, is poorly understood. In this paper we offer a novel framework to study and understand research quality across three key dimensions. First, we distinguish between quality notions that originate in research fields (Field-type) and in research policy spaces (Space-type). Second, drawing on existing studies, we identify three attributes (often) considered important for ‘good research’: its originality/novelty, plausibility/reliability, and value or usefulness. Third, we identify five different sites where notions of research quality emerge, are contested and institutionalised: researchers themselves, knowledge communities, research organisations, funding agencies and national policy arenas. We argue that the framework helps us understand processes and mechanisms through which ‘good research’ is recognised as well as tensions arising from the co-existence of (potentially) conflicting quality notions.
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The article examines the introduction of English as a corporate language in a Danish consultancy company from a critical angle. Based on analyses of language policy documents and interviews with language policy makers in the company, we investigate the underlying assumptions of the policy-making process, and explore how the language policy functions as a means of exerting power beyond the domain of language. The article shows how the language policy is heavily influenced by the language ideology of English as the natural language in global business as well as by neoliberal ideals of international expansion. Drawing on the notion of language commodification, the article investigates how the language policy reconfigures the social space of the organisation. The analysis shows that while the language policy aims to change the company culture towards a more ‘global mindset’, it also effects social change by legitimising certain types of employees while marginalising others. (Language policy, social change, English as a corporate language, language ideologies, linguistic market, language commodification)*
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More parallel, please is the result of the work of an Inter-Nordic group of experts on language policy financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers 2014-17. The book presents all that is needed to plan, practice and revise a university language policy which takes as its point of departure that English may be used in parallel with the various local, in this case Nordic, languages. As such, the book integrates the challenge of internationalization faced by any university with the wish to improve quality in research, education and administration based on the local language(s). There are three layers in the text: First, you may read the extremely brief version of the in total 11 recommendations for best practice. Second, you may acquaint yourself with the extended version of the recommendations and finally, you may study the reasoning behind each of them. At the end of the text, we give some suggestions for further reading in this highly explosive area.
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The purpose of this text is manifold. The primary purpose is to look into the effects of marketization of academia on the reading habits of academics, which also demands a problematization of reading and its role in the process of creating new knowledge. The second purpose is to discuss and problematize the citation as a sign of intellectual debt. And the third, but not least important, purpose is to write a text that demands the reader to read in a manner that is necessary to learn, instead of writing it in a manner that is adapted to promoting "citability". And so of course, what I would like more than anything to teach the reader is that the only possible way forward, the only method of reproducing real scholarship in a commodified setting, is to live it yourself. This way of writing a text is my way of living eal scholarship. If this does not agree with you - don't bother citing me.
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This chapter presents a sociological account of the language ideological representations underpinning discourses about perceived threats from English in Sweden. The objective is to contextualize the conceptual history of “domain loss” within Sweden’s field of language planning, in conjunction with crossing discourses about minority languages and EU membership. With Bourdieu, the safeguarding of Swedish is comprehended as linked to struggles where the role of the nation-state is set in flux, opening up linguistic markets beyond its control. As a product of the relation between agents’ habitus and the field, domain loss has served to legitimize discourses about the disestablishment of the national language regime, which is interpreted as a strategy to defend the market into which agents have invested capital.
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This paper adopts a Bourdieusian approach to discourse in contemporary Swedish academia. Habitus, entextualization, and translingual practice are employed as epistemological perspectives for investigating the place of Swedish in the text trajectories of two disciplines where English prevails in publishing. Data from meeting recordings, email correspondence, and interviews show that Swedish is the legitimate language throughout in the text production and that discipline-specific Swedish is practiced so long as it encompasses all participants' repertoires. In fact, the researchers point to an almost physical awkwardness linked to the unwarranted use of English among themselves. Following Bourdieu, it is argued that these sensibilities pertain to the linguistic sense of placement of socialized agents and that the unease of being out of place prevents them from lapsing into what is socially perceived as unacceptable discourse in their translingual practices.
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We investigate the current position of English in the language ecology of Swedish academia, with a special focus on the humanities. Semi-structured interviews with 15 informants from the fields of Anthropology, General Linguistics and History were carried out to explore how non-native speakers of English experience using academic English in their research. In contrast to other recent findings, our study shows that while some differences along disciplinary lines emerged, on the whole, English does not pose a significant challenge for scholars when writing for publication. Furthermore, our informants do not perceive themselves to be disadvantaged by their non-native status. The study casts some doubt on Swales’ well-known dinosaur metaphor; while English does indeed dominate in the sphere of international publication in terms of production, multilingual research practices are evident within the research and publication process.
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Denna studie har till uppgift att undersöka hur i synnerhet biblio- metriska indikatorer har kommit till bruk i lärosätenas interna resurstill- delning. Eftersom resurstilldelningen påverkar lärosätenas budgetar och lärosätena får ökade resurser när dess forskare presterar enligt deras inrikt- ningar, så vore det inte förvånande om tekniker att fördela efter biblio- metrisk prestation också kommer att utnyttjas i lärosätenas interna fördel- ning ner på fakultets-, institutions- och kanske till och med individnivå. Då det inte finns någon översikt över detta fenomen som täcker flera läro- säten och som dessutom går på djupet genom att undersöka dess effekter på olika nivåer inom lärosätena så utgör detta arbete en första ansats att fastställa i vilken mån lärosätena faktiskt har anammat bibliometriska indikatorer och hur detta har gått till. Syftet med denna studie är att skapa en översikt över prestationsbase- rade modeller för resurstilldelning i vilka en bibliometrisk komponent används vid ett urval svenska lärosäten. Vidare vill vi undersöka på vilken nivå detta sker samt vilka indikatorer och metodiker som används. Slut- ligen vill vi kritiskt diskutera eventuella fallgropar, men också förtjänster som kan framträda när bibliometriska indikatorer kommer i bruk för att mäta prestationer på allt lägre nivå i forskarsamhället.
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The thesis investigates the scientific citation and its various functions in the scientific community and develops it as a tool for research in theory of science, scientometrics and science studies. Through empirical and theoretical studies that utilize both quali-tative and quantitative methods the citation’s history, method, as well as its use in research policy is examined. Through a historical study the thesis shows three stages of development as required for the construction of the citation as an indicator of intrinsic aspects of science. These consisted of a) citations as technology, within the citation index, b) the citation as a research method as theorised within Mertonian sociology of science, and c) the citation as a research subject. Following this the “citation debate” in Science and Technology Studies (STS) is described and analysed, which questions the use of generalized quantitative methods. Inspired by an STS approach a performative model of “the mangle of the citation practice” is developed. This aims to understand the citation existing in a context where researchers, articles and the citation index are mutu-ally creating and recreating each other. The thesis uses the HistCite scientometrics tool to develop a novel methodology that highlights local dynamics of citation prac-tices between scientific authors and texts using a visual approach of identifying patterns of citations in graphic representations of articles and their citation patterns. For this a “citation typology” is created to identify specific patterns and phenomenon in HistCite graphic representations. The last empirical study is of the introduction of quantitatively based performance-based models for funding of research in Norwegian and Swedish research policy 2003-2010 which problematizes the part played by the citation in a research policy setting as “unobtrusive” indicators of scientific practice. The thesis demonstrates the significance of the citation in research through its design as a reflection of the scientific reference, and result of it being constructed – and used – as an indicator of scientific quality. Furthermore, it shows an emerging awareness in the scientific community that quantifiable indicators of scientific achievement – of which the citation is perhaps the main element – has gained a prominent role in both internal and external domains of scientific practice.
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This work aims to introduce the reader to Pierre Bourdieu's theory of fields,to evaluate it critically and, through case studies, to test its implementation in the analysis of new objects. While the use of Bourdieu's concept of the habitus has given rise to countless discussions, the literature strangely remains more silent on the theory of fields, although it lies at the heart of his work. A series published by Editions du Seuil, started and initially edited by Bourdieu, includes a number of monographs that apply the theory of fields;r some journals have devoted whole issues to explicitly mobilizing the theory in order to study specific areas, and a growing number of works make use of it. However, critical discussions that seek to give an account of this theory both in general terms and in particular areas remain rare. The aim of this work is to fill that gap. One of the hypotheses put forward in this book is that the theory of fields constitutes an adequate tool for explaining and understanding the social world but that its use must be rigorously circumscribed and correspond to certain methodological principles.
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Research funding, promotions, and career trajectories are currently increasingly dependent on the emerging economy of publications and citations across the globe. Such an economy encourages scholars to publish in international journals that are indexed in databases such as Scopus and Web of Science. These developments place an increased emphasis on the question of who is allowed to publish in the journals listed there and whose research counts as valuable. Based on bibliographic data from articles submitted to three main journals in the field of adult education research between 2005 and 2012, we scrutinize the extent to which the emerging economy of publications and citations is dependent on national and regional boundaries. Our results show how four Anglophone countries dominate the field in relation to both published articles and the share of most cited articles and where the publication pattern of these authors are national and regional rather than international.
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Contemporary changes in higher education in Sweden are characterised by two educational discourses: marketisation and academisation. Demands to meet market requirements, as well as to make education more scientific, have created tensions between and within institutional cultures. Using interviews with 16 heads of departments, the authors investigate how tensions between marketisation and academisation were handled in discipline-oriented and professional-oriented departments. The heads of discipline-oriented departments experienced marketisation as a threat to the university trademark, because it was seen to challenge academic autonomy. On the other hand, heads of professional-oriented departments felt that academisation was the main issue to be dealt with, as it shifted focus from practical skills towards academic meritocracy. Consequently, it is not possible to discuss these changes without considering that conditions differ substantially across the university. Responses to these changes can be countered by culturally sensitive strategies, rather than by adopting a ‘one size fits all’ approach.
Book
Human language has changed in the age of globalization: no longer tied to stable and resident communities, it moves across the globe, and it changes in the process. The world has become a complex 'web' of villages, towns, neighbourhoods and settlements connected by material and symbolic ties in often unpredictable ways. This phenomenon requires us to revise our understanding of linguistic communication. In The Sociolinguistics of Globalization Jan Blommaert constructs a theory of changing language in a changing society, reconsidering locality, repertoires, competence, history and sociolinguistic inequality. • There is great interest in the issue of globalization and this book will appeal to scholars and students in linguistics, sociolinguistics, applied linguistics and anthropology • Richly illustrated with examples from around the globe • Presents a profound revision of sociolinguistic work in the area of linguistic communication
Chapter
The present chapter attempts to describe the move into what can be called the era of the academic research industry. To write and “produce” more in less time has become a value in itself, rhetorically accompanied by claims that it needs to be “cutting edge” and to achieve excellence. Because research is much like performing arts, the advantages of scale, however, are illusory. The equation of more and better research in less time is hard to achieve because of the inherent logic of creativity in research: the time-consuming activities of experimentation and failure. The overall perils of the industrialization of academic research lie in that these insights, that we need to allow for risk-taking and the acceptance of genuine uncertainty, are buried in all the more elaborate efforts of time and space management that deceptively make us feel as if we are in control. As a consequence of the “slippery-slope” effect, where you do not notice each individual step along the treacherous path, academic researchers more or less tacitly accept these efficiency practices and norms evolving within the research industry, practices that actually may destroy or irrevocably damage necessary preconditions for original research, innovation, and discovery.
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This essay analyses the growth of an “innovation paradigm” in Swedish research policy from the 1990s and analyses how this paradigm is expressed in the government’s recent research policy bill that is currently being implemented. The discussion of the bill highlights some apparent paradoxes. First, the bill uses the notions of basis research and innovation interchangeably. Thus, for example, it proposes to increase the Swedish Research Council’s resources for supporting basic research, but it also demands that the council direct more of its resources to support work that is important for the country’s high-tech industry. Second, the bill strongly emphasises economic as well as academic competition. Scientific and economic competitions are described as if there were no significant difference between the two. The bill assumes, for instance, that the quality of research can be measured by its success on a (publishing) market. The analysis of the bill relies on the notion of performativity. The bill is seen as a performative act aiming simultaneously to change the practices of research and the language in which it is discussed. If the bill’s policies succeed, the paradoxes mentioned above will fade away as traditional research practice disappears.
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This chapter takes at its starting point that an academic scientist or scholar, regardless of discipline, must be to produce knowledge, rather than mere opinion. By virtue of his fulfilling this mission, he also supports and contributes to a form of deliberative dialog, the sine qua non for citizenship in liberal democracies, in which argument on the basis of fact and coherence, rather than rhetorical tricks and powers of persuasion, is decisive. Demands for social relevance and usefulness ought to be seen in light of this mission, rather than in terms of political utility or commercial gain. In this sense, the requirement that the university produce useful knowledge is entirely commensurable with academic freedom, provided that politicians, administrators, and business leaders recognize that they cannot determine what questions ought to be asked or how best to answer them, but leave that matter to scientists and scholars to decide.
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The article presents a constructionist perspective on the emergence of scientific discourse and text genres. In order to give an exemplary picture of the emergence and development of medical written discourse, the dynamic process is discussed in relation to cognitive, social, and societal types of activity. Sociohistorical changes as to text patterns and linguistic expressions of evaluation are related to three scientific stages: the preestablishment stage, the establishing stage and the specialized stage.
Article
This paper will show, on the basis of valid and reasonably representative data, that even in applied linguistics (where it might be expected least of all) the predominance of a single language, English, in international scientific communication excludes contributions from various non-Anglophone quarters and, consequently, contributes to skewed scientific development, especially neglecting Japanese and Chinese, but also French, German, Italian and Russian approaches (because of serious linguistic barriers and refusal to participate in linguistically “unfair” scientific communication, respectively). The paper will also submit proposals on how the situation could be improved and problems be mitigated such as, among others, regular linguistic support offered by publishers and conference organizers.
Article
Författaren analyserar relationen mellan psykologin som vetenskap och filosofi i allmänhet och språkfilosofi i synnerhet. Bl.a. hävdar han att psykologin inte kan vara utan filosofin och ett nära samarbete med denna disciplin om psykologin ska kunna utvecklas som vetenskap.
Article
Given the increased role of bibliometric measures in research evaluation, it is striking that studies of actual changes in research practice are rare. Most studies and comments on 'a metric culture' in academia focus on the ideological and political level, and there is a clear shortage of empirical studies that analyze how researchers handle demands for accountability in context. In adopting a mixed-methods approach involving both bibliometric data and answers form questionnaires, we provide an in-depth study of how researchers at the faculty of Arts at Uppsala University (Sweden) respond to the implementation of performance-based research evaluation systems. Publication patterns from 2006 to 2013 show that journal publications, especially English-language ones, are increasing, and the proportion of peer-reviewed publications has doubled. These changes are in line with the incentives of the evaluation systems under study. Answers to the survey confirm that scholars are conscious about this development, and several respondents articulate a disagreement between disciplinary norms and external demands. However, disciplinary background as well as career stage or academic age appears to have a significant influence on how individual researchers react to the instigation of evaluation systems. Finally, responses to national and local evaluation regimes are complex, localized, and dependent on many factors. In-depth contextualized studies of research practices are needed in order to understand how performance-based funding systems influence academic research on the ground. © 2014 © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: [email protected] /* */
Article
In the last decade, Sweden has emerged on the other side of the 1990s crisis with, if not its self-image intact, then at least a reasserted confidence as, once again, the most modern country in the world. Crisis management in the 1990s seemed to have succeeded. The Swedish bumblebee - the unthinkable animal that flies despite its high taxes and large public sector - flew again. The 'Swedish model' was back after a decade as the punch bag of neoliberalism. Throughout the European centre left - from the debate on the European social model to Segolene Royal and Gordon Brown - Sweden has reemerged as 'Nordic light', proof that a better world is possible. This reappraisal in the eyes of the world has paradoxical consequences in Sweden, since it seems to overwrite the uncertainty and insecurity of crisis with assertion and confidence, while leaving many questions unanswered. It also leads to new definitions of what Sweden is. The paper suggests that Sweden post-1990s suffers from a particular kind of nostalgia, in which the famous Model emerges as a kind of paradise lost with uncertain links both to past and future. While Sweden yet again becomes the utopia of others, it is a kind of future past to itself.
Book
This book reports on almost a decade of ethnographic research on the academic writing and publishing practices of 50 scholars of education and psychology located in central and southern Europe.
Article
Parallel language use has been accepted as the guiding principle for university language policy writers in the Nordic region. However, the extent to which parallel language use reflects the actual publication practices of academics is yet to be established. This study begins to address the gap by investigating the languages used for academic and outreach publication in three departments at a major Swedish university. Questionnaire and database trawl results reveal that English, Swedish and other languages are used for academic and outreach publication, although Swedish dominates in the outreach domain. Furthermore, results derived from semi-structured interviews with 15 informants suggest that language practices are primarily determined by pragmatic forces such as intended audience, publication outlet, topic and genre, rather than by ideological or language-political factors.
Article
The university research environment has been undergoing profound change in recent decades and performance-based research funding systems (PRFSs) are one of the many novelties introduced. This paper seeks to find general lessons in the accumulated experience with PRFSs that can serve to enrich our understanding of how research policy and innovation systems are evolving. The paper also links the PRFS experience with the public management literature, particularly new public management, and understanding of public sector performance evaluation systems. PRFSs were found to be complex, dynamic systems, balancing peer review and metrics, accommodating differences between fields, and involving lengthy consultation with the academic community and transparency in data and results. Although the importance of PRFSs seems based on their distribution of universities’ research funding, this is something of an illusion, and the literature agrees that it is the competition for prestige created by a PRSF that creates powerful incentives within university systems. The literature suggests that under the right circumstances a PRFS will enhance control by professional elites. PRFSs since they aim for excellence, may compromise other important values such as equity or diversity. They will not serve the goal of enhancing the economic relevance of research.
Article
The article is an attempt to set forth the institutional setting for educational research in Sweden after 1945 and to describe the major directions of research. Governmental school committees began in the 1940's to commission research pertaining to the structure of the compulsory school system and to the objectives and content of the curriculum. As part of the school reform and the attempts to facilitate innovations, the first research institute linked with teacher-training was established in the 1950's. Since the beginning of the 1960's, the National Board of Education has maintained a Bureau of Research and Development. Finally, the proper role of the researcher in his relationship to the policy-makers is discussed on the basis of Swedish experiences.
Article
This paper synthesizes research on linguistic practice and critically examines the legacy of Pierre Bourdieu from the perspective of linguistic anthropology. Bourdieu wrote widely about language and linguistics, but his most far reaching engagement with the topic is in his use of linguistic reasoning to elaborate broader sociological concepts including habitus, field, standardization, legitimacy, censorship, and symbolic power. The paper examines and relates habitus and field in detail, tracing the former to the work of Erwin Panofsky and the latter to structuralist discourse semantics. The principles of relative autonomy, boundedness, homology, and embedding apply to fields and their linkage to habitus. Authority, censorship, and euphemism are traced to the field, and symbolic power is related to misrecognition. And last, this chapter relates recent work in linguistic anthropology to practice and indicates lines for future research.
Article
In most countries higher education institutions used to receive large portions of their funding by direct state allocation. For the past couple of decades this trust-based funding regime has been replaced by performance-based regimes. The article rests on the empirical observation that new funding regimes are increasingly becoming a policy instrument that is used to deal with resource allocation in growing higher education systems. It is argued that performance-based funding is used to promote vertical differentiation and functional specialization between institutions while at the same time secure horizontal diversity and pluralism within the system. The sweeping change is orchestrated by governments that are pressed by globalization to provide high-ranking, attractive institutions for hubs of innovation and competitiveness in knowledge-based economies. Advocates can be found among business and competitive universities, whereas reforms cause concern among other academics who perceive a loss of academic freedom and professional status.Higher Education Policy (2007) 20, 413-440. doi:10.1057/palgrave.hep.8300165