Chapter

How Parents Mediate Children's Media Consumption

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Children spend many hours a day consuming a variety of media content using interactive technology in both formal and informal learning environments. The ubiquity of devices has affected family life, making it important to understand how different parental mediation strategies for children's media use positively and negatively impact children's cognitive development. Parental mediation can impact what content a child is exposed to and how they use the technology. Much of the literature on parenting practices correlated with academic and learning outcomes also applies to the digital realm with implications for policy makers and educators. This chapter examines the extant literature on parental mediation with media for children 0–18 years of age. Whenever possible, our focus will be on newer interactive technologies such as the Internet, social media, and videogames; however, when needed, we turn to the literature on television and parenting, as this body of work often applies to newer media and family dynamics.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Studies, which have examined children's home Internet access, found that the lowest level of use is observed when parents adopt an authoritarian parenting style. Furthermore, findings indicate that authoritarian parents are more likely to engage in time restrictions and technological monitoring than parents with other parenting styles (Eastin, Greenberg, & Hofschire, 2006;Uhls & Robb, 2017;Valcke, Bonte, De Wever, & Rots, 2010). ...
... Hwang et al. (2017) found a positive relationship between an authoritative parenting style and the ability of parents to cope with/prevent their child's addiction to a smartphone. Furthermore, findings indicate that authoritative parents are more likely to engage in interpretive mediation and content restrictions through democratic methods (Eastin et al., 2006;Uhls & Robb, 2017). ...
... Their children are usually low-achievers, have communication problems (as a results of lacking belief in themselves and others) and behavioral problems, and tend to be involved in risk behaviors (Maccoby & Martin, 1983;Querido et al., 2002;Weiss & Schwarz, 1996). Regarding technology use, uninvolved parents do not mediate their children's media consumption (Uhls & Robb, 2017). ...
Article
This study examined the level of parental resistance to the use of smartphones in schools, as well as the predictors and the factors underlying parental resistance. Data was collected from a sample of 220 parents of elementary and secondary school students who completed an online questionnaire. The participants ranked four different factors for resisting and rejecting the use of smartphones in schools: social, environmental, economic and pedagogical. Parents’ actual resistance level was also measured, from “no resistance”, through “passive resistance”, to “active resistance”. Furthermore, the study examined the association between parental resistance and four parenting styles: authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved, as well as associations with demographic and socioeconomic variables. About two-thirds of the parents expressed resistance toward the use of smartphones in school, and more than half of them expressed active resistance to such use. Social and economic factors were reported to underlie resistance to the use of smartphones in school to a great extent, whereas pedagogical resistance factor was reported to a low extent in all parental resistance levels Nevertheless, pedagogical and social resistance factors predicted a high level of parental resistance. Authoritative parenting style was found to be a negative predictor of parental resistance. Implications of the findings are discussed in relation to educational theory and the challenges of policy-makers who cope with parental resistance towards the integration of smartphones in school learning.
... Otra variante es el co-uso, en el que la persona adulta contribuye a la producción de contenidos de internet, como audiovisuales, páginas, web y blogs (Uhls y Robb, 2017). ...
... El predominio de estos tipos de mediación es congruente con la literatura internacional (Uhls y Robb, 2017). Asimismo, se ha observado esa asociación entre limitaciones en las habilidades digitales de las personas adultas y las restricciones para el ejercicio de una crianza tecnológica que promueva los usos beneficiosos y una apropiación de la tecnología al servicio del desarrollo adolescente (Daneels y Vanwynsberghe, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Este artículo derivado de una investigación cualitativa se dirige a caracterizar el tipo de mediación de la internet por parte de madres y docentes, y la manera como perciben dicha mediación los adolescentes costarricenses. Entre los tipos de mediación, se analiza la restrictiva, la permisiva y la activa (con sus modalidades de co-uso y mediación activa negativa o prescriptiva). Además, se estudia su relación con los tipos de uso del internet, sus riesgos y oportunidades. Se recurrió a un diseño cualitativo fenomenológico, empleando entrevistas semiestructuradas a diez duplas de jóvenes, siete docentes y seis madres de colegios públicos y privados de zonas urbanas. Las entrevistas se analizaron utilizando un análisis de contenido cualitativo de tipo reductivo. Los resultados muestran un predominio de la mediación restrictiva y prescriptiva; de igual manera se encontraron indicios de una asociación entre las habilidades digitales de los adultos y el tipo de crianza tecnológica a la que recurren.
... Further, previous research has shown that time spent in educative activities is positively associated with better academic performance (Biddle et al., 2019) whereas time spent in high screen/social SB is associated with a range of negative health outcomes (Canabrava et al., 2019;Carson et al., 2016;Van Ekris et al., 2016). Therefore, the finding of a transition to a high screen-time SB profile is of concern and further highlights a need for family-and peer-based interventions to focus on reducing social mobile device use, particularly among girls (Uhls et al., 2018). Therefore, a suggestion for future research is to include questions about device ownership and parental restrictions around usage. ...
Article
The aims of this study were to identify profiles of sedentary behaviour (SB) patterns, based on leisure-time self-reported SB modalities (screen, educative, social, and relaxing) and to evaluate changes in these profiles over 2 years among Spanish youth aged 8–18 years. Latent profile analysis (LPA), a data-driven analytic approach, was used to identify groups of boys and girls (n = 1553; 48% girls; mean±SD age: 12.56 ± 2.49 y) with distinct SB profiles using the SB modalities (time/d) as input variables. Latent transition analysis, an extension of LPA that uses longitudinal data, was used to analyse 2-year changes in these profiles. At baseline, four and three SB profiles were found among boys (labelled: screen, educative, social, and relaxing) and girls (labelled: screen/social, educative, and relaxing), respectively. Overall, more girls (range: 48%-67%) had the same profile over time, than boys (40%-52%). Participants with a screen or relaxing SB profile at baseline were more likely to have an educative profile after 2 years. Youth with a social and an educative SB profile at baseline were more likely to transition to profiles characterized by higher screen and social SB, respectively. Using a novel and person-centered approach, this study identified gender-specific SB profiles that were moderately stable over time.
... Communicating health program via TA has become increasingly popular in the past decade (Kreuter, Farrell, Olevitch, & Brennan, 2013). Studies revealed that parents play an essential role in reducing game addictions among adolescents SCHOOL-BASED PERSONALIZED EMAIL CAMPAIGN: A TAILORED APPROACH TO REDUCE INTERNET GAMING DISORDER AMONG MALE ADOLESCENTS (Bonnaire & Phan, 2017;Uhls & Robb, 2017). School-based personalized email campaigns (SPEC) targeting parents has the potential to reduce game addictions. ...
Article
Full-text available
A worldwide phenomenon of pathological gaming raised concerns on the negative health impacts of excessive gaming, especially in adolescents (Griffiths, Kuss, & King, 2012; Smyth, 2007). The American Psychiatric Association (APA) listed internet gaming disorder (IGD) in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; APA, 2013) as a condition for further study. Adolescents with IGD or game addictions demonstrates the lack of control over gaming activities, and the amount of time spent on gaming is damaging their social and emotional wellbeing (APA, 2013). Studies on game addictions revealed severe adverse health consequences, including, epileptic seizures (Chuang, 2006), obesity (Vandewater, Shim, & Caplovitz, 2004), and sleep abnormalities (Allison, Von Wahlde, Shockley, & Gabbard, 2006). With predominately male adolescents demonstrating severe game addictions and adverse health and social changes (Ko, Yen, Chen, Chen, & Yen, 2005). The current essay compares the efficacy of mass media approach (MMA) and tailored approach (TA) in communicating health programs to reduce game addictions among male adolescents.
... Second, although television may appear to be a solitary activity, parenting moderates the effects of television viewing. Specifically, parents affect their children's television viewing by guiding content choices, and through co-viewing behaviors (see Uhls & Robb, 2017, for a review). For example, high-quality parentchild interactions during television viewing, including the use of dialogic questioning . . . ...
Article
Full-text available
We document the need to examine digital game play and app use as a context for cognitive development, particularly during middle childhood. We highlight this developmental period as 6‐ through 12‐year olds comprise a large swath of the preadult population that plays and uses these media forms. Surprisingly, this age range remains understudied with regard to the impact of their interactive media use as compared to young children and adolescents. This gap in knowledge about middle childhood may reflect strong and widely held concerns about the effects of digital games and apps before and after this period. These concerns include concurrent and subsequent influences of game use on very young children's and adolescents’ cognitive and socioemotional functioning. We highlight here what is currently known about the impact of media on young children and adolescents and what is not known about this impact in middle childhood. We then offer recommendations for the types of research that developmental scientists can undertake to examine the efficacy of digital games within the rapidly changing media ecology in which children live. We conclude with a discussion of media policies that we believe can help children benefit from their media use. Our hope is that this review will foster greater investigation of the cognitive socialization, as raised over 20 years ago by developmental psychologist and early games researcher Patricia Greenfield, that digital games serve during the middle childhood period, and childhood more generally. Read the accompanying policy brief from SRCD
... (2017) noted that children and adolescents prefer a vast array of applications and digital platforms . This is a serious task for application developers, parents, and educators as it is not easy to produce quality content to suit diversified needs and agegroups (Bihari, 2018;Eslava et al ., 2016;Troseth et al ., 2017;Uhls-Robbs, 2017) . Digital gaming is undergoing major changes today: on the one hand, more and more young children have access to online content at home -mainly on a tablet or on their parents' smartphones; on the other hand, online and offline spaces are often intertwined, blurred during the process of gaming (Kontovourki et al ., 2017;Marsh et al ., 2016) . ...
Article
Full-text available
The present research note is aimed at exploring the impact of the digital world on the online and offline practices of young children aged 4-8. The empirical research 1 was carried out from March 2017 to August 2018 in three locations in Romania: Cluj-Napoca, Miercurea Nirajului, and Sfântu Gheorghe. Based on the results of a previous investigation carried out in the same locations during the period of 2015-2016, the exploratory qualitative research has concluded that young children have a low level of digital literacy due to their parents' and educators' lack of ICT knowledge and skills. Issues like online privacy and security are rarely of adults' concern: they worry more about their children's eyesight and social isolation .
Chapter
Full-text available
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the schools closed down in many countries, and the students participate in virtual-only classes. However, as there is no equality in access to technology and connectivity among the populations, this has become a major problem for the millions, intensifying the digital divide. Thus, in order to mitigate this digital gap, many countries have taken several measures to use educational technology in different ways. Turkey is one of them and has supported distance education through the use of educational television. Therefore, this chapter explores the implementation of educational television by introducing its background, use, and contributions to foreign language instruction and contextualises it in a scholarly discussion of the digital divide and inclusive education within the local context of Turkey. Ultimately, the chapter provides recommendations for the policymakers to support inclusive education to embrace wide masses of learners.
Article
Importance The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all families use a family media use plan to select and engage with media rules. To date, the effectiveness of this tool in promoting adolescent media rule engagement is unknown. Objective To test the effect of a family media use plan on media rule engagement in adolescents. Design, Setting, and Participants This randomized clinical trial with parallel design used the online Qualtrics platform for recruitment, data collection, and intervention delivery. Parents and their children (aged 12 to 17 years) who spoke and read in the English language were recruited, enrolled, and randomized to either the intervention or control group. Parent-adolescent dyads in both groups completed baseline surveys individually, and the dyads in the intervention group completed the family media use plan survey. Baseline recruitment was conducted from April 8, 2019, to May 1, 2019, and follow-up surveys were completed between June 11, 2019, and July 2, 2019. Interventions The American Academy of Pediatrics family media use plan. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was media rule engagement reported by adolescents. Media rules were extracted from the family media use plan, and adolescents rated each rule (using Likert scales) according to whether the rule was present or followed in their home. Secondary outcomes were adolescent-perceived technology importance and changes in sleep, physical activity, and depression. Results A total of 1520 parent-adolescent dyads were enrolled in the trial and randomized to either the intervention or control group. Adolescents had a mean (SD) age of 14.5 (1.6) years, and 789 were female (51.9%) and 1027 were White (67.6%) individuals. Parents had a mean (SD) age of 44.1 (8.5) years, and 995 were women (65.5%) and 1021 were White individuals (67.2%). For media rule engagement, the between-group difference was –0.1 (95% CI, –1.1 to 0.9). Conclusions and Relevance This randomized clinical trial found that completing a family media use plan did not lead to statistically significant changes in media rule engagement for adolescents in the intervention group. Future studies should consider revising the family media use plan and exploring the importance of technology as an intervention outcome. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03881397
Article
Full-text available
This study explored the relationship between active mediation, exposure to Daniel Tiger’s Neighborhood, and key indicators of preschoolers’ social and emotional development. One hundred and twenty-seven children aged 2–6 either watched or did not watch 10 episodes of Daniel Tiger’s Neighborhood over a two-week period. Results revealed that preschoolers who watched the program exhibited higher levels of empathy, self-efficacy, and emotion recognition when their regular TV-watching experiences are frequently accompanied by active mediation. This was especially true for younger preschoolers and preschoolers from low-income families. Implications for policy-makers, parents, producers of prosocial programming, and educators are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
According to a social cognitive theory, children may learn to function through processes of modeling and observational learning, with parents and the media being the significant sources of socialization and learning in the home environment. Adolescence is a period when children progressively look for autonomy and independence. One of the important research questions is whether adolescents utilize screen-based media with or without parental monitoring and limit-setting. This exploratory study examines socio-demographic factors associated with parenting (i.e., co-using, limit setting on the amount, limit setting on contents, and active mediation) in regards to television and video game usage during adolescence. Participants were 799 adolescents (5th to 12th graders) and their parents. Results indicate no gender differences in parental monitoring, but age/grade differences were found with less parental monitoring (more autonomy or independence) of older children. Parental monitoring also differed by ethnicity and by household income. Asian parents were the most restrictive while Hispanic parents were the least restrictive. Parents also reported more active mediation or engagement in families with higher household income. Findings initiate consideration of parenting styles in adolescent media usage, which have implications for adolescent adjustment and developmental outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
Recent policy recommendations encourage parents to co-use media technology with their young children. However, we know little about what factors predict parents' co-use across the multiple types of media technology families own. Using a US nationally representative sample of 2,326 parents of children aged 8 and under, this study examines factors associated with parent–child co-use across six types of media: books, TV, computers, video games, tablets, and smartphones. Results indicate that parents are more likely to co-use traditional media such as books and television, whereas they are least likely to co-use video games. Results also suggest that media co-use may be a function of parental availability and parents' time spent with media, as well as parent demographics such as parents' age, gender, ethnicity, and level of education, and child demographics such as child age and gender. Results have implications for creating more targeted parental interventions to encourage media co-use.
Article
Full-text available
Burgeoning technology provides instant access to information and communication. Responsible adults are concerned about the material accessed by adolescent technology users. From an ecological system's lens, using a mixed-methods design, the current study identified adolescent and parent perceptions of parental mediation of adolescent interactive technology use (i.e., cell phones, Internet). Eighty adolescents (16–18 years of age) and their parents (n = 113) participated in the study that identified generational differences in perceptions of parental mediation, techniques for mediating interactive technology (i.e., monitoring data and usage, active mediation, rules, restriction), and adolescent perceptions of the process of parental mediation. We used the results to propose principles for parental mediation of adolescent interactive technology use and provide directions for future research.
The authors present reasons why developmental psychologists should care about children's and adolescents' digital game play. These reasons may be identified as: a) digital game play is an integral aspect of children's and adolescents' lives; b) digital game play contributes to learning and cognitive development; and c) developmental research has the potential to contribute to effective educational game design. The authors expand on these reasons with the goal of introducing or reintroducing to developmental psychologists a rich and very relevant context in which to examine children's and adolescents' applied cognitive development. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
The past decade's research on the use and effects of older (television, music, movies, magazines) and newer media (the Internet, cell phones, social networking) on adolescents' health and well-being is reviewed. A portrait of patterns of use of the media is provided and then the predictors and effects of those patterns on adolescents' mental health is discussed. Research on the effects of exposure to specific kinds of content on adolescents' aggressive behavior, gender roles, sexual relationships, body image disturbances, obesity, and substance use also are reviewed. Finally, media literacy as a promising strategy for enhancing adolescents' use of the media in the future is considered.