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Abstract and Figures

Research on procrastination emphasizes trait explanations for unwanted delay, yet environmental factors are most probably significant contributors to the problem. In this paper, we review literature related to the influence of environmental factors on academic procrastination and investigate how such factors may be assessed in facilitating academic procrastination in students. Study 1 asked students to evaluate three different fields of study—natural sciences, medicine, and humanities—on environmental variables assumed to be relevant for academic procrastination (e.g., structured course progression, freedom in the study situation). Distinct differences between the academic fields were observed. In Study 2, participants from these three fields of study rated their own academic procrastination as well as peer procrastination and peer influence. Dispositional (trait) procrastination was also measured. The results demonstrated that environmental factors have a negligible impact on low-procrastinating students, whereas procrastination-friendly environments seem to facilitate and augment academic procrastination in students at medium-level dispositional procrastination, i.e., the majority of students. We conclude that social and environmental factors should receive increased attention in measures taken to reduce and prevent academic procrastination.
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Do procrastination-friendly environments make
students delay unnecessarily?
Kent Nordby
1
Katrin B. Klingsieck
2
Frode Svartdal
1
Received: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published online: 14 July 2017
Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017
Abstract Research on procrastination emphasizes trait explanations for unwanted
delay, yet environmental factors are most probably significant contributors to the
problem. In this paper, we review literature related to the influence of environmental
factors on academic procrastination and investigate how such factors may be
assessed in facilitating academic procrastination in students. Study 1 asked students
to evaluate three different fields of study—natural sciences, medicine, and
humanities—on environmental variables assumed to be relevant for academic
procrastination (e.g., structured course progression, freedom in the study situation).
Distinct differences between the academic fields were observed. In Study 2, par-
ticipants from these three fields of study rated their own academic procrastination as
well as peer procrastination and peer influence. Dispositional (trait) procrastination
was also measured. The results demonstrated that environmental factors have a
negligible impact on low-procrastinating students, whereas procrastination-friendly
environments seem to facilitate and augment academic procrastination in students at
medium-level dispositional procrastination, i.e., the majority of students. We con-
clude that social and environmental factors should receive increased attention in
measures taken to reduce and prevent academic procrastination.
Keywords Academic procrastination Peer effects Procrastination
environment Procrastination antecedents Self-control
&Frode Svartdal
frode.svartdal@uit.no
1
Department of Psychology, UiT the Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø, Norway
2
Department of Psychology, Universita
¨t Paderborn, Paderborn, Germany
123
Soc Psychol Educ (2017) 20:491–512
DOI 10.1007/s11218-017-9386-x
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... Students avoid working on assignments which make them feel uncomfortable. They delay less when assignments are perceived as interesting and include clear instructions (Akerman & Gross, 2005), and more often delay assignments perceived as dreary, frustrating and vague (Blunt & Pychyl, 2000;Nordby, Klingsieck & Svartdal, 2017). Studies have found a strong correlation between being deterred by an assignment and procrastinating in the face of it (Wilson & Neguyen, 2012). ...
... It was decided to examine the factors influencing academic procrastination among the group of 67 actual procrastinators (based on their self-reporting), due to the gap between the number of students perceiving themselves as procrastinators and the reports of the actual date on which the paper was completed. Since the research literature distinguishes between degrees of student academic procrastination (Nordby et al., 2017) and because the issue concerns a long-term assignment, we decided to examine the factors influencing procrastination from three levels of academic procrastination : ...
... The nature of academic assignments (for example: assignments are perceived as interesting/dreary, instructions are clear/not clear) and their due date constitute one of the factors in academic procrastination (Akerman & Gross, 2005Nordby et al., 2017). This is especially prominent in term papers and theses (Allen, 2010). ...
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... Based on initial investigations and interviews, 63% of students in St. Rita's College of Balingasag with online learning as their modality option had skipped submitting some or all of the tasks required of them in any subject, specifically in Mathematics. Many researchers had already concluded that procrastination is more frequent when the learning process is not face-to-face, i.e. distance or computer-based learning, as the student has to take an active role [4,5]. Moreover, procrastination behaviors can lead to poor academic results especially in online learning environments [1,6]. ...
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... . It is prevalent in the academic sphere (Ferrari et al., 1995;Solomon & Rothblum, 1984) and particularly in the domain of Humanities and Social Sciences (Nordby et al., 2017). Indeed, 50-80% of students report a tendency to procrastinate (Özer et al., 2009), which contributes to lowering their academic performance (Gareau et al., 2018;Kim & Seo, 2015;Osiurak et al., 2015) and study engagement (Abbasi et al., 2015;Huamán et al., 2021). ...
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... 67 IPS's major direction determines their academic difficulty and procrastination levels. 68 In addition, master and doctoral students have significant differences in their ways of thinking, communicating, and interacting with supervisors. 69 Therefore, this research controlled gender, nationality, religion, major, and educational background in the process of statistical analysis. ...
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... Academic procrastination appears as a major problem among graduate students (Cao, 2012;Nordby et al 2017) which is considered damaging to students' academic development and success . Identified that graduate students tend to have higher procrastination than undergraduate students. ...
... Symbolic interaction theory [15] explained that continuous lifelong social feedback tends to alter the way individuals evaluate themselves and therefore produces the factors of AP, such as the aforementioned learned helplessness, self-efficacy, or internal locus of control, internalization of positive values in order to reduce AP might not be a feasible way to be applied to individuals who have reached their young adulthood, such as university students. Supporting that, Nordbly et al. [16] proposed that one of the external factors that can be altered to reduce AP is the classroom engagement; when the deliverance of the subject is considered engaging, students would have their AP tendency reduced. Nevertheless, another study in Malaysian context denied it by reporting that classroom engagement was still fully mediated by the internal locus of control of the students [17]. ...
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