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Survey on binaural beats and background music for increased focus and relaxation

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... While listening to binaural beats, the brain will try to adjust its own brainwave to the frequency of the external stimuli [9]. So, it is relatively easy to be induced to a desired state. ...
... So, it is relatively easy to be induced to a desired state. If we want to be induced to a relaxed state, we simply need a binaural tone with a frequency that matches the alpha brainwaves (8)(9)(10)(11)(12). ...
... In short, an individual can get a better state of relaxation, creativity or focus by using the appropriate binaural beat [9]. For previous work about the effectivity of binaural beats to induce a frequency following response (FFR) in brain wave activity please check [14] [45] [46] [47] [48]. ...
Conference Paper
Virtual Reality is defined as the implementation of a virtual world that the user perceives as the real one. This can lead having the physical feeling of teleportation into another environment, forgetting the real world and even the physical body. This sensation of immersion affects the stimulus (visual, acoustic and haptic) perceived by the user and it is able to modify the brainwaves power. We think that this can be profitable for pain relief, as the patient feels many synchronized stimulus and he/she needs to be concentrated to process all the information and attenuate the pain sensation or change the initial mood. For that reason, this work proposes a pilot study of a VR environment combined with binaural beats, colors and movements to evaluate the perception the user has. It is believed that the use of different binaural beats in a long period of time can help patients to induce a relaxation state (mood) and consequently the perception to pain. The results of this work can be helpful for developing a pain management system with several configurable situations (VR scene, Colour & Sound combination, etc.). In this pilot study we apply 8 types of binaural sounds in a standard common VR scenario and we propose the end users to select the experimented feeling they felt in any case
... Research has shown that music can have a strong effect on humans. It can relieve anxiety [1], depression [2], and stress [3]; enhance mood [4]; and increase spatial awareness [5]. With the development of smartphones and other gadgets, music is very easily assessable through the Internet worldwide. ...
... In this experiment, the subjec sic, and the distribution of the genre of the selecte The second music utilized in this study was binaural beats (alpha brainwave range, 8-13 Hz), w The second music utilized in this study was specially designed calming music with binaural beats (alpha brainwave range, [8][9][10][11][12][13], which can induce a state of relaxation in individuals (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=03DN380MhXk, accessed on 25 June ); hence, we call this relaxing music. Listening to music with binaural beats can cause many regions of the brain to function in unison, allowing the individual to attain a state of calm [1]. When compared to their favorite music, listening to relaxing music had a more calming effect on the subjects [4], reduced mental fatigue [28], and improved working memory and cortical connectivity [29]. ...
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Music is considered a powerful brain stimulus, as listening to it can activate several brain networks. Music of different kinds and genres may have a different effect on the human brain. The goal of this study is to investigate the change in the brain’s functional connectivity (FC) when music is used as a stimulus. Secondly, the effect of listening to the subject’s favorite music is compared with listening to specifically formulated relaxing music with alpha binaural beats. Finally, the effect of the duration of music listening is studied. Subjects’ electroencephalographic (EEG) signals were captured as they listened to favorite and relaxing music. After preprocessing and artifact removal, the EEG recordings were decomposed into the delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequency bands, and the grand-averaged connectivity matrices were generated using Inter-Site Phase Clustering (ISPC) for each frequency band and each type of music. Furthermore, each lobe of the brain was analyzed separately to understand the effect of music on specific regions of the brain. EEG-FC among different channels was accessed by using graph theory and Network-based Statistics (NBS). To determine the significance of the changes in brain networks after listening to music, statistical analysis was conducted using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and t-test. The study of listening to music for a short duration verifies that either favorite or preferred music can affect the FC of the subject and induce a relaxation state. The short duration study also verifies a significant (ANOVA and t-test: p < 0.05) effectiveness of relaxing music over favorite music to induce relaxation and alertness in the subject. In the study of long duration, it is concluded that listening to relaxing music can increase functional connectivity and connections strength in the frontal lobe of the subject. A significant increase (ANOVA and t-test: p < 0.05) in FC in alpha and theta band and a significant decrease (ANOVA and t-test: p < 0.05) in FC in beta band in the frontal and parietal lobe of the brain verifies the hypothesis that the relaxing music can help the subject to achieve relaxation, activeness, and alertness.
... Researchers have found different applications of binaural sounds related to human behavior, such as the change of mood states [13][14][15][16], improving memory capacity [17,18], improving attention and vigilance [19][20][21], empowering creativity [22], and reducing perception of pain. Modulation in neural bands at the limbic system after a number of sessions of BST has been observed, and it has been associated with a reduction in activations of the sympathetic system, which might indicate a reduction of stressful situations. ...
... In 2012, Argstatter et al. found that Heidelberg model of MT was successfully applied to treat patients with tonal tinnitus [17]. In 2013, Vanneste et al. showed that MT compensating for hearing loss was not beneficial in suppressing tinnitus, and over compensating hearing loss worsened tinnitus [18]. In 2014, Pape et al. demonstrated that tailor-made notched music in nonmusician tinnitus sufferers could reduce tinnitus perception [19], contrary to the work of Stein et al., who found that such treatment did not reduce tinnitus perception, and induce temporal high levels of distress [20]. ...
Article
Introduction: Tinnitus is an annoying buzz that manifests itself in many ways. In addition, it can provoke anxiety, stress, depression, and fatigue. The acoustic therapies have become the most commonly applied treatment for tinnitus, either self-administered or clinically prescribed. Binaural Sound Therapy (BST) and Music Therapy (MT) aim to reverse the neuroplasticity phenomenon related to tinnitus by adequately stimulating the auditory path-way. The goal of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of applying BST for tinnitus treatment by comparing its effect with MT effect. Materials and methods: 34 patients with tinnitus from 29 to 60 years were informed about the experimental procedure and consented their participation. Patients were divided into two groups: 1) MT and 2) BST. They applied their sound-based treatment for one hour every day along eight weeks. Each treatment was adjusted to Hearing Loss (HL) and tinnitus characteristics of each participant. To record EEG data, a bio-signal amplifier with sixteen EEG channels was used. The system recorded data at a sampling frequency of 256 Hz within a bandwidth between 0.1 and 100 Hz. Results: The questionnaire-monitoring reported that MT increased tinnitus perception in 30% of the patients, and increased anxiety and stress in 8% of them. Regarding EEG-monitoring, major neural synchronicity over the frontal lobe was found after the treatment. In the case of BST reduced stress in 23% of patients. Additionally, BST reduced tinnitus perception similar to MT (15% of patients). With respect to EEG-monitoring, slightly major neural synchronicity over the right frontal lobe was found after the treatment. Conclusions: MT should be applied with caution since it could be worsening the tinnitus sufferer condition. On the other hand, BST is recommended for tinnitus sufferers who have side effects concerning stress but no anxiety.
... This music is specifically formulated with alpha binaural beats (frequency range 8-13 Hz) and it helps the listener to easily achieve the relaxation state (higher alpha brainwave). A survey has been conducted on the use of relaxing music for increasing relaxation concluded that relaxing music has better soothing effects on the participants physiological behavior [24]. Therefore, relaxing music is selected as music stimulus for the experiment 2. ...
... Listening to favorite music is considered a reliable way for inducing relaxation in the subjects [28]. On the other hand, alpha binaural beats from the pool of music associated with relaxation is identified as a music stimulus that invokes relaxed feelings in the subjects [24]. The objective of this selection was to record the brain activation while listening to music and investigate the induced relaxing response in the participants ...
Article
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of music stimuli on human brain using EEG. The study comprises of two experiments, a short term experiment referred to as experiment 1 and a long term experiment referred to as experiment 2. Two types of music stimuli; favorite music (preferred music of the participating subjects) and relaxing music (composed of alpha binaural beats) is used in experiment 1. Experiment 2 is performed with relaxing music as a music stimulus. Assessment of the soothing effects of music on human brain is done by analyzing different features; absolute power in the alpha band, approximate entropy, sample entropy and frontal asymmetry using EEG recordings. The ANOVA measures for the extracted features indicated no significant change in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the features are investigated for the music listening group and control group separately. From ANOVA results, it is observed that there is no significant change in the control group after both conditions (1st week and 2nd week) with respect to baseline as they did not listen to any music. On the other hand, significant change was observed in the music listening group, for all features; (a) absolute alpha power: condition (baseline and 1st week) F=4.59, P<0.05, condition (baseline and 2nd week) F=18.87, P<0.05 (b) approximate entropy: condition (baseline and 2nd week) F=30.62, P<0.05 (c) sample entropy: condition (baseline and 1st week) F=4.75, P<0.05, condition (baseline and 2nd week) F=38.37, P<0.05. Inter-hemispheric alpha asymmetry index is measured from the frontal region of the brain. From the statistical analysis no significance in alpha asymmetry is observed in both experiments. Hence the results from the study indicate that relaxing music has better soothing effects on the human brain as compared to favorite music.
... In the relaxation task, subjects are asked to sit and listen to some relaxing music. In this relaxation period, subjects have listened to a portion of Binaural, i.e, a soothing music used in meditation [64], [65]. As the arithmetic task and the relaxation period are considered as the most representative cases, we work on these two parts to show the feasibility on the most extreme arousal scenarios (i.e., high arousal vs low arousal [1]). ...
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Keeping cognitive stress at a healthy range can improve the overall quality of life: helping subjects to decrease their high levels of arousal, which will make them relaxed, and elevate their low levels of arousal, which could increase their engagement. With recent advances in wearable technologies, collected skin conductance data provides us with valuable information regarding ones’ cognitive stress-related state. In this research, we aim to create a simulation environment to control a cognitive stress-related state in a closed-loop manner. Toward this goal, by analyzing the collected skin conductance data from different subjects, we model skin conductance response events as a function of simulated environmental stimuli associated with cognitive stress and relaxation. Then, we estimate the hidden stress-related state by employing Bayesian filtering. Finally, we design a fuzzy control structure to close the loop in the simulation environment. Particularly, we design two classes of controllers: (1) an inhibitory controller for reducing cognitive stress and (2) an excitatory controller for increasing cognitive stress. We extend our previous work by implementing the proposed approach on multiple subjects’ profiles. Final results confirm that our simulated skin conductance responses are in agreement with experimental data. In a simulation study based on experimental data, we illustrate the feasibility of designing both excitatory and inhibitory closed-loop wearable-machine interface architectures to regulate the estimated cognitive stress state. Due to the increased ubiquity of wearable devices capable of measuring cognitive stress-related variables, the proposed architecture is an initial step to treating cognitive disorders using non-invasive brain state decoding.
... Several studies have suggested that binaural beats can influence cognition and mental states. In particular, it has been shown that binaural beats have a positive impact on sleep quality and mental state [5], [13], [14]. ...
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Sleep disorders are extremely common in today's society and are greatly affecting the health and safety of every person suffering from one. Over the last decades, Automatic Sleep Stage Classification (ASSC) systems have been developed to assist specialists in the sleep stage scoring process and therefore in the diagnosis of sleep disorders. Binaural beats are auditory phenomena that have been shown to have a positive impact in sleep quality and mental state. This paper introduces a framework that combines an ASSC system and a binaural beats generator in real time. Our goal is to pave the way for developing systems which could reproduce specific binaural beats depending on the detected sleep stage, in order to entrain the brain into a more efficient sleep. For the ASSC stage, different classifiers were evaluated using data signals retrieved from a public sleep stage signals database, corresponding to ten subjects. The complete framework was tested using the database signals and signals from a test subject, captured and processed in real time. Our proposed framework may lead to a fully automated system to improve sleep quality without the need of medication.
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Binaural beat (BB) illusions are experienced as continuous central pulsations when two sounds with slightly different frequencies are delivered to each ear. It has been shown that steady-state auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) to BBs can be captured and investigated. The authors recently developed a new method of evoking transient AEPs to binaural beats using frequency modulated stimuli. This methodology was able to create single BBs in predetermined intervals with varying carrier frequencies. This study examines the effects of the BB duration and the frequency modulating component of the stimulus on the binaural beats and their evoked potentials. Normal hearing subjects were tested with a set of four durations (25, 50, 100, and 200 ms) with two stimulation configurations, binaural dichotic (binaural beats) and diotic (frequency modulation). The results obtained from the study showed that out of the given durations, the 100 ms beat, was capable of evoking the largest amplitude responses. The frequency modulation effect showed a decrease in peak amplitudes with increasing beat duration until their complete disappearance at 200 ms. Even though, at 200 ms, the frequency modulation effects were not present, the binaural beats were still perceived and captured as evoked potentials.
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In this modern era, life is becoming more challenging and faster paced, where we are highly demanded with the complex needs of our daily life that requires more focus and efforts. Such daily needs will eventually lead us to stress if not handled properly. These negatives effects if go undiagnosed, can be fatal. However, it can be turned into positive effects if we know how to manage it. One way of stress management is through meditation. However, to some people, this act is hard to perform because their brains refuse to obey to be silence and focus. Thus, one way for them to get into the mood easier and quicker is through brainwave entrainment; binaural beat specifically. Our study focuses on the effect of the binaural beats, 10Hz on the fontal alpha energy asymmetry of normal and stress subjects. The total numbers of subjects involved are 42 which comprises of 18 subjects in normal group and 24 subjects in stress group. The EEG recording is done in two sessions that are before and after listening to the binaural beats. Normal subjects experience an increment of 90.1% in their frontal alpha asymmetry while stress subjects experience only 1.37%. The results suggested that frontal alpha energy asymmetry could be an indicator to show the positive effects of the binaural beats sound to human brainwave.
Conference Paper
Stress can be perceived as the reaction of the body towards observed mental, emotional and physical distress. It is highly curable if it is detected and managed early. There are various methods in relieving anxiety and stress such as meditation. However, to some people, this act is hard to perform. Therefore, they switch to another therapy which is easier and simpler but deliver similar side effects as meditation i.e. brainwave entrainment. Binaural beat is one type of such brainwave entrainments, in which two signals with different frequency are presented to each ear simultaneously. In regards to this, our research work focuses on studying the effects of binaural-beats to people with stress, specifically the effects to their EEG signals. In such context, this paper presents the results collected from the experiments performed on a number of participants. EEG signals of the participants are recorded in three different states namely the initial state, after stress induction and after binaural-beats entrainment. The Alpha Symmetry method has been employed in analyzing the results especially to study the effect of stress induced and binaural beats entrainment on the participants' alpha waves.
Conference Paper
This research focuses on the effects of binaural beat entrainment to delta and theta brainwaves. This paper presents the results that were collected from an experiment performed on 33 subjects. The EEG signals recorded from the experiment are based on two stages, specifically when the subjects are doing nothing (before binaural beat) and after binaural beats entrainment. Theta wave relates with deep relaxation, day-dreaming and memory. Meanwhile Delta wave associates with deep sleep. Stress is a challenging condition that commonly happens in human life. There are various ways to cope with stress and one of them is to spend time for relaxation. Besides that, binaural beat can be used as a substitute for meditation to alleviate the stress. Binaural beat is the rhythmic stimulus which is generated to produce the desired audio frequency with the intention to make brainwave to follow that frequency. In the end of our research, the result shows that Theta brainwave increases after listening to binaural beat. Although the Delta brainwave is not really affected in this experiment, there is still an increment of delta brainwave after listening to binaural beat. The result shows that binaural beat affected on delta and theta brainwaves.
Conference Paper
This paper presents the affect of binaural beats tone of 10Hz (Deep Meditation) to Alpha and Beta brain wave using EEG. Thirty three (33) right handed students (22 females and 11 males) were randomly selected from Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam. They were willing to be involved after their examination period to investigate this research work. Nowadays, people easily get stressed due to several external factors like family problems, money problem, life satisfaction and other similar factors. Hence, some people meditate by listening to the sound related to relax mode like binaural beats in order to release stress. In this paper, EPOC EMOTIV electroencephalography (EEG) instrumentation with 14 electrodes is used. During data collection, all subjects must close their eyes. The EEG data recorded is processed offline using a program which is developed in MATLAB and the data is further analyzed using Microsoft Excel. The increase on Alpha brainwave and decrease on Beta brainwave after listening to binaural beat shows that subjects are affected by stimuli given. The majority of the subjects are affected by the binaural beat.
Article
This study measured the effect of music listening on state positive affect, work quality and time-on-task of computer information systems developers. Effects of music on work performance, in this case, software design, may be explained by increases in state positive affect. Data from 56 (male = 41, female = 15) developers were obtained from four different Canadian software companies. Data were collected in the participants' actual work environments over five weeks. Results indicated that state positive affect and quality-of-work were lowest with no music, while time-on-task was longest when music was removed. Narrative responses revealed the value of music listening for positive mood change and enhanced perception on design while working. Evidence is provided of the presence of a learning curve in the use of music for positive mood alteration. Overall, the study contributes to the development of a model that aspires to elucidate music and workplace interactions; as well, it has implications for organizational practice. Copyright
Article
Introduction. Previous research has supported anecdotal reports of a possible correlation between the state of hypnagogia and the enhancement of creative ability (Green, 1972; Green, Green, & Walters, 1970, 1974; Parks, 1996; Stembridge, 1972; Whisenant & Murphy, 1977). Some psychologists (e.g., Maslow, 1963; Rogers, 1978) have suggested that there is also a correlation between creative ability and enhanced well-being.Methods. This study utilized an 8-week repeated-measures experimental design to investigate the effects of electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback on the willful use of hypnagogia for increasing creativity and well-being. The sample size of 62 (30 experimental subjects and 32 controls) was comprised of both sexes with a mean age of 45. The EEG parameters of hypnagogia were broadly defined as the presence and pre-dominance of alpha and theta brain wave activity. Creativity was defined by the three most readily agreed upon divergent thinking abilities: (a) fluency (the ability to generate numerous ideas), (b) flexibility (the ability to see a given problem from multiple perspectives), and (c) originality (the ability to come up with new and unique ideas).Results. Hypnagogia was analyzed through multiple univariate analyses of variance. The EEG data showed that both experimental and control participants were able to achieve light to deep hypnagogic states in every training session. T-tests results on fluency and originality scores from the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking and the Christensen-Guilford Associational Fluency Test showed no significant changes in pre- and post-tests for either group. However, flexibility in thinking, as measured by the Alternate Uses Test was significantly increased (p < .001) for all participants. Well-being, as measured by the Friedman Well-Being Scale, also significantly increased for all participants (p = .002).Discussion. The data suggest that willful use of hynagogia may indeed increase creativity and well-being. Participants reported increased personal creativity, stress reduction, heightened self-awareness, emotional equanimity, and improved work performance.
Article
Attempts to indicate that "psychophysiological training for creativity is a reasonable hypothesis." Earlier work on electrophysiological instrumentation and methodology which resulted in the audiogenic feedback training method is summarized. Results with this method for about 60 Ss showed such physiological changes as (a) relaxation of muscle tension to low levels, (b) control of temperature of the hand, and (c) increase in alpha rhythm with eyes open and while talking to the E. Psychological changes included (a) body-image changes, (b) feelings of tranquility, and (c) hypnagogic and dream-like images. Reverie accompanying production of theta waves and low-frequency alpha seems, under certain conditions, to make possible "hypnagogic-like imagery, the sine qua non of creativity for many outstanding people." Other methods for producing hypnagogic-like imagery are discussed. It is concluded that such methods hold much promise for transpersonal psychology by providing training in internal awareness and control. (52 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Previous studies indicate that noise may affect worker attention. However, some background music in the work environment can increase worker satisfaction and productivity. This study compared how music with, and without, lyrics affects human attention. One hundred and two participants, aged 20-24 years, were recruited into this study. Fifty-six males and 46 females participated in this study. Background music with, and without lyrics, was tested for effects on listener concentration in attention testing using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) study. The comparison results revealed that background music with lyrics had significant negative effects on concentration and attention. The findings suggest that, if background music is played in the work environment, music without lyrics is preferable because songs with lyrics are likely to reduce worker attention and performance.
Conference Paper
We are developing a new real-time control system for customizing auditory stimulus (the binaural beat sound) by judging user alpha waves to entrain a userpsilas feeling in the most relaxed way. Since brainwave activity provides the necessary predictive information for arousal states, we use an autoregressive forecasting model to estimate the frequency response series of the alpha frequency bands and the inverted-U concept to determine the userpsilas arousal state. A fuzzy logic controller is also employed to regulate the binaural beat control signal on a forecasting error signal. Our system allows comfortable user self-relaxation. The results of experiments confirm the constructed systempsilas effectiveness and necessity.
Short-latency brain potentials, probably medullary in origin, in response to low-frequency sounds, were recorded from scalp electrodes. These responses are unique for each stimulus frequency. Furthermore, changes in potentials can be evoked to sounds near a subject's threshold. By implication, these findings hold considerable promise for objective clinical assessment and basic research of the lower auditory brain stem.RésuméDes potentiels cérébraux de courte latence, probablement d'origine médullaire sont enregistrés sur les électrodes de scalp en réponse à des sons à basse fréquence. Ces réponses sont uniques pour chaque fréquence de stimulus. De plus des modifications de potentiels peuvent être évoquées par des sons proches du seuil d'un sujet donné. Les implications de ces données paraissent prometteuses pour des mesures cliniques objectives et pour des recherches de base sur le tronc cérébral auditif inférieur.
Article
Emotions are often object related—they are about someone or something in the world. It is yet an open question whether emotions and the associated perceptual contents that they refer to are processed by different parts of the brain or whether the brain regions that mediate emotions are also involved in the processing of the associated content they refer to. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we showed that simply combining music (rich in emotion but poor in information about the concrete world) with neutral films (poor in emotionality but rich in real-world details) yields increased activity in the amygdala, hippocampus, and lateral prefrontal regions. In contrast, emotional music on its own did not elicit a differential response in these regions. The finding that the amygdala, the heart of the emotional brain, responds increasingly to an emotional stimulus when it is associated with realistic scenes supports a fundamental role for concrete real-world content in emotional processing.
Article
Background music is a common element in daily living and the workplace. Determination of whether background music affects human work concentration is a relevant concern. Studies have found background music influences human behavior, and this study attempts to understand how background music and listener fondness for types of music affects worker concentration. This study analyzes how different types of background music--and how listeners' degree of preference for the background music--can affect listener concentration in attention testing through Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT). Participants: Data were collected from 89 workers. The participants ranged in age between 19 and 28 years old, with an average age of 24 years old. We conclude background music influenced listener attention. This influence has more to do with listener fondness for the music than with type of music. Compared to situations without background music, the likelihood of background music affecting test-taker attention performance is likely to increase with the degree to which the test-taker likes or dislikes the music. It is important not to select music that workers strongly like or dislike when making a selection of background music to avoid negatively affecting worker concentration.
Article
Typescript. Thesis (M.A.)--West Georgia College, 1994. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 84-88).
Frequency-following responses, with latencies circa 6 msec, were recorded from five normal-hearing human subjects to brief 500 c/sec tone bursts presented monaurally. The frequency-following responses appear as peaks occurring at 2 msec intervals superimposed on a slow wave (pedestal-like) component. Comparisons were made between the frequency-following responses evoked by binaural and monaural stimuli. The results show that the binaural responses may be interpreted as the sum of two monaural responses. It is concluded, therefore, that there are two independent populations of neurons, each capable of generating a frequency-following response is not a microphonic-like response but rather that the individual waves in the frequency-following response are evoked by the collective activity of phase-locked single units. Finally, on the basis of the distinctness of the individual waves in the frequency-following response, it is concluded that the neural generators of the response must be spatially compact.
Article
The interaural phase sensitivity of neurons was studied through the use of binaural beat stimuli. The response of most cells was phase-locked to the beat frequency, which provides a possible neural correlate to the human sensation of binaural beats. In addition, this stimulus allowed the direction and rate of interaural phase change to be varied. Some neurons in our sample responded selectively to manipulations of these two variables, which suggests a sensitivity to direction or speed of movement.
Article
• We investigated whether six aphasics and six normal subjects could binaurally fuse two slightly differing frequencies of constant amplitude. The aphasics were subdivided into two groups: (1) two men who had had mild cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) during the past 15 months; (2) four men who had had severe CVAs during the last 15 months. Two tones of different frequency levels but equal in intensity were presented dichotically to the subjects at 40 dB sensation level. All subjects had normal hearing at 500 Hz (0 to 25 dB). All six normal subjects and the two aphasics who had had mild CVAs could hear the binaural beats. The four aphasics who had had severe CVAs could not hear them. A 2 × 2 design resulting from this study was compared using χ2 test with Yates correction and was found to be significantly different (P <.05). Two theories are presented to explain these findings: the "depression theory" and the "temporal time-sequencing theory." Therapeutic implications are also discussed relative to cerebral and/or brain stem involvement in the fusion of binaural stimuli. (Arch Otolaryngol 103:192-194, 1977)
1. 1. An acoustically evoked response is described which reproduces the frequency and wave form of the stimulus. This frequency-following response (FFR) is recordable from gross electrodes in the central auditory pathway. 2. 2. The FFR differs from an acoustic stimulus of graded onset, and the cochlear microphonic response (CM), in that it has a sharp onset, a latency appropriate to the locus from which it is recorded, an amplitude burst at the onset and a decrement of amplitude over time. 3. 3. The frequency range of FFR increases with stimulus intensity. At 80 dB sound pressure level the range is approximately 500-5000 c/sec. For recordings from the cochlear nucleus these frequency limits are not influenced by Nembutal anesthesia. 4. 4. The wave form and amplitude of FFR vary with stimulus frequency and with laterality of stimulus input. 5. 5. In contrast to the auditory evoked potential, which can be recorded widely in the brain, FFR is recordable only within, or close to, the auditory pathway. We have observed it only at, and below the level of the inferior colliculus. 6. 6. FFR has implications for the neurophysiology of hearing which are different from those of the auditory evoked potential. Some of these are discussed.
Article
Frequency-following responses to 500-Hz tone bursts presented to the left ear and 540-Hz tone bursts presented to the right ear were recorded from human subjects. Recordings were made both under monaural and binaural conditions. The responses summed over monaural conditions (for left and right ear stimulation) were larger than the responses obtained in the binaural condition. This binaural interaction shows that the frequency-following response reflects binaural processing probably occurring at or below the level of the inferior colliculi.
Article
The objective of this study was to develop a method of measuring arousal level by examining the change rates with activation of the alpha band amplitude using the concept of the inverted U-shaped pattern of transition of this amplitude. We investigated change rates by inspecting the electroencephalogram, and we evaluated their correlations with a criterion index of the arousal level (a reaction time measure), and other relevant basic parameters in 14 normal volunteers. In order to confirm that alpha band amplitude change followed an inverted U-shaped curve, we examined the transition of that index in a resting-and-relaxing condition. In the third session, the change rates upon stimulation and after resting had positive and negative correlations, respectively, with the reaction time measure, verifying that they are 'negative' and 'positive' arousal level indices. Further examinations were conducted for the third session. The change rates upon stimulation and after resting had negative correlations with each other. Neither of them had a significant correlation with the alpha band amplitude. Neither alpha band frequency, alpha band amplitude, or theta band amplitude, all of which are regarded as indices for intra-subject arousal level transition, had any significant correlation with the reaction time measure. These results revealed that the change rates of the alpha band amplitude are better indices for inter-individual arousal level variation than other conventional indices.
Article
An auditory technology is briefly examined describing brainwave patterns and use associated with lower mean MMPI-2 Depression reported by 9 alcoholics at posttest than 15 controls. An exploratory trial with Native Alaskans/Americans gave positive indications for some consideration as a further alternative treatment.
Article
Hearing loss caused by exposure to recreational and occupational noise results in devastating disability that is virtually 100 percent preventable. Noise-induced hearing loss is the second most common form of sensorineural hearing deficit, after presbycusis (age-related hearing loss). Shearing forces caused by any sound have an impact on the stereocilia of the hair cells of the basilar membrane of the cochlea; when excessive, these forces can cause cell death. Avoiding noise exposure stops further progression of the damage. Noise-induced hearing loss can be prevented by avoiding excessive noise and using hearing protection such as earplugs and earmuffs. Patients who have been exposed to excessive noise should be screened. When hearing loss is suspected, a thorough history, physical examination and audiometry should be performed. If these examinations disclose evidence of hearing loss, referral for full audiologic evaluation is recommended.
Article
Six participants varying in degree of hypnotizability (2 lows, 2 mediums, and 2 highs) were exposed to 3 20-minute sessions of a binaural-beat sound stimulation protocol designed to enhance theta brainwave activity. The Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C) was used for pre- and post-stimulus measures of hypnotic susceptibility. A time-series analysis was utilized to evaluate anterior theta activity in response to binaural-beat sound stimulation over baseline and stimulus sessions. The protocol designed to increase anterior theta activity resulted in a significant increase in percent theta for 5 of 6 participants. Hypnotic susceptibility levels remained stable in the high-susceptible group and increased significantly in the low and medium-susceptible groups.
Biofeedback for mind-body self-regulation: Healing and creativity
  • E Green
  • D Shapiro
  • T X Barber
  • L V Dicara
  • J Kamiya
  • N E Miller
  • J Stoyva
Psychophysiologic self-awareness and self-regulation training: A data-based assessment of EEG amplitude scores and divergent thinking measures
  • P Parks
Bilateral EEG biofeedback and creativity
  • W F Whisenant
  • P J Murphy
The Impact of Audio-Visual Stimulation on Alpha Brain Oscillations: an EEG Study
  • Christos N Moridis
  • Manousos A Klados
  • A Ioannis
  • Vasileios Kokkinakis
  • Anastasios A Terzis
  • Anna Economides
  • Panagiotis D Karlovasitou
  • Vasileios E Bamidis
  • Karabatakis
Using the whole brain
  • R Russell