Variability of composition and effects of essential oils from Rhanterium adpressum Coss. & Durieu against mycotoxinogenic Fusarium strains
The antifungal potency of the essential oils of Rhanterium adpressum was evaluated against four mycotoxigenic strains of the genus Fusarium. The essential oils were obtained, separately, by hydro-distillation of the aerial parts of R. adpressum (leaves and flowers). The parts were collected during the period of bloom (3 months) for 3 years. The GC-MS analysis revealed thirty-six compounds for the essential oils, divided into four classes of chemical compounds, with variable percentages according to the month of extraction. The monoterpene hydrocarbons form the main class in these oils. On the other hand, the highest percentages of the oxygenated compounds are observed in the samples collected during the month of May. The direct contact method was used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the essential oils. The activity can be attributed to their relatively high composition of oxygenated monoterpenes. Flowers extract showed strong inhibitory activity, with very interesting concentrations of IC50 and MIC for both tests on solid and liquid medium. The effect of these oils on the production of type B trichothecenes (TCTBs) was evaluated, showing a significant inhibitory effect on TCTBs production, for both extracts (leaves and flowers). The rates of inhibition were 66-97 and 76-100% of FX, 3-ADON and 15-ADON, respectively. The inhibition of fungal biomass and the production of TCTBs depended on the used concentration of the essential oils. These results suggest that the essential oils from R. adpressum are able to control the growth of the tested strains and their subsequent production of TCTB mycotoxins.