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The Indian perspective of smart cities

Smart City Symposium Prague 2017
The Indian Perspective of Smart Cities
Khushboo GUPTA and Ralph P. HALL
Abstract—Cities have been the engines of economic growth
since the industrial revolution. While effective at catalyzing pros-
perity, city development has not always been “smart” sacrificing
human health, for instance, for greater productivity. Smart cities
are now emerging. Leading smart cities such as Stockholm,
Barcelona, New York, Vienna, and Toronto have incorporated
efficiency into buildings, infrastructure, and social spaces using
technological advancements, increasing the livability, workability,
and sustainability of these places. Inspired by these smart city
developments, India is planning to build 100 smart cities in
various parts of the country. This research presents insight into
how smart cities are likely to evolve in India, by studying the
priority areas considered in planning smart cities. It presents
both the citizen and city official perspectives of smart cities. The
results indicate that citizens value living, followed by mobility,
environment, governance, and economy, whereas the city officials
prioritize living, followed by environment, economy, mobility, and
governance. This research further evaluated the titles of planned
smart city projects to determine how many of them can be
categorized as smart. The analysis also revealed how city size
influences the priorities of citizens and city officials, indicating
that the notion of a smart city in India may be context specific.
Index Terms—Smart City, Smart Cities Mission, People’s
Perspective, Smart City Characteristics
INDIA is amongst the many developing countries witness-
ing a rapid rural to urban shift. This change is reflected
by the greater decadal growth of the urban versus rural pop-
ulation. The urban population in India increased from around
27.8% (286 million) in 2001 to 31.2% (377 million) in 2011
[1] and is estimated to grow to 40% by 2030 and more than
50% by 2050. The population growth in cities is accompanied
by infrastructure management and service delivery challenges.
The development of smart cities is one strategy being deployed
to efficiently and effectively cope with these challenges [2].
India’s Smart Cities Mission (SCM) is a national initiative
by the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) to build a
foundation for 100 smart cities in five years (FY 2015-16 to
FY 2019-20) [3]. However, the SCM does not specify the
specific characteristics that need to be included in a “ smart”
city. This research explores the concept of a smart city and
focuses on how Indian cities are defining smart cities as part
of the SCM.
The paper begins by providing an overview of the SCM
in India. The available information from the SCM is then
Manuscript received February 28, 2017.
K. Gupta is a Ph.D. student with the School of Public and International
Affairs, Virginia Tech, 112 Architecture Annex, 140 Otey St NW, Blacksburg,
VA 24060 USA (e-mail:
Dr. R. P. Hall is an Associate Professor with the School of Public and
International Affairs, Virginia Tech, 201 Architecture Annex, 140 Otey St
NW, Blacksburg, VA 24060 USA (e-mail:
analyzed to identify how citizens and city leadership define a
smart city in India. Further, the titles of the planned city-level
projects are analyzed to assess how many can be considered
as smart. The paper concludes by summarizing the priority
areas specific to various city clusters, which are based on
the population and characteristics associated with envisioning
smart cities in India.
The SCM is the first significant step towards the compre-
hensive implementation of the smart city concept in India.
The MoUD defines a smart city as “building and promoting
cities that provide core infrastructure and give a decent quality
of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment,
and the application of “smart” solutions.” The SCM views
a smart city as doing more with less, building upon existing
infrastructural assets and resources, and proposing resource
efficient initiatives. The mission has further defined smartness
in terms of both physical and non-physical assets such as
water supply, waste management, energy sources and supply,
safety, citizen participation, economy and employment, and
education. The MoUD initiated the SCM through the India
Smart Cities Challenge. To take part in this challenge, Indian
cities competed for central government funding by submit-
ting a smart city proposal (SCP). On an average, each city
selected will receive USD 15.03 million per year from the
central government to spend on smart city development. An
equal amount of matching funds will be contributed by the
State/Urban Local Body (ULB); therefore, nearly USD 15,031
million of Government and ULB funds will be available for
smart city development.
The SCM’ s purpose is to drive economic growth and
improve the quality of life of people by enabling local area
development that has three components [3]: (a) Area-based
development (ABD) that will transform existing areas, in-
cluding slums, into better planned ones, by retrofitting and
redevelopment thereby improving livability of the whole city;
(b) Green-field projects that will develop new areas in the city
in order to accommodate the expanding population in urban
areas; and (c) Pan-city development (PAN) that envisages the
application of selected smart solutions to existing city-wide
As of now, 60 cities (from the list of 100 proposed smart
cities) have been shortlisted in the SCM and provided with
initial funding for SCP implementation. More than half of the
shortlisted cities are located in the states of Uttar Pradesh (13),
Tamil Nadu (12), and Maharashtra (10). A special purpose
vehicle has been established in these 60 cities to monitor the
progress of the mission at the city level [3].
The next section provides the methodology used to under-
stand the Indian perspective of smart cities.
Smart City Symposium Prague 2017
Characteristics Phrases/Keywords
Living Cultural Facilities, Health Conditions, Individual Safety, Housing Quality, Education Facilities, Touristic Attractivity, and Social
Quality of Life, Improving/Enhancing Physical Infrastructure, Livable, World Class Infrastructure, Solving Core Infrastructure, Heritage,
and Tourism Development
Mobility Local Accessibility, (Inter-)national Accessibility, Availability of ICT-Infrastructure, and Sustainable, Innovative, and Safe Transport
Mobility, Improving/Enhancing Physical Infrastructure, Livable, world Class Infrastructure, Connectivity, Transit oriented, Solving Core
Infrastructure, and Internet Connectivity
Environment Attractivity of Natural Conditions, Pollution, Environmental Protection, and Sustainable Resource Management
Sustainable, Eco-friendly, Environment friendly, Protecting Ecology, Green, Clean, Healthy Environment, Ecological Integration, and
Pollution Reduction Measures
Economy Innovative Spirit, Entrepreneurship, Economic Image and Trademarks, Productivity, Flexibility of Labor Market, International
Embeddedness, and Ability to Transform
Economic Development, Economic and/or Regional Center, Economic Vibrancy, Promoting Tourism and/or Leveraging Heritage and/or
Culture for Economic Enhancement, Financially Vibrant or Efficient, Investment in Opportunities for Youth, Entrepreneurship, and
Economic Prosperity
Governance Participation in Decision-making, Public and Social Services, Transparent Governance, and Political Strategies and Perspectives
Citizen Partnership, Participatory Decision Making, E-governance, Community Involvement, and ICT Enabled Government Services
Source:Blue Rows [4] and White Rows by Authors
A city’ s vision and citizens’ priorities form an important
part in planning smart cities. Since each city has different
strengths and weakness, their respective routes to developing
a smart city are likely to vary. This research seeks to explore
these potential differences. The Indian perspective of a smart
city was obtained by analyzing three different data sources:
(1) a citizen survey, (2) smart city vision statements, and
(3) a list of planned smart city projects. The citizen survey
provides insight into the critical issues facing society, whereas
the vision statements provide insight into how city government
officials view smart cities in India. The cities considered
in this study were grouped into various clusters based on
their population (see Table IV in the Appendix) to study the
impact of population size on citizen’s priority and focus areas
expressed in the vision statements. As described in section II,
the objective of the SCM is to provide core infrastructure that
leverages smart solutions. To evaluate the extent of projects
that are likely to implement smart solutions, the titles of the
SCM projects were categorized. In summary, these three data
sets provide an understanding of citizen priorities, city officials
perspectives, and the smartness of planned projects.
A. Citizen surveys
The citizen survey data was obtained from the online smart
city forum [5], which was launched as a part of the SCM by the
Government of India to capture peoples’ views on smart city
development. Fifty-nine cities hosted a poll (prior to October
1, 2016) to obtain information on their citizens’ perspective of
priority areas for smart city development. The poll reflected the
city’s priority areas in terms of a percentage, so priority areas
with a higher percentage meant citizens were more concerned
with that area. The citizen responses were classified under five
out of six smart characteristics defined by Giffinger et al. [4],
namely Living, Mobility, Environment, Governance, People,
and Economy. This classification comprehensively presents
most of the elements that form a smart city. Giffinger et al.
[4] further assigned factors to these six smart characteristics
described in Table I (the Smart People category had to be
excluded due to a lack of information on this dimension).
The priority areas varied slightly as the on-line polls used by
the cities defined similar features using different terminology.
For example, some on-line polls used “ transportation” as
their priority area, while other cities captured transportation as
mobility” or “ connectivity. In this research, these priority
areas were grouped based on similar asset characteristics. For
example, phrases or keywords such as transportation, mobility,
or traffic management were all classified under the same
cluster entitled smart mobility.
Post categorization, the priority for all five smart charac-
teristics for each city cluster was calculated as the average
priority percentage of all cities grouped in each city cluster.
The classification of the priority areas under the five smart
characteristics was carried out manually and involved the
author’s judgment, which many be subject to personal bias.
Additionally, while the poll data does not represent the whole
population of a city, it does provide an indicator of the
preferred smart characteristics that connected citizens of the
city believe should be included in the vision of their smart
B. City vision statements
The smart city vision statements were obtained from 60
smart city proposals available on the SCM’ s website (two
examples of city vision statements are provided in the Ap-
pendix). Semantic and Keyword analysis were used to analyze
the contents of the statements. Semantic content analysis is the
process of creating themes (categories) that identify the main
subjects and dimensions in the material under study, and the
Smart City Symposium Prague 2017
No. of cities City cluster with population Living Mobility Environment Governance Economy
3Less than 100,000 42% 30% 12% 5% 11%
24 100,000-500,000 59% 24% 8% 5% 5%
14 500,000-1,000,000 50% 36% 6% 7% 1%
13 1,000,000-2,000,000 44% 33% 12% 8% 4%
5 2,000,000 and above 40% 40% 9% 4% 6%
59 Overall 51% 30% 9% 6% 4%
specific sub-fields under these subjects and dimensions [6],
[7]. The smart city proposals were accessed over the Internet
and the vision statements were extracted for analysis. Semantic
analysis was used to identify the focus areas expressed in the
vision statements with respect to the five smart characteristics
described in Table I namely, Living, Mobility, Environment,
Economy, and Governance. The key phrases in each vision
statement were identified and then grouped under one of the
smart characteristics. The high occurrence of a characteristic
signals that city officials consider this characteristic to be a
high priority.
The extracted phrases from the vision statements were
manually assigned to the categories. The manual catego-
rization was necessary as certain vision statements used the
same keywords with reference to different aspects of a smart
city. For example, Belagavi city’s vision statement described
their smart city as culturally “ vibrant” while Kakinada used
vibrant” to describe the economy in their futuristic smart
To validate the characteristics identified in the vision state-
ments using semantic analysis and to increase the reliability
of the study, another expert assisted in the process. A random
sample of 10 cities was selected to conduct the reliability
test. To increase coding reliability, the expert independently
coded the vision statements using the framework in Table 1.
Reliability (R) was calculated using the following formula [8]:
Agreement +Disagreement ×100.(1)
To ensure the robustness of the method, reliability for
all five characteristics was conducted. The reliability for the
characteristics Mobility, Environment, and Governance was
100%, and 86% for Living and Economy. These results imply
that the data were coded reliably.
C. Assessment of ABD and PAN projects
An investigation was carried out to identify if there was an
alignment between the projects that will be implemented under
the SCM, the citizen’ s priorities, and vision statements. The
objective of this exercise was to categorize the SCM projects
based on smart characteristics (as explained in Section III-B).
A list of 329 projects to be undertaken by the 60 shortlisted
cities was obtained from the Smart Cities Missions website.
These 329 projects are each worth USD 15.03 million or more
and are categorized as ABD and PAN (described in Section II)
by MoUD. For this study, the project titles were also classified
as being smart or traditional based on the definition of smart
solutions given by the SCM. Project titles were searched
for keywords like “ smart, “ integrated,” “ intelligent, “ ICT-
enabled,” “ Environment/eco-friendly, and “ cost effective.
If a project’ s title reflected the use of a renewable energy
source or use of a new technology to reduce environmental
impacts, enhance productivity, save time, etc., the project was
categorized as smart.
A. Citizen perception of smart cities in India
The SCM tried to capture citizens’ aspirations in terms of
priority areas for smart city development.
The analysis of the citizen poll data revealed the citizens’
priority areas and how these varied by the size of a city.
Out of the five smart city characteristics shown previously
in Table I, 51% of the total sample voted for Smart Living.
Smart Mobility was the second priority domain selected by
30% of the total sample. The third priority domain was Smart
Environment (9%) that was followed by Smart Governance
(6%). The domain given the least priority was Smart Economy
The citizen’ s perspective shows that the major focus is
on smart living and mobility. Decades of underinvestment
have left cities in India with dire deficits in these two crit-
ical domains, which include railways, roads, ports, airports,
telecommunications, and electricity generation. In the World
Economic Forum’ s Global Competitiveness Report for 2011-
2012, India ranked 89th out of 142 countries for its infras-
tructure. The report criticized its transport, ICT, and energy
infrastructure as “ largely insufficient and ill-adapted to the
needs of the growing population” [9]. Additionally, education
and health services suffer from poor service delivery, a lack of
quality choices, and a lack of access especially for the poor
due to a high dependence on relatively expensive privately
provided services [10]. The third priority domain based on
the citizen survey was Environment, though the gap between
Mobility and Environment is large. The growing population
fuels the exploitation of natural resources and creates high
levels of pollution, making the Environment a priority for
a smart city. The Economy and Governance domains are
typically given the lowest priority by citizens. The main reason
for this is likely to be a lack of awareness amongst citizens
about the importance of citizen participation and the emphasis
Smart City Symposium Prague 2017
No. of cities City Cluster with population Living Environment Economy Mobility Governance
4Less than 100,000 4 4 2 2 2
17 100,000 500,000 16 12 11 5 3
11 500,000 1,000,000 11 8 7 3 3
20 1,000,000 2,000,000 19 17 16 8 6
8 2,000,000 and above 75342
60 Overall 57 46 39 22 16
citizens have given to strengthening the other aspects of a
smart city.
On further analysis, the city clusters (Table IV in the
Appendix) create a slightly different ordering of the priority
areas (Table II). This variation in the ordering can be explained
by the different issues/challenges that cities face in each
group. The difference can be seen in the cities with more
than 2,000,000 people when compared with the other groups.
The top priority for cities with less than 2,000,000 people is
Smart Living, while the top priority for the cities with more
than 2,000,000 people is shared between Smart Living and
Smart Mobility. Traffic issues tend to be worse in the largest
cities and require immediate action, elevating both Living
and Mobility as top priorities. The most important concern
in the other groups relates to having physical infrastructure
that provides affordable housing, proper road connectivity,
24-hour power supply, and running water. The citizens in
the cities with a population less than 100,000 gave almost
equal importance to Smart Environment (12%) and Smart
Economy (11%). An interesting observation about this smaller
city cluster is that the priority for economy is the highest
when compared to other city clusters, even though the cities
clustered under this category are less urbanized than other
clusters. Smart Economy (5%) and Smart Governance (5%)
were given equal importance by the cities with a population
between 500,000 1,000,000. Smart Economy moves up in
the ranking for cities in the smallest group (with population
less than 100,000) and the largest group (with population more
than 2,000,000), while Smart Governance takes the fifth place
in priority order for these clusters.
B. Vision statements used to describe an Indian Smart City
Burke characterized a good vision statement as a succinct,
future oriented, and descriptive statement that should include a
time-frame [11]. This means a vision statement should include
a destination, purpose, and an organization’ s core values.
According to the MoUD, a strategic vision shapes a preferred
future for a city. A successful vision is considered to have an
economic, spatial, social, and/or environmental dimension that
reflects a city’ s unique physical and cultural trait. It provides
a direction for the activities of the municipality, citizens, and
stakeholders and ensures that they are working towards those
shared goals. The city vision captures what a city can be in
the future, with the transformation being generally achieved
within a ten to twenty-year time frame [3].
Out of the 60 cities, 57 included Living, 46 included
Environment, 39 included Economy, 22 included Mobility,
while just 16 included Governance (Table III). From these
observations, the top priority area is Living while Governance
has the lowest importance.
The semantic analysis of the city vision statements high-
lights a different ordering of priorities when compared against
the citizen survey. This difference can be seen by comparing
the order of columns in Table I and Table II. While Living is
identified as a top priority by both citizens and city officials,
city officials place much more emphasis on the Economy
than citizens, and citizens appear to be more concerned about
Mobility than city officials.
The 10 most frequent characteristics included in the vision
statements were Eco-friendly (30), Sustainable (28), Inclusive
(21), Vibrant (19), Economy (17), Tourism (16), Livable (15),
Heritage (14), Quality of Life (11), and Safe (11). These
keywords describe city officials’ visions for developing their
smart cities and reflect the goals to be achieved in the next
5-10 years. Heritage and Tourism were seen as supporting the
economy by many of the city officials envisioning smart cities.
C. Analysis of ABD and PAN projects
The project title analysis of 329 projects to be implemented
under the SCM showed that the majority of the projects
focused on Living, Mobility, and Environment, with only
a small number focused on the Economy and Governance.
Further, the SCM funding is heavily targeted on ABD projects
(80%) rather than PAN projects (20%), which means that a
larger amount of funds are spent on projects that are likely
to benefit only a portion of the city. The analysis of the PAN
projects showed that 60% are smart and the other 40% are
traditional. On further investigation of both PAN and ABD
projects for the top 21 cities (ranked by MoUD), it was found
that 54% of the ABD projects and 89% of the PAN projects
can be categorized as smart. Some of the smart projects
included Smart Metering for Energy, Water, and Waste, Traffic
Analytics, Simulation and Modeling, and a Citizen’s Connect
Initiative whereas the traditional projects included 24*7 Water
and Energy Supply, Bus Depot Management, and Building
Affordable Housing. The share of smart ABD projects by cost
account for 39% of the total cost of ABD projects, whereas the
Smart City Symposium Prague 2017
share of smart PAN projects by cost account for 87% of the
total cost of PAN projects. The share of smart ABD projects is
low when considered in the context of the purpose of the SCM.
However, the vision of SCM does include the “ provision of
core infrastructure,” decent quality of life for the citizens,”
clean environment, and “ application of smart solutions.”
Thus, there is clearly scope within the SCM to advance more
traditional infrastructure projects.
The United Nations estimates that by 2030, over 60% of
the global population will be living in cities or peri-urban
communities that are increasingly concentrated in Asia, Africa,
and Latin America [2]. It is therefore important to plan
smart cities in these regions to address the current and future
urbanization challenges. These challenges across developing
and underdeveloped countries are, to an extent, similar, but
their priority may vary with the population size as seen in this
case study of the SCM in India.
The prospective smart cities in India envision smartness dif-
ferently. Using the smart city framework proposed by Giffinger
et al. [4], it was possible to categorize the priorities of city
officials and Indian citizens. While the priority areas included
in the vision statements varied from those identified by the
citizens, the following two observations can be made: (a) from
a citizen perspective, Living is the top priority area followed
by Mobility; and (b) from the category analysis of vision state-
ments, Living was the top priority followed by Environment.
The priority areas mentioned by the citizens focused more on
physical assets, including Mobility and Living, while Economy
was given the lowest priority. In contrast, the vision statements
consistently emphasized Living followed by Environment and
Economy. In both analyses, Governance was given a much
lower priority. These results confirm the trends highlighted
in recent studies [12]–[15] on the patterns of urbanization of
large Asian cities. It is observed that Asian cities have paid
more attention to the Transport and Mobility domains than
they have to Government, Economy, and People [16].
The analysis of PAN and ABD projects showed that the
majority of projects which focused on Living, Mobility, and
Environment aspects could be better categorized under Ba-
sic Infrastructure. Basic Infrastructure can be considered as
providing a foundation for smartness, and include projects
such as WiFi connectivity, Optical Fibre Cable, Underground
Drainage, Wiring and Data Management, Fire Safety, and
Sanitation. Several cities focused on improving governance,
which was reflected in projects involving Citizen Connectivity,
Digitization of Assets, and Integration of Services. Very few
projects focused on creating a Smart Economy.
In contrast to these findings, most of the smart city inter-
ventions in the European Union focus on the soft aspects
of the smart city concept such as smart governance and
smart people, whereas the emphasis in North America is
on creating a smart environment. The leading smart cities -
e.g., Vienna, Barcelona, New York, London, etc. - use city
development strategies to advance their objectives, relying
on key technologies such as modern transport technologies;
green, efficient, and sustainable energy [17]–[19]; and policy
frameworks or smart governance [20]–[22].
This research highlights that the concept of a smart city in
India –as defined by vision statements and citizen preferences,
and the analysis of PAN and ABD projects –may be different
to the notion of a smart city outside of the Indian sub-
continent. This difference can perhaps be explained by the
state of infrastructure development in India when compared
to cities in a more developed context. India has encountered a
mix of conditions over the last few decades such as rapid
migration, shortage of urban services, and high levels of
pollution. Therefore, Indian cities need to develop and expand
their basic services, in addition to embedding “smartness” into
these services. In contrast, in the European and North America
context, the focus has been on embedding smartness into
existing infrastructure systems. Thus, countries facing a similar
set of infrastructure development challenges as India, may
be advancing a unique approach to smart city development
that blends smartness with traditional infrastructure projects.
Given the need to build new infrastructure, cities in India have
an opportunity to embed smartness into their infrastructure
systems. However, our analysis reveals that this opportunity
does not appear to be leveraged by the majority of projects
funded under the SCM.
This preliminary research presents the first step in under-
standing how India is defining “ smartness” in the context
of city development. The research used three approaches: (a)
an analysis of citizens priorities in smart city development;
(b) an analysis of smart city vision statements framed by
city officials; and (c) an analysis of the titles of smart city
projects to be implemented under the SCM. The results
indicate that citizens value smart living and mobility, whereas
city officials prioritize smart living followed by environment
and the economy. The analysis also reveals how city size
influences the priorities of citizens and city officials, indicating
that the notion of a smart city in India may vary depending
on the population- and infrastructure-related challenges facing
a city. Cities in India also appear to be pursuing their own
conception of what a smart city should be, which may provide
a more appropriate frame of reference for other developing and
underdeveloped nations who are looking to advance similar
This research provides a useful frame of reference that will
structure a future study of smart city development in India.
This future study will include interviews with city officials
and members of the core team behind the SCM. The objective
of this research will be to identify how cities in an emerging
economy are expanding infrastructure services that leverage
smart technologies, and what could be done to accelerate the
delivery of these services.
This section consists of a description of the city clusters
(Table IV) and provides an example of two smart city vision
Smart City Symposium Prague 2017
Cities whose citizen survey were analyzed Cities whose vision statements were analyzed
Less than
Namchi, Dharamshala and Panaji Namchi, Panaji, Dharamshala and Kohima
Dahod, Gandhinagar, Dindigul, NDMC, Haldia, Rourkela, Sagar,
Tirupati, Biharsharif, Oulgaret, Karnal, Shivamogga, Rampur, Kak-
inada, Shillong, Bilaspur, Thoothukudi, Agartala, Bhagalpur, New
Town Kolkata, Udaipur, Belagavi, Erode, Mangaluru
Port blair, Vellore, Thanjavur, NDMC, Imphal, Rourkela, Tiru-
pati, Tumakaru, Shivamogga, Kakinada, Agartala, Bhagalpur,
Newtown Kolkata, Davangere, Udaipur, Belgaum, Mangaluru
Jhansi, Bidhannagar, Saharanpur, Amravati, Bhubaneswar, Jaland-
har, Aligarh, Tiruppur, Moradabad, Bareilly, Tiruchirappalli, Sola-
pur, Guwahati, Chandigarh
Ujjain, Ajmer, Kochi, Warangal, Salem, Bhubaneswar, Jaland-
har, Hubballi-Dharwad, Solapur, Guwahati, Chandigarh
Raipur, Gwalior, Ranchi, Allahabad, Aurangabad, Varanasi,
Kalyan-Dombivali, Rajkot, Faridabad, Agra, Ludhiana, Ghaziabad
and Vishakhapatnam
Kota, Raipur, Madurai, Coimbatore, Jabalpur, Gwalior, Ranchi,
Amritsar, Aurangabad, Varanasi, Kalyan-Dombivali, Faridabad,
Nashik, Agra, Ludhiana, Vadodara, Visakhapatnam, Bhopal,
Thane, Indore
2,000,000 and
Kanpur, Lucknow, Pune, Surat and Ahmedabad Nagpur, Kanpur, Lucknow, Jaipur, Pune, Surat, Chennai,
Source: [1] and [3]
Bhubanewar: Bhubaneswar, through participatory
decision-making, responsible governance and open access
to information and technology, aspires to be a: Transit
oriented city with a compact urban form that promotes
active, connected and sustainable mobility choices; Livable
city providing diverse range of housing, educational and
recreational opportunities; while enhancing its heritage, arts
and traditional communities; Child-friendly city providing
accessible, safe, inclusive and vibrant public places; Eco-
city co-existing in harmony with nature for nurturing a
resilient, clean, green, and healthy environment; and Regional
economic centre attracting knowledge based enterprises and
sustainable tourism activities by leveraging and empowering
its institutions, local businesses and informal workforce.
Nashik: Nashik, a city renowned for its cultural heritage
and now as the “ Wine Capital of India” provides diverse cul-
tural and lifestyle experiences in a beautiful natural setting of
the Godavari river waterfront. Being part of the economically
vibrant Mumbai-Pune-Nashik Golden Triangle, Nashik offers
its existing and prospective investors excellent investment and
its residents diverse employment opportunities. A responsive
local government has planned Nashik to being a safe city
to walk and cycle and be a sustainable city with quality
infrastructure and services.”
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... Based on travel time, Vaishali M. et al. used GIS to develop Dahod city transport network it is facing problem of congestion at many places. That city has also been proposed by the Government of India to be developed as smart city considering future needs [6]. About route choice, Ahmed S. et al. focused on finding the best route between two locations on the road network and finding the nearest healthcare service providers to an incident location based on the travel time. ...
... X 3 -0.023 X 4 (6) As V L , V P, V C are the utilities of new passageway for lorry, pick-up car, personal car, X 1 , X 2 , X 3 , X 4 4 are waiting time, travel on route time, passageway time, trip cost . Relative errors of models are +8.4%, ...
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For a short time, transportation activities through Suez Canal, using the regular passages, face troubles with transport freight /people because of a big flow rate. Five new passageways were proposed to help in transporting freights through the canal. It tends to support the activities of transport mobility across the canal. This study aims at studying the effect of the new passageways by predicting the multiple freight activities performance. As the travel time, cost, and distance are the performance modules of driver utility when choosing among passageways, the real distance and time are estimated using ArcGIS which is a Geographic Information System GIS tool before and after the new passageways. For the chosen case, from Cairo to Sinai cities, the saving of real-time values is calculated for the three modes; lorry, pickup car, and personal car. Also, it estimates the utility functions and analyzes the monetary cost of time using Value of Time VOT inferred from the utility function and the saved time in each trip. For activities carried by the selected modes, the average estimated monetary costs of time-saving are 2192, 668, and 48 L.E/trip with different values of the time that show the proposed optimistic effect of new passageways.
... MoUD, 2015a) efficiently and effectively. India's Smart Cities Mission (SCM) is a national initiative(Gupta & Hall, 2017a). The government of India (GoI) launched the Smart Cities Mission (SCM) in 2015 to improve the governance and infrastructural deficiencies that Indian cities lacked(Anand et al., 2018). ...
... The government of India (GoI) launched the Smart Cities Mission (SCM) in 2015 to improve the governance and infrastructural deficiencies that Indian cities lacked(Anand et al., 2018). The SCM is the first significant step toward the comprehensive implementation of the smart city concept in India(Gupta & Hall, 2017a). Smart Cities Mission aims to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and give their citizens a decent quality of life, a clean and sustainable environment, and the application of 'Smart' solutions(GoI, 2015). ...
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The Indian smart city mission aims to transform one hundred selected cities into smart cities. The mission guidelines emphasize the importance of equal public participation and considering their aspirations while formulating the policies and implementing the projects under the smart city agenda at the local level. In this context, the research aims to understand public participation in making smart cities in India with the case of Nagpur smart city. Although the city of Nagpur was selected because the smart city proposal and the public participation process while conceptualizing the smart city proposal is appreciated by GoI., it remains one of the least researched case studies. The research is qualitative and utilizes a literature review, semi-structured interview and a case study approach as research methods. The main findings of the research indicate that public participation in Nagpur smart city was implemented by a top-down, controlled approach and prioritizes a one-way mode of communication. Nagpur smart city heavily relied on media and social media platforms to collect public consent for the smart city proposal to make the city smart; however, while doing so, it ignored the vulnerable factors of the society, prioritizing one-way digital communication. Moreover, the process of public participation prioritizes certain affluent classes of inhabitants, suppressing the voice of the marginalized in society. As a result, Nagpur city smart missed the opportunities to co-create and co-produce with the inhabitants. It missed a chance to get informed opinions from the inhabitant, which would have contributed to making an informed decision while formulating the smart city concept for Nagpur. This research highlighted the need for a democratic, inclusive resident engagement mechanism and capacity development to participate effectively. The Nagpur smart city case demonstrates how, even in supposedly democratic and inclusive initiatives, ‘assumed’ unfitting voices are excluded and controlled in practice by the city governing authorities and policymakers who are supposed to act as guardians. Suppose the urban authorities fail to inculcate democratic values in urban development initiatives, which should be meant to manage urban areas better. Smart cities will probably continue to stand for neoliberal technocracy without democratic reform.
... Smart cities projects developments extent on supply electricity, sufficient water supply, solid waste management, sanitation, smart mobility and urban transportation, housing, Digitalization and IT connectivity, e-governance, environment sustainability, provide safety and security for the inhabitants of the cities, healthcare and education (Moik et al. 2021). According to the nature of cities and areas, construction of smart cities is categorized as re-development, retrofitting, PAN city (Gupta & Hall, 2017). So, smart cities are transformed according to the new areas, existing areas. ...
"In India, cities populations are expanding due to the growing interest of the populations and to avail advance facilities. Most of the cities are overcrowded and for that reason cities need to be developed. To provide advance facilities and for betterment of the life, cities in India are modernized and re developed as a smart or intelligent city. Smart City is highly enriched and progressive city in context of technology emergence. Therefore, the smart city far ahead than normal city regarding area development, technology based smart applications and planning of the city. Many cities are approved and also wait for the approval for development as a smart city in India. Numerous projects of smart city are designed according different perspective of city. ICT has huge impact on smart city-based project to build intelligent or automated solutions. Cities economy depends on the population growth. Economic condition of the cities much better than village or town. Growth of the urbanization accelerate very fast according to the increasing demand and potentialities. Economic impacts on the society and urbanization analyzed in this paper. Fund allocated for the various projects of smart cities. Various projects in different fields and estimated funds approved for development of projects analysis in this paper."
... Hence, its adoption in evaluation schemes shall vary based on regional scope and financial resources. Previous studies that categorize smart city components for different objectives report reduced objectivity in their study due to lack of consistency resulting from the use of different terminology for similar components [71,72]. We encounter similar limitations in our study. ...
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Cities all over the world are in search for a sustainable solution to address the problems associated with urbanization. Holistic smart cities have a multidimensional point of view for future cities. This paper pools components of smart cities and deconstructs the complicated holistic smart cities. The pooled data comes from 29 studies, consisting of 23 performance evaluation schemes and 6 indicator sets that cover 15 countries plus 6 broad geographic regions. On the basis of recurrent themes amongst smart city components, we categorize the components into 9 sub categories and 3 main categories. The results verify that the 6 predetermined components namely, Economy, People, Environment, Mobility, Living and Governance are inalienable from the holistic approach. Novel and unique components that emerge from the study, such as Technology, Infrastructure, Energy, Pandemic Resiliency, Legal, Demography and Propagation substantiate the dynamic nature of the holistic perspective. We recommend that for accurate and better holistic evaluation of smart cities, evaluation schemes need to assimilate varied smart city components from the 3 main categories in a balanced manner. This adds value to the holistic approach and allows diversity and context specificity to thrive in smart city components making them holistic in the true sense. The study is beneficial for policymakers and researchers for holistic measurement of smart city performance.
... Hence, its adoption in evaluation schemes shall vary based on regional scope and financial resources. Previous studies that categorize smart city components for different objectives report reduced objectivity in their study due to lack of consistency resulting from the use of different terminology for similar components [71,72]. We encounter similar limitations in our study. ...
Full-text available
Cities all over the world are in search for a sustainable solution to address the problems associated with urbanization. Holistic smart cities have a multidimensional point of view for future cities. This paper pools components of smart cities and deconstructs the complicated holistic smart cities. The pooled data comes from 29 studies, consisting of 23 performance evaluation schemes and 6 indicator sets that cover 15 countries plus 6 broad geographic regions. On the basis of recurrent themes amongst smart city components, we categorize the components into 9 sub categories and 3 main categories. The results verify that the 6 predetermined components namely, Economy, People, Environment, Mobility, Living and Governance are inalienable from the holistic approach. Novel and unique components that emerge from the study, such as Technology, Infrastructure, Energy, Pandemic Resiliency, Legal, Demography and Propagation substantiate the dynamic nature of the holistic perspective. We recommend that for accurate and better holistic evaluation of smart cities, evaluation schemes need to assimilate varied smart city components from the 3 main categories in a balanced manner. This adds value to the holistic approach and allows diversity and context specificity to thrive in smart city components making them holistic in the true sense. The study is beneficial for policymakers and researchers for holistic measurement of smart city performance.
... Most Indian cities focus on adopting smart city plans to improve their infrastructure and connectivity for human and socio-economic development (K. Gupta and Hall 2017;. At present, urban areas comprise around 56.1% of the total world population, with this figure anticipated to climb to 68% by 2050 (United Nations 2018). ...
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Urban expansion and land surface temperature (LST) fluctuations have been negatively influenced by rapid urbanisation, which degrades the urban thermal environment. This study has endeavoured to incorporate future urban growth modelling and assess the impact of urbanization on LST over Indore City, India, using temporal Landsat satellite data for the years 2010, 2015 and 2020. The present study has utilized the Cellular Automata (CA) model to project future urban growth for the year 2025. The result shows that the built-up land has increased by 28.7% during 2010–2015 and 24.9% during 2015–2020, while a future projection of 4.7% is evident in 2025. The mean LST over the city signifies a decreasing trend during the winter and summer seasons from 2010 to 2020. Moreover, an occurrence of higher LST in the surrounding rural area is observed, witnessing cool heat island phenomenon. The urban thermal field variation index (UTFVI) map shows non-UTFVI in the urban area, which shows an increasing trend and strongest UTFVI in rural regions with decreasing trend in summer season during 2010–2020. Whereas in the winter season, the observed result suggests the opposite behaviour of UTFVI.
Smart cities are growing as a crucial area of research on an international level; they improve infrastructure to address issues brought on by the high rate of development. With Arduino's assistance, this system is cheap and simple to construct, and it operates relatively efficiently in locations with medium traffic. The public plays a significant role in deciding on policies to fight air pollution. To encourage public recognition of the duty and some form of action is a crucial role in any society. The studies determined the pollution level; if the level exceeds the permissible level, a decision is made to notify the authoñties, who can use this information to plan preventive actions and take steps to halt tile ongoing negative effects of air pollution and prevent the evolution of developments in technology are beneficial to us; in our current surroundings, air pollution monitoring systems play an important role since they directly affect our daily lives. The government determines the acceptable emission limits in accordance with Bharat Stage standards. The level of a vehicle's emissions rises as a result of incorrect maintenance. The owner of the car will be warned of the dangerous levels of pollution when the emission levels of the vehicle grow.There will be emissions from every car. Emissions cannot be totally avoided, but they may be tracked and managed with the use of an embedded pollution detection system. In order to provide some insightful ideas for the sustainable growth of urban traffic, it focuses on learning some achievable strategies for managing and effectively reducing urban traffic pollution
This paper focuses on the concept of the smart city and the factors that work for its formation. One of them is related to the size of the city. The concept of the “smart city” has been particularly widespread in recent years both within the academic community and more widely in the field of self-government and society itself. In this context, emerging ‘smart city’ strategies around the world, with an emphasis on ‘smart citizens’ and their role in shaping smart cities, are at the center of research, business and policy initiatives. Since the size of cities in Greece varies significantly, it is important to investigate whether this particular characteristic affects the process of transforming cities into smart cities.For this reason, the paper focuses on the investigation of the concept of the smart city and its specific components, in relation to the importance of size, through the conduct of a qualitative research on representatives of different sized municipalities in Greece.The results of the research highlight the fact that the idea of smart cities in Greek local society is more widespread in urban centers. In addition, in the smaller cities the daily communication and contact of the citizens with the representatives of the local authority is a primary way of citizen participation. Finally, the size of the municipalities under study seems to have a significant impact on issues related to staffing, resources, the operation of economies of scale, etc. and which determine the operational capacity of each municipality.KeywordsSmart citiescity sizecitizens participation
Conference Paper
The 100 Smart Cities Mission in India was launched by Honorable Prime Minister Narendra Modi on June 25, 2015, with an objective to promote sustainable and inclusive cities that provide core infrastructure to give a decent quality of life, a clean and sustainable environment through application of some smart solutions such as data driven traffic management, intelligent lighting systems, etc. This paper gives an insight into the method of using a smart pole, various IoT devices used in a smart pole and their usage in creating smart applications. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the current methods of using smart pole, the challenges faced & propose a solution for the challenges and how the use of smart poles can be extended to the suburbs of the smart cities so that some of the UNSDG goals like disaster risk reduction, access to information can be addressed.
Conference Paper
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In the modern urban space, cities are crumbling under the burden of urbanization. Holistic smart cities offer a multifaceted point of view for future cities. By compiling data on smart city components from 23 evaluation schemes, covering 13 countries and 4 geographic regions, this study dissects the intricate nature of comprehensive smart cities. We divide the smart city components into 9 sub categories and 3 main categories based on recurring themes among smart city components. The findings demonstrate that the six predefined components—Economy, People, Environment, Mobility, Living, and Governance—are inextricably linked to the holistic approach. New components including Technology, Infrastructure, Energy, Pandemic Resiliency that result from the study endorse the dynamic nature of the holistic smart cities. We propose that the three major categories should be represented in a well-balanced manner in the assessment schemes for reliable and better holistic evaluation of smart cities. As a result, the holistic approach gains value and smart cities become truly holistic by fostering diversity and context-specificity. Researchers and policy-makers can use the study to upgrade evaluation schemes for analyzing smart cities holistically.
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This study aimed to analyze the mission and vision statements on the strategic plans of higher education institutions. The sample of the study consisted of 72 public universities. Strategic plans of the universities were accessed over the internet, and the data collected were analyzed using content analysis. The findings show that statements on providing services for the education of a qualified work force are the most common on the mission statements of the universities. "Having universal, sufficient, and competent knowledge" was among the most frequently used phrases on the mission statements of the universities. In vision statements, universities mostly emphasized services concerning their research function. "Becoming swell-known, leading, and respected research university both nationally and internationally" was among the most commonly underlined messages.
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Smart Cities appeared in literature in late '90s and various approaches have been developed so far. Until today, smart city does not describe a city with particular attributes but it is used to describe different cases in urban spaces: web portals that virtualize cities or city guides; knowledge bases that address local needs; agglomerations with Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure that attract business relocation; metropolitan-wide ICT infrastructures that deliver e-services to the citizens; ubiquitous environments; and recently ICT infrastructure for ecological use. Researchers, practicians, businessmen and policy makers consider smart city from different perspectives and most of them agree on a model that measures urban economy, mobility, environment, living, people and governance. On the other hand, ICT and construction industries stress to capitalize smart city and a new market seems to be generated in this domain. This chapter aims to perform a literature review, discover and classify the particular schools of thought, universities and research centres as well as companies that deal with smart city domain and discover alternative approaches, models, architecture and frameworks with this regard.
During the economic restructuring that has transformed rising Asian cities over the past half-century, retail activities have contributed gradually to urban economic growth. Previous research reveals that retail patterns have been affected not only by zoning regulations but also by urban network structures, which are often conceptualized in an overly simplified manner. As a result, this study proposes a retail spatial integrated model (RSIM) that focuses on the relationship between retail patterns and urban network structures and makes comparisons between the effectiveness of these network structures using a case study in Taipei, Taiwan. In generating the RSIM, this study uses space syntax methodology to analyze multiple network structures, including the street configuration, bus network and metro network. According to the results of this study, the RSIM has a better explanatory capacity than a general model that contains a single network structure. Overall, this study finds that both street configuration and public transportation networks influence retail patterns.
Since the late 1990s, governments at all levels have launched electronic government projects aimed at providing electronic information and services to citizens and businesses. Although Web sites are becoming essential elements of modern public administration, little is known about their effectiveness. The objective of this paper is to study the quality and usage of public e-services to citizens in Europe.According to the results of this study, e-government seems to be following a more or less predictable development pattern ranging from a stage in which interaction is limited to what is shown on the screen to stages in which there is two-way communication and service and financial transactions can be completed with a satisfactory level of protection of personal privacy. At present, e-government in almost all the cities studied is merely an extension of the government, with potential benefits in speed and accessibility 24/7. Despite the limited degree of development observed, online access has advantages that are impossible to replicate offline. Even though few expect e-government to completely replace traditional methods of information, e-government is becoming a powerful tool of transformation that has become embedded in the culture and in the agenda of the public sector.
The digital revolution that has been taking place for the past two decades propelled by major breakthroughs in the ICT field has changed the way we communicate, work, travel, live—and even the way we use public space. Our cities are increasingly moving from a collection of static buildings and infrastructures to dynamic and evolving smart ecosystems known as, Intelligent Cities. In this article we analyze an intelligent city from the electronic information and communication perspective and offer examples of variants of its implementation. An intelligent city lays its foundation on a digital-city infrastructure which connects a local community and drives growth, efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness. The high level architecture of an intelligent city ecosystem, key enabling technologies, and the necessary policy framework for the establishment of digital cities worldwide are introduced. Business models for this new ecosystem bridging the physical and virtual worlds are briefly discussed.
Few researchers have studied world cities from the perspective of sustainable development. This paper argues that in this era of globalization cities should aspire to be great cities, rather than just world cities. Great cities are places with an enlightened mode of governance; where technological and economic advancement sustain global and local development, thereby enriching socio-economic, human, cultural and environmental capital. Informed by this conceptual framework, and with the help of experts and participants in two public fora, a set of indicators was developed for benchmarking cities of the world. This study compares and contrasts five globalizing metropolises in Asia: Tokyo, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taipei and Shanghai. It is found that through progressive globalization, these cities have accumulated considerable economic wealth to build world class infrastructure. However, their ability to address sustainability concerns such as developing an enlightened mode of governance to nourish social and environmental capital remains diverse and less certain.