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The effect of extracts of Irvingia gabonensis (IGOB131) and Dichrostachys glomerata (Dyglomera™) on body weight and lipid parameters of healthy overweight participants Running Title: IGOB131 and Dyglomera™ in weight management

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Background: Previous work reported the benefits of extracts of 2 Cameroonian spices – Irvingia gabonensis and Dichrostachys glomerata— on obese people with metabolic syndrome. Considering the physio-metabolic changes that accompany obesity, the present study investigates the effects of these extracts on healthy overweight participants over an 8-week test period. Methods: The study was an 8 week randomized double-blind, placebo controlled design involving 48 overweight (BMI 26 – 30) participants (27 females and 19 males), divided into 3 groups – placebo, 300 mg I. gabonensis extract (IGOB131), or 300 mg D. glomerata extract (Dyglomera TM). Capsules containing the placebo or the test formulations were administered once daily before the main meal of the day. No major dietary changes or changes in physical activity were demonstrated during the study. Weight and blood lipid parameters were measured at baseline, and at the 4 and 8 weeks interval. Results: Compared to the placebo group, there were significant (p<0.05) reductions in weight of participants in both test groups over the 8 week period. However, these significant changes were not observed in the initial 4 weeks, even though the lipid parameters in the test groups changed significantly (p<0.05). Conclusion: The extracts of Irvingia gabonensis and Dichrostachys glomerata, at a dose of 300 mg per day, were effective in reducing weight and positively modifying lipid parameters in healthy overweight participants. Keywords:Overweight, Dichrostachys, Irvingia, waist-hip circumference, blood lipids.
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Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2015; 5(6):200-208 Page 200 of 208
Research Article Open Access
The effect of extracts of Irvingia gabonensis (IGOB131) and Dichrostachys
glomerata (Dyglomera™) on body weight and lipid parameters of healthy
overweight participants
Boris Azantsa,1,3 Dieudonne Kuate,2 Raoul Chakokam,3 Ghislain Paka,3 Barbara
Bartholomew4 and Robert Nash4*
1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea,
SW Region, Cameroon; 2Program in Nutrition, School of Health Sciences Universiti Sains
Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian Kelantan, Malaysia; 3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of
Science, BP 812, University of Yaounde 1, Yaounde, Cameroon; 4PhytoQuest Limited, Plas
Gogerddan, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion SY23 3EB, UK
*Corresponding author: Robert Nash, PhD, PhytoQuest Limited, Plas Gogerddan,
Aberystwyth, Ceredigion SY23 3EB, UK
Submission Date: April 4, 2015, Acceptance date: June 6, 2015: Publication date: June 9, 2015
Running Title: IGOB131 and Dyglomera™ in weight management
ABSTRACT
Background: Previous work reported the benefits of extracts of 2 Cameroonian spices Irvingia
gabonensis and Dichrostachys glomerata on obese people with metabolic syndrome.
Considering the physio-metabolic changes that accompany obesity, the present study investigates
the effects of these extracts on healthy overweight participants over an 8-week test period.
Methods: The study was an 8 week randomized double-blind, placebo controlled design
involving 48 overweight (BMI 26 30) participants (27 females and 19 males), divided into 3
groups placebo, 300 mg I. gabonensis extract (IGOB131), or 300 mg D. glomerata extract
(DyglomeraTM). Capsules containing the placebo or the test formulations were administered once
daily before the main meal of the day. No major dietary changes or changes in physical activity
were demonstrated during the study. Weight and blood lipid parameters were measured at
baseline, and at the 4 and 8 weeks interval.
Results: Compared to the placebo group, there were significant (p<0.05) reductions in weight of
participants in both test groups over the 8 week period. However, these significant changes were
not observed in the initial 4 weeks, even though the lipid parameters in the test groups changed
significantly (p<0.05).
Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2015; 5(6):200-208 Page 201 of 208
Conclusion: The extracts of Irvingia gabonensis and Dichrostachys glomerata, at a dose of 300
mg per day, were effective in reducing weight and positively modifying lipid parameters in
healthy overweight participants.
Keywords: Overweight, Dichrostachys, Irvingia, waist-hip circumference, blood lipids.
INTRODUCTION
Obesity is a multifaceted disease which generally leads to several complications and increased
morbidity and mortality related to coronary heart diseases, diabetes type 2, metabolic syndrome,
stroke and cancers [1, 2]. To become obese, healthy individuals generally experience progression
from normal weight, to being overweight (considered generally as being healthy), and finally to
obese (considered as being an unhealthy or diseased state). Treatment or management of obesity
is difficult, due the complexity of associated complications. Therefore, attempts to prevent
progression in body weight and fat accumulation, from an overweight/pre-obese condition to
obesity, can lower worldwide mortality rates related to obesity. This study investigates the
effects of the extracts of Irvingia gabonensis (IGOB131) and Dichrostachys glomerata
(DyglomeraTM) on healthy overweight participants over an 8-week test period.
PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS
A total of 48 overweight participants aged between 23 and 55 years were selected from a group
of 220 overweight and obese persons responding to a radio advertisement in Yaoundé,
Cameroon. After physical examination and laboratory screening tests, diabetics, pregnant and
lactating women were excluded. All participants were judged as healthy (normal range of
temperature, no clinical consultation within the previous 2 weeks) by the resident physician, and
were not on any weight reducing protocol. The purpose, nature and potential risks of the study
were explained to all patients and a written informed consent was obtained before their
participation. The local research ethics committee approved the experimental protocol.
Study design: Participants were given one of three different types of capsules containing either
300mg of Irvingia gabonensis extract (IGOB131, with ≥7% albumin and 1% ellagic acid), 300
mg of hydroethanolic (90:10, water :ethanol) extract of Dichrostachys glomerata
(Dyglomera™) or oat bran (placebo). The capsules were taken one-half hour before the main
meal with a glass of warm water. Capsules were identical in shape, colour, and appearance, with
neither participant nor researchers knowing what capsule they received. During the 8 week
experimental period, participants were examined weekly, with their body weight, body fat, waist
and hip circumferences recorded each time. Subjective findings, such as increased or decreased
appetite, feeling of lightness and gastrointestinal pains, were individually noted. The participants
were also interviewed about their physical activity and food intake during the trial, and were
instructed not to modify these habits.
Anthropometric measurements: The heights of participants were measured during the first
visit and their weights at each subsequent visit. BMI was also calculated, and served as a basis of
inclusion or exclusion in the study. The percent body fat was measured with a Tanita™ BC-418
Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2015; 5(6):200-208 Page 202 of 208
Body Composition Analyzer/Scale, while waist and hip circumferences were measured with a
soft non-stretchable plastic tape. In an effort to ensure intra-individual consistency, the
participants were measured at approximately the same time of the day for each visit.
Laboratory methods: Blood samples were collected after a 12h overnight fast into heparinized
tubes at the beginning of the study, after four weeks, and at the end (8 weeks) of treatment. The
concentrations of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, HDL-cholesterol, in plasma were measured
using a commercial diagnostic kit (Cholesterol infinity, triglycerides Int, EZ HDLTM cholesterol
from SIGMA Diagnostics. LDL_cholesterol values were calculated using the Friedwald equation.
Statistical Analysis: Results are expressed as mean SEM. Paired Student’s t-test was used on
the start and end values of placebo and test capsules, and also on the differences between the
placebo and test groups. In the tables in the same row, values with different letters (a, b) are
significantly different at p < 0.05 and p <0.01 respectively.
RESULTS
There were 3 dropouts, two of whom relocated to a different town, and the third, who gave no
specific reason. No adverse side effects were reported.
Effect of IGOB131 and Dyglomera™ on Body weight
Overweight participants who received either IGOB131 or Dyglomera (300mg daily) for 8 weeks
had significantly (p<0.05) greater reduction in body weight compared to those on placebo (Table
1a). This reduction in body weight corresponded to a 9-10% reduction in BMI (Table 1b).
Table 1 a: The effect of IGOB131 and Dyglomera™ on body weight (kg)
T0
T4
T8
Variation (%)
Placebo
73.51 ± 1.08a
72.76 ± 1.28a
72.26 ± 1.25a
-1.74 ± 0.38a
Test IGOB
74.07 ± 0.85a
70.25 ± 0.90a
66.66 ± 0.89b
-10.00 ± 0.58b
Test Dyglo
70.56 ± 0.83a
67.42 ± 1.19b
64.28 ± 1.09b
-8.92 ± 0.80b
Values are means ± sem
There was a slight but insignificant decrease in weight and BMI for participants taking placebo
over the 8 -week test period.
Table 1b: The effect of IGOB131 and Dyglomera™ on BMI (kg/m2)
T0
T4
T8
Placebo
27.58 ± 0.60a
27.27 ± 0.56a
27.08 ± 0.59a
Test IGOB
27.31 ± 0.51a
25.89 ± 0.48a
24.58 ± 0.48b
Test Dyglo
26.67 ± 1.84a
25.45 ± 0.50b
24.30 ± 0.63b
Values are means ± sem
Body weight, BMI, % body fat, and waist-to- hip circumferences were slightly (1.3%, 0.8
cm, 2.0 cm respectively) reduced in the placebo group over the 8 week trial period. However,
Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2015; 5(6):200-208 Page 203 of 208
IGOB131, as well as Dyglomera™, brought about a more significant reduction in these
parameters (Tables 1c, 1d and 1e).
Table 1c: The effect of IGOB131 and Dyglomera™ on body fat (%)
T0
T4
T8
Variation (%)
Placebo
37.4 ± 2.4a
37.2 ± 1.5a
36.1 ± 1.6a
-1.3 ± 0.2a
Test IGOB
36.8 ± 1.4a
34.9 ± 2.3b
31.7 ± 1.8b
-5.1 ± 0.3b
Test Dyglo
37.6 ± 2.8a
35.3 ± 1.5b
32.3 ± 1.5b
-5.3 ± 0.5b
Values are means ± sem.
Table 1d: The effect of IGOB131 and Dyglomera™ on waist circumference (cm)
T0
T4
T8
Variation (%)
Placebo
87.6 ± 2.5a
87.2 ± 1.7a
86.8 ± 1.8a
-0.8 ± 0.3a
Test IGOB
86.3 ± 2.3a
84.9 ± 2.3a
83.2 ± 1.6b
-3.1 ± 0.3b
Test Dyglo
86.8 ± 1.8a
85.1 ± 1.6b
83.1 ± 1.3b
-3.7 ± 0.6b
Values are means ± sem.
Table 1e: The effect of IGOB131 and Dyglomera™ on hip circumference (cm)
T0
T4
T8
Variation (%)
Placebo
92.8 ± 2.6a
91.7 ± 2.4a
90.8 ± 2.3a
-2.0 ± 0.4a
Test IGOB
91.6 ± 3.1a
87.8 ± 3.3a
85.3 ± 2.8b
-6.3 ± 1.2b
Test Dyglo
92.7 ± 2.4a
90.3 ± 2.5b
88.4 ± 0.6b
-4.3 ± 1.3b
Values are means ± sem.
Effect of IGOB131 and Dyglomera™ on Blood lipids
Eight-week use of IGOB131 by overweight participants reduced plasma total cholesterol by
10.5%, LDL-cholesterol by 24.7%, and triacylglycerol by 12.2%. This treatment also increased
the concentration of HDL-cholesterol by 12.1% (Tables 2, 3, 4). A similar change in these
parameters was observed in the Dyglomera™ group; 8.45% for total cholesterol, 17.27% for
LDL-cholesterol and 14.30% for triglycerides. There was also a 13.36% increase in HDL-
cholesterol.
Table 2: The effect of IGOB131 and Dyglomera™ on total cholesterol (mg/dL)
T0
T4
T8
Variation (%)
Placebo
187.81 ± 2.75a
186.28 ± 3.04a
183.13 ± 2.82a
-2.20 ± 0.36a
Test IGOB
186.53 ± 2.63a
174.64 ± 2.48b
166.76 ± 2.42b
-10.50 ± 0.85b
Test Dyglo
190.72 ± 2.47a
181.09 ± 2.65a
174.56 ± 3.13a
-8.45 ± 1.32b
Values are means ± sem.
Table 3: The effect of IGOB131 and Dyglomera™ on triglycerides (mg/dL)
Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2015; 5(6):200-208 Page 204 of 208
T0
T4
T8
Variation (%)
Placebo
61.94 ± 2.41a
59.76 ± 2.16a
58.19 ± 2.82a
-5.75 ± 1.57a
Test IGOB
56.55 ± 2.42a
52.00 ± 2.06b
49.53 ± 2.08b
-12.20 ± 1.13b
Test Dyglo
58.63 ± 2.52a
52.76 ± 1.98b
50.40 ± 1.74b
-14.30 ± 1.55b
Values are means ± sem.
Table 4: The effect of IGOB131 and Dyglomera™ on LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)
T0
T4
T8
Variation (%)
Placebo
108.64 ± 2.78a
107.30 ± 3.16a
103.40 ± 2.82a
-4.85 ± 0.87a
Test IGOB
106.40 ± 3.29a
90.45 ± 3.10b
80.05 ± 2.97b
-24.76 ± 1.29b
Test Dyglo
123.00 ± 4.04b
110.76 ± 2.84a
101.43 ± 3.04a
-17.27 ± 1.82b
Values are means ± sem.
Over the 8-week test period, the circulating levels of HDL-cholesterol were also significantly
increased (p<0.05) by Dyglomera™, as well as IGOB131 (Table 5).
Table 5: The effect of IGOB131 and Dyglomera™ on HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)
T0
T4
T8
Variation (%)
Placebo
66.78 ± 1.38a
67.02 ± 1.48a
68.09 ± 1.45a
1.98 ± 0.69a
Test IGOB
68.81 ± 1.12a
73.79 ± 1.00b
76.80 ± 0.81b
12.06 ± 1.59b
Test Dyglo
65.52 ± 2.08a
70.47 ± 3.05b
74.25 ± 2.53b
13.36 ± 2.26b
Values are means ± sem.
DISCUSSION
Results demonstrated that the extracts at a dose of 300 mg per day, were effective in significantly
reducing weight, BMI, body fat, waist circumference, and hip circumference. IGOB131 and
DyglomeraTM also positively modified lipid parameters in healthy overweight participants. These
findings are superior to the majority of other randomized double-blind placebo-controlled
clinical trials evaluating medicinal plant extracts, herbs and spices. For example, recently, an 8-
week study carried out on 78 overweight subjects with Cuminum cyminum L. and Orlistat 120,
showed significant decreases in weight (-1.1 ± 1.2 and -0.9 ± 1.5 vs. 0.2 ± 1.5 kg, respectively, p
= 0.002) and BMI (-0.4 ± 0.5 and -0.4 ± 0.6 vs. 0.1 ± 0.6 kg/m2, respectively, p = 0.003), in
addition to beneficial effects on insulin metabolism compared with placebo [3]. Comparing those
results to our study, the reduction in weight observed is nine times higher with IGOB131 and
eight times higher with DyglomeraTM than C. cyminum. IGOB131 and DyglomeraTM reduced
BMI 25 times and 22 times respectively, more effective than C. cyminum in overweight subjects
and maintaining participants within a healthy BMI bracket.
The activity of plant extracts can be explained through the action some of their components
have on body-fat metabolism and oxidation or increasing metabolic rate [1]. This has been
Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2015; 5(6):200-208 Page 205 of 208
demonstrated in trials with epigallocatechin-3-gallate of green tea, virgin olive oil, and Lycium
barbarum causing higher fat oxidation in human. The compounds may act by activating lipid
metabolism, acceleration of oxidation, suppression of fatty acid synthesis and PPARc agonistic
activity in overweight individuals, as well as in obese patients.
IGOB131 and DyglomeraTM have previously proven their activities with overweight and/or
obese volunteers (defined as BMI > 25 kg/m2). In a previous study [4] on 102 healthy
overweight and obese participants who were administered a dose of 150 mg twice daily before
meals, there were significant improvements in body weight, body fat, and waist circumference,
as well as plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, blood glucose, C-reactive protein,
adiponectin and leptin levels compared to a placebo group. IGOB131 was also very active in
overweight participants in this study. In both obese and overweight groups, IGOB131 activity
was attributed to the ability of the extracts to favorably impact adipogenesis through a variety of
critical metabolic pathways, including PPAR gamma, leptin, adiponectin, and glycerol-3
phosphate dehydrogenase [5]. Furthermore, compared to the placebo group, the obese group
treated with Dyglomera demonstrated a significant average weight reduction of 11.15 kg (-
11.33% of total body weight) (p < 0.001) after 8 weeks of treatment (Table 1a). This reduction in
weight was accompanied by a loss of visceral fat, as measured by waist circumference and lipid
profiles [6]. The same trend was observed with overweight participants (Tables 2, 3, 4, 5).
The present study clearly demonstrates that administration of IGOB131 and Dyglomera™
can be used to prevent and manage weight increase, specifically targeting to limit the progression
to obesity and the myriad of its complications. The antioxidant properties of both extracts have
been intensively documented, and are suggested to be involved with curative activity [7].
However, there are only a few and controversial studies on oxidative stress in overweight
subjects compared to obesity studies [8]. For example, one study demonstrated that oxidative
stress increases with increasing BMI and age, as a sequel to an impaired antioxidant status, in
addition to an increase of peroxides and uric acid and a disadvantaged lipid profile in overweight
subjects. In contrast, another study [9] demonstrated that oxidative stress is not involved in the
overweight status. However, it is established that lipid peroxidation is associated with several
indices of adiposity and a low systemic antioxidant defense (i.e. antioxidant enzymes, tissue
dietary antioxidants, glutathione [10], and leading to oxidative stress. In fact, in stress conditions
ROS levels increase; because of their high reactivity, they are involved in cell damage, necrosis,
and apoptosis, via oxidation of lipids, proteins, and DNA, in addition to provoking an endothelial
dysfunction, infiltration, and activation of inflammatory cells [11]. The anti-oxidant property of
the IGOB131 used in this study can be attributed to the presence of ellagic acid (EA). This
polyphenolic compound has been shown to be antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory [12, 13].
Additionally, its efficacy in the management of obesity and metabolic syndrome has previously
been reported [6].
The present study has also proven the capacity of these extracts to reduce body fat (Table
1c), waist and hip circumferences (Tables 1d and 1e respectively), total cholesterol (Table 2),
triglyceride (Table 3), and LDL cholesterol levels (Table 4) in overweight participants. The
observed reduction may be due to the presence of EA in IGOB131. In fact, lipid accumulation
both in adipose tissue and liver are associated with increasing weight; progression to an
overweight condition [13] and changes in weight are partially due to the metabolic reactions and
Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2015; 5(6):200-208 Page 206 of 208
differentiation occurring in the adipose tissue. This can explain hypertrophy and hyperplastic
expansion of adipocytes associated with being overweight and obese. Furthermore, EA has a
lipid-lowering dietary compound; its inhibitory effects on adipogenesis seem to be associated, at
least partly, with epigenetic modification. EA decreases hepatic lipid accumulation by targeting
multiple mechanisms including FFA synthesis, TG sterification and FFA oxidation. In a recent
study [12], there was evidence that EA plays separate, differing roles in manipulating excess
lipid in adipocytes and hepatocytes, resulting in a synergistic attenuation the progression from
overweight state to obesity and hepatic steatosis. EA also exerted the distinctive lipid-lowering
properties to decrease biosynthesis of FA in both adipocytes and hepatocytes, but augmented FA
oxidation only in hepatocytes. The presence of EA in extracts has also been shown to be
effective in reducing atherosclerotic lesions and increasing cholesterol efflux in macrophages.
Additionally, constituents of IGOB131 and Dyglomera including EA, may act via modulation of
the expression of PPAR- gamma required for maintenance of the differentiated state of
adipocytes, which has been reported to be involved in lipid accumulation and decreased
expression of adipocyte markers. Several other transcription factors are likely to play an
important role in the molecular control of adipogenesis like C/EBPs [14]. The presence of
albumin in IGOB131 extracts may also contribute to the activity observed, although the function
is not well understood. Albumin has been demonstrated to bind reversibly to many endogenous
molecules (e.g., fatty acids), as well as pharmacologic agents [15]. It is speculated that this
combination to other constituents can play a much more important role in buffering against
sudden changes in absorption, thereby providing more consistent blood levels, similar to like
detemir, an insulin preparation [16]. Albumin may also contribute to prolonged duration of
action caused by some of the active compounds in our extracts. Other studies proved that the
addition of molecules like albumin, a soluble 66.5 kD monomeric, leads to significant
improvement in the solubility of the poorly soluble compounds [17. 18]. Another explanation for
the role of albumin in weight reduction and lipid profile can be described from its presence in
Whey protein. In fact, the presence of albumin in whey, a dietary protein which stimulates
energy expenditure, has a greater thermogenic effect in the postprandial period compared to
carbohydrates and fats, and additionally decreases energy intake through mechanisms that
influence appetite. Whey amino acids on insulin secretion, incretin hormones released from the
gut, also seem to be involved, in particular gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) and glucagon-like
peptide 1 (GLP-1). Furthermore, the presence of albumin in our extracts could influence
absorption process at the intestinal level, considering that the postprandial rate of protein
synthesis also depends on the speed of protein absorption and that fast absorbing protein has an
anabolic effect [19].
Abbreviations Used: GLP1, glucagon-like peptide; GIP, gastric inhibitory peptide; BMI, body
mass index; FFA, free fatty acids; TG, triglyceride; PPAR, peroxisome proliferator-activated
receptors; EA; ellagic acid; ROS, reactive oxygen species; LDL, low density lipoprotein; HDL,
high density lipoprotein ; DG, Dyglomera, extract of Dichrostachys glomerata; IGOB131,
extract of Irvingia gabonensis.
Competing Interests: The authors have no financial interests or conflicts of interest.
Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2015; 5(6):200-208 Page 207 of 208
Authors’ Contributions: All authors contributed to this study.
Acknowledgements and Funding: The authors would like to thank the School of Health
Sciences, Universiti Sains, Malaysia for financial support for Dieudonne Kuate and also for an
ICCBS-TWAS Sandwich Postgraduate Fellowship for Ghislain Paka.
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5.
... reported [8,9,10,11]. Ellagic acid has been part of traditional diets and used as a functional food ingredient worldwide with its action reported in many physiological and pharmacological studies [12,13]. ...
... Ellagic acid has been part of traditional diets and used as a functional food ingredient worldwide with its action reported in many physiological and pharmacological studies [12,13]. Intake of food containing I. gabonensis-derived ellagic acid improved body weight, BMI, body fat ratio, triglycerides (TG), and waist circumference in overweight individuals [11]. Furthermore, intake of ellagic acid in I. gabonensis extract has been reported to be effective for body weight and body fat reduction. ...
... The latter would take an ellagic acid-containing capsule (3.0 mg/day). Twenty participants per group was the estimated enrollment for this study, and was based on a previous study on the effects of taking capsules containing I. gabonensis-derived ellagic acid (3 mg/day) for eight consecutive weeks on body weight and lipid parameters in overweight individuals (14 in the placebo group, 16 in the I. gabonensis-derived ellagic acid capsule group) [11]. The trial started with 44 subjects (22 in the placebo group and 22 in the ellagic acid group), who started taking the IP or placebo and comprised the full analysis set (FAS). ...
... reported [8,9,10,11]. Ellagic acid has been part of traditional diets and used as a functional food ingredient worldwide with its action reported in many physiological and pharmacological studies [12,13]. ...
... Ellagic acid has been part of traditional diets and used as a functional food ingredient worldwide with its action reported in many physiological and pharmacological studies [12,13]. Intake of food containing I. gabonensis-derived ellagic acid improved body weight, BMI, body fat ratio, triglycerides (TG), and waist circumference in overweight individuals [11]. Furthermore, intake of ellagic acid in I. gabonensis extract has been reported to be effective for body weight and body fat reduction. ...
... The latter would take an ellagic acid-containing capsule (3.0 mg/day). Twenty participants per group was the estimated enrollment for this study, and was based on a previous study on the effects of taking capsules containing I. gabonensis-derived ellagic acid (3 mg/day) for eight consecutive weeks on body weight and lipid parameters in overweight individuals (14 in the placebo group, 16 in the I. gabonensis-derived ellagic acid capsule group) [11]. The trial started with 44 subjects (22 in the placebo group and 22 in the ellagic acid group), who started taking the IP or placebo and comprised the full analysis set (FAS). ...
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Background: Worldwide, those categorized as overweight or obese are increasing at an alarming rate, posing a serious public health problem. Current management methods vary, ranging from surgery, dieting and exercise, to the use of synthetic and natural compounds. Previous studies reported the use of an Irvingia gabonensis extract containing ellagic acid in reducing weight and other related parameters in overweight participants. The present study investigated the efficacy of ellagic acid on anthropometric parameters as well as body fat ratio and blood triglyceride levels in otherwise healthy overweight Japanese adults.Participants and Methods: Overall, 32 participants (23 males and 9 females) aged between 20 and 64 years with a BMI of 25 or more but less than 30 kg/m2 and a visceral fat area of 80 cm2 or more were included in this randomized double-blind clinical trial. The 20-week intervention involved two groups of participants -placebo group and ellagic acid (3.0 mg per day) group. The placebo or ellagic acid was taken daily with water 30 minutes before the main meal. At baseline (T0) and at 6 and 12 weeks, anthropometric measurements (body weight, BMI, body fat ratio, waist circumference, hip circumference), CT scans and blood triglyceride levels were measured. Results: Compared to the placebo, ellagic acid brought about statistically significant reductions in body fat ratio, triglycerides, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and visceral fat over the twelve-week trial period.Conclusion: The use of 3.0 mg ellagic acid daily for a 12-week period was effective in reducing body fat ratio and blood triglycerides as well as other anthropometric parameters, confirming the potential use of ellagic acid in the management of overweight patients. Keywords: Ellagic acid, Irvingia gabonensis, overweight, obesity, body fat, triglyceride, body weight, metabolic syndrome.
... One additional article was identified by the manual search. Then, we conducted full-text screening of 11 articles and finally included 5 RCT studies (8,18,(21)(22)(23). The process of the literature search and paper selection is summarized in Figure 1. ...
... Each included RCT reported more than one outcome of interest ( Table 1). The ROB assessments for individual studies are presented in Table 2. Two out of the five included RCTs were commercially funded (22,23), while one RCT was supported by an academic institution (21). The remaining two RCTs did not report the source of funding (8,18). ...
... Four RCTs were conducted in Cameroon (2 RCTs were from the same group of investigators) with adults who were overweight or obese (8,(21)(22)(23). All four RCTs were rated as having a high ROB. ...
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Background: It has been hypothesized that Irvingia gabonensis can promote weight loss by increasing fatty acid breakdown and inhibiting fatty acid synthesis. Objective: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Irvingia gabonensis seed extract supplementation on weight-related health outcomes. Methods: Literature searches were conducted in 4 databases from January 2018 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of Irvingia gabonensis seed extract supplementation on anthropometric measures and cardiovascular biomarkers. Two investigators independently performed abstract screenings, full-text screenings, data extraction, and risk of bias (ROB) assessments. Random effects meta-analyses were performed when 3 or more RCTs reported the same outcome. Results: Five RCTs met the eligibility criteria for this systematic review. Four of the 5 RCTs were rated as having a high ROB, and only one RCT was rated as having a low ROB. Random-effects meta-analysis of the 5 RCTs showed that a significant decrease in body weight, body fat, and waist circumference was observed in relation to Irvingia gabonensis seed extract supplementation. However, the only one low-ROB trial did not have significantly different outcomes. Meta-analysis also showed beneficial effects of Irvingia gabonensis seed extract supplementation on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Only the low-ROB trial showed a trend of increasing HDL-cholesterol levels (net percent change = 11.61%; 95% confidence interval (CI: −6.12%, 29.34%) and decreasing triglyceride levels (net percent change = −29%; 95% CI: −76%, 19%). The reported adverse events were minor in these 5 RCTs. Conclusions: Overall efficacy of Irvingia gabonensis seed extract supplementation on weight loss seems positive but is limited due to poor methodological quality and the insufficient reporting of the clinical trials. Further high quality RCTs are needed to determine the effectiveness of Irvingia gabonensis seed extract supplement on the weight-related health outcomes.
... Dyglomera ® is a standardized powder prepared by extracting D. glomerata fruit pods with aqueous ethanol followed by concentration and drying. Dyglomera ® also has anti-inflammatory and fat regulation activity in obese patients with metabolic syndrome [14,15]. Also, Dyglomera ® has been reported to be safe in a subchronic study in rats and genotoxicity tests [16]. ...
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Dyglomera® is an aqueous ethanol extract of the fruit pods of Dichrostachys glomerata, a Cameroonian spice. Several studies have shown its anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects. However, the underlying mechanisms for such effects remain unclear. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effect of Dyglomera® and its underlying mechanisms in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results revealed that Dyglomera® inhibited adipogenesis and lipogenesis by regulating AMPK phosphorylation in white adipose tissues (WATs) and 3T3-L1 adipocytes and promoted lipolysis by increasing the expression of lipolysis-related proteins. These results suggest that Dyglomera® can be used as an effective dietary supplement for treating obesity due to its modulating effect on adipogenesis/lipogenesis and lipolysis.
... In addition to providing essential nutrients, many tree products have medicinal properties [222,[337][338][339][340]. For example, the seeds of I. gabonensis show antimicrobial and antioxidant activities [341,342], as well as the ability to improve liver and kidney functions. Furthermore, there are reports of suitability for the management and control of body weight, with benefits on Type 2 diabetes by lowering blood glucose level and ameliorating the lipid profile [343][344][345][346][347], as well as its seed extract having a nephrocurative effect on acetaminophen-induced kidney damage due to their flavonoid content [348]. Additionally, studies on I. gabonensis in Nigeria have revealed biochemical properties conferring higher antioxidant activity and potentially enhancing their range of medicinal, food or cosmetic uses [341], creating new market opportunities. ...
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This paper follows the transition from ethnobotany to a deeper scientific understanding of the food and medicinal properties of African agroforestry tree products as inputs into the start of domestication activities. It progresses on to the integration of these indigenous trees as new crops within diversified farming systems for multiple social, economic and environmental benefits. From its advent in the 1990s, the domestication of indigenous food and non-food tree species has become a global programme with a strong African focus. This review of progress in the third decade is restricted to progress in Africa, where multi-disciplinary research on over 59 species has been reported in 759 research papers in 318 science publications by scientists from over 833 research teams in 70 countries around the world (532 in Africa). The review spans 23 research topics presenting the recent research literature for tree species of high priority across the continent, as well as that in each of the four main ecological regions: the humid zone of West and Central Africa; the Sahel and North Africa; the East African highlands and drylands; and the woody savannas of Southern Africa. The main areas of growth have been the nutritional/medicinal value of non-timber forest products; the evaluation of the state of natural resources and their importance to local people; and the characterization of useful traits. However, the testing of putative cultivars; the implementation of participatory principles; the protection of traditional knowledge and intellectual property rights; and the selection of elite trees and ideotypes remain under-researched. To the probable detriment of the upscaling and impact in tropical agriculture, there has been, at the international level, a move away from decentralized, community-based tree domestication towards a laboratory-based, centralized approach. However, the rapid uptake of research by university departments and national agricultural research centres in Africa indicates a recognition of the importance of the indigenous crops for both the livelihoods of rural communities and the revitalization and enhanced outputs from agriculture in Africa, especially in West Africa. Thus, on a continental scale, there has been an uptake of research with policy relevance for the integration of indigenous trees in agroecosystems and their importance for the attainment of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. To progress this in the fourth decade, there will need to be a dedicated Centre in Africa to test and develop cultivars of indigenous crops. Finally, this review underpins a holistic approach to mitigating climate change, as well as other big global issues such as hunger, poverty and loss of wildlife habitat by reaping the benefits, or ‘profits’, from investment in the five forms of Capital, described as ‘land maxing’. However, policy and decision makers are not yet recognizing the potential for holistic and transformational adoption of these new indigenous food crop opportunities for African agriculture. Is ‘political will’ the missing sixth capital for sustainable development?
... This hyperlipidemia is thought to be mediated via downregulation of PPAR-γ and subsequently affect GLUT4 and FAT/CD36 expression resulting in glucose and fatty acid transporters expression and causing hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia [65]. Irvingia gabonensis seeds have been reported to induce weight loss, antihyperlipidemia, and reduced cardiovascular disease risk factors in both animal [59][60][61][62][63][64] and human studies [66][67][68][69][70][71][72] which were reportedly mediated via downregulation of the PPAR-γ and leptin genes and upregulation of the adiponectin gene mechanisms [67]. Thus, the results of this study are in tandem with those of earlier studies. ...
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Cardiotoxicity as an off-target effect of doxorubicin therapy is a major limiting factor for its clinical use as a choice cytotoxic agent. Seeds of Irvingia gabonensis have been reported to possess both nutritional and medicinal values which include antidiabetic, weight losing, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidative effects. Protective effects of Irvingia gabonensis ethanol seed extract (IGESE) was investigated in doxorubicin (DOX)-mediated cardiotoxicity induced with single intraperitoneal injection of 15 mg/kg of DOX following the oral pretreatments of Wistar rats with 100-400 mg/kg/day of IGESE for 10 days, using serum cardiac enzyme markers (cardiac troponin I (cTI) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), cardiac tissue oxidative stress markers (catalase (CAT), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and reduced glutathione (GSH)), and cardiac histopathology endpoints. In addition, both qualitative and quantitative analyses to determine IGESE’s secondary metabolites profile and its in vitro antioxidant activities were also conducted. Results revealed that serum cTnI and LDH were significantly elevated by the DOX treatment. Similarly, activities of tissue SOD, CAT, GST, and GSH levels were profoundly reduced, while GPx activity and MDA levels were profoundly increased by DOX treatment. These biochemical changes were associated with microthrombi formation in the DOX-treated cardiac tissues on histological examination. However, oral pretreatments with 100-400 mg/kg/day of IGESE dissolved in 5% DMSO in distilled water significantly attenuated increases in the serum cTnI and LDH, prevented significant alterations in the serum lipid profile and the tissue activities and levels of oxidative stress markers while improving cardiovascular disease risk indices and DOX-induced histopathological lesions. The in vitro antioxidant studies showed IGESE to have good antioxidant profile and contained 56 major secondary metabolites prominent among which are γ-sitosterol, Phytol, neophytadiene, stigmasterol, vitamin E, hexadecanoic acid and its ethyl ester, Phytyl palmitate, campesterol, lupeol, and squalene. Overall, both the in vitro and in vivo findings indicate that IGESE may be a promising prophylactic cardioprotective agent against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, at least in part mediated via IGESE’s antioxidant and free radical scavenging and antithrombotic mechanisms. 1. Introduction Doxorubicin (otherwise known as Adriamycin) is one of the antibiotic cytotoxic agent belonging to the anthracycline class of anticancer agents [1]. Doxorubicin is known to bind to and intercalate with DNA, thereby inhibiting the resealing action of topoisomerase II during normal DNA replication needed for cancer cell division and growth [2–5]. Doxorubicin is often used in clinical setting in combination with other classes of anticancer agents as “chemo cocktail” in the management of various types of solid and blood cancers such as breast and ovarian, leukemia (acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia), Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Wilm’s tumor, neuroblastoma, and sarcoma [6–8]. For example, for breast cancer management, doxorubicin is typically combined and given with cyclophosphamide; for lymphomas and leukemias, it is combined with other cytotoxic agents to make regimens like CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin hydrochloride, vincristine sulfate, and prednisone), R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin hydrochloride, vincristine sulfate, and prednisone), and ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) [9–12]. However, the clinical use of doxorubicin have been reported to be associated with major common side effects such as pain at the injection site, anorexia, fever, nausea and vomiting, stomatitis, dyspnea, nose bleeding, alopecia, immunosuppression, weight gain, hepatic and renal injuries, and severe cardiotoxicity [3, 13], while its occasional side effects include hyperuricemia, heart failure, pericardial effusion, cardiomyopathy, conjunctivitis, and skin rashes [14, 15]. Of these side effects, cumulative and dose-related cardiomyopathy and heart failure are of grave concerns to cancer patients and managing physicians alike, thus, limiting its clinical use [16–18]. Although the pathogenesis of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity has been reported to be complex and fuzzy, the pivotal role of iron-mediated formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cannot be underscored [19]. In preventing the development of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, chemocurative and chemopreventive strategies involving the use of flavonoids, especially monoHER, have been advocated [20, 21]. MonoHER has been reported to elicit potent antioxidant, iron chelating, and carbonyl reductase inhibiting effects while still protecting the antitumor activity of anthracycline anticancer agents [22]. Similarly, the effectiveness of dexrazoxane (an iron chelating agent) [5, 23], dextromethionine [24, 25], and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors—zofenopril and lisinopril [26, 27]—in ameliorating doxorubicin-related cardiotoxicity have also been reported. These agents, especially dexrazoxane, are known to mitigate oxidative stress by chelating iron and catalytically inhibiting topoisomerase II, thus preventing doxorubicin-induced double strand DNA breaks [28, 29]. However, these chemopreventive agents are expensive and not readily accessible to patients, therefore, necessitating the need for the discovery and development of more effective but cheaper and more readily accessible alternatives especially ones of medicinal plant origin. One of these is the Irvingia gabonensis seed extract. Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Le Comte ex O’Rorke) Bail belonging to the family, Irvingiaceae, is known as African Mango (in English). Its other common names include bread tree, African wild mango, wild mango, and bush mango [30, 31], and its local names include Apon (in Yoruba, Southwest Nigeria), Ogbono (in Igbo, Southeast Nigeria), and Goron or biri (in Hausa, Northern Nigeria) [32, 33]. Irvingia gabonensis is widely cultivated in West African countries including southwest and southeast Nigeria, southern Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin, to produce its edible fruit whose seed is used in the preparation of local delicious viscous soup for swallowing yam and cassava puddings [34]. Fat extracted from its seeds is commonly known as dika fat and majorly consists of C12 and C14 fatty acids, alongside with smaller quantities of C10, C16, and C18, glycerides and proteins [34]. Irvingia gabonensis seeds are also a good source of nutrients including a variety of vitamins and minerals such as sodium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and iron. It is also a rich source of flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol), ellagic acid, mono-, di-, and tri-O-methyl-ellagic acids, and their glycosides which are potent antioxidants [35, 36]. Phytochemical analysis of its seeds showed that it contains tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, steroids, carbohydrate, volatile oils, and terpenoids [33, 37, 38] and its proximate composition of moisture , ash , crude lipid , crude fiber , and crude protein [33]. Pure compounds already isolated from the seed extract of include: methyl 2-[2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1 H-pyrrol1yl]-propanoate, kaempferol-3-0-β-D-6 (p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside and lupeol (3β-lup-20(29)-en-3-ol). Erstwhile, the antioxidant property of Irvingia gabonensis seed extract has been largely attributed to its high lupeol content [39]. In view of the above, the current study was designed at evaluating the possible protective effect of the crude non-defatted ethanol seed extract of Irvingia gabonensis against doxorubicin-mediated cardiotoxicity in rats using cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers, and histopathology results as endpoint outcomes. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Extraction Process and Calculation of Percentage Yield For Irvingia gabonensis seed extraction, 3 kg of pulverized Irvingia gabonensis dried seeds was macerated in 12 L of absolute ethanol for 72 hours after which it was continuously stirred for 1 hour before it was filtered using 180 mm of filter paper. The filtrate was then concentrated at 40°C to complete dryness using rotary evaporator. The dark-colored, oily paste-like residue left behind was weighed, stored in air- and water-proof container which was kept in a refrigerator at 4°C. This extraction process was repeated for two more times. From the stock, fresh solutions were made whenever required. % yield was calculated as 2.2. Preliminary Qualitative Phytochemical Analysis of IGESE The presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, glycosides, and reducing sugars in IGESE was detected by the simple and standard qualitative methods described by Trease and Evans [40] and Sofowora [41]. 2.3. Preliminary Quantitative Determination of Secondary Metabolites in and Phytoscan of IGESE Preliminary quantitative analysis of the secondary metabolites (including phenol, flavonoids, tannin, terpenoids, steroids, reducing sugars, saponin, and phlobatannin) in IGESE was done using methods earlier described by Olorundare et al. [42]. Similarly, using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) for phytoscan, the relative abundance of the secondary metabolites in IGESE was done using the procedures earlier described by Olorundare et al. [42]. 2.4. In Vitro Antioxidant Studies of IGESE DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP, and nitric oxide scavenging activities of IGESE were determined using the procedures earlier described by Olorundare et al. [42]. 2.5. Experimental Animals Young adult male Wistar Albino rats (aged 8-10 weeks old and body weight: 140-160 g) used in this study were obtained from the Animal House of the Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria, after an ethical approval (UERC Approval number: UERC/ASN/2020/2022) was obtained from the University of Ilorin Ethical Review Committee for Postgraduate Research. The rats were handled in accordance with international principles guiding the Use and Handling of Experimental Animals [43]. The rats were maintained on standard rat feed (Ladokun Feeds, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria) and potable water which were made available ad libitum. The rats were maintained at an ambient temperature between 28 and 30°C, humidity of , and standard (natural) photoperiod of approximately 12/12 hours of alternating light and dark periodicity. 2.6. Measurement of Body Weight The rat body weights were taken at the beginning and last of the experiment using a digital rodent weighing scale (®Virgo Electronic Compact Scale, New Delhi, India). The obtained values were expressed in grams (g). 2.7. Induction of DOX-Induced Cardiotoxicity and Treatment of Rats Prior to commencement of the experiment, rats were randomly allotted into 7 groups of 7 rats per group such that the weight difference between and within groups was not more than ±20% of the average weight of the sample population of rats used for the study. However, the choice of the therapeutic dose range of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day of IGESE was made based on the result of the orientation studies conducted. Treatments of rats with distilled water, 100-400 mg/kg/day of IGESE in 5% DMSO distilled water, 20 mg/kg/day of vitamin C (standard antioxidant drug) for 10 days, and subsequent treatment with single intraperitoneal dose (15 mg/kg) doxorubicin in 0.9% normal saline on day 11 are as indicated in Table 1. Groups Treatments Group I 10 ml/kg of distilled water given p.o. for 10 days +1 ml/kg of 0.9% normal saline given i.p. on day 11 Group II 200 mg/kg/day of IGESE in 5% DMSO-distilled water given p.o. for 10 days +1 ml/kg of 0.9% normal saline given i.p. on day 11 Group III 10 ml/kg/day of distilled water given p.o. for 10 days +15 mg/kg of doxorubicin hydrochloride in 0.9% normal saline given i.p. on day 11 Group IV 20 mg/kg/day of Vit. C dissolved in 5% DMSO-distilled water given p.o. for 10 days +15 mg/kg of doxorubicin hydrochloride in 0.9% normal saline given i.p. on day 11 Group V 100 mg/kg/day of IGESE dissolved in 5% DMSO-distilled water given p.o. for 10 days +15 mg/kg of doxorubicin hydrochloride in 0.9% normal saline given i.p. on day 11 Group VI 200 mg/kg/day of IGESE dissolved in 5% DMSO-distilled water given p.o. for 10 days +15 mg/kg of doxorubicin hydrochloride in 0.9% normal saline given i.p. on day 11 Group VII 400 mg/kg/day of IGESE dissolved in 5% DMSO-distilled water given p.o. for 10 days +15 mg/kg of doxorubicin hydrochloride in 0.9% normal saline given i.p. on day 11
... In Cameroon, many plants have also been studied for their lipid and cholesterol lowering properties. Among these, the fruits of Dichrostachys glomerata have benefited in the last ten years from special attention as a lipid-lowering plant 12,13 and this because of their high polyphenol content. 14 Recent studies show, studies shown that biological activities of some plants depend on granulometric particles of their powders. ...
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Background: Fruits of Dichrostachys glomerata have in the last ten years benefited from special attention as a lipid-lowering plant. Recent studies show that biological activities of some plants depend on granulometry of their powder particles. Aims and Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess antihyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-lipase properties of powder fractions of the fruits of Dichrostachys glomerata. Materials and Methods: The groups of rats on which the antihyperlipidemic test was done were fed with High Fat Diet and supplemented with powder fractions: ≥180μm, 212–180μm, 315–212μm, ≥315 μm and unsieved powder of Dichrostachys glomerata fruits at dose of 250 mg/kg for four weeks. For the hypolipidemic test, the diet was changed to normal diet and the powder fraction: 212 – 180μm, was given to rats for four weeks. Lipase inhibitory activity was determined using olive oil as substrate. Results: The antihyperlipidemic test showed that powder fractions reduced levels of total cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol and triglycerides, groups taken powder fractions 212 –180µm and
... [6] In clinical studies, capsinoid administration reduced body weight and fat. [9] The seed extract of Irvingia gabonensis, also known as African mango, was shown to reduce body weight and fat in clinical trials [10][11][12] by potentially modulating PPARγ and leptin genes. [13] Similarly, the root extract of the plant Coleus forskohlii, extensively known for its stimulation on intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate production, increases UCP1 mRNA and protein in vitro [14] and reduces weight gain and body fat in rodents and humans. ...
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Background Certain food ingredients promote thermogenesis and fat loss. Similarly, whey protein improves body composition. Due to this potential synergistic effect, a blend of thermogenic food ingredients containing African mango, citrus fruit extract, Coleus forskohlii, dihydrocapsiate, and red pepper was tested alone and in combination with a whey protein supplement for its effects on body composition in sedentary mice during high-fat diet. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction of thermogenic foods on improving body composition during consumption of an unhealthy diet. Materials and Methods C57BL/6J young adult male mice (n = 12) were placed on a 60% high-fat diet for 4 weeks and subsequently randomly assigned to receive daily dosing by oral gavage of vehicle, the novel blend alone or with whey protein supplement for another 4 weeks. Body composition, thermal imaging of brown adipose tissue (BAT), mitochondrial BAT uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and plasma levels of leptin were assessed. Results Novel blend alone and in combination with protein supplement attenuated body weight gain, fat, and increased surface BAT temperature in comparison to vehicle control and to baseline (P < 0.5). The combination of novel blend and whey protein supplement also significantly increased UCP1 protein expression in BAT mitochondria in comparison to vehicle control and novel blend alone (P < 0.5). Conclusions These data indicate that this novel blend stimulates thermogenesis and attenuates the gain in body weight and fat in response to high-fat diet in mice and these effects were improved when administered in combination with whey protein supplement. SUMMARY 30 days oral administration to mice of a novel blend containing African mango seed extract, citrus fruits extract, Coleus forskohlii root extract, dihydrocapsiate and red pepper fruit extract reduced body weight and fat gain in response to high-fat diet without impairing muscle mass. The novel blend stimulated thermogenesis as shown by the increased thermal imaging and UCP1 protein expression in brown adipose tissue, indicating that improvement in body composition potentially occurred due to a fat-burning effect. The positive effects on body weight, fat, and thermogenesis were improved when the novel blend was administered in combination with a whey protein supplement suggesting that protein provides a synergistic fat-burning effect. Abbreviations Used: BAT: Brown adipose tissue, UCP1: Uncoupling protein 1, DEXA: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
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Background: Increased visceral fat, dyslipidemia and increased markers of inflammation and coagulation are cardiovascular risk factors commonly encountered in obese people with metabolic syndrome. Previous studies have shown that ground Dichrostachys glomerata (DG), a spice used in Western Cameroon, can have beneficial effects on inflammation and various other cardiovascular disease risk factors. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Dyglomera®, an aqueous extract of DG (standardized to NLT 10% polyphenols) on certain anthropometric, biochemical (including pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic states) and hemodynamic parameters in obese patients with metabolic syndrome.Methods: The study was an 8-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 116 males and 202 females aged between 24 and 58 years. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: treatment and placebo. Capsules containing the active treatment (200 mg Dyglomera®) or placebo (200 mg maize powder) were administered 30–60 minutes before lunch and dinner throughout the study period. Various biochemical (namely, blood glucose, lipid profile, pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic markers), anthropometric and hemodynamic parameters were measured at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment.Results: At the end of the study, the Dyglomera® group showed statistically significant differences in all 16 parameters compared to baseline values. Changes in BMI and waist circumference were accompanied by changes in biochemical parameters, with the exception of adiponectin levels which were not correlated to waist circumference and PAI-1 values. The results confirm the hypothesis that Dyglomera®, the aqueous extract of DG, has anti-inflammatory properties, and is effective in reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome in obese human subjects.Key words: Dichrostachys glomerata extract, inflammation, obesity, metabolic syndrome
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