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R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing

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... along with the packages tidyverse, furniture, survival, and survminer. [4][5][6][7][8] ...
... Then reset the start date as the day following the last day of the 30-day diagnostic evaluation period. For the remaining periods, the maximum risk over the 30 days was recorded and the outcome was the time to hospitalisation within the next 30 days.4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 using the new start date defined in step 3.Data S3. ...
Article
Unplanned hospitalizations are common in patients with cardiovascular disease. The “Triage Heart Failure Risk Status” (Triage‐HFRS) algorithm in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices uses data from up to 9 device‐derived physiological parameters to stratify patients as low/medium/high risk of 30‐day heart failure (HF) hospitalization, but its use to predict all‐cause hospitalization has not been explored. We examined the association between Triage‐HFRS and risk of all‐cause, cardiovascular, or HF hospitalization. A prospective observational study of 435 adults (including patients with and without HF) with a Medtronic Triage‐HFRS–enabled cardiac implantable electronic device (cardiac resynchronization therapy device, implantable cardioverter‐defibrillator, or pacemaker). Cox proportional hazards models explored association between Triage‐HFRS and time to hospitalization; a frailty term at the patient level accounted for repeated measures. A total of 274 of 435 patients (63.0%) transmitted ≥1 high HFRS transmission before or during the study period. The remaining 161 patients never transmitted a high HFRS. A total of 153 (32.9%) patients had ≥1 unplanned hospitalization during the study period, totaling 356 nonelective hospitalizations. A high HFRS conferred a 37.3% sensitivity and an 86.2% specificity for 30‐day all‐cause hospitalization; and for HF hospitalizations, these numbers were 62.5% and 85.6%, respectively. Compared with a low Triage‐HFRS, a high HFRS conferred a 4.2 relative risk of 30‐day all‐cause hospitalization (8.5% versus 2.0%), a 5.0 relative risk of 30‐day cardiovascular hospitalization (3.6% versus 0.7%), and a 7.7 relative risk of 30‐day HF hospitalization (2.0% versus 0.3%). In patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices, remotely monitored Triage‐HFRS data discriminated between patients at high and low risk of all‐cause hospitalization (cardiovascular or noncardiovascular) in real time.
... The statistical analyses of soil sample data were performed using R Software 4.1.2 [43]. A Shapiro-Wilk Test and a Levene's Test for the Homogeneity of Variance of the residuals verified the normality of the SOC data from the soil samples. ...
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Soil carbon storage results from interactions between ecological processes and contributes to the global chemical regulation of the atmosphere, a vital ecosystem service. Within the ecosystem services approach, measuring soil carbon stock is used as an indicator of landscapes that function as terrestrial carbon sinks and sources. Soil carbon stock models of agricultural landscapes use national carbon stock data and are used to determine environmental benchmarks and develop land-use management strategies for improved landscape-scale carbon sequestration. The InVEST Carbon Storage model has been used as a tool to map carbon stock based on these data. However, the accuracy of the national carbon inventories of Hungary is unknown. In this study, the InVEST soil carbon stock models of two agricultural landscapes in Hungary were produced based on national soil carbon stock data and in-field collected soil sample carbon stock data. Carbon stock inventories were collated and used as InVEST carbon model inputs, and the models were mapped, compared, and evaluated to determine their usefulness in the planning of maximizing soil carbon storage in sustainable land-use management and policy development. Five InVEST soil carbon stock spatial models were produced for both agricultural landscapes, which showed great variation based on the data used to develop it. Aggregate carbon stock potentially stored in the landscape-scale study areas also varied between datasets used. Integrating soil sample data along with national carbon stock data shows prospective applicability in assessing contextual landscape-scale potential soil carbon stock storage.
... All statistical analyses were performed in R (v.3.6.1) [71]. Diet or strain effects on module eigengenes were assessed using the two-group Mann-Whitney U (Wilcoxon rank) test or Kruskal-Wallis statistical test, respectively. ...
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Background Obesity is a serious disease with a complex etiology characterized by overaccumulation of adiposity resulting in detrimental health outcomes. Given the liver’s critical role in the biological processes that attenuate adiposity accumulation, elucidating the influence of genetics and dietary patterns on hepatic gene expression is fundamental for improving methods of obesity prevention and treatment. To determine how genetics and diet impact obesity development, mice from 22 strains of the genetically diverse recombinant inbred Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse panel were challenged to either a high-protein or high-fat high-sucrose diet, followed by extensive phenotyping and analysis of hepatic gene expression. Results Over 1000 genes differentially expressed by perturbed dietary macronutrient composition were enriched for biological processes related to metabolic pathways. Additionally, over 9000 genes were differentially expressed by strain and enriched for biological process involved in cell adhesion and signaling. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis identified multiple gene clusters (modules) associated with body fat % whose average expression levels were influenced by both dietary macronutrient composition and genetics. Each module was enriched for distinct types of biological functions. Conclusions Genetic background affected hepatic gene expression in the CC overall, but diet macronutrient differences also altered expression of a specific subset of genes. Changes in macronutrient composition altered gene expression related to metabolic processes, while genetic background heavily influenced a broad range of cellular functions and processes irrespective of adiposity. Understanding the individual role of macronutrient composition, genetics, and their interaction is critical to developing therapeutic strategies and policy recommendations for precision nutrition.
... In terms of languages under scrutiny, most studies have been conducted in regional varieties of English (see a.o. Evans, Iverson, 2007;Babel, 2010;Clopper, Dossey, 2019, 2020, but research is also available for varieties of Spanish (e.g., MacLeod, 2012;Troncoso-Ruiz, Elordieta, 2017), French (e.g., Lelong, Bailly, 2010;Bullock, Gerfen, 2004) and Italian (D'Imperio et al., 2014). ...
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This study investigates whether rhythmic features are object of accommodation between Grison and Zurich German (henceforth GRG and ZHG) speakers, insomuch as it was previously observed for vowel formants. Cross-dialectal rhythmic accommodation and its evoking/inhibiting factors (e.g., acoustic distance vs dialect markedness, new vs previously heard words) were examined in a corpus of pre-and post-dialogue recordings, performed by 18 pairs of GRG and ZHG speakers. Three rhythmic measures were designed which were based on cross-dialectal timing differences related to intervocalic sonorants gemination, open syllable lengthening and reduction of word-final vowels. Rhythmic accommodation was quantified measuring the acoustic distance in the realization of the three durational contrasts before and after dialogical interactions. Results revealed that, unlike vowel formants, rhythmic features did not evoke cross-dialectal adjustments under the given experimental circumstances.
... This is precisely the leitmotiv of this work. We have implemented the algorithm that performs the simulation (see algorithm 1) using the R programming language [16]. ...
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The detection of target species is of paramount importance in ecological studies, with implications for environmental management and natural resource conservation planning. This is usually done by sampling the area: the species is detected if the presence of at least one individual is detected in the samples. Green & Young (Green & Young 1993 Sampling to detectrare species. Ecol. Appl . 3 , 351–356. ( doi:10.2307/1941837 ) introduce two models to determine the minimum number of samples n to ensure that the probability of failing to detect the species from them, if the species is actually present in the area, does not exceed a fixed threshold: based on the Poisson and the Negative Binomial distributions. We generalize them to two scenarios, one considering the area size N to be finite, and the other allowing detectability errors, with probability δ . The results in Green & Young are recovered by taking N → ∞ and δ = 0. Not taking into consideration the finite size of the area, if known, leads to an overestimation of n , which is vital to avoid if sampling is expensive or difficult, while assuming that there are no detectability errors, if they really exist, produces an undesirable bias. Our approximation manages to skirt both problems, for the Poisson and the Negative Binomial.
... All statistical analyses were performed using R, version 4.1.2. 19 ...
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Background and Objective The introduction of off‐pump coronary artery bypass surgery intended to overcome some of the conventional on‐pump procedure limitations by avoiding potentially harmful adverse effects of extracorporeal circulation and aortic cross‐clamping. However, the doubt remains on whether it is associated with worse long‐term outcomes. To compare long‐term survival in patients with multivessel ischemic heart disease undergoing off‐pump versus on‐pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods Retrospective analysis of 4788 consecutive patients undergoing primary isolated multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, performed from 2000 to 2015, in Northern Portugal. Among the study population, we identified 1616 and 3172 patients that underwent off‐pump and on‐pump coronary artery grafting, respectively. We employed a propensity‐score‐based overlap weighting (OW) algorithm to restrict confounding by indication. The primary endpoint was all‐cause mortality at 10 years. Results The mean age of the study population was 63.9 (±9.8) years, and 951 (19.9%) were females. OW was effective in eliminating differences in all major baseline characteristics. Follow‐up was 100% complete. The median follow‐up time was 12.80 (9.62, 16.62) years. The primary endpoint of all‐cause mortality at 10 years occurred in 431 patients (26.7%) in the off‐pump group, as compared with 863 (27.2%) in the on‐pump group (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.83–1.04; p = .196). Conclusions In this longitudinal, population‐level comparison of off‐pump versus on‐pump coronary artery bypass surgery for treating multivessel coronary artery disease, the primary outcome of long‐term mortality was identical among both patients' groups.
... Mann-Whitney U test (for node strength differences) was calculated using scikit-learn 41 python package. T-tests were calculated by t.test R function 42 . The 95% Confidence Intervals are given as 95% CI [Lower limit of confidence interval, Upper limit of confidence interval]. ...
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According to the recently proposed omnigenic theory, all expressed genes in a relevant tissue are contributing directly or indirectly to the manifestation of complex disorders such as autism. Thus, holistic approaches can be complementary in studying genetics of these complex disorders to focusing on a limited number of candidate genes. Gene interaction networks can be used for holistic studies of the omnigenic nature of autism. We used Louvain clustering on tissue-specific gene interaction networks and their subgraphs exclusively containing autism-related genes to study the effects of peripheral gene interactions. We observed that the autism gene clusters are significantly weaker connected to each other and the peripheral genes in non-neuronal tissues than in brain-related tissues. The biological functions of the brain clusters correlated well with previous findings on autism, such as synaptic signaling , regulation of DNA methylation , or regulation of lymphocyte activation , however, on the other tissues they did not enrich as significantly. Furthermore, ASD subjects with disruptive mutations in specific gene clusters show phenotypical differences compared to other disruptive variants carrying ASD individuals. Our results strengthen the omnigenic theory and can advance our understanding of the genetic background of autism.
... We used a dataset of mature C. dentata locations maintained by TACF to model species distribution across all of Pennsylvania. We utilized nine different SDM techniques in the "Biomod2" package from R statistical software utilizing the "ShinyBIOMOD" GUI (Thuiller et al., 2009(Thuiller et al., , 2016R Core Team, 2013). All environmental variables used for modeling were generated and processed using ArcMap 10.7.1 geospatial software (ESRI, 2011). ...
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The American chestnut (Castanea dentata Borkh.) was an economically, ecologically, and culturally important tree in eastern American hardwood forests. However, the American chestnut is currently functionally absent from these forests due to the introduction of an invasive fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr) and causal agent of chestnut blight in the early 1900s. Field experiments are being carried out to develop a blight-resistant American chestnut tree, but range-wide restoration will require localized understanding of its current distribution and what factors contribute to suitable American chestnut habitat. While previous studies have researched species distribution of the American chestnut, it is important to understand how species distribution modeling (SDM) technique impacts model results. In this paper we create an ensemble model that combines multiple different SDM techniques to predict areas of suitable American chestnut habitat in Pennsylvania. Results indicate that model accuracy varied considerably by SDM technique – with artificial neural networks performing the worst (Area-Under-the-Curve, AUC = 0.705) and gradient boosting models performing the best (AUC = 0.877). Even though SDM technique accuracy varied, most models identified the same environmental variables as the most important: ratio of sand to clay in the soil, canopy cover, topographic convergence index, and topographic position index. This study offers insight into the best SDM techniques to use, as well as a method of combining SDMs for higher prediction confidence.
... Statistical analyses of data of soil and leaf sampling, biomass harvesting, and nectar characteristics were conducted with the Comprehensive R (R Core Team 2021) Archive Network (CRAN) software (Institute for Statistics and Mathematics, Wien-Umgebung, Austria) [31]. ...
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Nectar is a complex biochemical substance secreted with particular rhythm by flower nectaries. Nectar is the base of a mutualism in which pollinators consume nectar, as food source, and are involuntarily responsible for the transport of pollen and pollination. The dynamics and temporal patterns of nectar secretion are still not fully understood as well as the environmental and climatic factors influencing its production. The quantity and quality of nectar found in standing crops at flowering influence the mutualistic relationship with pollinators and their foraging behavior. This situation is even more significant considering the reduction in undisturbed environments, the loss of soil quality, the spread of monoculture agricultural management and the use of self-fertile hybrids. The objects of the study are understanding the relationship among soil properties and nectar quality, comparing the nectar composition in a sunflower hybrid variety and evaluate pollinator preferences in selecting nectar sources among hybrid and non-hybrid varieties. For these purposes, two different experimental tests were established. Results highlighted that fertilization strategy influenced crop biomass development, determined soil characteristics and nectar composition in Sunflower. However, when comparing nectar composition of hybrid and non-hybrid varieties of sunflower, no significant differences were found. Despite this, the analysis of number of visits on the two treatments showed statistically significant differences. This research provides further understanding of the very complex relationship among soil, crop and nectar to support the definition of agricultural management strategies and reach the optimal nectar composition level for pollinators in agricultural crops.
Article
General evolutionary theory predicts that individuals in low condition should invest less in sexual traits compared to individuals in high condition. Whether this positive association between condition and investment also holds between young (high condition) and senesced (low condition) individuals is however less clear, since elevated investment into reproduction may be beneficial when individuals approach the end of their life. To address how investment into sexual traits changes with age, we study genes with sex-biased expression in the brain, the tissue from which sexual behaviours are directed. Across two distinct populations of Drosophila melanogaster, we find that old brains display fewer sex-biased genes, and that expression of both male-biased and female-biased genes converges towards a sexually intermediate phenotype owing to changes in both sexes with age. We further find that sex-biased genes in general show heightened age-dependent expression in comparison to unbiased genes and that age-related changes in the sexual brain transcriptome are commonly larger in males than females. Our results hence show that ageing causes a desexualization of the fruit fly brain transcriptome and that this change mirrors the general prediction that low condition individuals should invest less in sexual phenotypes.
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Writing has a leading role in learning and, although elementary-school curricula emphasize the development of this complex skill, many students still struggle with their writing performance. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and social validity of CriaTivo, a curriculum-based intervention developed following a Response to Intervention model to promote self-regulation of the writing process (i.e., planning, monitoring, revising) applied to the written composition of narrative texts across third and fourth grades. Two hundred eighty-one Portuguese students (55% boys, M = 8.58 years, SD = 0.79) and their teachers participated in the study. A mixed-methods research design was used, and data was collected at two points in time. Regarding the intervention’s efficacy, results were promising, depicting improvements at posttest in students’ planning and monitoring skills, as also in their writing quality. The findings also supported the intervention’s social validity for both students and teachers. Despite requiring further research, CriaTivo appears to be a promising curriculum-based intervention which responds to the previously identified research and practice needs.
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The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to extreme global consequences. In this paper, changes in the basic segments of students' everyday life and their subjective perception are investigated. The research was conducted in Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia. The application of the mixed method was performed to provide breadth and depth of understanding of students' responses to lifestyle changes. The research was conducted in two phases: a quantitative, using an online survey ( N = 1,053), from April 15th to April 28th 2020, and a qualitative, using semi-structured interviews ( N = 30), from June 10th to July 27th 2020. Students showed similar responses to the measures, but it turned out that the response in that population was different when their gender and study program were taken into account. The results suggest that students of study programs that are not “health-related” were more sensitive to change in habits than students of “health-related” study programs, but generally changes are visible in sleep patterns (going to bed late and waking up 60 to 80 min earlier). At the same time, the time spent in front of screens increased, from M = 4.49 (SD = 2.72) hours to M= 8.27 (SD = 3.44) hours during Covid-19, not only due to the transition to e-learning, but also due to a “stay at home” measure. Furthermore, students were less physically active, there was a decrease in exercise by 20 min (SD = 86.52) and a decrease in walking (M = 54 min, SD = 103.62) per day, and what is positive is that they were able to maintain the recommended amount of physical activity. The research contributes to the understanding of social consequences of extraordinary measures in students as young, healthy and highly educated social actors, as well as deeper insight into everyday strategies they undertake to counter or adapt to the new situation.
Article
Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV) is a novel nanovirus in Europe, affecting various grain legumes. The impact of PNYDV on nodulation, symbiotic N 2 fixation and yield parameters in faba bean ( Vicia faba L.) was investigated at controlled conditions in the greenhouse (2017), on-farm in natural infection foci (2018, 2019) and in a small-scale field experiment (2020). In the latter, the standard variety ‘Fuego’ was compared with the variety ‘GL Sunrise’ in early and late infections. In addition, the analogous effects for Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) were investigated under greenhouse conditions and the naturally occurring virus spectrum was recorded on-farm and in the field experiment. Results showed a much more severe impact of PNYDV than PEMV on nodulation, leghemoglobin status, N 2 fixation and finally yield, especially in early infections. Although ‘GL Sunrise’ was rated for a less symptomatic field performance toward PNYDV than ‘Fuego’, it showed a similar susceptibility in our field experiment where PNYDV was artificially inoculated to individual plants. Further research on the effect of plant varieties on susceptibility toward PNYDV infection and its spread in single or co-infection mainly with PEMV as a function of climate change acting upon their common aphid vector is required.
Article
Objective Studies have highlighted the inequities between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations with respect to the burden of cardiovascular disease and prevalence of predisposing risks resulting from historical and ongoing impacts of colonization. The objective of this study was to investigate factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) within and specific to the Indigenous peoples living in Toronto, Ontario, and to evaluate the reliability and validity of the resulting model in a similar population. Methods The Our Health Counts Toronto study measured the baseline health of Indigenous community members living in Toronto, Canada, using respondent-driven sampling. An iterative approach, valuing information from the literature, clinical insight and Indigenous lived experiences, as well as statistical measures was used to evaluate candidate predictors of CVD (self-reported experience of discrimination, ethnic identity, health conditions, income, education, age, gender and body size) prior to multivariable modelling. The resulting model was then validated using a distinct, geographically similar sample of Indigenous people living in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Results The multivariable model of risk factors associated with prevalent CVD included age, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index and exposure to discrimination. The combined presence of diabetes and hypertension was associated with a greater risk of CVD relative to those with either condition and was the strongest predictor of CVD. Those who reported previous experiences of discrimination were also more likely to have CVD. Further study is needed to determine the effect of body size on risk of CVD in the urban Indigenous population. The final model had good discriminative ability and adequate calibration when applied to the Hamilton sample. Conclusion Our modelling identified hypertension, diabetes and exposure to discrimination as factors associated with cardiovascular disease. Discrimination is a modifiable exposure that must be addressed to improve cardiovascular health among Indigenous populations.
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Islands are global hotspots for biodiversity and extinction, representing ~ 5% of Earth’s land area alongside 40% of globally threatened vertebrates and 61% of global extinctions since the 1500s. Invasive species are the primary driver of native biodiversity loss on islands, though eradication of invasive species from islands has been effective at halting or reversing these trends. A global compendium of this conservation tool is essential for scaling best-practices and enabling innovations to maximize biodiversity outcomes. Here, we synthesize over 100 years of invasive vertebrate eradications from islands, comprising 1550 eradication attempts on 998 islands, with an 88% success rate. We show a significant growth in eradication activity since the 1980s, primarily driven by rodent eradications. The annual number of eradications on islands peaked in the mid-2000s, but the annual area treated continues to rise dramatically. This trend reflects increases in removal efficacy and project complexity, generating increased conservation gains. Our synthesis demonstrates the collective contribution of national interventions towards global biodiversity outcomes. Further investment in invasive vertebrate eradications from islands will expand biodiversity conservation while strengthening biodiversity resilience to climate change and creating co-benefits for human societies.
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As growth at the periosteal and endosteal surfaces varies with age, cross‐sectional geometric (CSG) properties derived from periosteal (“solid”) contours may not produce comparable results to those from endosteal and periosteal contours (“true”), contrary to findings from adults. Error in CSG properties derived from the “solid” sections is compared with “true” sections in a sample of archeologically derived skeletons with estimated dental ages ranging from 1.5 months to 23.5 years. Cross sections were extracted from 3D surface models, and endosteal contours were located from biplanar radiographs for 56 femora and 59 humeri. Polar second moment of area (J), cross‐sectional shape (Imax/Imin), and polar section modulus (Zp) were calculated from solid and true sections. Relationships between solid and true properties were examined with least squares regression. Multiple regression examined the effect of age and % cortical area on solid section CSG error. While correlations were high (R2 = 0.72–0.99, all p < 0.001), the results indicate that solid CSG properties are not within an acceptable error range (%SEE of ≤8.0, and %PE of ≤5.0) of true CSG. Error was most affected by %CA, while estimated age was not correlated with %CA, %PE, or percent difference of true‐solid CSG. Periosteal contours alone should not be used to calculate CSG properties from individuals during the period of growth and development. Variation in bone growth and/or adaptive responses independent of age may account for the inconsistent age effects.
Article
Serum ferritin levels are increasingly being used to assess iron stores. Considerable variation in ferritin levels within and between individuals has been observed, but our current understanding of factors that explain this variation is far from complete. We aim to combine multiple potential determinants in an integrative model, and investigate their relative importance and potential interactions. We use ferritin measurements collected by Sanquin Blood Bank on both prospective (N = 59 596) and active blood donors (N = 78 318) to fit a structural equation model with three latent constructs (individual characteristics, donation history, and environmental factors). Parameters were estimated separately by sex and donor status. The model explained 25% of ferritin variance in prospective donors, and 40% in active donors. Individual characteristics and donation history were the most important determinants of ferritin levels in active donors. The association between environmental factors and ferritin was smaller but still substantial; higher exposure to air pollution was associated with higher ferritin levels, and this association was considerably stronger for active blood donors than for prospective donors. In active donors, individual characteristics explain 20% (17%) of ferritin variation, donation history explains 14% (25%) and environmental factors explain 5% (4%) for women (men). Our model presents known ferritin determinants in a broader perspective, allowing for comparison with other determinants as well as between new and active donors, or between men and women.
Article
Purpose: To compare visual field test results of Glaufeld Lite AP901 CTS 133 (Appasamy Associates, Mannadipet Commune, Thirubhuvanai, Puducherry, India, hereafter Glaufeld Lite) with Humphrey Field Analyser (HFA, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, California, USA, hereafter HFA). Methods: A pilot study at a tertiary eye centre involving 23 normal and 24 glaucoma patients who underwent two consecutive visual field tests on (i) HFA 24-2 SITA Fast and (ii) Glaufeld Lite Quick Central program. Results: The mean testing time on HFA was significantly shorter than Glaufeld Lite (normals: HFA: 2.75±0.49 min, Glaufeld Lite: 6.85±0.86 min, p<0.001; glaucoma patients: HFA: 3.45±1.08 min, Glaufeld Lite: 6.95±0.54 min, p<0.001). Reliability criteria were similar, but false-positivity was lower with Glaufeld Lite. Bland–Altman analysis showed poor agreement for mean deviation (MD), [~2.69 units less for HFA], and acceptable agreement for pattern standard deviation (PSD) [~0.426 units more for HFA] between the two devices. Conclusion: Both perimetric techniques showed reliable test results though test duration was longer with Glaufeld Lite perimetry. The MD showed poor agreement, likely due to different scales and principles used for perimetry. The PSD showed acceptable agreement, making it valid for use in glaucoma, though a direct comparison of fields from the two devices is not possible. We recommend using the same perimetry device for follow-up evaluation.
Article
Dominant theories of language production suggest that word choice—lexical selection—is driven by alignment with the intended message: To talk about a young feline, we choose the most aligned word, kitten. Another factor that could shape lexical selection is word accessibility, or how easy it is to produce a given word (e.g., cat is more accessible than kitten). To test whether producers are also influenced by word accessibility, we designed an artificial lexicon containing high- and low-frequency words whose meanings correspond to compass directions. Participants in a communication game (total N = 181 adults) earned points by producing compass directions, which often required an implicit decision between a high- and low-frequency word. A trade-off was observed across four experiments; specifically, high-frequency words were produced even when less aligned with messages. These results suggest that implicit decisions between words are impacted by accessibility. Of all the times that people have produced cat, sometimes they likely meant kitten.
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This study summarizes the temporal variation, the relative contribution of each university, the research topics addressed, the taxonomic groups studied and the differences in author and its advisors' gender in the 303 PhD theses on herpetology defended in Spain and gathered in Teseo © and Dialnet © between 1977 and 2020. The number of theses defended per year is around 7 with an upward trend. Complutense and Autonomous University of Madrid universities hosted the highest number of theses, followed by Barcelona and Valencia universities. The most addressed topic was morphology, biometry and anatomy, followed by physiology and histology, genetics and habitat selection. The most studied herpetofauna orders were Squamata and Anura and the families most tackled were Lacertidae, followed by Ranidae and Salamandridae. The most addressed species were native to Spain and without protection status, as opposed to those that were non-native or with protection status. The study of invasive species is very poorly represented. The number of PhD theses defended by men is higher compared to those by women (1.43:1), however, both genders show an upward trend in the number of theses. The results represent an approximation of the development, trends and interests pursued by herpetological research in Spain.
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Despite their key role in biodiversity conservation, forests in the Congo Basin are increasingly threatened by human activities, but it remains challenging to assess the impact of forest deg- radation under a more or less intact canopy. Likewise, forest recovery following agricultural abandonment remains poorly understood in the Congo Basin. Here, we surveyed 125 vegeta- tion quadrats across 25 forest inventory plots in the Yangambi area. We aimed to find associ- ations between both selective logging and forest recovery, and a range offorest community and tree community trait characteristics, as compared to reference undisturbed old-growth forest. Wefound that plots in undisturbed old-growth forest harboured both more tree individuals and tree species with a higher wood density as compared to plots in disturbed old-growth forest. In addition, their tree community composition was significantly different, whereas species diver- sity recovered since relatively recent agricultural abandonment (< 60 years), community com- position and forest structure remained significantly different from the plots in undisturbed old- growth forest. Our study provides some insights into the rate of forest recovery in the Congo basin after agricultural abandonment and highlights the need of proper conservation of the remaining relatively undisturbed old-growth forests. Finally, we stress the need for more exten- sive vegetation surveys in the Congo Basin to further unravel the effects of anthropogenic disturbance
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Culture is an outcome of both the acquisition of knowledge about behaviour through social transmission, and its subsequent production by individuals. Acquisition and production are often discussed or modelled interchangeably, yet to date no study has explored the consequences of their interaction for cultural diffusions. We present a generative model that integrates the two, and ask how variation in production rules might influence diffusion dynamics. Agents make behavioural choices that change as they learn from their productions. Their repertoires may also change, and the acquisition of behaviour is conditioned on its frequency. We analyse the diffusion of a novel behaviour through social networks, yielding generalizable predictions of how individual-level behavioural production rules influence population-level diffusion dynamics. We then investigate how linking acquisition and production might affect the performance of two commonly used inferential models for social learning; network-based diffusion analysis, and experience-weighted attraction models. We find that the influence that production rules have on diffusion dynamics has consequences for how inferential methods are applied to empirical data. Our model illuminates the differences between social learning and social influence, demonstrates the overlooked role of reinforcement learning in cultural diffusions, and allows for clearer discussions about social learning strategies.
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Sleep is a remarkably complex and universal neuro-behavioural state. We spend one third of our lives asleep, but we still do not know exactly why that is. There is now overwhelming evidence that memories spontaneously reactivate during sleep, and this is thought to be essential for memory consolidation. However, the precise role of memory reactivation in long-term consolidation remains to be understood. Targeted memory reactivation (TMR) taps into the sleep-dependent consolidation process, providing a valuable tool to study memory reactivation. This thesis combines TMR during NREM sleep with examination of behaviour and multimodal neuroimaging to track the impact of cued replay on motor memories over time.
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Many businesses conduct experiments to scientifically test, measure, and optimize decisions in areas like sales, marketing, and operations efficiency. While randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or A/B tests are the dominant method for conducting business experiments especially for business-to-consumer marketing, adaptive designs have yet to make extensive inroads outside of the pharmaceutical and medical industries. In this study, we aim to raise awareness of the applicability and advantages of multi-arm multi-stage adaptive designs outside of clinical settings and we use simulations to demonstrate the value of these designs to modern business experiments, with a focus on business-to-business experiments such as testing alternative sales techniques. Our simulation results show that, compared to RCT, multi-arm multi-stage adaptive designs (MAMS) can reduce the sample size requirements and expected time to experiment completion whilst maintaining a similar level of statistical power. We also demonstrate that these benefits can translate into actual cost savings in conjunction with shorter time to market, resulting in higher overall efficiency over the traditional RCTs. MAMS serves as a strong alternative methodology in experiments where not all customers can be contacted at once such as business-to-business campaigns and general live channel programs which typically take weeks to months to complete.
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Squamate reptiles have been considered to be indeterminate growers for a long time. However, recent studies demonstrate that bone prolongation is stopped in many lizards by the closure of bone growth plates. This shift in the paradigm of lizard growth has important consequences for questions concerning the proximate causes of sexual size dimorphism. The traditional model of highly plastic and indeterminate growth would correspond more to a long-term action of a sex-specific growth regulator. On the other hand, determinate growth would be more consistent with a regulator acting in a sex-specific manner on the activity of bone growth plates operating during the phase when a dimorphism in size develops. We followed the growth of males and females of the male-larger Madagascar ground gecko (Paroedura picta) and monitored the activity of bone growth plates, gonad size, levels of steroids, expression of their receptors (AR, ESR1), and expression of genes from the insulin-like growth factor network (IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, and IGF2R) in livers. Specifically, we measured gene expression before the onset of dimorphic growth, at the time when males have more active bone growth plates and sexual size dimorphism was clearly visible, and after a period of pronounced growth in both sexes. We found a significant spike in the expression of IGF1 in males around the time when dimorphism develops. This overexpression in males comes long after an increase in circulating testosterone levels and sexual maturation in males, and it might be suppressed by ovarian hormones in females. The results suggest that sexual size dimorphism in male-larger lizards can be caused by a positive effect of high levels of IGF1 on bone growth. The peak in IGF1 resembles the situation during the pubertal growth spurt in humans, but in lizards, it seems to be sex-specific and disconnected from sexual maturation.
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Os Estados Nacionais, com destaque àqueles em desenvolvimento, enfrentam um difícil desafio no atendimento às crescentes demandas dos setores de alimentos, água e energia, possivelmente agravado com a intensificação das alterações climáticas. A adaptação efetiva às mudanças climáticas globais requer o uso eficiente de terra, água, energia, outros recursos e a integração de esforços que minimizem os impactos negativos e maximizem sinergias. No entanto, o processo de tomada de decisão geralmente segue uma abordagem, que não leva em conta as interconexões e interdependência entre os três setores (água, energia e alimento). Uma outra abordagem que vincula e avalia as estreitas relações entre os setores energia, água e alimentos, denominada NEXUS vem ganhando espaço, uma vez que compreende ações vinculadas a um sistema com potencial de afetar um ou mais setores. Nesse ambiente, a gestão energética, hídrica e alimentar estão intimamente ligadas e, portanto, devem ser geridas de modo integrado para atender de forma eficaz às necessidades de uma população mundial em constante crescimento de forma a prover Segurança Hídrica, Segurança Alimentar e Segurança Energética. Os esforços realizados até agora para compreender as interrelações dos setores não são suficientes, o que requer uma atenção mais regionalizada e atenta objetivando uma abordagem aderente a realidade socio-natural de uma situação concreta. O PROJETO NEXUS conseguiu realizar avanços científicos, técnicos e organizacionais. Tendo uma avaliação geral muito satisfatória. A abordagem NEXUS pode contribuir na adoção de medidas de adaptação às mudanças climáticas e ajudar, assim, a reduzir as vulnerabilidades alimentar, hídrica e energética, aumentando o uso de recursos de forma eficiente e incentivando uma maior coerência política e eficácia dos planos de adaptação. A referida abordagem emerge como metodologia no contexto no Fórum Econômico Mundial de 2008 com a divulgação posterior do relatório “Water Security: The Water-Energy-Food-Climate Nexus”, visando aumentar a conscientização de como a água está ligada ao crescimento econômico em diversos âmbitos e de como a manutenção do padrão de negócios vigente impõe um grande desafio para a segurança hídrica. Do ponto de vista científico, a abordagem do conceito de NEXUS tem como marco a Conferência de Bonn na Alemanha em 2011. Apesar da metodologia NEXUS ter apresentado uma rápida difusão no meio científico com a publicação de inúmeros artigos e trabalhos empíricos, não há um consenso sobre a definição conceitual de tal abordagem. Diante das diferentes conceitualizações presentes na literatura, com variação dos setores abrangidos até a forma de aplicação do NEXUS, é importante destacar o seu principal aspecto, que é a multidimensionalidade e interdependência da segurança hídrica, alimentar e energética, promovendo uma migração de decisões setoriais isoladas para uma abordagem multisetorial e uma visão holística. A governança brasileira da mudança climática e seus vínculos à água, alimentos e energia são ordenados pela Política e Plano Nacional sobre Mudança do CLIMA (PNMC). Nesse ordenamento, a Rede Brasileira de Pesquisas sobre Mudanças Climáticas Globais (Rede CLIMA) constitui-se em um importante pilar de apoio às atividades de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento do PNMC para atender às necessidades nacionais de conhecimento sobre mudanças do clima, incluindo a produção de informações para formulação de políticas públicas. Nesse contexto, o Projeto Integrativo Segurança Hídrica, Alimentar e Energética (PI-SHAE), aqui apresentado, buscou avaliar soluções sustentáveis, para promover uma produção agrícola integrada à manutenção e bom uso dos recursos hídricos e à geração de energia, diante dos cenários de aquecimento global e mudanças climáticas no Brasil. O PI-SHAE circunscrever-se-á a Bacia do Rio São Francisco, região-piloto para as análises, considerando os elevados conflitos potenciais (ambientais e sociais), e seguindo orientação do Ministério de Ciência Tecnologia Inovação (MCTI). Assim, a presente publicação apresenta os resultados do “Projeto de Pesquisa Integrativo Segurança Alimentar, Segurança Hídrica e Segurança Energética (SHAE)” submetido ao “Edital MCTIC/CNPq n° 19/2017 NEXUS I: Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Ações integradas e Sustentáveis para a Garantia da Segurança Hídrica, Energética e Alimentar dos Biomas Caatinga e Cerrado”. Este projeto objetivou analisar, identificar e mapear, de forma integrada e transversal o panorama da segurança alimentar, hídrica e energética na Bacia estendida do Rio São Francisco no contexto das mudanças climáticas utilizando a abordagem NEXUS Água, Energia e Alimento. A rede de pesquisa articulada em torno da proposta foi liderada pela Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), EMBRAPA, Instituto Federal de Alagoas (IFAL) e a Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG).
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Airborne LiDAR has become an essential data source for large-scale, high-resolution modeling of forest aboveground biomass and carbon stocks, enabling predictions with much higher resolution and accuracy than can be achieved using optical imagery alone. Ground noise filtering-that is, excluding returns from LiDAR point clouds based on simple height thresholds-is a common practice meant to improve the `signal' content of LiDAR returns by preventing ground returns from masking useful information about tree size and condition contained within canopy returns. However, ground returns may be helpful for making accurate aboveground biomass predictions in heterogeneous landscapes that include a patchy mosaic of vegetation heights and land cover types. In this paper, we applied several ground noise filtering thresholds while mapping forest AGB across New York State (USA), a heterogenous landscape composed of both contiguously forested and highly fragmented areas with mixed land cover types. We fit random forest models to predictor sets derived from each filtering intensity threshold and compared model accuracies, paying attention to how changes in accuracy correlated with landscape structure. We observed that removing ground noise via any height threshold systematically biases many of the LiDAR-derived variables used in AGB modeling, with mean correlation (Spearman's ρ) between variables increasing from 0.183 to 0.266. We found that that ground noise filtering yields models of forest AGB with lower accuracy than models trained using predictors derived from unfiltered point clouds, with RMSE increasing by up to 2.2 Mg ha-1 statewide. Although we only modeled AGB for forest cover types, models fit to predictors derived from filtered point clouds performed worse as landscape heterogeneity (as measured by patch density and edge density) increased, suggesting ground returns are particularly useful when modeling edge forests. Our results suggest that ground filtering should be a carefully considered decision when mapping forest AGB, particularly when mapping heterogeneous and highly fragmented landscapes, as ground returns are more likely to represent useful `signal' than extraneous `noise' in these cases.
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Globalization of trade, and the interconnectivity of animal production systems, continues to challenge efforts to control disease. A better understanding of trade networks supports development of more effective strategies for mitigation for transboundary diseases like African swine fever (ASF), classical swine fever (CSF), and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). North Macedonia, bordered to the north and east by countries with ongoing ASF outbreaks, recently reported its first incursion of ASF. This study aimed to describe the distribution of pigs and pig farms in North Macedonia, and to characterize the live pig movement network. Network analyses on movement data from 2017 to 2019 were performed for each year separately, and consistently described weakly connected components with a few primary hubs that most nodes shipped to. In 2019, the network demonstrated a marked decrease in betweenness and increase in communities. Most shipments occurred within 50 km, with movements <6 km being the most common (22.5%). Nodes with the highest indegree and outdegree were consistent across years, despite a large turnover among smallholder farms. Movements to slaughterhouses predominated (85.6%), with movements between farms (5.4%) and movements to market (5.8%) playing a lesser role. This description of North Macedonia's live pig movement network should enable implementation of more efficient and cost-effective mitigation efforts strategies in country, and inform targeted educational outreach, and provide data for future disease modeling, in the region.
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Gut microbiota is expected to coevolve with the host's physiology and may play a role in adjusting the host's energy metabolism to suit the host's environment. To evaluate the effects of both evolved host metabolism and the environmental context in shaping the gut microbiota, we used a unique combination of (1) experimental evolution to create selection lines for a fast metabolism and (2) a laboratory-to-field translocation study. Mature bank voles Myodes glareolus from lines selected for high aerobic capacity (A lines) and from unselected control (C lines) were released into large (0.2 ha) outdoor enclosures for longitudinal monitoring. To examine whether the natural environment elicited a similar or more pronounced impact on the gut microbiota of the next generation, we also sampled the field-reared offspring. The gut microbiota were characterized using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of fecal samples. The artificial selection for fast metabolism had minimal impact on the gut microbiota in laboratory conditions but in field conditions, there were differences between the selection lines (A lines vs . C lines) in the diversity, community, and resilience of the gut microbiota. Notably, the selection lines differed in the less abundant bacteria throughout the experiment. The lab-to-field transition resulted in an increase in alpha diversity and an altered community composition in the gut microbiota, characterized by a significant increase in the relative abundance of Actinobacteria and a decrease of Patescibacteria. Also, the selection lines showed different temporal patterns in changes in microbiota composition, as the average gut microbiota alpha diversity of the C lines, but not A lines, was temporarily reduced during the initial transition to the field. In surviving young voles, the alpha diversity of gut microbiota was significantly higher in A-line than C-line voles. These results indicate that the association of host metabolism and gut microbiota is context-specific, likely mediated by behavioral or physiological modifications in response to the environment.
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