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R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing

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... Multicollinearity between Copal explanatory variables was assessed with Pearson's linear correlation coefficient to evaluate the association between variables [31] and with the variance inflation factor (VIF) to estimate how the variance increases when predictors are correlated [32]. With the Corrplot [33] and Usdm [34] packages of the R statistical language [35], Pearson's linear correlation and VIF between predictor variables were verified with the objective of avoiding multicollinearity effects and maximizing the contributions of variables [36]. Pearson's correlation coefficients, | |, > ~0.70 [37] and variables with a VIF greater than four were removed from the model because they represent a significant correlation between them [38]. ...
... Multicollinearity between Copal explanatory variables was assessed with Pearson's linear correlation coefficient r to evaluate the association between variables [31] and with the variance inflation factor (VIF) to estimate how the variance increases when predictors are correlated [32]. With the Corrplot [33] and Usdm [34] packages of the R statistical language [35], Pearson's linear correlation and VIF between predictor variables were verified with the objective of avoiding multicollinearity effects and maximizing the contributions of variables [36]. Pearson's correlation coefficients, |r|, > ∼ 0.70 [37] and variables with a VIF greater than four were removed from the model because they represent a significant correlation between them [38]. ...
... Twenty-five percent of the remaining data was used for model validation, which is the most important component of any modeling process to ensure that the results are suitable for scientific studies [42]. Model prediction was performed using the random forest package [43] in R software [35]. ...
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Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are essential for community development, but their enormous demand has posed a serious threat to trees growing in their natural habitat. Copal resin is one of these products, which has a great deal of religious and ceremonial significance in Mexico and around the world. Resin extraction from a tree depends on its morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as its physical and sanitary condition. In this study, a methodology was proposed for determining the yield and health status of Copal trees, and a random forest (RF) model was developed to explain their resin production based on their morphological and condition characteristics. The experiment was conducted in the Agua Escondida watershed in Puebla, Mexico. With the training data, the average accuracy of the model was 99%, with a Kappa index of 98%, which is considered an excellent level of agreement beyond chance, and with the validation data, the average accuracy was 71% and 47%, which is considered a good level of agreement beyond chance. Tree condition was the most important factor affecting resin production in Copal trees, followed by stem diameter (33 and 38 cm), height (2 and 2.5 m), and diameter of secondary branches (from 8 to 15, 22 and 32 cm).
... Individual animal was considered the experimental unit. In addition, pregnancy status and AI conception rate were analyzed using generalized linear models following a binomial distribution in an ANOVA framework (car; [10]) (glm; [11]). An alpha ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. ...
... The Tukey method was used to separate means when alpha was <0.05 (emmeans; [12]). All statistical analyses were performed in R [11]. ...
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This study evaluated heifer post-weaning voluntary feed intake (g/kg BW) classification on performance and reproductive measures, as well as impacts on lifetime productivity of 519 commercial Angus beef females. Heifer post-weaning voluntary feed intake (g/kg BW) was calculated over 80 test days following weaning using GrowSafe units. Heifers were categorized based on voluntary feed intake (g/kg BW) as either low (<−0.50 SD from the mean), average (±0.50 SD from the mean), or high (>0.50 SD from the mean) within year. Cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) at breeding displayed an age effect (p < 0.001), with 2- and 3-year-old cows having lighter BW and lower BCS than 4-yr-old and older cows. Cow BW at weaning showed significance for age and intake (p < 0.001) with younger cows being lighter than older cows, while low intake classified females had greater BW at weaning compared to average and high intake females. Additionally, calf 205-d weights and calf weaning weights (p < 0.01) were significant for age with calves born from older cows weighing more than younger cows. Weaning weight ratio displayed a linear increase with increasing intake classification (p < 0.01). Heifer yearling BW was significant for intake (p < 0.01) with low and average intake heifer classifications having greater heifer yearling BW than cows that had high intake classification as a heifer. Age and intake classification did not impact (p ≥ 0.22) pregnancy status or AI conception. In summary, heifer post-weaning feed intake classification had only minor impacts compared to age effects on lifetime productivity of Angus beef females.
... The relative abundance (RA) of a bird species was determined using the following expression: (number of individuals for species n/N total number of individuals) × 100%. To find differences in environmental factors and bird community attributes (i.e., species richness, abundance, and forest structure variables) among different habitat types, we performed analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc test using the function aov in R software [41]. ...
... The level of significance for all results was set to p < 0.05. All statistical analyses were performed using R version 3.5.1 [41]. ...
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In order to determine the relationships between bird assemblages and forest habitat, we conducted surveys for bird assemblages in different forest habitats in the Khentii Mountain region, Northern Mongolia. A total of 1730 individuals belonging to 71 species from 23 families of 11 orders were recorded. Our findings revealed that passeriformes are the most species-rich order, accounting for 86.2% of the total species. The dominant species were Anthus hodgsoni, Parus major, Poecile palustris, and Sitta europaea in study area. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and permutation multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) showed that bird assemblages were affected by forest habitat types. Our findings also showed significant relationships between bird assemblages and canopy height and ground cover vegetation structure, whereas there were no relationships between altitude and other habitat variables. Thus, maintaining diverse forest habitats or restoring forest would play a key role in bird conservation and sustainable management of forest areas.
... Therneau, 2020) in R 4.0.2 (R Core Team, 2020). Finally, we simulated the level of adoption of hypothetical VTS programs at different costs to fishers in hypothetical fishing communities using the most parsimonious interval regression model. ...
Article
The use of vessel tracking systems (VTS) on small-scale fishing vessels can provide data necessary for improved fisheries management. Nevertheless, the adoption of mandated VTS is still limited in small-scale fisheries given the hardship of establishing and enforcing vessel tracking regulations in this fishing sector. However, there is potential for incentivizing voluntary adoption of tracking programs in small-scale vessels. We surveyed small-scale fishers from Indonesia (n = 124) and Mexico (n = 87) to identify which attributes and conditions increase the likelihood of adoption of VTS programs. The survey included a choice experiment to elicit fishers' preferences over attributes of safety, privacy, and data ownership of hypothetical VTS programs along with a bidding game to gauge fishers' willingness to pay. Our results indicated that most fishers in Indonesia and Mexico are willing to pay for VTS programs. VTS programs that included a safety feature were preferred over those that did not. Fishers also indicated that they would prefer VTS programs that provide ownership of the data to fishers or the government instead of the industry or the public. Additionally, we found that individual fisher characteristics are strongly related to willingness to pay and are better predictors of fishers' willingness to pay than the program attributes. Understanding which VTS programs are more likely to be adopted, and by whom, is crucial to uncover the potential of this technology in informing small-scale fisheries management and supporting resource governance.
... Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was carried out using TB Green Premix Ex Taq TM II kit (Takara Bio) with CronoSTAR 96 Real-Time PCR System (Clontech Laboratories, Mountain View, CA, USA). The primer pairs used were: 5′-ACTCCTACGGGAGGCAGCAGT-3′ and 5′-TATTACCGCGGCTGCTGGC-3′ for total 16S rRNA gene amplification [14] , and 5′-AGTGACGGCTAACTACGTGC-3′ and 5′-TTCCAACTTGTYYTCCCGCC-3′ for F. prausnitzii-specific amplification. The latter primer pair was designed by Primer-Blast based on the sequences of two ASVs classified as F. prausnitzii in our 16S metagenome analysis. ...
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Aim: 16S rRNA gene-based microbiota analyses (16S metagenomes) using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are widely used to examine the microbial community composition in environmental samples. However, the sequencing capacity of NGS is sometimes insufficient to cover the whole microbial community, especially when analyzing soil and fecal microbiotas. This limitation may have hampered the detection of minority species that potentially affect microbiota formation and structure. Methods: We developed a simple method, termed 16S metagenome-DRIP (Deeper Resolution using an Inhibitory Primer), that not only enhances minority species detection but also increases the accuracy of their abundance estimation. The method relies on the inhibition of normal amplicon formation of the 16S rRNA gene of a target major (abundant) species during the first PCR step. The addition of a biotinylated primer that is complementary to the variable sequence of the V3-V4 region of the target species inhibits a normal amplification process to form an aberrant short amplicon. The fragment is then captured by streptavidin beads for removal from the reaction mixture, and the resulting mixture is utilized for the second PCR with barcode-tag primers. Thus, this method only requires two additional experimental procedures to the conventional 16S metagenome analysis. A proof-of-concept experiment was first conducted using a mock sample consisting of the genomes of 14 bacterial species. Then, the method was applied to infant fecal samples using a Bifidobacterium-specific inhibitory primer (n = 11). Results: As a result, the reads assigned to the family Bifidobacteriaceae decreased on average from 16,657 to 1718 per sample without affecting the total read counts (36,073 and 34,778 per sample for the conventional and DRIP methods, respectively). Furthermore, the minority species detection rate increased with neither affecting Bray-Curtis dissimilarity calculated by omitting the target Bifidobacterium species (median: 0.049) nor changing the relative abundances of the non-target species. While 115 amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) were unique to the conventional method, 208 ASVs were uniquely detected for the DRIP method. Moreover, the abundance estimation for minority species became more accurate, as revealed thorough comparison with the results of quantitative PCR analysis. Conclusion: The 16S metagenome-DRIP method serves as a useful technique to grasp a deeper and more accurate microbiota composition when combined with conventional 16S metagenome analysis methods.
... For calculations, we used Maxent v3.41 (Phillips et al., 2004), the randomForest package (Liaw and Wiener, 2002). All calculations were built in R (Core Team, 2020). We used the DISMO and RASTER packages to predict all models and for raster manipulation. ...
Article
Biological invasion is one of the main causes of biodiversity losses throughout the world. Dry areas are particularly prone to such losses due to their highly adapted flora and pronounced difficulty recovering after deforestation. Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) has been recognized as an invasive alien species (IAS) in South America, forming vast clusters in disturbed areas or coastal sandy areas. The presence of IASs is expected to be influenced by climate changes, in this regard, we aimed to investigate the effects of climate change on the distribution of this species under the present conditions and under two different future scenarios. The presence of C. procera was positively correlated with the dry environments in South America, such as the Seasonal Dry Forests in all scenarios. In turn, high suitabilities were also found for coastal dunes and Restinga vegetation. The area of invasion is reduced for future conditions models, however the suitability clearly increases. The presence of C. procera as an IAS might be considered a threat for conservation in disturbed or deforested areas, with particular attention to open sandy areas, where this species is an efficient competitor.
... cts/ micro biome util), was subsequently used for the detection and elimination of chimeric ASVs. The resulting ASV abundance matrices, along with sample data, were then merged into PHYLOSEQ-class objects in R for further analysis (McMurdie & Holmes, 2013;R Core Team, 2015). ...
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Gut microbiota (GM) often exhibit variation between different host species and co-divergence with hosts' phylogeny. Identifying these patterns is a key for understanding the mechanisms that shaped symbiosis between GM and its hosts. Therefore, both GM-host species specificity and GM-host co-divergence have been investigated by numerous studies. However, most of them neglected a possibility that different groups of bacteria within GM can vary in the tightness of their association with the host. Consequently, unlike most of these studies, we aimed to directly address how the strength of GM-host species specificity and GM-host co-divergence vary across different GM clades. We decomposed GM communities of 52 passerine species (394 individuals), characterized by 16S rRNA amplicon sequence variant (ASV) profiles, into monophyletic Binned Taxonomic units (BTUs). Subsequently, we analyzed strength of host species specificity and correlation with host phylogeny separately for resulting BTUs. We found that most BTUs exhibited significant host-species specificity in their composition. Notably, BTUs exhibiting high host-species specificity comprised bacterial taxa known to impact host's physiology and immune system. However, BTUs rarely displayed significant co-divergence with host phylogeny, suggesting that passerine GM evolution is not shaped primarily through a shared evolutionary history between the host and its gut microbes.
... The Tukey method was used to separate means when alpha was <0.05 (emmeans; [23]). All statistical analyses were performed in R [24]. ...
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Heifer post-weaning intake classification was utilized to evaluate subsequent intake and performance measurements of 2-, 5-, and 8year-old lactating and non-lactating Angus females. For both studies, heifers were categorized based on voluntary feed intake (expressed as g/kg BW) as either low (<−0.50 SD from the mean), average (± 0.50 SD from the mean), or high (>0.50 SD from the mean) within one year. Intake and production data of pregnant, non-lactating (n = 59; Study 1) and lactating, non-pregnant (n = 54; Study 2) females were evaluated. Heifer post-weaning voluntary feed intake was calculated over 80 test days post-weaning using GrowSafe feed intake units. Cow body-weight (BW) for non-lactating cows showed a tendency for age × intake interaction (p = 0.10), with older cows weighing more than younger cows. Milk production expressed as kilograms and g/kg BW of the cow had an age × intake (p < 0.001) effect. Two-year-old cows with low- and average-intake classifications had greater milk production (p < 0.001) and milk produced expressed as g/kg BW (p < 0.001) than 2-year-old cows with high-intake classifications. Additionally, 5-year-old cows with average and high-intake classifications had greater milk production (p < 0.001) and g/kg BW (p < 0.001) compared to 5-year-old cows classified as low-intake. In summary, heifer post-weaning intake classification had minor impacts on performance measurements in the three age classes of beef females at two different production levels.
... For an analysis of emergence timing, we used a generalized additive model with abundance (per collection period, log-transformed) as the response, and study site, prey family, collection period, year, and an interaction between all four as the predictors. All statistical analyses were performed in R Version 3.6.1 [44]. ...
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Over the last 60 years, Arctic goose populations have increased while many sympatric tundra nesting bird populations have declined. Hyperabundant geese have well-documented effects on tundra habitats, which can alter habitat use by sympatric bird species. These habitat changes may also alter invertebrate communities and abundances, with potentially important, but as of yet, undocumented effects on insectivorous birds such as shorebirds. Here, we determined the effects of goose-induced habitat alteration on invertebrate communities and relate the observed changes to shorebird diet. At sites and habitat types representing a gradient of goose influence, we identified goose-related changes in ground cover and linked these factors to variation in invertebrate communities. We then used DNA metabarcoding to characterize the diet of six shorebird species across sites and identify inter-site variation in abundance, biomass, and timing of emergence of dominant shorebird prey items. Invertebrate diversity and richness did not vary either among sites or habitat types. However, for prey items identified as part of the shorebird diet, we found significantly higher abundances and biomasses at a moderately goose-influenced site than at either low or high goose-influenced sites. Biomass of Tipulidae, the dominant prey taxon for shorebirds at the study sites, was 7.5 times higher at the moderately goose-influenced site compared to the site where goose influence was minor. We attribute this enhancement of prey biomass to both the fertilizing effect of goose fecal pellets and the moderate grazing pressure. Many studies have documented adverse effects of overabundant geese, but here we show that a moderate degree of goose grazing can lead to enhanced biomass of invertebrates, with the potential for improved shorebird foraging success and chick growth. These benefits, however, might be outweighed by negative effects of goose-induced habitat alteration and predation pressure.
... Data regarding demographics, chronological factors, dizziness-related symptoms, history of falls, diagnostic testing performed, specific therapeutic interventions offered, and the response to interventions were analyzed using R for Statistical Computing (Version 4.1.0). 32 Chronological data, which was initially reported as epochs of time, eg, 4 weeks, 6 months, etc., were re-coded as the corresponding number of weeks. The a priori alpha level for all analyses was 0.05. ...
Article
Introduction: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most frequently occurring peripheral vestibular disorder. Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for BPPV exist; however, little is known about how affected patients perceive their condition is being managed. We aimed to leverage registry data to evaluate how adults who report BPPV are managed. Material and methods: We retrospectively analyzed of data from 1,262 adults (58.4 ± 12.6 years old, 81.1% female, 91.1% White) who were enrolled in the Vestibular Disorders Association Registry from 2014 to 2020. The following patient-reported outcomes were analyzed by proportions for those who did and did not report BPPV: symptoms experienced, falls reported, diagnostics undertaken, interventions received (eg, canalith repositioning maneuvers [CRMs], medications), and responses to interventions. Results: Of the 1,262 adults included, 26% reported being diagnosed with BPPV. Many adults who reported BPPV (83%) also endorsed receiving additional vestibular diagnoses or may have had atypical BPPV. Those with BPPV underwent magnetic resonance imaging and were prescribed medications more frequently than those without BPPV (76% vs 57% [χ2=36.51, p<0.001] and 85% vs 78% [χ2=5.60, p=0.018], respectively). Falls were experienced by similar proportions of adults with and without BPPV (55% vs 56% [χ2==11.26, p=0.59]). Adults with BPPV received CRMs more often than those without BPPV (86% vs 48%, χ2=127.23, p<0.001). More registrants with BPPV also endorsed benefit from CRMs compared to those without BPPV (51% vs 12% [χ2=105.30, p<0.001]). Discussion: In this registry, BPPV was often reported with other vestibular disorders. Healthcare utilization was higher than would be expected with care based on the CPG. The rates of falls in those with and without BPPV are higher than previously reported. Adults with BPPV reported significant differences in how their care is managed and their overall outcomes compared to those without BPPV. Conclusion: Patient-reported outcomes provide useful information regarding the lived experience of adults with BPPV.
... this change-away from the simple median or arithmetic mean-has been facilitated by the widespread ability to build interactive web apps using R [23]. ...
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In numerous articles and editorials, many of which were published in ACQUAL, Paul De Bièvre laid out challenges time and again about how the application of statistical methods can help improve our understanding of chemical measurements. Paul’s insights and incisive criticism were as illuminating and as provocative as in all other areas that he looked into—from counting to consensus building, from the validity of common statistical assumptions to the impact of model uncertainty. This memorial contribution briefly revisits some of these concerns illustrated by examples from interlaboratory comparisons and proposes an optimistic outlook for how the statistical arts practised in close collaboration between chemist and statistician will continue to add value to the chemical sciences.
... Statistics and reproducibility. Statistical analysis was performed in R 33 . Figures were generated in R using tidyverse 34 (Supplementary Data File 9), apart from those that depict sequencing reads, which were generated in IGV 35 . ...
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B.1.1.7 lineage SARS-CoV-2 is more transmissible, leads to greater clinical severity, and results in modest reductions in antibody neutralization. Subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) is produced by discontinuous transcription of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Applying our tool (periscope) to ARTIC Network Oxford Nanopore Technologies genomic sequencing data from 4400 SARS-CoV-2 positive clinical samples, we show that normalised sgRNA is significantly increased in B.1.1.7 (alpha) infections (n = 879). This increase is seen over the previous dominant lineage in the UK, B.1.177 (n = 943), which is independent of genomic reads, E cycle threshold and days since symptom onset at sampling. A noncanonical sgRNA which could represent ORF9b is found in 98.4% of B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 infections compared with only 13.8% of other lineages, with a 16-fold increase in median sgRNA abundance. We demonstrate that ORF9b protein levels are increased 6-fold in B.1.1.7 compared to a B lineage virus in vitro. We hypothesise that increased ORF9b in B.1.1.7 is a direct consequence of a triple nucleotide mutation in nucleocapsid (28280:GAT > CAT, D3L) creating a transcription regulatory-like sequence complementary to a region 3’ of the genomic leader. These findings provide a unique insight into the biology of B.1.1.7 and support monitoring of sgRNA profiles to evaluate emerging potential variants of concern.
... A sensitivity analysis will investigate the impact of study design on the meta-analysis result. All statistical analyses will be carried out using the latest version of R [14]. ...
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Background Fascioliasis is an emerging public health threat in a number of regions worldwide, including Southeast Asia. Up to now, a summary of current knowledge on the occurrence and the distribution in Southeast Asia is lacking. We therefore aim to gather recent information on the distribution and prevalence of and the associated risk factors for Fasciola spp. infections in humans, animals, and plant carriers in Southeast Asia. Methods Bibliographic and gray literature databases as well as reference lists of important review articles will be searched for relevant records that are published between January 1, 2000, and the search date. The systematic review will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for reporting systematic reviews. The primary outcomes will be both the prevalence of Fasciola spp. in the human and animal hosts, and on plant carriers in Southeast Asia, and the risk factors for occurrence of Fasciola spp. Secondary outcomes are the prevalence of Fasciola spp. in subpopulations (e.g., children and patients visiting clinics), the mapping of different diagnostic tests used, and the occurrence of the different Fasciola spp. in the study region. A descriptive statistical analysis will be conducted, and a meta-analysis will be run to estimate the prevalence of human and animal fascioliasis respectively, in Southeast Asia. Discussion This systematic review will summarize the current knowledge on the epidemiology of Fasciola spp. infections in Southeast Asia. Systematic review registration This systematic review has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO), reference number: CRD42021261104.
Article
Mudskippers (Gobiidae: Oxudercinae), are air-breathing fish, that play important roles in the structuring of benthic communities in mangrove habitats, serving as important ecosystem engineers. We used stable isotopes and the Bayesian mixing model to determine if mangrove provides a base of nutritional support to the mudskipper, Periophthalmus waltoni in the arid mangrove system of the Persian Gulf. The results showed that the species belong to the trophic level of the secondary consumers which mostly prey on species with the origin of the resources related to the mangroves. The mixing model results showed that all the three sources selected contributed to the species diets. Mangrove provided relatively high proportion (35.7%) of organic matter to the fish, followed by sediment organic matter (33.7%), and benthic microalgae (30.6%). The results highlight the fact that other features of food sources (i.e. quality, productivity) should be considered in addition to biomass when carrying out food web studies.
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Bats are important hosts of zoonotic viruses with pandemic potential, including filoviruses, MERS-Coronavirus (CoV), SARS-CoV -1, and likely SARS-CoV-2. Viral infection and transmission among wildlife are dependent on a combination of factors that include host ecology and immunology, life history traits, roosting habitats, biogeography, and external stressors. Between 2016 and 2018, four species of insectivorous bats from a readily accessed roadside cave and buildings in Ethiopia were sampled and tested for viruses using consensus PCR assays for five viral families/genera. Previously identified and novel coronaviruses and paramyxoviruses were identified in 99 of the 589 sampled bats. Bats sampled from the cave site were more likely to test positive for a CoV than bats sampled from buildings; viral shedding was more common in the wet season; and rectal swabs were the most common sample type to test positive. A previously undescribed alphacoronavirus was detected in two bat species from different taxonomic families, sampling interfaces, geographic locations, and years. These findings expand knowledge of the range and diversity of coronaviruses and paramyxoviruses in insectivorous bats in Ethiopia and reinforce that an improved understanding of viral diversity and species-specific shedding dynamics is important for designing informed zoonotic disease surveillance and spillover risk reduction efforts.
Article
The present study investigated transposed-word effects in a post-cued word-in-sequence identification experiment. Five horizontally aligned words were simultaneously presented for a brief duration and followed by a backward mask and cue for the position of the word to be identified within the sequence. The five-word sequences could form a grammatically correct sentence (e.g., The boy can run fast), an ungrammatical transposed-word sequence (e.g., The can boy run fast) or an ungrammatical control sequence (e.g., The can get run fast), and the same target word at the same position (e.g., the word ‘run’) was tested in the three conditions. Consistent with previous studies using a grammatical decision task and a same-different matching task, a transposed-word effect was observed, with word identification being more accurate in transposed-word sequences than in control sequences. Furthermore, here we could show for the first time that word identification was more accurate in correct sentences compared with transposed-word sequences. We suggest that the word identification advantage found for transposed-word sequences compared with ungrammatical control sequences is due to facilitatory feedback to word identities from sentence-level representations, albeit with less strength compared to the feedback provided by correct sentences.
Article
In recent years, systems have been developed to realize automatic driving based on objective information such as the relative distance and relative speed between vehicles. However, humans still must drive in complex situations, for instance, when merging lanes. In such driving situations, it is possible that people make decisions based not only on objective information, but also on subjective information. This study examined how subjective information, specifically, a driver’s impression of the other vehicle, affects the decision to merge in front of or behind the other vehicle when merging lanes on a highway. Twenty participants (nmale = 10; nfemale = 10; Mage = 43.92 [SDage = 11.40]) joined two experiments, Days 1E and 2E, using a driving simulator. Two months after participating in Day 1E the participants joined Day 2E. In the Day 1E, they drove either on the merging lane or the main lane and merged lanes while considering the other vehicle driving along the adjacent lane. This experiment measured the probability that the participants drove in front of another vehicle upon merging, which is defined as “lead probability.” The Day 2E was similar to 1E, except for the manipulation of the participants’ impression of the other vehicle as being aggressive/cautious via acceleration/deceleration of the other vehicle, and through the contents of the instructions regarding the other vehicle’s driving characteristics. In the Day 2E, the participants were randomly assigned to two: Aggressive or Cautious conditions. As the result of comparing the lead probabilities, it was found that only when the participants were driving on the merging lane and had the impression that the other vehicle is aggressive, the impression lowered the lead probability. The result indicates that people make decisions based not only on objective information but also on subjective information for specific driving situations, such as merging lanes. These findings can help in the development of automated driving systems that allow safer merging.
Article
Purpose In this exploratory, open-label study, we used behavioral and brain imaging measures to assess the effectiveness of a smartphone application (ReSound Relief app), which aims to help reduce tinnitus-related distress. Method Fourteen participants with a wide range of tinnitus-related symptoms and who were not currently undergoing any external treatment participated. They completed the 6-month study and reported different levels of engagement with the app. Results Across a range of tinnitus questionnaires, most participants showed either no change or decrease in tinnitus handicap. Resting-state and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected at baseline and the end of the study. Resting-state fMRI of 12 participants revealed alterations in interregional connectivity of default mode, salience, emotion, auditory, and visual processing networks at the end of the intervention period compared to baseline. Ratings of affective sounds (as pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant) were assessed using fMRI, and comparison after 6 months of app usage revealed reduced activity in the left superior temporal gyrus (secondary auditory cortex), right superior occipital gyrus, and left posterior cingulate cortex. Our findings were not significant at a false discovery rate level of p < .05. Conclusions The reported changes were not significant, possibly due to the small sample size, heterogeneity of the tinnitus handicap among subjects at the start of the project, and the length of the intervention period. Nevertheless, this study underscores the ease of usage of the app and the potential use of brain imaging to assess changes due to a passive, self-administered intervention for individuals with varying levels of tinnitus severity.
Article
Social network analysis (SNA) can be used to explore a population’s social structure and how individuals contribute to social cohesion. Quantifying relationships between individuals in a network can vary depending on the data available or the relationship of interest. Studies of readily visible species can use direct interaction measures in SNA, while studies of cryptic species usually rely on the ‘gambit of the group’; individuals observed in a group are considered associates. This study compared the association and pectoral fin contact (PFC) networks of Atlantic spotted dolphins around Bimini to test the ‘gambit of the group’ hypothesis. The association network had nearly three times as many edges than the PFC network. Still, the two networks were correlated; individuals with a relationship in one network had a comparable relationship in the other. Many network measures were also correlated across networks, suggesting association is an acceptable substitute for physical interaction in certain cases. The current study supports the ‘gambit of the group’, but also highlights the importance of considering what types of relationships are used in the analysis of the social system of the focal species.
Article
Wildfire is an essential disturbance agent that creates burn mosaics, or a patchwork of burned and unburned areas across the landscape. Unburned patches, fire refugia, serve as carbon sinks and seed sources for forest regeneration in burned areas. In the Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) forests of north‐eastern Siberia, an unprecedented wildfire season in 2020 and little documentation of landscape patch dynamics have resulted in research gaps about the characteristics of fire refugia in northern latitude forests, which are warming faster than other global forest ecosystems. We aim to characterize the 2010 distribution of fire refugia for these forest ecosystems and evaluate their topographic drivers. North‐eastern Siberia across the North‐east Siberian Taiga and the Cherskii‐Kolyma Mountain Tundra ecozones. 2001–2020. Cajander larch. We used Landsat imagery to define burned and unburned patches, and the Arctic digital elevation model to calculate topographic variables. We characterized the size and density of fire refugia. We sampled individual pixels (n = 80,000) from an image stack that included a binary burned/unburned, elevation, slope, aspect, topographic position index, ruggedness, and tree cover from 2001 to 2020. We evaluated the topographic drivers of fire refugia with boosted regression trees. We found no substantial difference in fire refugia size and density across the region. The fire refugia size averaged 7.2 ha (0.09–150,439 ha). The majority of interior burned patches exceed the potential wind dispersal distance from fire refugia. Topographic position index and terrain steepness were important predictors of fire refugia. Unprecedented wildfires in 2020 did not impact fire refugia formation. Fire refugia are strongly controlled by topographic positions such as uplands and lowlands that influence microsite hydrological conditions. Fire refugia contribute to postfire landscape heterogeneity that preserves ecosystem functions, seed sources, habitat, and carbon sinks.
Article
Resisting immediate temptations in favor of larger later rewards predicts academic success, socioemotional competence, and health. These links with delaying gratification appear from early childhood and have been explained by cognitive and social factors that help override tendencies toward immediate gratification. However, some tendencies may actually promote delaying gratification. We assessed children’s delaying gratification for different rewards across two cultures that differ in customs around waiting. Consistent with our preregistered prediction, results showed that children in Japan ( n = 80) delayed gratification longer for food than for gifts, whereas children in the United States ( n = 58) delayed longer for gifts than for food. This interaction may reflect cultural differences: Waiting to eat is emphasized more in Japan than in the United States, whereas waiting to open gifts is emphasized more in the United States than in Japan. These findings suggest that culturally specific habits support delaying gratification, providing a new way to understand why individuals delay gratification and why this behavior predicts life success.
Article
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Temperature is a key element of insect fitness, and an understanding of thermal tolerance can provide a predictive framework for their distribution and abundance. The two-spotted stink bug, Bathycoelia distincta (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a significant pest of macadamia. Distinct life stages of B. distinct cause kernel damage by direct feeding on macadamia nuts. The main goal of this study was to investigate the thermal tolerance of B. distincta life stages (nymphal instars and adults). Thermal tolerance indices investigated included critical thermal maximum (CTmax), critical thermal minimum (CTmin), effects of acclimation on CTmax and CTmin at 20, 25, and 30 °C, and rapid heat hardening (RHH), and rapid cold hardening (RCH). Generalized Linear Models (GLM) were used to explore the effects of life stage and acclimation on CTmax and CTmin and the probability of survival after pre-exposure to RHH and RCH. In general, thermal tolerance was life stage dependent. CTmax and CTmin varied significantly between life stages at all acclimation temperatures, but CTmin varied more than CTmax. Higher acclimation temperatures resulted in larger variation between life stages for both CTmax and CTmin. The CTmax of instar 2 and CTmin of females showed stronger acclimation responses. RHH and RCH significantly impacted heat and cold survival of all life stages. Pre-exposure improved the heat and cold survival probability of instar 2, and the response between life stages was more variable in RCH than in RHH. Instar 2 appeared to be the most thermally plastic life stage of B. distincta. The plastic responses of B. distincta life stages suggest that the environmental temperatures experienced by life stages vary. Apart from instar 2, early life stages may be more vulnerable to temperature fluctuations than later life stages. Results from this study provide essential input into population models and integrated management systems in macadamia orchards.
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Profiling the specificities of antibodies can reveal a wealth of information about humoral immune responses and the antigens they target. Here, we present a protocol for VirScan, an application of the phage immunoprecipitation sequencing (PhIP-Seq) method for profiling the specificities of human antiviral antibodies. Accompanying this protocol is a video of the experimental procedure. VirScan and, more generally, PhIP-Seq are techniques that enable high-throughput antibody profiling by combining high-throughput DNA oligo synthesis and bacteriophage display with next-generation sequencing. In the VirScan method, human sera samples are screened against a library of peptides spanning the entire human viral proteome. Bound phage are immunoprecipitated and sequenced, identifying the viral peptides recognized by the antibodies. VirScan Is a powerful tool for uncovering individual viral exposure histories, mapping the epitope landscape of viruses of interest, and studying fundamental mechanisms of viral immunity. Graphical abstract.
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Investigating the well‐established relationships between insects and novel host plants will shed light on numerous aspects of evolution and ecology of phytophagous insects. However, in these systems, it is not always clear which plants were originally used as insect hosts, and how the focal insects adapted to the original host(s), before establishing the novel insect–host relationships. Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a well‐known pest of the potato Solanum tuberosum (Solanaceae), however its original host in Honshu, the main island of Japan, before the potato introduction is uncertain. A wild solanaceous weed, So. megacarpum, is the most likely candidate for the original host, although the use of this plant by H. vigintioctomaculata has never been recorded in Honshu. This study reports the occurrence of a H. vigintioctomaculata population depending almost solely on So. megacarpum at Yamagata, northern Honshu. Additionally, the host‐use ability of this population was compared to that of a pest population under laboratory conditions. Based on the results obtained, it is discussed how the properties of beetles on So. megacarpum facilitated the use of the potato, assuming that So. megacarpum was the original host of H. vigintioctomaculata in Honshu. The original host of Henosepilachna vigintioctomaculata in Honshu, the main island of Japan, before the potato introduction is uncertain, while a wild solanaceous weed Solanum megacarpum is the most likely candidate for the original host. This study reports the occurrence of a H. vigintioctomaculata population depending almost solely on So. megacarpum at Yamagata, northern Honshu, for the first time. Additionally, the host‐use ability of this population was compared to that of a pest population under laboratory conditions.
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Self-regulated learning (SRL) has been linked to improved learning and corresponding learning outcomes. However, there is a need for more precise insights into how SRL during learning contributes to specific learning outcomes. We operationalised four learning outcomes that varied on two dimensions: structure/connectedness and level/deepness of knowledge. Specifically, we assessed how surface knowledge measured with a domain knowledge test (independent concepts) and a concept map (connected concepts), and deep knowledge measured with a transfer test (independent concepts) and an essay (connected concepts) were associated with frequencies of SRL activities during learning, assessed by concurrent think aloud, while taking into account students’ metacognitive and prior knowledge. Forty-four university students performed a 45-minute problem-solving task integrating information about three topics to write a vision essay on the future of education. Results of the pre-/post-test analysis revealed a learning gain in domain knowledge and concept maps. Low cognitive activities were associated with all knowledge measures, except the concept maps and transfer. Furthermore, specific low cognitive activities showed either a positive or negative association; for example, processing showed a positive association with essay, but a negative association with domain knowledge. High cognitive activities were associated with the essay (connected concepts), but not with the concept map. Both metacognitive activities and knowledge were related to transfer. To conclude, taking the level and structure of knowledge into account helps specify the association between SRL activities during learning and the related learning outcomes.
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Background Understanding the role of self-imagery in the development of social anxiety in adolescence holds promise for improving intervention. Cross-sectional studies indicate that imagery characteristics are associated with social anxiety symptoms, however, prospective studies are lacking. The current study examined concurrent and prospective associations between two image characteristics, namely observer-perspective and vividness, with social anxiety symptoms in a community adolescent sample (N = 616; 53% girls; aged 11–15 years). In addition, we examined common themes in the negative social anxiety-related images. Methods Negative self-imagery and social anxiety symptoms were assessed using questionnaires at baseline and at 4–6-month follow-up. A series of multiple linear regression analyses were performed to see if each image characteristic predicts concurrent and prospective social anxiety symptoms. Topic modelling was performed to infer key topics from verbal data. Results Observer-perspective and vividness significantly predicted concurrent social anxiety symptoms beyond the influence of age and gender. Observer-perspective significantly predicted prospective levels of social anxiety symptoms beyond the influence of age, gender, and baseline social anxiety and depression symptoms. Negative self-images clustered into two themes: the fear of appearing anxious and the fear of being judged or viewed as unacceptable. Conclusions Specific characteristics and contents of negative self-images may be particularly relevant to the development of adolescent social anxiety.
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Context Maps of C3 and C4 plant abundance and stable carbon isotope values (δ¹³C) across terrestrial landscapes are valuable tools in ecology to investigate species distribution and carbon exchange. Australia has a predominance of C4-plants, thus monitoring change in C3:C4 cover and δ¹³C is essential to national management priorities. Objectives We applied a novel combination of field surveys and remote sensing data to create maps of C3 and C4 abundance in Australia, and a vegetation δ¹³C isoscape for the continent. Methods We used vegetation and land-use rasters to categorize grid-cells (1 ha) into woody (C3), native herbaceous, and herbaceous cropland (C3 and C4) cover. Field surveys and environmental factors were regressed to predict native C4 herbaceous cover. These layers were combined and a δ¹³C mixing model was used to calculate site-averaged δ¹³C values. Results Seasonal rainfall, maximum summer temperature, and soil pH were the best predictors of C4 herbaceous cover. Comparisons between predicted and observed values at field sites indicated our approach reliably predicted generalised C3:C4 abundance. Southern Australia, which has cooler temperatures and winter rainfall, was dominated by C3 vegetation and low δ¹³C values. C4-dominated areas included northern savannahs and grasslands. Conclusions Our isoscape approach is distinct because it incorporates remote sensing products that calculate cover beneath the canopy, the influence of local factors, and extensive validation, all of which are critical to accurate predictions. Our models can be used to predict C3:C4 abundance under climate change, which is expected to substantially alter current C3:C4 abundance patterns.
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Our study incorporates high-resolution, multivariate ecological niche modeling (ENM) to test whether two putative state-threatened mussel species in East Texas (Fusconaia askewi and F. lananensis) are ecologically differentiated. We forecasted suitable habitat to identify any differences in the taxa’s habitat associations, using a total of 60 environmental layers comprising climate, soil, and hydrology in a multivariate framework. We found the two species were not ecologically different, consistent with other work (e.g., morphology and genetics) suggesting that they are synonymous. We synonymized the two to make an ENM that was then ground truthed by sampling 25 novel sites throughout East Texas. Our ENM significantly distinguished suitable from unsuitable habitat for these sites, identifying five new records. We compared model evaluation metrics using the original data versus the ground-truthed data, and we found that some metrics were more reliable than others. The verified ecological niche modeling approach that we present here can be applied in other studies in riverine environments and has particular relevance to conservation science.
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The Shapiro–Wilk test (SW) and the Anderson–Darling test (AD) turned out to be strong procedures for testing for normality. They are joined by a class of tests for normality proposed by Epps and Pulley that, in contrast to SW and AD, have been extended by Baringhaus and Henze to yield easy-to-use affine invariant and universally consistent tests for normality in any dimension. The limit null distribution of the Epps–Pulley test involves a sequences of eigenvalues of a certain integral operator induced by the covariance kernel of a Gaussian process. We solve the associated integral equation and present the corresponding eigenvalues.
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Symbiosis is increasingly recognized as being an important component in marine systems, and many such relationships are initiated when free-swimming larvae of one partner settle and become sedentary on a host partner. Therefore, several crucial questions emerge such as the larva's mechanism of locating a host, selection of substratum and finally settlement on the surface of its future partner. Here, we investigated these mechanisms by studying how larvae of the fire coral-associated barnacle Wanella milleporae move, settle and establish symbiosis with their host, Millepora tenera. Cyprids of W. milleporae possess a pair of specialized antennules with bell-shaped attachment discs that enable them to explore and settle superficially on the hostile surface of the fire coral. Intriguingly, the stinging polyps of the fire coral remain in their respective pores when the cyprids explore the fire coral surface. Even when cyprids come into contact with the nematocysts on the extended stinging polyps during the exploratory phase, no immobilization effects against the cyprids were observed. The exploratory phase of Wanella cyprids can be divided into a sequence of wide searching (large step length and high walking speed), close searching (small step length and low speed) and inspection behavior, eventually resulting in permanent settlement and metamorphosis. After settlement, xenogeneic interactions occur between the fire coral and the newly metamorphosed juvenile barnacle. This involved tissue necrosis and regeneration in the fire coral host, leading to a callus ring structure around the juvenile barnacle, enhancing survival rate after settlement. The complex exploratory and settlement patterns and interactions documented here represent a breakthrough in coral reef symbiosis studies to show how invertebrates start symbiosis with fire corals.
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Background The social representation theory states that individual differences in reciprocity decisions are composed of a stable central core (i.e., reciprocity propensity, RP) and a contextual-dependent periphery (i.e., sensitivity to the framing effect; SFE, the effect by how the decision is presented). However, the neural underpinnings that explain RP and SFE are still unknown. Method Here, we employed prediction and lesion models to decode resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of RP and SFE for reciprocity decisions of healthy volunteers who underwent RS functional magnetic resonance imaging and completed one-shot trust (give frame) and distrust (take frame) games as trustees. Results Regarding the central core, reciprocity rates were positively associated between the give and take frame. Neuroimaging results showed that inter-network RSFC between the default-mode network (DMN; associated with mentalizing) and cingulo-opercular network (associated with cognitive control) contributed to the prediction of reciprocity under both frames. Regarding the periphery, behavioral results demonstrated a significant framing effect-people reciprocated more in the give than in the take frame. Our neuroimaging results revealed that intra-network RSFC of DMN (associated with mentalizing) contributed dominantly to the prediction of SFE. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence for distinct neural mechanisms of RP and SFE in reciprocity decisions.
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Waterfowl are of significant cultural, economic, and conservation importance along the Texas Gulf Coast. Millions of ducks utilize this region as they move along the Central Flyway each winter. Understanding body condition patterns for these birds has important implications for overwinter survival, breeding success, and population regulation. This is especially true for females, which are typically the limiting sex in ducks. Herein, we analyze sex-and age-specific differences in body condition of non-breeding dabbling ducks over the winter hunting season in coastal Texas. We collaborated with hunters over two winters to salvage, weigh, and measure 1255 dabbling ducks, including blue-winged teal (Spatula discors), green-winged teal (Anas crecca), northern shoveler (Spatula clypeata), gadwall (Mareca strepera), and northern pintail (Anas acuta). Using a modern body condition index calculation, we found that females were in better body condition than males for four of the five species studied (i.e., blue-winged teal, northern shoveler, gadwall, and green-winged teal), although this effect depended on year for green-winged teal. Body condition differed between immatures and adults, although the direction of that difference varied between the two winters. Ducks generally declined in body condition across the winter hunting season and body condition was typically higher in 2017-2018 than 2018-2019. Yearly differences in body condition may be due to major differences in precipitation, with our results suggesting differential responses by sex, age class, and species to increased availability of temporary habitats when precipitation was greater.
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Wastewater surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 is used worldwide to track COVID-19 infection trends. However, there is no standard method for SARS-CoV-2 measurement from wastewater, and uncertainties of pre-analytical influences from the wastewater collection system persist. This study builds upon the growing body of knowledge surrounding wastewater surveillance and aims to understand how wastewater measurements relate to other public health metrics, explain the influence of wastewater conveyance systems, and improve SARS-CoV-2 detection and quantification from wastewater. Our laboratory has been part of the ongoing Wisconsin SARS-CoV-2 wastewater surveillance program since August 2020, analyzing almost 4,000 samples to date. Through various experiments, our findings demonstrated that monitoring variants in wastewater using RT- ddPCR can outperform clinical sequencing. Temperature was the only parameter that significantly influenced SARS-CoV-2 decay in the wastewater matrix. Travel time, flow rate, BOD, and TSS, did not significantly influence SARS-CoV-2 decay or detection. Additionally, extracting RNA from primary settled solids improved detection sensitivity.
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Happiness is valued as one of the most important goals in raising children, but what factors make children happy? Inspired by philosophical conceptions of ‘eudaimonia’ in life, we investigated how children’s social and academic functioning, including prosocial behaviors, peer preference, and academic achievement, may be related to happiness, over and above desire satisfaction. Participants included 2,144 children (initial ages of 9 and 10 years) in China. Two waves of longitudinal data were collected from multiple sources including self-reports, peer evaluations, and school records. Cross-lagged panel analysis indicated that prosocial behaviors, peer preference, and academic achievement predicted children’s self-reported happiness over a year, controlling for desire satisfaction. Bidirectional relations were found between peer-assessed happiness and prosocial behaviors, peer preference, and academic achievement. The results suggest that children’s happiness is linked to their social and academic functioning from middle childhood, contributing to a better understanding of the nature and development of happiness.
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Background: CrossFit® is a popular high-intensity functional training program. CrossFit® participants may practice popular diets or consume dietary and sports supplements to support their health or physical pursuits, but the specific dietary and supplement practices of CrossFit® participants remain unknown. Methods: An electronic questionnaire was developed to collect data on practice of popular diets (i.e. Paleo and The Zone Diet®), dietary and sports supplement use, reasons for practicing a diet or using supplements, sources of information on diets and supplements, and various beliefs associated with nutrition among CrossFit® participants. Results: Of the 2,576 complete responses (female 51.9%, male 48.1%, age 39.4 ± 11.1 years, body mass index 26.1 ± 3.9 kg/m2), 695 (27%) reported being a CrossFit® trainer or coach and 1,392 (54%) reported competing, or planning to compete, in CrossFit® or other fitness competitions. The average years of CrossFit® experience were 5.3 ± 3.1 years, and the average frequency of CrossFit® participation was 4.5 ± 1.1 days/week. Most participants (60.1%) reported practicing a particular diet. Macro Counting (18.6%), Intermittent Fasting (7.7%), and Paleo (6.1%) were the most frequently reported diets. The top reasons for practicing a diet were to improve overall health (45.6%), decrease body fat (29.2%), and improve CrossFit® performance (25.2%). The top sources of dietary information were the Internet (47.5%), coach/trainer (28.7%), and nutritionist/dietitian (26.2%). Most participants (67.3%) reported "Urine Color" as the best method to assess hydration. Additionally, most participants (82.2%) consumed at least one supplement, with protein (51.2%), creatine (22.9%), and pre-workout/energy (20.7%) being most popular. The top reasons for consuming supplements were to improve recovery (52.6%), improve overall health (51.4%), and increase muscle mass/strength (41.7%). The top sources of information on supplements were the Internet (53.1%), coach/trainer (27.0%), and peer-reviewed research (23.0%). Conclusions: A large proportion of CrossFit® participants may practice popular diets or consume supplements with the intention of improving health or performance. These findings may support future research on the effects of various dietary patterns and supplements on CrossFit® performance.
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Background: It remains elusive how the characteristics, the course of disease, the clinical management and the outcomes of critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) worldwide have changed over the course of the pandemic. Methods: Prospective, observational registry constituted by 90 ICUs across 22 countries worldwide including patients with a laboratory-confirmed, critical presentation of COVID-19 requiring advanced organ support. Hierarchical, generalized linear mixed-effect models accounting for hospital and country variability were employed to analyse the continuous evolution of the studied variables over the pandemic. Results: Four thousand forty-one patients were included from March 2020 to September 2021. Over this period, the age of the admitted patients (62 [95% CI 60-63] years vs 64 [62-66] years, p < 0.001) and the severity of organ dysfunction at ICU admission decreased (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment 8.2 [7.6-9.0] vs 5.8 [5.3-6.4], p < 0.001) and increased, while more female patients (26 [23-29]% vs 41 [35-48]%, p < 0.001) were admitted. The time span between symptom onset and hospitalization as well as ICU admission became longer later in the pandemic (6.7 [6.2-7.2| days vs 9.7 [8.9-10.5] days, p < 0.001). The PaO2/FiO2 at admission was lower (132 [123-141] mmHg vs 101 [91-113] mmHg, p < 0.001) but showed faster improvements over the initial 5 days of ICU stay in late 2021 compared to early 2020 (34 [20-48] mmHg vs 70 [41-100] mmHg, p = 0.05). The number of patients treated with steroids and tocilizumab increased, while the use of therapeutic anticoagulation presented an inverse U-shaped behaviour over the course of the pandemic. The proportion of patients treated with high-flow oxygen (5 [4-7]% vs 20 [14-29], p < 0.001) and non-invasive mechanical ventilation (14 [11-18]% vs 24 [17-33]%, p < 0.001) throughout the pandemic increased concomitant to a decrease in invasive mechanical ventilation (82 [76-86]% vs 74 [64-82]%, p < 0.001). The ICU mortality (23 [19-26]% vs 17 [12-25]%, p < 0.001) and length of stay (14 [13-16] days vs 11 [10-13] days, p < 0.001) decreased over 19 months of the pandemic. Conclusion: Characteristics and disease course of critically ill COVID-19 patients have continuously evolved, concomitant to the clinical management, throughout the pandemic leading to a younger, less severely ill ICU population with distinctly different clinical, pulmonary and inflammatory presentations than at the onset of the pandemic.
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There has been an increased focus on the role of natural and sexual selection in shaping cognitive abilities, but the importance of the interaction between both forces remains largely unknown. Intersexual selection through female mate choice might be an important driver of the evolution of cognitive traits, especially in monogamous species, where females may obtain direct fitness benefits by choosing mates with better cognitive abilities. However, the importance given by female to male cognitive traits might vary among species and/or populations according to their life‐history traits and ecology. To disentangle the effects of natural and sexual selection, here we use an agent‐based simulation model and compare the model's predictions when females mate with the first randomly encountered male (i.e., under natural selection) versus when they choose among males based on their cognitive trait values (i.e., under natural and intersexual selection). Males and females are characterized, respectively, by their problem‐solving ability and assessment strategy. At each generation, agents go through (1) a choosing phase during which females assess the cognitive abilities of potential mates until eventually finding an acceptable one and (2) a reproductive phase during which all males compete for limited resources that are exploited at a rate, which depends on their cognitive abilities. Because males provide paternal care, the foraging success of mated males determines the breeding success of the pair through its effect on nestling provisioning efficiency. The model predicts that intersexual selection plays a major role in most ecological conditions, by either reinforcing or acting against the effect of natural selection. The latter case occurs under harsh environmental conditions, where intersexual selection contributes to maintaining cognitive diversity. Our findings thus demonstrate the importance of considering the interaction between both selective forces and highlight the need to build a conceptual framework to target relevant cognitive traits. We developed an agent‐based simulation model to investigate the role of natural and intersexual selection through female mate choice on the evolution of a cognitive trait in monogamous species. Here, we predict that intersexual selection should play a major role in most ecological conditions, by either reinforcing or acting against the effect of natural selection. Specifically, female mate choice might favour the rapid evolution of high cognitive abilities in favourable environments but might contribute to maintaining cognitive diversity in harsher ones.
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Purpose: Sport-science research consistently contains repeated measures and imbalanced data sets. This study calls for further adoption of mixed models when analyzing longitudinal sport-science data sets. Mixed models were used to understand whether the level of competition affected the intensity of women's rugby league match play. Methods: A total of 472 observations were used to compare the mean speed of female rugby league athletes recorded during club-, state-, and international-level competition. As athletes featured in all 3 levels of competition and there were multiple matches within each competition (ie, repeated measures), the authors demonstrated that mixed models are the appropriate statistical approach for these data. Results: The authors determined that if a repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for the statistical analysis in the present study, at least 48.7% of the data would have been omitted to meet ANOVA assumptions. Using a mixed model, the authors determined that mean speed recorded during Trans-Tasman Test matches was 73.4 m·min-1, while the mean speeds for National Rugby League Women and State of Origin matches were 77.6 and 81.6 m·min-1, respectively. Random effects of team, athlete, and match all accounted for variations in mean speed, which otherwise could have concealed the main effects of position and level of competition had less flexible ANOVAs been used. Conclusion: These data clearly demonstrate the appropriateness of applying mixed models to typical data sets acquired in the professional sport setting. Mixed models should be more readily used within sport science, especially in observational, longitudinal data sets such as movement pattern analyses.
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