Article

Individual job redesign: Job crafting interventions in healthcare

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Abstract

In two quasi-experimental studies – Study 1 among medical specialists (N = 119) and Study 2 among nurses (N = 58) – we tested the impact of a general and a specific job crafting intervention on health care professionals' well-being and (objective and subjective) job performance. Both groups of participants received training and then set personal job crafting goals for a period of three weeks. The results of a series of repeated measures analyses showed that both interventions were successful. Participation in the job crafting intervention groups was associated with increases in job crafting behaviors, well-being (i.e., work engagement, health, and reduced exhaustion), and job performance (i.e., adaptive, task, and contextual performance) for the medical specialists and nurses relative to the control groups. Though we did not find a significant intervention effect for objective performance, we conclude that job crafting is a promising job redesign intervention strategy that individual employees can use to improve their well-being and job performance.

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... Recently, a few job crafting intervention (JCI) studies (Gordon et al., 2018;van den Heuvel et al., 2015;Sakuraya et al., 2016;van Wingerden et al., 2017bvan Wingerden et al., , 2017avan Wingerden et al., 2017) have shown that (a) job crafting is beneficial to workers' well-being and (b) job crafting can be trained with means of an intervention. However, the studies that evaluate the impact of JCIs on individual outcomes are still scarce, and the findings are somewhat inconsistent (for a review, see Devotto & Wechsler, 2019). ...
... Although studies have shown that job crafting efforts are related to reduced exhaustion (Gordon et al., 2018;Tims et al., 2013), negative affect (van den Heuvel et al., 2015), and psychological distress (Sakuraya et al., 2016), the protective potential of job crafting behavior against psychological ill-being at work has received less attention than has its benefits with respect to well-being or performance; we extend the research on possible effects of job crafting on psychological strain at work by introducing an outcome of illbeing that so far has not been considered by the job crafting literatureirritation. The contribution of this study to the literature, therefore, is three-fold. ...
... Job crafting efforts are positively related to engagement (Chen et al., 2014;Tims et al., 2013) and job satisfaction (de Beer et al., 2016;Nielsen & Abildgaard, 2012). Furthermore, job crafting bears a health protective function by decreasing burnout (Gordon et al., 2018;Tims et al., 2013) and improving self-rated health (Gordon et al., 2018). Certain forms of job crafting may be, however, detrimental to well-being: Crafting hindering job demands (e.g., reducing demands, reducing workload) might negatively affect work engagement (Petrou et al., 2012) and job satisfaction (de Beer et al., 2016). ...
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This article examined the impact of an online job crafting intervention (JCI) on employees’ ill-being and well-being at work, as measured by irritation and job satisfaction. To address this question, this study used an experimental design with randomized intervention and control groups. Recruited subjects ( N = 208) participated in a four-week web-based JCI, which consisted of one training session and three reflection sessions. The study outcomes were measured at three time points: before the intervention (premeasurement), a week after the intervention (postmeasurement), and four weeks after the intervention (follow-up measurement). The intervention led to a decline in irritation levels in the intervention group at both postmeasurement and follow-up measurement compared to the premeasurement and control group. No impact on job satisfaction was found. Web-based JCIs in the workplace provide the potential to alleviate symptoms of psychological malfunctioning.
... Second, so far, job-crafting studies have mainly focused on the effects of active training sessions on job crafting behaviour [20][21][22], where a group of participants works intensively on job-crafting exercises for at least half a day. Many of these active training interventions show positive effects. ...
... Assuming a two-tailed significance level of 5% and a power level of 95%, power analysis indicated that 120 participants were needed to detect effect sizes of 0.25 and over. This effect size was based on the findings of research on full-scale job crafting interventions [20,21]. With a final sample size of 165 physicians, using a parallel design (ratio 50:50), we therefore had enough power to detect possible effects. ...
... The ideal time between a pre-and posttest in order to measure changes in perceptions on the ability and willingness to continue to work and job crafting is unclear. A time frame in existing studies varies from one or two weeks e.g., [3] to eight weeks e.g., [21]. In a theory on evaluating training programs, Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick argue that an individual's response to training can be split into four levels: reaction, learning, behaviour, and results [68]. ...
Article
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The demanding work context of physicians challenges their employability (i.e., their ability and willingness to continue to work). This requires them to proactively manage their working life and employability, for instance, through job crafting behaviour. This randomized controlled intervention study aimed to examine the effects of a personalized feedback report on physicians’ employability and job crafting behaviour. A total of 165 physicians from two hospitals in a large Dutch city were randomly assigned to a waitlist control or intervention group in May 2019. Physicians in the intervention group received access to a personalized feedback report with their employability scores, suggestions to improve these and to engage in job crafting. Participants completed a pre-test and eight weeks later a post-test. RM MANOVAs and RM ANOVAs showed that the intervention enhanced participants’ perceptions of their mental (F (1,130) = 4.57, p < 0.05) and physical (F (1,135) = 16.05, p < 0.001) ability to continue working. There was no effect on their willingness to continue to work. Furthermore, while job crafting behaviour significantly increased over time, the personalized feedback report did not account for this change. This low-investment intervention is relevant for organizations to stimulate employees’ proactivity and create positive perceptions of their ability to continue to work. Moreover, this study contributes to the literature by examining a novel approach of a job crafting intervention that does not require many resources to implement.
... Increasing challenging job demands adalah upaya kreasi kerja di mana pekerja secara proaktif mencari dan meningkatkan tugas-tugas pekerjaannya yang lebih menantang dan menarik sehingga dapat menghindari kejenuhan (Gordon et al., 2018;Lee & Lee, 2018;Tims et al., 2012). Hal ini perlu dilakukan untuk mempertahankan kinerjanya ketika harus dihadapkan pada tuntutan kerja yang tinggi. ...
... Kreasi kerja bermanfaat bagi pekerja karena dapat menjadi salah satu solusi dan strategi kerja yang proaktif untuk meningkatkan kinerjanya. Selain itu, kreasi kerja mendorong pekerja berinisiatif memodifikasi pekerjaan dan lingkungan kerjanya sehingga dapat terikat dengan pekerjaannya dan sesuai dengan kebutuhan masyarakat selama pandemi (Bacaksiz et al., 2017 ;Crawford et al, 2010;Demerouti, 2014 Kreasi kerja juga bermanfaat bagi pekerja untuk menyesuaikan pekerjaannya dengan apa yang menjadi minat dan kemampuannya terutama ketika dihadapkan pada perubahan yang terjadi di tempat kerja (Peeters et al, 2016;Gordon et al, 2018). Menurut Petrou et al ( 2012) strategi kreasi kerja merupakan salah satu strategi bagi pekerja yang memegang peranan penting ketika terjadi perubahan di dalam organisasi atau pekerjaannya. ...
... Menurut Demerouti et al ( 2017) Kreasi kerja berguna bagi pekerja dapat dilakukan melalui intervensi berupa pelatihan bagi pekerja (Demerouti, 2014;Demerouti et al, 2017). Pelatihan tersebut secara efisien dapat meningkatkan produktivitas pekerja dengan cara menumbuhkan perilaku yang positif dan dapat meningkatkan kesejahteraan kerja seperti keterlibatan kerja, kesehatan dan menurunkan kelelahan sehingga pekerja lebih produktif dalam bekerja Gordon et al, 2018). Dalam hal ini, pekerja sosial dapat mengontrol dan memaknai pekerjaannya terutama terkait dengan fungsinya dalam praktik pekerjaan sosial melalui kreasi kerja, contohnya pekerja sosial berusaha hadir untuk mengurangi beban pikiran klien bukan hanya sebagai pekerja yang melakukan pekerjaan rutin saja. ...
... Job-crafting interventions typically involve a broad focus related to a wide variety of crafting behaviors within multiple job-crafting dimensions (Tims et al., 2012). Job-crafting interventions are associated with different facets of employee wellbeing, such as higher levels of work engagement (e.g., Gordon et al., 2018), lower levels of exhaustion (e.g., , and higher levels of basic need satisfaction (i.e., the need for autonomy, competency, and belonging; van Wingerden et al., 2017a). In nonintervention literature, job crafting also has shown a positive relationship to well-being (Yepes-Baldó et al., 2018) and work-life balance (Fouché & Martindale, 2011). ...
... In support of the extant literature, results indicated that as job-crafting strategies increase, work-life balance increases (e.g., Gordon et al., 2018), well-being increases (e.g., van Wingerden et al., 2017a), work engagement increases (e.g., Sakuraya et al., 2017;van Wingerden et al., 2016van Wingerden et al., , 2017a, and burnout decreases (e.g., Gordon et al., 2018). Our findings conflict with van Wingerden et al.'s (2017b) findings; they did not observe a significant increase in work engagement following a job-crafting intervention. ...
... In support of the extant literature, results indicated that as job-crafting strategies increase, work-life balance increases (e.g., Gordon et al., 2018), well-being increases (e.g., van Wingerden et al., 2017a), work engagement increases (e.g., Sakuraya et al., 2017;van Wingerden et al., 2016van Wingerden et al., , 2017a, and burnout decreases (e.g., Gordon et al., 2018). Our findings conflict with van Wingerden et al.'s (2017b) findings; they did not observe a significant increase in work engagement following a job-crafting intervention. ...
Article
Applied behavior analysis (ABA) practitioners report high levels of burnout, exhibited as exhaustion and disengagement. Turnover, a stressful and costly experience for individual practitioners and the human service organizations that employ them, is a potential consequence of burnout. Work–life balance and work engagement are associated with lower burnout and lower intention to quit. Research concerning behavioral predictors of work–life balance, work engagement, and burnout—all of which are associated with turnover intentions—among ABA service providers is scant. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to explore whether and how the use of self-care strategies and job-crafting practices influences perceived levels of work–life balance, work engagement, and burnout among ABA practitioners who work in human service settings. In a sample of 826 ABA practitioners, 72% reported medium to high levels of burnout. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the use of both self-care strategies and job-crafting practices strongly predicted work–life balance, work engagement, and burnout above and beyond sociodemographic variables (gender and years of experience). Findings can inform the development of effective organizational/systems- and individual-level self-care and job-crafting interventions that support sustainable individual, organizational, and client-related outcomes. We contend that self-care and job-crafting interventions support a culture of well-being in graduate programs, training/supervision curricula, and mentor–mentee relationships.
... Au cours des interventions job crafting, les participants formulent des objectifs individualisés et donc pertinents pour les salariés suivant le modèle de Doran (1981), à savoir des objectifs « SMART » (spécifiques, mesurables, atteignable, réalistes et temporellement définis) qui permettent de prendre en compte les principaux points de ces théories afin de proposer un dispositif optimisé favorisant la motivation à l'atteinte des objectifs fixés. Ensuite, d'autres recherches indiquent que l'intervention job crafting est positivement liée à la performance, mais aussi à l'amélioration du bien-être (Dubbelt et al., 2019 ;Gordon et al., 2018). Ces deux dimensions sont des objectifs que notre commanditaire souhaite atteindre. ...
... Ce résultat peut paraître étonnant aux premiers abords, mais il nous semble que des explications sont possibles. Tout d'abord, sur les neuf interventions job crafting repérées dans la littérature, respectant les critères de sélection de Demerouti et al. (2019), seules trois (Gordon et al., 2018 ;Peeters et al., 2017 ;Thomas et al., 2020) socio-organisationnelles. Ces résultats peuvent, en partie, être confirmés par notre cinquième étude qui montre un effet de l'intervention job crafting sur l'amélioration de certaines cognitions l'empowerment psychologique par le biais de l'adoption de stratégies de recherche de ressources. ...
... Nos études et de nombreuses recherches (Gordon et al., 2018 ;Hulshof et al., 2020 ;Demerouti et al., 2021) montrent que le job crafting représente un dispositif d'intervention capable d'alimenter une spirale de gain de ressources. Or ces ressources ne sont pas uniquement favorables à la santé psychologique des salariés, mais aussi à leurs performances . ...
Thesis
Les mutations et transformations du travail s’accélèrent, impliquant souvent la dégradation des conditions de travail des salariés. Pour y faire face, les entreprises adoptent de plus en plus fréquemment des politiques de Qualité de Vie au Travail qui ont pour principal objectif l’amélioration du bien-être et de la performance des salariés. Depuis quatre ans, un établissement de l’entreprise SNCF cherche à répondre à ses enjeux en développant l’autonomie et la responsabilisation de ses salariés. Dans ce contexte, notre recherche s’est tout d’abord intéressée à identifier les conditions dans lesquelles il est possible de développer l’empowerment psychologique des salariés (Spreitzer, 1995). Dans un deuxième temps, notre objectif ambitionnait de promouvoir l’empowerment psychologique par une intervention. Une première étude utilisant une méthodologie qualitative a cherché à identifier les conditions de travail perçues, en termes d’exigences et de ressources (Bakker et Demerouti, 2007), qui peuvent influencer l’empowerment psychologique des salariés de l’établissement. Par la suite, une autre étude a été réalisée afin de confirmer, par une méthodologie quantitative, les premiers résultats obtenus. Deux échelles de mesure ont été traduites puis validées pour les besoins de cette recherche (leadership d’empowerment et job crafting). Enfin, une dernière étude portait l’objectif d’expérimenter, par l’intervention, une technique d’augmentation des ressources socio-organisationnelles en contexte écologique pour développer l’empowerment psychologique des salariés. Cette recherche met en évidence le rôle central des ressources socio-organisationnelles telles que la reconnaissance, la justice organisationnelle et le leadership d’empowerment, pour favoriser le développement de l’empowerment psychologique des salariés. Mais elle souligne aussi l’effet rétroactif des comportements de job crafting pour développer les ressources des salariés favorables au développement de leur empowerment psychologique. Enfin, les résultats de l’étude quasi expérimentale mettent en lumière l’aspect prometteur des interventions job crafting pour atteindre cet objectif.
... Further, studies have suggested that job crafting is an important antecedent of job outcomes such as well-being 16,17 and may also affect employability. Job crafting refers to the "self-initiated behaviors that employees take to shape and change their jobs." ...
... If so, training them how to do so might enhance their job crafting behavior, as was found in previous intervention studies. 16,30 In turn, this could positively affect their well-being, in line with previous job crafting intervention studies. 16,31 Future research could further explore if job crafting is an effective strategy to better deal with a highly demanding work environment by training physicians in how to engage in job crafting ...
... 16,30 In turn, this could positively affect their well-being, in line with previous job crafting intervention studies. 16,31 Future research could further explore if job crafting is an effective strategy to better deal with a highly demanding work environment by training physicians in how to engage in job crafting ...
Article
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Background: Increasing burn-out rates among gastroenterologists make it necessary to find ways to prevent burn-out and to stimulate their ability and willingness to continue working (i.e., their employability). Understanding their antecedents might help organizations to prevent burn-out and to enhance employability among this occupational group. Objective: The purpose of this study is to provide insight in the relationship between job characteristics and job crafting behavior on the one hand and job outcomes (burn-out symptoms and employability) on the other hand. Methods: Data from two surveys in 2020 and 2021 were collected in a longitudinal study among 238 Dutch gastroenterologists. The data were analyzed with multiple linear regression analyses and paired-samples t-tests. Results: Job characteristics, specifically job aspects that require sustained physical and/or psychological effort or skills (i.e., job demands), are important predictors of burn-out symptoms among gastroenterologists. Specifically, high quantitative and emotional workload are significantly related to more burn-out symptoms. No strong relationship was found between job crafting and burn-out symptoms. Furthermore, job aspects that reduce the negative impact of these demanding aspects and that help to achieve work goals (i.e., job resources), and job demands to some extent, significantly predict employability. In particular, high job autonomy is related to higher employability, and high quantitative workload is associated with lower employability. Job crafting does not significantly affect employability. Furthermore, levels of burn-out symptoms and employability differed only little across time. Conclusion: In gastroenterologists, a high quantitative workload and emotional workload are associated with a higher burn-out risk, while low job autonomy and high quantitative workload are associated with more negative perceptions of employability. To prevent burn-out and to create positive perceptions of employability, it is important to take these aspects into account.
... Visiting unit and hospital meetings [67], continuing professional development [68], and tutoring trainees [69] were attributed to contextual performance because these examples contribute to the improvement of an organisation overall. The willingness to implement organisational changes [70] and the eagerness to require professional information [71] are examples of behaviours that were attributed to adaptive performance because they are important to adapt to changes in work systems and roles. Purposely failing to help a colleague [72] and rude behaviour among supervisors [73] are examples of behaviours that were attributed to the dimension of counterproductive work behaviour because these behaviours can lead to employee illness and increase turnover and therefore harm an organisation's well-being. ...
... On the micro-level, the extent of work engagement, role clarity, and autonomy [53,96], as well as employee skills and education levels [58], overwork [69], and the prevalence of multitasking [64] are relevant factors that influence job performance. Other relevant factors that influence job performance applies to employees' personal characteristics, such as openness to change and extraversion [56,67,97], seeking challenges [70], eagerness [71], and creativity [59]. Low emotional intelligence [98] and Machiavellianism -pragmatic, emotionally detached, and task oriented as. ...
Article
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Background Healthcare organisations face major challenges to keep healthcare accessible and affordable. This requires them to transform and improve their performance. To do so, organisations must influence employee job performance. Therefore, it is necessary to know what the key dimensions of job performance in healthcare are and how these dimensions can be improved. This study has three aims. The first aim is to determine what key dimensions of job performance are discussed in the healthcare literature. The second aim is to determine to which professionals and healthcare organisations these dimensions of job performance pertain. The third aim is to identify factors that organisations can use to affect the dimensions of job performance in healthcare. Methods A systematic review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. The authors searched Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Books, which resulted in the identification of 763 records. After screening 92 articles were included. Results The dimensions – task, contextual, and adaptative performance and counterproductive work behaviour – are reflected in the literature on job performance in healthcare. Adaptive performance and counterproductive work behaviour appear to be under-researched. The studies were conducted in different healthcare organisations and pertain to a variety of healthcare professionals. Organisations can affect job performance on the macro-, meso-, and micro-level to achieve transformation and improvement. Conclusion Based on more than 90 studies published in over 70 journals, the authors conclude that job performance in healthcare can be conceptualised into four dimensions: task, contextual and adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behaviour. Generally, these dimensions correspond with the dimensions discussed in the job performance literature. This implies that these dimensions can be used for further research into job performance in healthcare. Many healthcare studies on job performance focus on two dimensions: task and contextual performance. However, adaptive performance, which is of great importance in constantly changing environments, is under-researched and should be examined further in future research. This also applies to counterproductive work behaviour. To improve job performance, interventions are required on the macro-, meso-, and micro-levels, which relate to governance, leadership, and individual skills and characteristics.
... Job crafting is a continuous process and increases the fit between the person and the organisation (Berg, Wrzesniewski & Dutton 2010). Demerouti, Bakker and Halbesleben (2015) argued that employees are able to make incremental adjustments to their work environment (a view supported by Petrou et al. 2012) by engaging in job crafting, as this fosters work engagement and results in employees finding meaning in their work (Demerouti, Bakker & Gevers 2015;Gordon et al. 2018;Rudolph et al. 2017;Tims, Bakker, & Derks 2012). ...
... Job crafting also has the potential to increase meaningfulness (Dhanpat, De Braine & Geldenhuys 2019;Geldenhuys et al. 2020) and have a positive influence on work satisfaction (Ghitulescu 2007). Job-crafting intervention studies have shown that job crafters enhance their well-being and performance (Gordon et al. 2018;Van Wingerden, Bakker, & Derks 2017). In addition, studies have shown that job crafting as a positive proactive work strategy has the potential to increase one's performance and produce various organisational benefits (Crawford, LePine & Rich 2010;. ...
Article
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Orientation: This research study focuses on establishing a link between job crafting and landmark studies on intrapreneurship. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide a theoretical overview of intrapreneurship, intrapreneurial orientation and job crafting, and to explore theoretical linkages between these areas of enquiry. Motivation for the study: There is currently a dearth of research studies that explore the link between job crafting and intrapreneurial behaviours in existing organisations in the form of intrapreneurial orientation. Research design, approach and method: The study is presented as a conceptual paper in the form of a qualitative, theoretical study, employing a model-building approach. A deductive research approach is followed, and a narrative review methodology is employed. Main findings: The findings of this study from a literature search acknowledge the contributions of job crafting and intrapreneurial research within the management sciences, and we remain cognisant of the organisational implications of each, which have, to date, focused on the organisation, rather than the individual. With this in mind, we suggest that job crafting and intrapreneurial behaviours are empirically researched to validate the recommendations made. Practical/managerial implications: This study will help to establish the type of job-crafting interventions and job-crafting strategies needed to promote intrapreneurial behaviours in practice. Contribution/value-add: This study provides noteworthy insights, which include the suggestion that employees with a forward-looking disposition will engage in job crafting, with a focus on intrapreneurial behaviour. Furthermore, the study fills a void left in the current body of knowledge.
... Developing proactive work behaviors, such as career crafting, are likely to play a crucial role in this. However, these behaviors are understudied among physicians (with the notable exception of Gordon et al., 2018, who studied job crafting behavior among physicians). Furthermore, more attention for the employability of physicians is warranted, as studies into employability mainly focus on employees in general. ...
... Assuming a two-tailed significance level of 5% and a power level of 95%, our calculations indicated that ∼120 physicians (60 in each group) were needed to detect effect sizes (f ) of 0.25 and over. This calculation was based on the effect sizes obtained in a previous job crafting intervention study (Gordon et al., 2018) and a career coaching intervention study (Spurk et al., 2015). With 154 physicians willing to participate in this intervention, we therefore had enough power at the start of this study to detect possible effects. ...
Article
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This intervention study examined the effects of a career crafting training on physicians' perceptions of their job crafting behaviors, career self-management, and employability. A total of 154 physicians working in two hospitals in a large Dutch city were randomly assigned to a waitlist control group or an intervention group. Physicians in the intervention group received an accredited training on career crafting, including a mix of theory, self-reflection, and exercises. Participants developed four career crafting goals during the training, to work on in the subsequent weeks, after which a coaching conversation took place over the phone. Physicians in the control group received no intervention. A pre- and post-test 8 weeks later measured changes in job crafting and career self-management (primary outcomes) and employability (secondary outcome) of 103 physicians that completed the pre- and post-test. RM ANOVAs showed that the intervention enhanced perceptions of career self-management and job crafting behavior to decrease hindering job demands. No support was found for the effect of the intervention on other types of job crafting and employability. This study offers novel insights into how career crafting can be enhanced through training, as this is the first empirical study to examine a career crafting intervention. HR managers can use the outcomes to develop tailored career policies and career development practices.
... Staff may will modify the working method to achieve the goals. [5][6][7][8] Job crafting is influenced by the level of job demand and job resources. 3 In the Job-demand-resources (JD-R) model, with the standard characteristics of optimal job demands and providing the resources necessary work of employees, as a whole can satisfy employees in completing their work. ...
... Job crafting instrument utilizes 21 items of Job Crafting Questionnaire to be expanded by Tims and Bakker. 8 It consists of the dimensions of structural work resources (5 items), inhibiting job demands (5 items), social work resources (5 items), and challenging job demands (5 items). Job crafting measured using 4-point Likert scale from 1 (never) to 4 (always). ...
Article
Objective This study aimed to see the correlation between JC and JS of hospital staff in Rural area, Mamuju at 4.0 era. Method The population was all staff of three hospitals, 614 respectively at Mamuju regency, West Sulawesi Province and 155 staff selected as samples. The sample was chosen by random quota sampling, then analyzed using the Spearman correlation test. Results The results showed that most of the staff were satisfied with their job (90% average) while more than 80% of staff perceived the did JC. The result of the correlation test revealed that the p value of 0.005 < 0.05 means hypothesis null was rejected. There was correlation between JC and JS. The correlation coefficient was 0.224 showing a positive direction of the relationship even though it was a weak correlation. Conclusions JC can cause JS when the staff have other supporting factors. JC may enhance JS significantly when supported by other factors, such as job security, good compensation work itself and relationship with immediate supervisor.
... Furthermore, we advanced joint considerations and tested variations for integration on the original perspectives. In a field where the current focus lies heavily on applications (Demerouti et al., 2019;Gordon et al., 2018) and new theoretical models with new dimensions are created without first checking whether and to what extent the two original ones coincide (e.g., Bruning & Campion, 2018), construct validity and comparability between studies becomes questionable. Therefore, our results complement the series of recent theoretical considerations on the integration of JC perspectives (Bruning & Campion, 2018;Zhang & Parker, 2019), and answer the call for a clearer, empirical-based investigation on the nature of the job crafting construct (Costantini et al., 2020;Potočnik & Anderson, 2016). ...
... Since our findings speak against a general underlying job crafting factor in different perspectives, the selection and promotion of single dimensions may also prove useful in practice, thus allowing for more economical and tailored interventions. Specifically, a stronger inclusion of the cognitive dimension might be desirable in practice, although JCTB explicitly advocates the exclusion of this dimension on a theoretical level (Tims & Bakker, 2010) and does not take them into account for interventions (Gordon et al., 2018;Van Wingerden et al., 2017). However, our results suggest an essential overlap of cognitive crafting with behavioral crafting dimensions, suggesting a role of this aspect also within the JCTB perspective. ...
... Furthermore, we advanced joint considerations and tested variations for integration on the original perspectives. In a field where the current focus lies heavily on applications (Demerouti et al., 2019;Gordon et al., 2018) and new theoretical models with new dimensions are created without first checking whether and to what extent the two original ones coincide (e.g., Bruning & Campion, 2018), construct validity and comparability between studies becomes questionable. Therefore, our results complement the series of recent theoretical considerations on the integration of JC perspectives (Bruning & Campion, 2018;Zhang & Parker, 2019), and answer the call for a clearer, empirical-based investigation on the nature of the job crafting construct (Costantini et al., 2020;Potočnik & Anderson, 2016). ...
... Since our findings speak against a general underlying job crafting factor in different perspectives, the selection and promotion of single dimensions may also prove useful in practice, thus allowing for more economical and tailored interventions. Specifically, a stronger inclusion of the cognitive dimension might be desirable in practice, although JCTB explicitly advocates the exclusion of this dimension on a theoretical level (Tims & Bakker, 2010) and does not take them into account for interventions (Gordon et al., 2018;Van Wingerden et al., 2017). However, our results suggest an essential overlap of cognitive crafting with behavioral crafting dimensions, suggesting a role of this aspect also within the JCTB perspective. ...
Article
Although job crafting finds widespread application as a leading approach to bottom-up work design, the foundation of the construct is rather shaky: two different theoretical perspectives exist within the research field that have largely been treated separately. An empirical examination of their congruency is missing so far, threatening construct validity, the informative value of the emerging literature, and comparability of effects in practice. In two studies, we investigated the comparability and possible integrative approaches for the two perspectives, including different versions of existing measurement instruments. Our results, based on two large samples of employees stemming from diverse backgrounds and countries (N1 = 295, N2 = 557), indicate distinct differences in terms of the internal structure of existing job crafting measures and with regard to theoretically anticipated relationships between subdimensions. A first empirical attempt to integrate both perspectives provided promising results for overarching approach/avoidance as well as targets of crafting factors. In general, our results provide cause for concern that the two perspectives should not be regarded as one uniform construct, nor should they be used interchangeably in theory or practice.
... First, the positive relationship between job crafting and general health suggests that interventions or training to increase job crafting could be beneficial for employees and organizations. Prior research found that job crafting interventions were effective in increasing employees' well-being and health [33,59]. The steps in one intervention were described by Van den Heuvel et al. [33]. ...
Article
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Background Job crafting is associated with positive work–related outcomes, but its effects on nonwork–related outcomes are unclear. The conservation of resources theory informed the hypotheses that work–nonwork facilitation mediates the relationship between job crafting and general health, and this mediation process is moderated by perceived boundary control. Methods Using a two–wave design, 383 employees from a range of work settings completed questionnaires in which they rated job crafting, work–nonwork facilitation, general health and perceived boundary control. Results Moderated mediation analysis showed that work–nonwork facilitation mediated the relationship between job crafting and employee general health. Further, perceived boundary control moderated this indirect effect, such that the indirect effect was stronger for employees with high perceived boundary control than those with low perceived boundary control. Conclusions This study is an important step forward in understanding the effect of job crafting on nonwork domains, and in clarifying “how” and “when” job crafting might affect employees’ general health. Further, the results have practical implications for fostering employee general health.
... Main reasons for exclusion of records at this stage were that they were not intervention studies, did not have work engagement as the primary outcome of the study, and/or were not targeted at working individuals. Following a careful assessment of full-text articles, the final number of articles included in the systematic review was 30, of which one contained two included studies (Gordon et al., 2018), resulting in 31 independent studies (see Figure 1 and Table 1). ...
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Background: Promoting work engagement is of interest to organizations across sectors due to the associated positive outcomes. This interest warrants research on the evidence of work engagement interventions. Intervention research increasingly advocates a bottom-up approach, highlighting the role of employees themselves. These workplace interventions often encourage employees to identify, develop, and make use of workplace resources. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to investigate the effectiveness and potential underlying mechanisms of these bottom-up, resource-developing interventions. Method: Systematic searches were conducted in the online databases Web of Science, Academic Search Complete, Business Source Ultimate, PsycInfo, PsycArticles, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar. Publication year range was 2000–2020. Eligibility criteria were defined using PICOS. To be eligible for the systematic review, the intervention study identified had to aim at promoting working individuals’ work engagement by developing workplace resources from bottom-up. Work engagement had to be measured using the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The systematic review included one-, two-, or multiple-armed – randomized or non-randomized – intervention studies with various study designs. Further, a meta-analysis was conducted on a sub-set of the studies included in the systematic review. To be eligible for the meta-analysis, the studies had to be two- or multiple-armed and provide the information necessary to compute effect sizes. Results: Thirty-one studies were included in the systematic review. The majority reported that overall work engagement increased as an effect of the intervention. The evidence regarding the sub-components of work engagement was scattered. Potential underlying mechanisms explored were intervention foci, approach, and format. Dimensions of satisfaction and performance were identified as secondary outcomes. Participant experiences were generally described as positive in most of the studies applying mixed methods. The meta-analysis showed a small but promising intervention effect on work engagement (24 studies, SMD: −0.22, 95% CI: −0.34 to −0.11, with I2=53%, indicating moderate inconsistency in the evidence). Conclusion: The synthesized evidence suggests that bottom-up, resource-developing interventions are effective in the promotion of work engagement. The meta-analysis suggests that focusing on strengths use or mobilizing ego resources and adopting a universal approach increase intervention effectiveness.
... For instance, a goal in increasing structural resources could be to learn new methodological development outside of the regular curriculum; resources are gained, and study-related self-efficacy may grow. Students could keep a checklist to solidify their goals (Gordon et al., 2018). ...
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Job crafting has been established as a bottom-up work design instrument for promoting health and well-being in the workplace. In recent years, the concepts of job crafting have been applied to the university student context, proving to be positively related to student well-being. Building on person-centered analyses from the employment context, we assessed approach study crafting strategy combinations and the relationships to students' exhaustion, study engagement, and general well-being. Data from 2,882 German university students were examined, collected online during the summer term in 2020. Using latent profile analysis, we found five distinct crafting groups, which showed discriminate validity with regard to emotional exhaustion, engagement, and well-being. The results underscore the positive role of study crafting for students' health and well-being. They further indicate a less important role of increasing social resources for emotional exhaustion when combined with a moderate increase in structural resources and a moderate increase in challenging demands. Our findings imply that interventions to promote study crafting should be considered to promote student health and well-being.
... For organizations, managers should provide opportunities for employees to proactively craft their jobs based on their preferences, which could contribute to improved employee work experiences and performance. Moreover, organizations may use job crafting intervention to foster and help employees better fit personal interests and skills to their jobs (e.g., Gordon et al., 2018). ...
Article
Interest incongruence between employees and work environments has been considered as an adverse working condition; however, the way employees cope with it has rarely been explored. Using the conservation of resources theory, the appraisal theory, and the broaden-and-build theory, this study aims to investigate the moderating roles of job crafting and trait positive affect, separately and interactively, in the relationship between interest incongruence and job performance. Data collected from 384 Chinese employees and their colleagues across two time periods supported our hypotheses. Specifically, findings indicated that the relationship between interest incongruence and job performance was weakened when employees were more engaged in job crafting, or for employees with high positive affect. More importantly, a three-way interaction suggested that the detrimental impact of interest incongruence on job performance was especially mitigated when both job crafting and positive affect were high. Future studies should consider the combined roles of employees’ proactive behaviors and trait affectivity in improving job performance.
... Although an increasing trend was observed in the work engagement and organizational citizenship scales, the change was not statistically significant. Our findings are consistent with previous research that demonstrated that among health professionals and teachers, job crafting interventions resulted in increased work engagement [57,58]. ...
Article
Background: People's work life and career can ultimately be deconstructed to the day-to-day job tasks they perform, the people they interact with, and the value and meaning attached to their jobs. Individuals with work limitations and disabilities consistently experience disparities in the workplace resulting in a less than optimal work experience in all three areas. Objective: The purpose of this study is to conduct a pilot study to test the effectiveness of job crafting as an occupational therapy (OT) intervention strategy for workers with health conditions and impairments. Job crafting is a proactive, strengths-based, bottom-up approach where workers renegotiate and redefine their job tasks in a personally meaningful way. Methods: A mixed-methods study (n = 11) was conducted with workers who experience work limitations and disabilities. OT graduate students conducted in-depth interviews and facilitated the use of job crafting to improve work-related outcomes. Pre-and post-intervention data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Qualitative data was transcribed, coded, and synthesized. Results: The job crafting intervention improved work-related self-efficacy (p < 0.05) and crafting behaviors (p < 0.05) in the workplace. Participants accomplished goals to manage their work limitations, meet job demands, and other non-disability related challenges. Conclusions: Job crafting has the potential to be used as a holistic OT intervention strategy to improve work-related self-efficacy among workers with work limitations and disabilities.
... Therefore, job crafting is indeed a proactive behavior which employees should be encouraged to adopt. There are already promising job crafting interventions (see Demerouti et al., 2019;Gordon et al., 2018) that could be tailored to the needs of different occupational groups, such as teachers. According to our results, interventions targeted at teachers should guide them to seek job resources and optimize job demands in their personal job crafting actions. ...
Article
The aims of this study were twofold: first, to investigate whether illegitimate tasks and job crafting are associated longitudinally with meaning of work, and, second, to explore whether job crafting strategies moderates longitudinally the relationship between illegitimate tasks and meaning of work. The study was based on one-year follow-up data from Finnish teachers (N = 453). A latent change model with interaction terms was conducted using structural equation modeling. The results showed that high level of unnecessary tasks was associated with low subsequent level of meaning of work. Moreover, changes in both dimensions of illegitimate tasks and meaning of work were negatively associated: the greater the increase in illegitimate tasks, the greater the decrease in meaning of work across one year. Also, latent change factors of job crafting strategies (seeking job resources and optimizing job demands) and meaning of work were positively associated. Furthermore, increased levels of seeking job resources protected against the detrimental effects of unreasonable tasks on meaning of work. To conclude, job crafting strategies should be promoted due to their direct and protective effects on meaning of work.
... Sakuraya et al., 2016), though perhaps more commonly, the workshop is delivered in a single day (e.g. Gordon et al., 2018;Kooij et al., 2017;Kuijpers et al., 2020). ...
Chapter
Job crafting is an employee-initiated form of proactive job redesign, that has, in recent years, attracted substantial evidence for its associations with work engagement and employee well-being. Yet, despite this research, the advantages of integrating job crafting within a coaching partnership have not been examined. We address this gap in the present chapter, which is structured as follows. First, we explore the evolution of job crafting theory, benefits of job crafting, and examine how coaching could be complementary to job crafting efforts. In particular, we argue that coaching can help improve the duration and structure of job crafting interventions, with coaches providing psychological support and guidance throughout the job crafting process. Second, we explore how job crafting could be integrated with coaching, by providing practical tools and examples. Finally, we end by providing a case study that explores how job crafting could be successfully applied within a coaching partnership.
... It has been demonstrated that a demanding labor context in nursing homes encourages crafting behaviors , positively affecting work performance (Lichtenthaler & Fischbach, 2019) in terms of longterm quality of care. Therefore, organizations should offer job crafting training to encourage and support their employees, thus helping to improve their quality of care (Gordon et al., 2018). ...
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Our goal was to analyze the positive effect of job crafting activities involving nursing home employees on their perceived quality of care, and the moderating effect of organizational identification. A two-wave non-experimental design (with an interval of 12 months) was used. The Job Crafting Questionnaire, the Identification-Commitment Inventory, and the Quality of Care Questionnaire (QoC) were administered to 226 nursing home employees in two waves. The results of the hierarchical regression analyses found significant association between job crafting subdimensions and quality of care twelve months later. Organizational identification was shown to play a moderating role in these relationships when analyzing the effect of cognitive crafting. In this sense, the effect of cognitive crafting on quality of care is only found with high levels of identification. The findings highlight the importance of the job crafting dimensions (task, relational and cognitive) when it comes to enhancing quality of care in residential homes for the elderly. This is especially relevant for cognitive crafting among employees with high levels of organizational identification. This research provides managers with guidance when allocating job crafting opportunities aimed at making improvements in quality of care. In this respect, organizations must offer job crafting training to stimulate and support their employees and, on the other hand, managers should encourage employees to craft their jobs, gearing their needs, abilities, and goals to corporate values and competencies.
... Healthcare organizations may benefit from including personality and creativity as part of their selection criteria, as our results indicated that they are related to engagement in JC. This is particularly relevant considering that engaging in JC behaviors can have a positive influence on the work well-being and performance of nurses (Gordon et al., 2018). Furthermore, our results suggest that engaging in JC is significantly related to higher SWB. ...
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Aim(s): To better understand the functionality of job crafting and its relationship with personality and job autonomy in the context of non-Western healthcare as an adaptive problem-solving work behavior that is related to creativity. Background: Job Crafting could be a strategy nurses use to solve problems as healthcare organizations become more unpredictable. Method: This cross-sectional study sampled 547 nurses from seven hospitals in Lebanon. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: The job crafting dimension of increasing structural job resources and increasing challenging job demands partially mediated the relationship between creativity and subjective well-being, and they fully mediated the relationship between job autonomy and subjective well-being. Creativity, job autonomy, and agreeableness were related to the approach job crafting dimensions, and two of these job crafting dimensions were in turn related to subjective well-being. Conclusion(s): Creative nurses tend to job craft more and this is associated with their subjective well-being. Nurses high on extraversion, and emotional stability experienced higher subjective well-being. Implications for nursing management: Nursing administration and leaders may want to create an environment fostering creativity and encouraging approach-oriented job crafting.
... Additionally, a transformational leadership style would also allow the employee to make changes to their job and tasks in terms of resources, challenges and reduction of hindrances (i.e. autonomy), which can also affect the individual's engagement state (Bakker & Van Wingerden, 2017;Gordon et al., 2017 The general relationship between leader and worker was found to be positively linked to engagement though relatively little research has been done on this subject so far (Crawford et al., 2014). This relationship refers to the level of trust, interaction and support that is being established between leader and follower and efforts and investments both parties Aryee et al., 2012;Benedicto, 2017;Crawford et al., 2014;Lawani et al., 2019;Naeem et al., 2019;Nahrgang et al., 2009;Xanthopoulou et al., 2009 (continued on next page) physical resources, skills and confidence from inside as well as outside the organisational context to engage and invest in its performance, attained so-called 'psychological availability', which makes it more likely for an individual to invest such resources in its performance (Kahn, 1990). ...
Article
Safety-II (and related concepts such as ‘Safety differently’) are relatively recent developments in the field of health and safety management. The central argument of these approaches is that interventions should focus on collaborating with workers to understand and provide the resources that workers need to allow work to proceed successfully and safely. Safety-II relies upon workers volunteering information, meaningfully participating in discussions around the organisation of work, and being trusted. However, Ajslev et al. (2020) highlight the psychosocial barriers to ‘participatory approaches’. Few papers have explored the psychosocial conditions in which modern, collaborative approaches to safety might flourish. To address this, this paper explores the similarities between the concepts of work engagement and Safety-II. In particular, this paper identifies that both rely on similar antecedents (such as certain leadership practices, promoting autonomy and creating a just organisation). The inference is that organisations that wish to implement modern, collaborative approaches to safety, will need to understand and address much wider issues regarding how workers are perceived and managed. This is the first paper to compare the antecedents of Safety-II and engagement, and also the first to present evidence that these two concepts complement each other.
... Furthermore, personal resources are linked to job crafting (Niessen et al., 2016;Van Wingerden et al., 2017), which is defined as "proactive behaviour at work that allows employees to redesign their own jobs" (van den Heuvel et al., 2015, p. 511). Job crafting is associated with higher work engagement, lower levels of exhaustion burnout (Lichtenthaler & Fischbach, 2016) and improved employee health (Lichtenthaler & Fischbach, 2018), and there is evidence of positive effects of job crafting-focused interventions on self-efficacy, affective well-being, and performance (Gordon et al., 2018;van den Heuvel et al., 2015). As job crafting is determined by individual differences and demographic factors (Rudolph et al., 2017) and personal resources (Van Wingerden et al., 2017;Van Wingerden & Poell, 2019), the question arises whether people who may experience diminished personal resources due to their health status can, in fact, be expected to engage in job crafting, if they feel that they have the opportunity to craft and, if they do, if they engage in or benefit from different types of job crafting (e.g., prevention-focused instead of promotion-focused job crafting) with different effects in health compared to "healthy" employees. ...
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Epidemiological data suggest that the prevalence of autoimmune diseases is increasing. Although evidence implies that people with chronic illnesses experience higher levels of burnout, there are few available insights for developing preventative interventions. This paper builds on the job-demands resources model (JD-R) to investigate the association between impaired health, burnout, and work engagement. In two longitudinal studies, we test the effects of job demands and resources among employed people with autoimmune diseases and identify individual health status as a personal resource within the JD-R model to investigate the incremental effects of autoimmune illness severity on burnout. Study 1 investigated the effects of illness severity amongst 87 employees with inflammatory bowel diseases. Controlling for job characteristics, perceived illness severity was the strongest predictor of e burnout and predicted the vigor subdimension of work engagement. In study 2, we analyzed the effects of illness severity amongst 129 employees with multiple sclerosis and found similar effects of illness severity on both outcomes. Our studies provide important insights for employees with chronic illnesses and the organizations in which they work and give indications for theory development, future research, and the development of interventions.
... Furthermore, the effects of job crafting interventions on work engagement and performance are also heterogeneous. Some studies register significant effects on work engagement (Thomas et al., 2020;van Mersbergen, 2012;van Wingerden et al., 2017b) and performance (Gordon et al., 2018;van Wingerden et al., 2017a), while others report non-significant results for at least one of the two outcomes (van Wingerden et al., 2017;2017a). However, meta-analysis results reveal that job crafting interventions can positively impact overall job crafting behavior, seeking challenging job demands, decreasing hindering job demands, work engagement, and contextual performance (Frederick & VanderWeele, 2020;Oprea et al., 2019). ...
Article
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The present study evaluates the effectiveness of a mixed job crafting, strengths use, and deficit correction intervention on the proactive behaviors, work engagement, life satisfaction, and work-life balance of employees working in a home office setting. A two-armed (intervention vs. wait-list control group) randomized controlled trial with three measurement moments (pre-, post-intervention, and one-month follow-up) was designed to reach the study's goal. A sample of 80 participants part of a large multinational pharmaceutical company was randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 45) or wait-list control condition (n = 35). Mixed factorial analyses of variance showed that the combined job crafting, strengths use, and deficit correction intervention positively impacted life satisfaction (d = .47) and seeking challenging job demands (d = .44) in the short-term. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the other proactive behaviors, work engagement, or work-life balance. Moderator analyses revealed that autonomy and workload were moderators of the relationship between the intervention effectiveness and several outcomes (e.g., the intervention had a positive effect on the work-life balance of participants with low autonomy). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... To achieve this goal, job autonomy should be offered to employees (Chung-Yan, 2010). As well, job crafting interventions can be considered, which have been examined as effective tools to enhance employees' job control (Gordon et al., 2018). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to delve into the underlying mechanism and contextual boundary condition of the U-shaped relationship between job control and voice at the episode level within the framework of conservation of resources theory. Adopting a two-wave experience sampling method, this study collected 265 matched cases nested in 53 Chinese employees for 5 consecutive days. By hierarchical linear regression, the U-shaped effect of job control on voice at the episode level was replicated. Furthermore, the mediating role of emotional resistance (ER) to change and to the moderating role of supervisor developmental feedback (SDF) was examined. Job control has a U-shaped effect on day-level voice and an inverted U-shaped effect on trait ER, which mediates the curvilinear relationship between job control and day-level voice. Daily SDF moderates the curvilinear relationship between job control and day-level voice such that daily SDF buffers the negative relationship between low job control and day-level voice, as well as amplifies the positive relationship between high job control and day-level voice. The current study unveils the mediating states and contextual boundary conditions of the curvilinear relationship between job control and day-level voice by testing the mediating role of ER and moderating role of SDF at the episode level, thereby further contributing to the literature on voice.
... A practical implication is that special solutions should be designed for employees who experience elevated burnout. Although bottom-up job crafting interventions have been successfully implemented in health care (Gordon et al., 2018), our results imply a need for top-down work re-design interventions to correct the imbalance between job demands and job resources. It is important to provide employees at risk of burnout with feasible workloads, opportunities to influence their work situation (e.g. ...
Article
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Aim: The objective was to test how nurse burnout impairs day‐to‐day adaptive self‐regulation strategies that link levels of regulatory resources with employee job performance. Background: Regulatory resources help employees manage their thoughts, feelings, and behaviours on a daily basis. On days when these resources are low, employees may engage in maladaptive self‐regulation: more self‐undermining (i.e. creating additional obstacles) and less job crafting (i.e. optimizing job demands and resources), which debilitates their work performance. We expected that self‐regulation is impaired especially when individuals exhibit low motivation and low ability to regulate their behaviour, that is, when they experience elevated burnout. Design: This research used a daily diary design. Nurses responded to a general survey and then completed daily diary surveys in three different moments: before, during and after work for 10 consecutive workdays (total reports N = 732). Method: A sample of 81 nurses from Polish hospitals and primary healthcare centres completed self‐reported questionnaires between January and March 2018. Hypotheses were tested using multilevel modelling in Mplus. Results: Momentary self‐regulatory capacity before work was negatively related to self‐undermining and positively related to job crafting, and it indirectly predicted daily job performance. As hypothesized, these indirect relationships were moderated by general, chronic burnout. We found that only for employees with low levels of burnout, daily self‐regulation was linked with better functioning via increased job crafting and decreased self‐undermining. Conclusion: Chronic burnout disturbs day‐to‐day behaviour regulation. Individuals with elevated burnout symptoms have difficulty to translate momentary boosts in regulatory resources into adaptive strategies that are linked with higher performance. Impact: Our findings call for better recovery programmes, strategic Human Resource Management practices aimed at reducing factors that deplete daily self‐regulatory resources, and finally top‐down interventions preventing burnout among employees in the healthcare system.
... Reflection: on elements and behaviors that made goal attainment possible (in case of attaining a goal), or on obstacles and how to deal with them (in case of not attaining a goal) (van denHeuvel et al., 2015).  Looking ahead (only in week 3): reasoning on why participants will (not) use job crafting in the future(Gordon et al., 2018).33 ...
Article
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Using two intervention studies, this article examines the effectiveness of a newly developed electronic job crafting intervention (i.e., e‐intervention) that aims to stimulate task, relational, and cognitive crafting and offers a time‐efficient and cost‐effective alternative to traditional face‐to‐face job crafting interventions. In Study 1, we quantitatively and qualitatively investigate the effects of the job crafting e‐intervention on general levels of job crafting, while in study 2, we further test its direct relationship with task, relational, and cognitive crafting, and its indirect relationship with perceived person–job fit. In Study 1 (N = 59), multilevel analyses showed that the e‐intervention indeed increased general levels of job crafting immediately after the 3 weeks lasting e‐intervention. Moreover, by qualitatively investigating adherence to the intervention in the intervention group (n = 25), we found that mainly goal setting is important in stimulating job crafting. In Study 2 (N = 106), we further validated the effect on job crafting by confirming relationships with task crafting two weeks after the e‐intervention and found an indirect relationship with needs–supplies fit via task crafting. We conclude that the e‐intervention is a promising and accessible alternative to face‐to‐face job crafting interventions, especially for the specific form of task crafting.
... Managers have always been concerned about the way to improve employees' enthusiasm, and job crafting is correlated significantly and positively with individual initiative. 1 Job crafting is a bottom-up initiative of employee change, [2][3][4] which is an alternative to the traditional top-down approach. 5 It is primarily the employee's treatment of job cognitions, tasks, and relations. 6 Many studies have introduced job crafting into Management, and have confirmed that it has considerable benefits for individual employees. ...
Article
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Purpose: Job crafting can improve employees' performance and competitive advantage. This study integrated the self-determination and equity theories to examine the relation between an individual's Confucianism and job crafting by highlighting the mediating effect of psychological contract fulfilment and the moderating effect of distributive justice on this relation. Participants and methods: Data were collected in two waves from 372 employees in numerous private companies in Guangxi, China. Results: The hypothesized model was supported in part. Specifically, as expected, psychological contract fulfilment mediated the positive relation between Confucianism and task crafting and cognitive crafting. Confucianism had a positive effect on psychological contract fulfilment and relational crafting, while psychological contract fulfilment had no mediating effect and its positive effect on relational crafting was not significant. Distributive justice moderated the relation between psychological contract fulfilment and cognitive crafting and task crafting positively. Conclusion: This study reveals the mechanism of Confucianism's effect on job crafting from a new perspective and confirms its differing effects on different types of job crafting. Business managers should give attention to Confucianism and maximize their organization's psychological contract fulfilment to improve employees' job crafting.
... As another example, job crafting interventions can be used to train employees to increase their resources and decrease their hindrance demands (e.g., role overload). Several studies have shown that these interventions are effective (see Gordon et al., 2018;Hulshof et al., 2020;Van den Heuvel et al., 2015). Job crafting interventions could be used to train employees to stimulate an important resource: developing behaviors from their leaders. ...
Article
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The goals of this study were to ascertain whether a specific leadership behavior (developing subordinates) is related to employees’ health complaints and determine some of the underlying mechanisms involved. The hypothesized relationships were investigated in a sample composed of 538 employees working in 170 work-units of a public regional health service. Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to estimate the hypothesized relationships at the individual and work-unit levels. Results obtained at the individual level showed, as expected, that leader developing behavior was negatively related to employees’ health complaints through two mediators: organizational commitment and emotional exhaustion. At the work-unit level, leader developing behavior was not related to employees’ health complaints. Our findings uncover some of the mechanisms linking leader developing behavior and employees’ health complaints at the individual level, show that the observed relationships cannot be generalized across levels, and have implications for the Job Demands-Resources theory.
... Unlike conventional diary methods, diary entries are not written but are verbal. This method has been used to explore various aspects of the lived experience of health care professionals [55,56]. From the perspective of work psychology, audio diaries are suggested to be used especially for the examination of fluid and transient working patterns of underexplored employee populations [57], which applies to the target group of home health care workers, especially under COVID-19-related working conditions. ...
Article
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Nursing literature predominantly focuses on job demands but is scarce for resources related to nurses’ work. In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, resources that can buffer the health-impairing effects of increased demands gain importance. The aim of this study is to explore resilience, meaning of work and joyful moments in home health care workers in South Germany during the pandemic. Resilience and meaning of work were measured quantitatively; moments of joy were investigated qualitatively by audio diaries and analyzed with qualitative content analysis. In all, 115 home health care workers (mean age = 47.83 ± 11.72; 81.75% female) filled in the questionnaires and 237 diary entries were made by 23 persons (mean age = 46.70 ± 10.40; 91.30% female). The mean scores of resilience (5.52 ± 1.04; 1–7) and meaning of work (4.10 ± 0.92; 1–5) showed high levels, with significantly higher values in females. Home care workers experienced joyful moments 334 times in 60 different types in the categories of social relationships, work content, work organization, work environment and self-care. A deeper understanding of resilience, meaning of work and joyful moments provides a basis for the development of worksite health promotion programs that address both demands and resources in home health care workers.
... They documented that employee engagement is a fluctuated phenomenon with respect to individuals, time and organizational environment. Employee engagement phenomenon highlighted that job crafting behaviors directly leads with employee engagement in work settings (Petrou et al., 2012).Research studies highlighted that employee engagement is studied in various context and phenomenon like top down approach of Human Resource System(Bakker & Albrecht, 2018), ability-motivation-opportunity model (Saks, 2006), organizational culture (Denning, 2013), adaptive leadership styles (Breevaart et al., 2014;Caulfield & Senger, 2017;Ghadi et al., 2013;Yammarino et al., 2012)and with performance (Gordon et al., 2018;Van Wingerden et al., 2017). ...
... Such interventions have been shown to result in changes in job crafting behaviors and constructs, such as work engagement (e.g. Gordon et al., 2018) and positive affect (Van den Heuvel et al., 2015). Stimulating job crafting could be beneficial for employees, their work teams, and their managers, as well as for stakeholders in the employees' athletic setting (e.g. ...
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Many employees worldwide combine a job with serious, goal-oriented ambitions in the athletic domain. However, scientific knowledge about day-to-day linkages between work and sports is lacking. We filled this gap in the literature by examining how experiences at work can enrich sports after work. Extending the work-home resources model to the work-sports interface, we posited that proactive work behaviors positively relate to work engagement – a state that may permeate into the sports domain and relate to positive sports outcomes. We conducted a diary study among 170 working recreational runners (598 measurement occasions). Within a three-week period, participants completed two surveys on days they worked and ran after work. Survey 1, completed at the end of the workday, covering proactive work behavior and work engagement, and survey 2, completed after running and covering running performance. The results of multilevel structural equation modeling indicated that on days employees showed more proactive behavior, they also reported higher work engagement. In turn, on days they reported higher work engagement, they recorded a steadier running pace. We discuss how these findings support the phenomenon of work-to-sports spillover and contribute to the current understanding of the interplay between work and sports.
... This is an example of meta-motivation, the regulation of one's own motivational state [5,51,63,64,73,74,82]. It also illustrates another factor found to increase engagement, that of job-crafting [51,73,74]; Gordon, et al. [83]; Tims, et al. [84]. ...
Article
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Over the past 70 years, resilience, engagement, and motivation (REM) studies have largely developed as independent theoretical and research disciplines. Yet, in conducting a thorough literature review of these three work-related fields, we discovered that they share some identical or similar concepts, e.g., self-efficacy. We also discovered that concepts from these three fields of study could be integrated into a more comprehensive research model. That model can then be used to provide a prescription to help managers improve their employees’ and their organizations’ outcomes of performance, productivity, quality, etc. Therefore, we provide an analytical review of these theories and research findings as they psychologically impact employees in work environments. We synthesize the growing knowledge regarding the primary factors influencing REM and provide eight useful REM research propositions to inform the model. The model features antecedents to resilience, engagement, and motivation. From this work, we posit that an integrated, practical model will be needed to improve employee involvement and performance that ultimately impacts organizational performance. Therefore, we focus primarily on those REM psychological characteristics of organizational members as they relate to antecedent concepts and conditions. A critique of the state of the REM literature is provided and targeted suggestions are outlined to guide future empirical and theoretical work in a meaningful direction.
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This study aims to evaluate the effects of leader-member exchange (LMX) on job and life satisfaction among nurses in China and to examine the mediating effect of individual and collaborative job crafting between LMX and job and life satisfaction. The study recruited 263 nurses who worked in hospitals in Zhejiang province, China. A set of self-administered questionnaires were used to measure the variables of LMX, job crafting, job and life satisfaction. The data was analyzed using the partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The results reveal that LMX has a significant positive influence on job crafting and job satisfaction. Collaborative job crafting has a significant positive influence on the job satisfaction of nurses, whereas individual job crafting does not. Moreover, LMX will affect job satisfaction and life satisfaction through a partial mediating effect of both individual and collaborative job crafting. Finally, the article discusses the academically and practical implications, and also provide some suggestions and directions for the future research.
Article
Both researchers and practitioners agree that having highly engaged employees results in individuals and organizations reaping various positive consequences related to performance and absenteeism. However, available research syntheses date from the early years of this line of research, thus cover only a small fraction (under 10%) of the available studies. The present meta-analysis updates the results of work engagement and its three facets (vigour, dedication, and absorption) on task performance and includes a substantial number of studies on absenteeism with separate analyses of longitudinal studies. A total of 179 unique correlations representing an overall sample size of N = 139,182 was examined, confirming and enhancing a positive association between work engagement and task performance (ρ = .483) and a negative association between work engagement and absenteeism (ρ = −.171). The three facets of engagement had similar effects on performance, but only vigour and dedication correlated significantly negatively with absenteeism. Work engagement is linked positively to future task performance and negatively to future absenteeism. The influence of several methodical moderators is examined. Finally, we discuss how these findings can inform research and practice in order to contribute to a more effective and healthy work environment for employees.
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Työn tuunaaminen on työntekijälähtöistä työn sisällön ja työtapojen kehittämistä. Työn tuunaamisen avulla työntekijät voivat säädellä työnsä psykososiaalisia voimavaroja ja vaatimuksia ja edistää työhyvinvointiaan, työn imua. Työn imusta puolestaan koituu erilaisia terveyshyötyjä. Vaikka työn tuunaamiseen perustuvia kehittämisvalmennuksia on hyödynnetty enenevässä määrin työorganisaatioissa, ei niitä toistaiseksi ole toteutettu verkkovälitteisesti. Tutkimushankkeessa selvitettiin, voidaanko työntekijöiden työn tuunaamista ja työn imua lisätä verkkovalmennuksella ja onko sillä laajempia psykofysiologisia hyötyjä. Työn tuunaamisen edistäminen verkkovalmennuksen keinoin ja mahdollisten psykofysiologisten hyötyjen tutkiminen on uusi ja vielä koskematon tutkimusalue. Tutkimusraportti tarjoaakin uutta tietoa työntekijän yksilölliset työtarpeet huomioivan, nykyaikaisen ja ajasta ja paikasta vapaan verkkovälitteisen menetelmän mahdollisuuksista työhyvinvoinnin ja -terveyden edistämisessä.
Article
In this paper, we explore the job crafting experiences of women who left permanent employment for contracting positions in Information Technology (IT), a sector widely considered male‐dominated with limited career opportunities for women. This qualitative study is based on interviews with 24 female IT contractors. Findings show that through the flexibility and autonomy that come with contracting, numerous crafting practices are adopted by female IT contractors enabling them to gain empowerment in a male‐dominated environment. The study contributes to in‐depth understanding of job crafting theory by showing a reflexive relationship between role and resource crafting for women in alternative forms of employment, especially those with a high degree of autonomy. By engaging directly with the experiences of these female IT contractors, we provide unique insights into what might drive women into IT contracting, and why they often stay with this option owing to the freedom and autonomy offered.
Chapter
Job crafting provides a new mechanism employees can use to approach the exercise of balancing the elements of work which contribute to, and deplete, their energy. Elements are organised into three main categories that come together to form the constellation of employees’ lives at work: what they do (tasks), who they do it with (relationships) and why they do it (cognitions). By evaluating the extent to which these elements impact employees’ energy, they can review and re-craft their roles, from those which they have to do, to those which they love. The mechanism inverts traditional top-down approaches to job design, shifting the responsibility to employees and empowering them to take ownership of their roles. The job crafting process is a win-win for all, benefitting employees, teams and organisations alike! Research-proven outcomes include improved engagement, resilience, job satisfaction and person-job-fit to name just a few. This chapter deep dives into what job crafting really is, how it plays out in the workplace and why we must care about it.
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Given the prevalence of stressful job demands in the hospitality industry, understanding how employees appraise complex jobs in service situations becomes vital to enhance employee job crafting. Drawing upon the challenge-hindrance framework and the transactional theory of stress, we explore how the appraisal process as a health-impairment pathway may govern the relationship between job complexity and job crafting. We propose that energy depletion mediates the relationship between job complexity and job crafting, while psychological empowerment moderates the relationship between job complexity and energy depletion. During a three-wave survey, we collected 396 responses from hotel employees to assess the proposed moderated mediation effects. Results show that the relationship between job complexity and energy depletion is weaker for employees that have higher psychological empowerment than low. Psychological empowerment further mitigates the negative indirect effect of job complexity on job crafting through energy depletion. The indirect effect is weaker when psychological empowerment is higher. These findings have additional theoretical implications for hospitality management and provide suggestions that facilitate job crafting in the hospitality industry.
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In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the topic of developing employee engagement both in the scientific community and in business. Managers are beginning to realize that not only the technologies used, but also the personnel who can be involved in work, submit ideas on how to improve it, or, conversely, silently carry out job descriptions, which can help to occupy leading positions. The purpose of this study is to analyze publications on employee engagement from 2017-2021, as well as the subjects of their study and research. The main hypothesis is that scientists are interested in various aspects of staff involvement, but of particular interest is how it is interconnected with the effectiveness of the organization. The results of this review form the basis for further discussion on approaches and tools for developing engagement as a factor of internal entrepreneurship.
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Flow and work engagement are related concepts, and both are commonly applied and studied in the workplace. This review makes an attempt to define the potential differences and relationships between flow and engagement in the workplace. Based on a systematic review of the extant positive interventions designed to enhance flow and work engagement, meaningful differences between flow and work engagement interventions were found in terms of the mechanisms of the interventions, the types of interventions, and the intervention approach (i.e. personal vs. contextual and deficit-fixing vs. strengths-building). The review concludes that flow interventions can make important contributions above and beyond work engagement interventions. The findings illuminate the conceptual and empirical differences between flow and work engagement interventions, and suggest new directions for flow and engagement intervention research in the workplace.
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Given the pivotal role of individual and collaborative job crafting (JC) in the travel industry, this article explores the associations among perceived organizational support (POS), JC, work engagement (WOE) and job satisfaction (JS). Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling was employed to investigate the hypotheses using 340 employees from a multinational travel corporation in Taiwan. Based on the conservation of resource theory, the results confirm that POS positively impacts employees' individual and collaborative JC, and positively enhances employees’ WOE and JS. Furthermore, the results evidence collaborative JC has a partial mediating impact on POS and JS. The study discusses several implications for the travel industry, particularly in the areas of POS and JC.
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This study uses job demands–resources and conservation of resources theories to propose that chronic levels of job burnout may aggravate the positive relationship of weekly job demands with week‐level burnout symptoms, dysfunctional coping, and self‐undermining. Specifically, we hypothesize that weekly job demands (workload and emotional demands) relate positively to maladaptive behaviors through weekly burnout symptoms, particularly when chronic burnout is higher (vs. lower). We collected data among 84 employees from various occupational sectors, who first filled out a general survey, and then completed weekly diary surveys every Friday, for five consecutive weeks (total n = 415 occasions). Results of multilevel analyses generally supported the hypotheses. Weekly job demands were positively related to weekly burnout and self‐undermining only when employees scored higher on chronic burnout. Moreover, as predicted, the results showed that job demands were most strongly related to dysfunctional coping and self‐undermining through weekly burnout symptoms for individuals higher (vs. lower) in chronic burnout. These findings highlight the interplay between weekly job demands and chronic burnout in the process of resource loss.
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This paper explores the effects of reduced load work arrangements (i.e. RLWAs) in a context where employees are seeking to balance their work-personal life while employers are reducing costs and staying competitive. We draw on the job-demands control theory and social information processing (SIP) theory to introduce two novel elements mainly to examine how and when the influence of RLWAs unfold: employee's perceived job autonomy as a mediating mechanism and role of social context (i.e., overall justice perceptions at workplace level) in shaping the consequences of RLWAs. We use a large representative data set acquired through WERS (2011)WERS (2011) in the United Kingdom. Our findings partially support our hypotheses by shedding light on how and under which conditions the effects RLWAs unfold on employee outcomes. We contribute to debates that emphasize the bridging role of perceived job autonomy in translating the impact of RLWAs on employees' outcomes and hence to keep employees motivated while allowing them to achieve better balance between work and non-work.
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Objective The authors examined associations between stressors and burnout in trainee doctors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods An anonymous online questionnaire including 42 questions on general and pandemic-specific stressors, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Health Services Survey (MBI-HSS), was sent to 1000 randomly selected trainee doctors in North-West England. Main outcomes were burnout scores that were stratified into Emotional Exhaustion (EE), Depersonalisation (DP), and reduced Personal Accomplishment (PA) and associations between stressors and burnout using stepwise regression analysis. Results A total of 362 complete responses were received giving a response rate of 37%. Mean scores for EE, DP, and PA derived from the MBI-HSS were 27.7, 9.8, and 34.3 respectively. Twenty-three stressors were found to be associated with burnout dimensions. “Increase in workload and hours due to COVID-19,” “Poor leadership and management in the National Health Service,” and “Not feeling valued” were found to have strong associations with burnout dimensions. Only “Not confident in own abilities” was found to be associated with all burnout dimensions. Conclusions Associations with burnout were found to be identified in a range of work, pandemic, and non-work-related stressors, supporting the need for multi-level interventions to mitigate burnout.
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The medical workforce in Australia is rapidly feminizing, with general practice (GP) seen as an attractive career choice for female doctors looking for greater work flexibility. However, there is evidence of increased female GP turnover, particularly among younger GPs. Drawing on interviews with a sample of twenty‐six Australian female GPs, this study explores how the embodied nature of GP work and gendered organizational processes create inequality regimes founded on gendered normative expectations of GP work, leading to turnover intentions. Then, considering the literature on job crafting, we problematize the notion of employees proactively optimizing their work environment to show how some female GPs work within gender constraints to craft a sustainable medical career, with others failing. These findings contribute to our understanding of the embodied nature of work and as such may better inform both individual decisions and workforce planning policy to reduce GP turnover and sustain Australia’s medical workforce. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Elements of engagement are important factors that not only cause individuals to join an organization but also help to retain those employees. The authors summarize research conducted from a number of angles, asking people what they are looking for in a job, why they stayed in or left their organization, and tracking engagement elements and their impact on turnover patterns across work units. Job interest and career progress are important elements in attracting and retaining employees. In addition, workers both expect and rely on quality managing continuously throughout phases of the employee life cycle. Clarity of expectations and adequacy of resources can either compliment or mitigate other efforts to improve job interest and career progress. Pay becomes a more important factor in turnover intentions when employees perceive their coworkers are not committed to quality work. The engagement elements that impact attraction and retention of employees have been found in other research to increase business unit performance.
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We explore how job demands and job resources are related to job crafting, and how this, in turn, is related to performance in two samples of American (US; N = 70) and Dutch (NL; N = 144) health care professionals (HCP). A cross-sectional, cross-cultural design revealed that US HCP have higher job demands and reduce them more than NL HCP, who have higher and seek more job resources. Specifically, job demands positively related to seeking resources; job resources positively related to seeking challenges and seeking resources but negatively to reducing demands. While reducing demands negatively related to task and contextual performance, seeking resources positively related to task and creative performance. This study expands scientific and practical knowledge on employee proactive organizational behavior.
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Many job redesign interventions are based on a multiple mediator-multiple outcome model in which the job redesign intervention indirectly influences a broad range of employee outcomes by changing multiple job characteristics. As this model remains untested, the aim of this study is to test a multiple mediator-multiple outcome model of job redesign. Multilevel analysis of data from a quasi-experimental job redesign intervention in a call center confirmed the hypothesized model and showed that the job redesign intervention affected a broad range of employee outcomes (i.e., employee well-being, psychological contract fulfillment, and supervisor-rated job performance) through changes in 2 job characteristics (i.e., job control and feedback). The results provide further evidence for the efficacy and mechanisms of job redesign interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record
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This quasi-experimental field study examines the effects of an intervention designed to boost job resources, affective well-being, and self-efficacy via job crafting behaviour. Employees (n = 39) in a Dutch police district received a 1-day training, after which they worked towards self-set crafting goals for a period of 4 weeks. The intervention concluded with a half-day reflection session in which learning points were consolidated. Participating in the intervention was expected to boost job resources such as opportunities for development and leader–member exchange (LMX), as well as enhance self-efficacy and positive affect and to reduce negative affect. Repeated measures ANOVAs did not yield significant results. However, pre–post comparison tests showed that the intervention group reported less negative affect as well as increased self-efficacy, developmental opportunities and LMX in the post-measure compared with the premeasure. The control group (n = 47) showed no significant changes from pre- to postmeasure. In addition, in weeks during which individuals sought more resources, they also reported more developmental opportunities, LMX, and positive affect. Although further research is needed, the job crafting intervention seems to have potential to enable employees to proactively build a motivating work environment and to improve their own well-being.
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In this three-wave study (N = 288), we examined whether job crafting intentions and work engagement led to actual job crafting behaviours and, in turn, to higher levels of prospective work engagement and job performance. We used the Job Demands-Resources model as a theoretical framework and defined job crafting as the self-initiated changes that employees make in their job demands and resources. One month after reporting their job crafting intentions, respondents rated their actual job crafting behaviours. Again one month later, they rated their levels of work engagement, in-role performance, and organizational citizenship behaviour towards individuals (OCBI). Results of structural equation modelling showed that job crafting intentions and work engagement significantly related to actual job crafting, which, in turn, related to higher levels of work engagement, while controlling for job characteristics. Results further showed that engaged employees performed better on their in-role tasks but did not perform more OCBIs. The findings suggest that employees can increase their own work engagement and job performance through job crafting.
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Many scholars assume that the fundamental questions about work design have been answered. However, a global shift from manufacturing economies to service and knowledge economies has dramatically altered the nature of work in organizations. To keep pace with these important and rapid changes, work design theory and research is undergoing a transformation. We trace the highlights of two emerging viewpoints on work design: relational perspectives and proactive perspectives. Relational perspectives focus on how jobs, roles, and tasks are more socially embedded than ever before, based on increases in interdependence and interactions with coworkers and service recipients. Proactive perspectives capture the growing importance of employees taking initiative to anticipate and create changes in how work is performed, based on increases in uncertainty and dynamism. Together, these two perspectives challenge the widely held belief that new developments in work design theory and research are no longer needed. Our review charts the central contributions and unanswered questions from these relational and proactive perspectives with the goal of inspiring renewed interest in advancing theory, research, and practice on work design.
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The present study addressed employee job crafting behaviors (i.e., seeking resources, seeking challenges, and reducing demands) in the context of organizational change. We examined predictors of job crafting both at the organizational level (i.e., perceived impact of the implemented changes on the working life of employees) and the individual level (i.e., employee willingness to follow the changes). Job crafting behaviors were expected to predict task performance and exhaustion. Two-wave longitudinal data from 580 police officers undergoing organizational changes were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Findings showed that the degree to which changes influence employees' daily work was linked to reducing demands and exhaustion, whereas employee willingness to change was linked to seeking resources and seeking challenges. Furthermore, while seeking resources and seeking challenges were associated with high task performance and low exhaustion respectively, reducing demands seemed to predict exhaustion positively. Our findings suggest that job crafting can act as a strategy of employees to respond to organizational change. While seeking resources and seeking challenges enhance employee adjustment and should be encouraged by managers, reducing demands seems to have unfavorable implications for employees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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Job crafting can be viewed as changes that employees initiate in the level of job demands and job resources in order to make their own job more meaningful, engaging, and satisfying. As such, job crafting can be used to complement top-down approaches to improve jobs in order to overcome the inadequacies of job redesign approaches, to respond to the complexity of contemporary jobs, and to deal with the needs of the current workforce. This review aims to provide an overview of the conceptualizations of job crafting, the reasons why individuals craft their jobs, as well as the hypothetical predictors and outcomes of job crafting. Furthermore, this review provides suggestions to organizations on how to manage job crafting in their processes, and how to stimulate more beneficial job crafting behavior. Although research on job crafting is still in its infancy, it is worthwhile for organizations to recognize its existence and to manage it such that it has beneficial effects on the employees and the organization at large.
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"East is East and West is West and Never The Twain Shall Meet:" work engagement and workaholism across eastern and western cultures this article compared the mean levels of work engagement and workaholism across two cultures (East Asia and Western Europe) using a latent variable approach. Data were collected in Western Europe in the Netherlands (N = 10,162), Spain (N = 3,481), and Finland (N = 3,472) and in East Asia in China (N = 2,977) and Japan (N =2,520). It was assumed that, based on cultural differences, in individualistic and Christian Europe work is associated with self-enhancement and personal development, whereas in collectivistic and Confucian Asia work is associated with enhancement of the group and self-sacrifice. Following this lead, it was hypothesized and found that Western European employees were more engaged at work than East Asian employees. Support for the second hypothesis that East Asian employees are more work addicted than Western European employees was less convincing, since this was only the case for China and not for Japan. Variations in levels of workaholism and work engagement between the countries were discussed in the light of socio-economic differences and cultural differences in work values.
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Job crafting captures the active changes employees make to their own job designs in ways that can bring about numerous positive outcomes, including engagement, job satisfaction, resilience, and thriving. This briefing introduces the core ideas of job crafting theory for management students by defining it, describing why it is important, summarizing key research findings, and exploring what it means for employees, managers, and organizations.
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Single-item indicators that ask respondents for their global rating of a specific concept are congruent with nursing's emphasis on wholism and individualism. They allow the subject to take personally salient features of the situation into account when providing a response. The psychometric performance of single-item indicators in published research and in a sample data set using measures of the mother's choice and satisfaction with her employment decision support the validity and reliability of the measures, suggesting that these indicators deserve more attention in nursing research. Recommendations for the use of single-item indicators are provided.
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This study among 244 employees and their colleagues working in various sectors investigated the dimensionality of self-ratings and peer-ratings of task and contextual performance, using the scales of Goodman and Svyantek (1999). By applying the multitrait-multimethod approach, we examined the degree to which responses to performance items are influenced by the trait (task or contextual performance) and the method factors (self- or peer-ratings). Results of confirmatory factor analyses showed that while the two performance dimensions (i.e., traits) can be differentiated, responses to their items are influenced by the method factor. Specifically, peer-ratings explain more variance in task performance, while self-ratings explain more variance in contextual performance. Moreover, the measurement of task and contextual performance is invariant across self- and peer-ratings. Finally, the positive relationships between task and contextual performance on the one hand and work-related flow on the other hand are of equal strength. These findings support the validity of the performance measure but also highlight some impact of the method factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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ORIENTATION: For a long time, employees have been viewed as passive performers of their assigned job tasks. Recently, several scholars have argued that job design theory needs to address the influence of employees on their job designs. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to fit job crafting in job design theory. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: The study was an attempt to shed more light on the types of proactive behaviours of individual employees at work. Moreover, we explored the concept of job crafting and its antecedents and consequences. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A literature study was conducted in which the focus was first on proactive behaviour of the employee and then on job crafting. MAIN FINDINGS: Job crafting can be seen as a specific form of proactive behaviour in which the employee initiates changes in the level of job demands and job resources. Job crafting may be facilitated by job and individual characteristics and may enable employees to fit their jobs to their personal knowledge, skills and abilities on the one hand and to their preferences and needs on the other hand. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Job crafting may be a good way for employees to improve their work motivation and other positive work outcomes. Employees could be encouraged to exert more influence on their job characteristics. CONTRIBUTION/VALUE-ADD: This article describes a relatively new perspective on active job redesign by the individual, called job crafting, which has important implications for job design theories.
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In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the processes of organizational interventions when evaluating the outcomes on employee health and well-being. Nevertheless, process evaluation is still in its infancy and primarily consists of checklists inspired by the public health intervention literature. In these frameworks, employees are seen as passive recipients whose reactions to pre-developed interventions should be evaluated. Current organizational intervention design rests on a participatory approach and recent process evaluations reveal that employees and line managers influence the implementation and the outcomes of organizational interventions. Following the current foci of current frameworks we may miss out on important information on the influence of both the participatory process and the line managers on intervention outcomes. I argue that current evaluation frameworks suffer from four limitations: (i) they are not aligned with state-of-the-art research and practice; (ii) and therefore they fail to apply theory to explain how and why human agents influence intervention implementation and outcomes; (iii) they do not offer suggestions as to how such agency can be measured; and (iv) nor do they discuss how we may use knowledge obtained from process evaluation proactively when designing future organizational interventions.
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The impact of missing data on quantitative research can be serious, leading to biased estimates of parameters, loss of information, decreased statistical power, increased standard errors, and weakened generalizability of findings. In this paper, we discussed and demonstrated three principled missing data methods: multiple imputation, full information maximum likelihood, and expectation-maximization algorithm, applied to a real-world data set. Results were contrasted with those obtained from the complete data set and from the listwise deletion method. The relative merits of each method are noted, along with common features they share. The paper concludes with an emphasis on the importance of statistical assumptions, and recommendations for researchers. Quality of research will be enhanced if (a) researchers explicitly acknowledge missing data problems and the conditions under which they occurred, (b) principled methods are employed to handle missing data, and (c) the appropriate treatment of missing data is incorporated into review standards of manuscripts submitted for publication.
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This article reports on the development of a short questionnaire to measure work engagement—a positive work-related state of fulfillment that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Data were collected in 10 different countries (N = 14,521), and results indicated that the original 17-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) can be shortened to 9 items (UWES-9). The factorial validity of the UWES-9 was demonstrated using confirmatory factor analyses, and the three scale scores have good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Furthermore, a two-factor model with a reduced Burnout factor (including exhaustion and cynicism) and an expanded Engagement factor (including vigor, dedication, absorption, and professional efficacy) fit best to the data. These results confirm that work engagement may be conceived as the positive antipode of burnout. It is concluded that the UWES-9 scores has acceptable psychometric properties and that the instrument can be used in studies on positive organizational behavior.
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This longitudinal study examined whether employees can impact their own well-being by crafting their job demands and resources. Based on the Job Demands-Resources model, we hypothesized that employee job crafting would have an impact on work engagement, job satisfaction, and burnout through changes in job demands and job resources. Data was collected in a chemical plant at three time points with one month in between the measurement waves (N = 288). The results of structural equation modeling showed that employees who crafted their job resources in the first month of the study showed an increase in their structural and social resources over the course of the study (2 months). This increase in job resources was positively related to employee well-being (increased engagement and job satisfaction, and decreased burnout). Crafting job demands did not result in a change in job demands, but results revealed direct effects of crafting challenging demands on increases in well-being. We conclude that employee job crafting has a positive impact on well-being and that employees therefore should be offered opportunities to craft their own jobs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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1. Uncovering the Knowledge Embedded in Clinical Nursing Practice. 2. The Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition Applied to Nursing. 3. An Interpretive Approach to Identifying and Describing Clinical Knowledge. 4. The Helping Role. 5. The Teaching-Coaching Function. 6. The Diagnostic and Monitoring Function. 7. Effective Management of Rapidly Changing Situations. 8. Administering and Monitoring Therapeutic Interventions and Regimens. 9. Monitoring and Ensuring the Quality of Health Care Practices. 10. Organizational and Work-Role Competencies. 11. Implications for Research and Clinical Practice. 12. Implications for Career Development and Education. 13. The Quest for a New Identity and New Entitlement in Nursing. 14. Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. Epilogue: Practical Applications. References. Glossary. Appendix. Index.
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Models of organizational stress posit that a number of undesirable employee states and behaviors, such as lower levels of well-being and performance, and higher levels of absence and turnover are caused by organizational stress. It is often suggested that organizational level interventions which aim to reduce stress, such as job redesign, will therefore reduce or eliminate these states and behaviors. This suggestion is, however, based on two unsupportable assertions. The first is that these states and behaviors are caused by organizational stress. While there is some limited evidence for the role of stress, the quality of this evidence is severely compromised by numerous methodological and conceptual problems. The second assertion is that organizational level interventions aimed at changing some of these states and behaviors will actually have an effect, and that these effects will be uniformly positive. However, the available evidence suggests that these interventions often have little or no effect, and where they do have effects, these may be both positive and negative., The implications of this analysis for future work on organizational level stress interventions are discussed. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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In this paper, I discuss strategic (top-down) and proactive (bottom-up) approaches to work engagement. Organizations that follow a top-down approach may implement strategic human resource management (HRM) systems to facilitate employee work engagement, or make their leaders aware of the importance of providing job resources to their employees. Organizations may also facilitate their employees in proactively mobilizing resources themselves. I will discuss four possible bottom-up approaches to work engagement, namely (a) self-management, (b) job crafting, (c) strengths use, and (d) mobilizing ego resources. Whereas strategic HRM initiatives and transformational leadership are expected to have an important structural impact on employee work engagement through an enriched work environment, employees may also influence their own levels of work engagement by being proactive –— from day to day. I will argue that employee work engagement is most likely in organizations with a clear HR strategy, in which leaders provide resources to their employees, and in which employees engage in daily proactive behaviors such as job crafting and strengths use.
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The job demands-resources (JD-R) model was introduced in the international literature 15 years ago (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001). The model has been applied in thousands of organizations and has inspired hundreds of empirical articles, including 1 of the most downloaded articles of the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (Bakker, Demerouti, & Euwema, 2005). This article provides evidence for the buffering role of various job resources on the impact of various job demands on burnout. In the present article, we look back on the first 10 years of the JD-R model (2001-2010), and discuss how the model matured into JD-R theory (2011-2016). Moreover, we look at the future of the theory and outline which new issues in JD-R theory are worthwhile of investigation. We also discuss practical applications. It is our hope that JD-R theory will continue to inspire researchers and practitioners who want to promote employee well-being and effective organizational functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record
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Although scholars imply that job crafting contributes to person-job fit and meaningful work, to date, no study examined the relationships between these variables. The present three-wave weekbook study was designed to gain more knowledge about the influence of job crafting on person-job fit and meaningfulness. We collected data among a heterogeneous group of employees (N = 114) during three consecutive weeks (N = 430 occasions). At the end of their working week, employees reported their job crafting behaviors, their person-job fit (demands-abilities fit and needs-supplies fit), and the meaningfulness of their work that week. Results indicated that individuals who crafted their job by increasing their job resources (e.g., support, autonomy) and challenging job demands (e.g., participate in new projects), and by decreasing their hindering job demands (e.g., less emotional job demands) reported higher levels of person-job fit the next week. In turn, demands-abilities fit related to more meaningfulness in the final week. No support was found for alternative causal models. These findings suggest that by crafting their job demands and job resources, individuals can proactively optimize their person-job fit and as a consequence experience their work as meaningful.
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The aim of this chapter is to zoom in on the process through which organizations can improve the working conditions for their employees by offering them the opportunity to do so themselves. This process is called job crafting and can be seen as a specific form of proactive behaviour in which the employee initiates changes in the level of job demands and job resources to make their own job more meaningful, engaging and satisfying. Our basic premise is that job crafting can be used next to top-down approaches to improve jobs in order to overcome the inadequacies of job redesign approaches. Job crafting can also be used to respond to the complexity of contemporary jobs and to deal with the needs of the current workforce. Job crafting. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/284680321_Job_crafting [accessed May 04 2018].
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This chapter outlines the building blocks of the job demands–resources (JD-R) theory, a theory that has been inspired by job design and job stress theories. Whereas job design theories have often ignored the role of job stressors or demands, job stress models have largely ignored the motivating potential of job resources. JD-R theory combines the two research traditions, and explains how job demands and (job and personal) resources have unique and multiplicative effects on job stress and motivation. In addition, JD-R theory proposes reversed causal effects: whereas burned-out employees may create more job demands over time for themselves, engaged workers mobilize their own job resources to stay engaged. The chapter closes with a discussion of possible JD-R interventions.
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Despite the generally negative relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors and counterproductive work behaviors, employees often engage in both. Psychologists have found that when people engage in morally praiseworthy behaviors, they often grant themselves a moral license to behave immorally. In this article we draw on moral licensing theory and research on identity orientations to explain why and when citizenship behavior may lead to subsequent counterproductive behavior. We also explain how the harm done to the personal reputation of employees who engage in counterproductive work behaviors will be lessened by the degree to which they have a moral license to engage in such behaviors.
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The present study aims to uncover the way daily job crafting influences daily job performance (i.e., task performance, altruism, and counterproductive work behavior). Job crafting was conceptualized as "seeking resources," "seeking challenges," and "reducing demands" and viewed as strategies individuals use to optimize their job characteristics. We hypothesized that daily job crafting relates to daily job demands and resources (work pressure and autonomy), which consequently relate to daily work engagement and exhaustion and ultimately to job performance. A sample of 95 employees filled in a quantitative diary for 5 consecutive working days (n occasions = 475). We predicted and found that daily seeking resources was positively associated with daily task performance because daily autonomy and work engagement increased. In contrast, daily reducing demands was detrimental for daily task performance and altruism, because employees lower their daily workload and consequently their engagement and exhaustion, respectively. Only daily seeking challenges was positively (rather than negatively) associated with daily counterproductive behavior. We conclude that employee job crafting can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on job performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
This dissertation explores job crafting, or the processes through which individuals conceptualize and carry out tasks, enact relationships with others to get work done, and ascribe meaning and significance to their jobs. Previous literature in this area has remained relatively silent about the work context factors shaping job crafting. Thus, the research conducted in this dissertation addresses three primary questions: (1) What does it mean to craft a job?; (2) What are the effects of the structural and relational context of work on job crafting?; and (3) What are the outcomes of job crafting? A model of individual job crafting and its antecedents and consequences is proposed, to describe how the structural and relational contexts of work shape opportunities and motivations to engage in job crafting. The research model explores the influence of discretion in work, task complexity, and task interdependence with others, as well as the influence of workgroup psychological safety and occupational community of practice, on how individuals craft their jobs. Further, outcomes of job crafting for individuals as well as the collective (workgroup and organization) are also explored. Job crafting is examined empirically in two settings that facilitate observation of job crafting because they offer individuals high opportunities to craft work (Eisenhardt, 1989), and provide different lenses that complement each other in enriching our understanding of job crafting. Study one (manufacturing work) preliminarily explores job crafting in autonomous teams in a manufacturing organization - the Volvo Uddevalla car factory in Sweden, where considerable room is deliberately left for individual input. Study two (service work) affords a richer context to explore the content of job crafting and in particular, the organizational and collective influences on job crafting. This study surveyed special education professionals - an occupation where there is no "right way" to do the work - in a sample of 200 schools from a large urban public school district in the U.S. Based on extensive qualitative work, a rich measure of job crafting was developed. The findings suggest that work discretion, task complexity, and interdependence with others enable job crafting behaviors. The positive effect of work discretion on task crafting is stronger for individuals with broader skills than for those with narrower skills. With regard to collective influences, team psychological safety inhibits individuals' job crafting. Further, the positive effects of the occupational community of practice on job crafting are stronger in organizational settings emphasizing collaborative work than in those emphasizing isolated work. With regard to outcomes, individual job crafting enhances employees' job satisfaction and commitment levels, while increasing individual performance and reducing absenteeism levels. In addition, the effects of individual job crafting extend beyond the individual and positively impact team outcomes. Finally, implications of findings for researchers and practitioners are also discussed.
Article
This study examines the links between employee perceptions of job insecurity, the work–nonwork interface, and stress-related outcomes. Drawing on an adaptation perspective, we expect employees feeling greater job insecurity to engage in adaptive work behaviors including less use of work–nonwork support programs and greater willingness to let work permeate into one's personal life, which in turn will associate with greater work–nonwork conflict and emotional exhaustion. Data were collected from employees within a large energy company at 2 points in time. Results support the model, offering important insights into employee behavioral responses to job insecurity and key mechanisms through which insecurity may foster diminished employee well-being.
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This paper argues that worker participation has not evolved out of the humanization of capitalism, as is usually suggested, but has appeared cyclically. These cycles are traced over more than a century and are shown to correspond to periods when management authority is felt to be facing challenge. Participation is thus best understood as a means of attempting to secure labour's compliance. However, the framework of common interests upon which participation is premised is untenable, and in practice the efficiency of such schemes in Britain has been for the most part severely attenuated by the realities of structural conflict.