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Packaging of Fresh Mangoes and Processed Mango Products

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Abstract

This chapter focuses mainly on the applied aspects of mango packaging (fresh fruit and processed products), in the light of current and best practices in the global mango industry, as well as its future research directions. Harvested mangoes go through de-sapping, washing, sizing, and grading prior to packing. The major intelligent packaging systems are time-temperature indicators/time-temperature biosensors, leak detectors, ripeness and spoilage indicators, and radiofrequency identification labels. Such indicators can be used for mangoes and mango products to enhance product reliability. Minimum label information for most of the domestic wholesale markets in developing countries include the cultivar, class (local criteria), gross weight, and grower/suppliers name. Frozen mangoes are packaged in flexible pouches of retail and bulk sizes, while dried mangoes are mostly packaged in individual-serving size bags. Active packaging with antimicrobial properties is extensively used for processed food products to reduce spoilage and contamination.

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Fruit of 'Nam Dok Mai' mango were stored at 4 C. This resulted in chilling injury (CI), particularly in the peel which became grayish brown. This was followed by slight discoloration of the pulp. Further discoloration of peel and pulp occurred when the fruit were transferred to 25°C. The produce was also held in plastic packages with and without modified atmosphere (MA). Oxygen levels in the MA packages were about 19.7% and carbon dioxide levels about 2.6%, compared to close to atmospheric concentrations in the non-MA packages. MA packaging reduced CI. Total free phenolics content in the peel was highest in fruit held in MA packages. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities in the peel were lowest in MA-packed fruit. Total free phenolics might protect against CI. PAL and PPO activities may be causally related to CI-induced browning.
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Objective: This was to evaluate the efficacy of MAP in maintaining the postharvest quality of mango fruits. Methodology and results: The fruits were harvested from a commercial orchard, (Karurumo Orchards) located in Embu county of Eastern province. The fruits were harvested at advanced maturity during the pre-climacteric rise phase when most of the flesh had turned yellow. They were selected for uniformity in colour, size and shape and randomly separated into three equal batches of 50 fruits each. The first batch was packaged in Activebag®, second batch in ordinary (commercially used) polythene bags while the third batch was left unpackaged as control. Five fruits from each treatment were sampled every three days during the shelf life period and evaluated for various physiological and physicochemical parameters associated with mango ripening and quality including ethylene evolution, respiration rate, cumulative weight loss, firmness, hue angle, total soluble solids, total titratable acid, soluble sugars, ascorbic acid and beta-carotene. MAP whether in Activebag® or ordinary polythene was effective in maintaining the quality of mango fruits compared to the unpackaged controls. Slow ripening changes of Activebag® fruits was accompanied by a delayed respiratory climacteric and generally lower respiration rates compared to ordinary bag and unpackaged fruits. At the end of the observation period, Activebag® fruits were 16% firmer compared to unpackaged fruits. The initial average weight was 635g and modified atmosphere packaging had a remarkable effect on cumulative weight loss with fruits packaged in the ordinary polythene bag and Activebag® fruits losing only 7.4% of the initial weight compared to 12% in the case of unpackaged fruits (control). Higher levels of total soluble solids (°brix) 5.5g/100g and total soluble sugars (6g/100g) observed at the beginning of storage (6 days after packaging) signalled advanced ripening of unpackaged fruits. However as the storage time progressed, the levels of each of the soluble sugars evaluated were higher in Activebag® fruits. Similarly, Activebag® fruits retained higher levels of titratable acidity (0.39%and ascorbic acid compared to ordinary bag fruits (0.36%). Conclusion: Packaging mangoes in Activebag® after harvest at ripe stage was effective in delaying most of the ripening related changes in mango fruits thereby maintaining the quality and extending their shelf life. Although ordinary polythene packaging maintained quality of the fruits better than unpackaged fruits, the positive effects were negated by high incidences of rotting. Key words: Mango, MAP, postharvest, quality, shelf life
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Introduction, E.M. Yahia Storage Technology and Applications, E. Hoehn, R.K. Prange, and C. Vigneault Transport Technology and Applications, P.E. Brecht, S. Dohring, J.K. Brecht, and W. Benson Modified and Controlled Atmosphere Packaging Technology and Applications, J.S. Brandenburg and D. Zagory Gas Exchange Modeling, B.M. Nicolai, M.L.A.T.M. Hertog, Q. Tri Ho, B.E. Verlinden, and P. Verboven Effects on Nutritional Quality, A.A. Kader Effects on Flavor, C.F. Forney, J.P. Mattheis, and E.A. Baldwin Effects on Physiological Disorders, W.C. Schotsmans, J.M. DeLong, C. Larrigaudiere, and R.K. Prange Effects on Decay, E.M. Yahia and P.L. Sholberg Microbial Safety of Modified Atmosphere Packaged Fresh-Cut Produce, D. O'Beirne and D. Zagory Effects on Insects, L.G. Neven, E.M. Yahia, and G.J. Hallman Pome Fruits, J. Bai, R.K. Prange, and P.M.A. Toivonen Stone Fruits, C.H. Crisosto, S. Lurie, and J. Retamales Subtropical Fruits, Z. Singh, S.P. Singh, and E.M. Yahia Small Fruit and Berries, L.A. Terry, C.H. Crisosto, and C.F. Forney Tropical Fruits, E.M. Yahia and S.P. Singh Vegetables, J.K. Brecht Modified Atmosphere Packaging for Fresh-Cut Produce, P.M.A. Toivonen, J.S. Brandenburg, and Y. Luo Ornamentals and Cut Flowers, A.J. Macnish, M.S. Reid, and D.C. Joyce Dried Fruits and Tree Nuts, J.A. Johnson, E.M. Yahia, and D.G. Brandl Economic Benefits of Controlled Atmosphere Storage and Modified Atmosphere Packaging, E.K. Mupondwa Biochemical and Molecular Aspects of Modified and Controlled Atmospheres, A.K. Kanellis, P. Tonutti, and P. Perata Future Research and Application Needs, A.A. Kader Index
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This book on mango covers the following: botany and importance (chapter 1); taxonomy and systematics (chapter 2); important mango cultivars and their descriptors (chapter 3); breeding and genetics (chapter 4); reproductive physiology (chapter 5); ecophysiology (chapter 6); fruit diseases (chapter 7); foliar, floral and soilborne diseases (chapter 8); physiological disorders (chapter 9); pests (chapter 10); propagation (chapter 11); mineral nutrition (chapter 12); crop management (chapter 13); postharvest physiology (chapter 14); postharvest technology and quarantine treatments (chapter 15); world trade and production economics (chapter 16); fruit processing (chapter 17); and biotechnology (chapter 18).
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The present work aimed to develop sachets incorporated with essential oils to be stored with mangoes inside paper bags, as well as to assess both its antimicrobial and physicochemical properties. Oregano (Origanum vulgaris) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oils were incorporated into sachets and their antimicrobial activity was tested for the fungi Colletotrichum gloeosporides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferae indica, and Alternaria alternate. Tommy Atkins mangoes were individually wrapped in paper bags containing antimicrobial sachets and maintained at 25 °C ± 2 °C e RH 80% ± 5%, for nine days. Both oregano and lemongrass essential oils were found to have little effect on mango skin color, firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity and pH, indicating that their presence does not alter the physicochemical characteristics of mango pulp. Active sachets incorporated with either oregano or lemongrass essential oils showed efficiency, reducing the growth of the tested fungi, whereas lemongrass was found to be more efficient by decreasing about 2 log cycles both the mesophilic aerobes and molds and yeasts counts, when compared to the control treatment.
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2012. Impact of different packaging types and low temperature shipping durations on fruit quality and marketability of Pakistani mangoes. Int. ABSTRACT Corrugated cardboard boxes are being used for the export of mango fruit worldwide. However, for sea freight, the performance of cardboard box (open vs closed) needs to be evaluated for shipment under low temperature conditions. Under this perspective, two different types of corrugated cardboard box packagings were compared for their effect on the quality, marketability and consumer acceptability in two commercial mango cultivars (Sindhri & Sufaid Chaunsa) of Pakistan under simulated harvest, handling and shipping conditions with storage (11°C; 80-85% RH) intervals of 3, 4 and 5 weeks. Both Sindhri and Sufaid Chaunsa mangoes packed in open top boxes had higher marketability with better firmness and higher sugar contents (less softness score; significant in case of cv. Sufaid Chaunsa only) at ripening as compared to the fruit of closed top boxes. However, the problem of comparatively less peel color development in case of open top packaging needs to be addressed for improving the competitiveness of fruit at retail. Physiological weight loss and rate of respiration were statistically at par in both types of packaging in both cultivars. The low temperature storage duration had significant impact on various physico-chemical and organoleptic fruit quality attributes of both cultivars. Fruit peel color and textural softness were significantly increased with the increase of storage period (from three to five weeks). Moreover, increased weight loss percentage and reduced marketable fruit percentage were observed as the storage/shipping period was extended from three weeks to five weeks. But overall, cv. Sindhri had higher percentage of marketable fruit at all removals due to lower incidence of disease. The trend of disease development was increased in duration of low temperature storage; however, it was less in case of cv. Sindhri, thus indicating its better shipping potential with lower disease incidence as compared to cv. Sufaid Chaunsa. The respiration rate increased with advancement in post shipment ripening stages (i.e., at removal day, after ethylene treatment & at final day of ripening). Overall, open top packaging was found to be more advantageous as compared to closed top packaging, in both cultivars under low temperature storage (11°C; 80-85% RH). More research work is needed for post harvest disease management, particularly in cv. Sufaid Chaunsa, to have commercial success in sea-freighting this cultivar. © 2012 Friends Science Publishers
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A systematic study was conducted on the ability of potassium permanganate absorbent to remove low levels of ethylene from the atmosphere. Absorption of potassium permanganate onto alumina beads by dipping in a saturated solution was maximal at 2 g/100 g after 2 hours at 20°C and 4 g/100 g after 1 hour at 65°C. Commercial alumina-based absorbents were found to contain potassium permanganate at 2.7 to 6.0 g/100 g suggesting many are prepared at elevated temperature. Trials in a closed system at 20°C and 60% to 70% RH with alumina beads containing potassium permanganate at 4 g/100 g showed a logarithmic decrease in ethylene concentration with 90% of the ethylene removed after 2.5 to 3.0 hours. Relative humidity (RH) had a marked inverse effect on ethylene absorption with reactivity at 100% RH calculated to be 15% of that at 0% RH. Performance of potassium permanganate where ethylene was continually generated by a continuous flow of ethylene at 14 μL·h -1 through the container showed a steady state was attained within 1 hour and maintained for 24 hours. Ethylene removal increased linearly with bead weight and ranged from 30% with 1 g to 90% with 50 g. Examination over 20 days showed a continuing decrease in rate of ethylene removal which after 14 days had declined to 10% of incoming ethylene although 44% of the original level of potassium permanganate still remained in the beads. Calculations based on known endogenous ethylene production rates suggest that at 20°C and 90% RH, use of a potassium permanganate-alumina absorbent would be beneficial with produce having a low level of ethylene generation. Suitability for larger packages of produce generating higher ethylene levels is questionable as >1 kg of absorbent may be required.
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The effect on the quality of mango fruits (Mangifera indica) during modified atmosphere packaging was investigated. The fruits were kept in carton boxes whose top surface was covered with either chitosan film or with low-density polyethylene (positive control) or kept as such (control) and stored at room temperature (27ǃ C at 65% RH). The CO2 and O2 levels measured on day 3 were 23-26% and 3-6%, and at the end of the storage period they were 19-21% and 5-6%, respectively. Various quality parameters such as colour, chlorophyll, acidity, vitamin C, carotenoid and sugar contents were studied. The fruits stored as such had a shelf-life of 9ǃ days, whereas those stored in low-density polyethylene showed off-flavour due to fermentation and fungal growth on the stalk and around the fruits, and were partially spoiled. On the other hand, fruits stored in chitosan-covered boxes showed an extension of shelf-life of up to 18 days and without any microbial growth and off-flavour. Being biodegradable and ecofriendly, chitosan films are useful as an alternative to synthetic packaging films in the storage of freshly harvested mangoes.
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Over the last years, considerable research has been conducted to develop and apply edible films and coatings made from a variety of agricultural commodities and/or wastes of food product industrialization. Such biopolymers include polysaccharides, proteins, and their blends. These materials present the possibility of being carriers of different additives, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, nutraceuticals, and flavorings agents. In particular, the use of edibles films and coatings containing antimicrobials has demonstrated to be a useful tool as a stress factor to protect foodstuff against spoilage flora and to decrease the risk of pathogen growth. The more commonly antimicrobials used are organic acids, chitosan, nisin, the lactoperoxidase system, and some plant extracts and their essential oils. For the selection of an antimicrobial, it must be considered the effectiveness against the target microorganism and also the possible interactions among the antimicrobial, the film-forming biopolymer, and other food components present. These interactions can modify the antimicrobial activity and the characteristics of the film being these key factors for the development of antimicrobial films and coatings. The main objective of this article is to review the bibliography of the last years concerning the main hydrocolloids and antimicrobials used for developing edible films and coatings, the methods used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, the applications and the legislation concerning edible films and coatings. Also, the different strategies related to the modification of structural characteristics and the future trends in the development are discussed. The information update will help to improve the design, development, and application of edible films and coatings tending to increase the safety and quality of food products and to prepare for food legislation changes that might be necessary while identifying future trends concerning a better functionality of edible films thought as a stress factor for lengthening shelf life of food products. KeywordsEdible films and coatings–Antimicrobials–Hydrocolloids–Preservation–Packaging–Antimicrobial activity
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The effects of light and oxygen on β-carotene, vitamin A value, and colour stability of mango purée during storage were evaluated. Non-aseptic production at a pilot-plant scale, involving continuous high-temperature-short-time (HTST) heating, caused significant 13-cis-β-carotene formation, resulting in a pro-vitamin A retention of 82.3–89.6%, while peroxidase (POD) activity was reduced to residual levels of 0.4–2.6% in the pasteurised purée. Since oxygen removal from the package headspace by flushing with superheated steam or N2 marginally affected β-carotene stability during storage, hot-filling was most crucial for exhausting the air. Irrespective of the packaging material, pro-vitamin A loss during storage was chiefly caused by oxidative degradation of β-carotene. Additional photo- isomerisation under exposure to light became manifest in the relative increase in 9-cis-β-carotene with associated decline in the 13-cis isomer portion. Despite photoisomerisation, pro-vitamin A retention was up to 90.9% in bottled purée after 168 days of light-exposed storage, with deaeration of the purée resulting from hot-filling. Marked colour loss mainly caused by accumulation of brown oxidation products was monitored by a rising degree of discolouration (Dd). Although additional headspace deaeration of cans and bottles improved colour retention, dissolved residual oxygen and other reactive compounds provoked browning and β-carotene degradation. As regards pro-vitamin A and colour, headspace minimisation was much more effective than its deaeration. Due to smaller headspace volumes, bottling proved superior to canning under the prevailing conditions, irrespective of light-exposed storage.
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Two types of fruit coatings were tested for their effect on external and internal mango fruit atmospheres and quality factors during simulated commercial storage at 10 or 15°C with 90–99% RH followed by simulated marketing conditions of 20°C with 56% RH. One coating was polysaccharide-based while the other had carnauba wax as the main ingredient. These two coatings exhibited markedly different O2 permeability characteristics under laboratory conditions. This confirmed what has been reported in the literature, that polysaccharide coatings are less permeable to respiratory gases, such as O2, and more permeable to water vapor compared to carnauba wax. When applied to fruit under simulated commercial conditions, however, the difference between the coatings in permeance to respiratory gases were much reduced, most likely due to the high humidity during chilled storage. Both coatings created modified atmospheres, reduced decay, and improved appearance by imparting a subtle shine; but only the polysaccharide coating delayed ripening and increased concentrations of flavor volatiles. The carnauba wax coating significantly reduced water loss compared to uncoated and polysaccharide-coating treatments.
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This study compared the effects of the use of various types of packaging films in maintaining quality, preserving bioactive compounds and extending shelf life of the ‘Nam Dok Mai’ mango. The principal techniques for maintaining the quality of mangoes are based on modified atmosphere packaging using highly gas-permeable films and an ethylene-removing mechanism. The films studied were non-perforated highly gas-permeable film, non-perforated ethylene-absorbing highly gas-permeable film (HNPE), micro-perforated highly gas-permeable films (HMP) and common non-perforated polyethylene film (LNP). These films were compared with non-packaging treatment, which served as a control (C). Gas composition (O2, CO2 and C2H4) in the package headspace was monitored during storage at 12°C. The quality of mangoes were assessed by weight loss, colour (L* a* b*), texture, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, total phenolics, total flavonoids, ethanol concentration and sensory quality. Equilibrium-modified atmospheres of 5 kPaO2 + 5 kPaCO2 and 4 kPaO2 + 5 kPaCO2 were achieved in the non-perforated highly gas-permeable film and HNPE packs, respectively. Carbon dioxide accumulation was observed in the HMP and LNP packs where CO2 reached 17 and 10 kPa, respectively, after storage for 10 days. The shelf life of mangoes was extended to 40 days with HNPE, 35 days with HNP, and 30 days with HMP, as compared with 20 days with control and 5 days with LNP. HNPE, the film incorporated with fine particles of mordenite framework inverted-type zeolite with ethylene-absorbing ability, could further extend the shelf life of mangoes in addition to modified atmosphere packaging alone. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Article
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Article
Fresh-cut processing of mangoes have not been explored on a scale similar to other tropical fruits. This study assessed the effect of different pre-treatments and storage on total phenolics, antioxidant properties, and selected quality characteristics of mango cubes treated with: ascorbic acid + citric acid + CaCl2 (AA–CA–Ca), sodium acid sulfate (SAS), and 5-min infrared heat (IR-5). Phenolics content of the untreated cubes was 21.16 mg GAE/100 g on day-0, whereas treated samples had higher contents – 70.82, 40.58, and 25.98 mg GAE/100 g in AA–CA–Ca, SAS, and IR-5 samples, respectively. Similarly, antioxidant activities (ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, ORAC) generally increased with all treatments, this effect was more pronounced with AA–CA–Ca. Total phenolics and antioxidant activities were stable during 12-day storage at 4 °C. Cubes treated with AA–CA–Ca showed consistently better color and firmness than the control and other two treatments. Storage time and treatments showed a mixed trend on pH, soluble solids, acidity, and sugar-acid ratio.
Article
Recently, the demand for safe and high quality foods, as well as changes in consumer preferences have led to the development of innovative and novel approaches in food packaging technology. One such development is the smart or intelligent food packaging technology. Intelligent packaging has enabled to monitor and communicate information about food quality. This technology also helps to trace a product’s history through the critical points in the food supply chain. In general, occurrence of elevated CO2 gas level is the prime indicator of food spoilage in packed foods and also its maintenance at optimal levels is essential to avoid spoilage in foods packed under modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP) conditions. Hence, a CO2 sensor incorporated into food package can efficiently monitor product quality until it reaches the consumer. Although much progress has been made so far in the development of sensors monitoring CO2, most of them are not versatile for food packaging applications and suffers from limitations such as high equipment cost, bulkiness, and energy input requirement, including safety concerns. Therefore, the development of efficient CO2 sensors that can intelligently monitors the gas concentration changes inside a food package and specific to food packaging applications is essential. In the present review, progress on the development of different types of CO2 sensors such as optical sensors, polymer opal films, polymer hydrogels, etc., which can be readily applicable to food packaging applications, is discussed.
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Various packages (corrugated box, plastic crate, and bamboo basket) used for mango distribution were evaluated for their protective performance. After subject to packaging and transportation, the quality of mangoes (bruise incidence, bruise volume, weight loss, firmness, color, ethylene production, and respiration rates) was determined. Different cushioning methods (foam net and paper wrap) were also evaluated for their effectiveness in protecting the fruits from mechanical damage during distribution. All types of cushioning materials tested reduced the amount of bruising. Corrugated box with foam net provided the best protection as compared to all other types of packaging tested. Mangoes packaged in bamboo baskets showed the highest mechanical damage and weight loss. Bruise volume during storage is highly correlated with bruise incidence after transportation and can be used to classify the market value of mangoes. Economic comparison of various packaging systems was also studied. The information from this study can be used for selecting proper packaging to reduce mechanical damage of mangoes and other sensitive tropical fruits during distribution.
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Fresh produce is more susceptible to disease organisms because of increase in the respiration rate after harvesting. The respiration of fresh fruits and vegetables can be reduced by many preservation techniques. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) technology is largely used for minimally processed fruits and vegetables including fresh, “ready-to-use” vegetables. Extensive research has been done in this research area for many decades. Oxygen, CO2, and N2, are most often used in MAP. The recommended percentage of O2 in a modified atmosphere for fruits and vegetables for both safety and quality falls between 1 and 5%. Although other gases such as nitrous and nitric oxides, sulphur dioxide, ethylene, chlorine, as well as ozone and propylene oxide have also been investigated, they have not been applied commercially due to safety, regulatory, and cost considerations. Successful control of both product respiration and ethylene production and perception by MAP can result in a fruit or vegetable product of high organoleptic quality; however, control of these processes is dependent on temperature control.
Article
Fresh-cut fruit industry has seen tremendous growth in recent years. The present study was designed with the objective of studying the sensory quality of fresh-cut apple slices that were treated with different antibrowning agents, packed in three types of packaging materials and subjected to vibration treatment to simulate commercial transportation. The slices were treated with two commercial antibrowning agents [NatureSeal (Mantrose-Haeuser Co., Inc., Westport, CT, USA) and Ever-Fresh (Kraft Foods, Inc., Rye Brook, NY, USA)] at 5% (w/v) application rate. The treated slices were packaged in 5 oz polystyrene rigid container, 2 lb polyethylene bag or 2 oz polyethylene bag. A nine-member trained panel and a 100-member consumer panel evaluated the treated slices for selected sensory attributes. The trained sensory small panel found minimal difference in the fresh-cut slices in comparison with the control (non-vibrated) sample, with the slices treated with NatureSeal better in quality than those treated with Ever-Fresh. Case positions (bottom, middle or top) within the vibration stack did not affect the quality of the slices significantly; similar results were found from the consumer panel sensory evaluation. The consumer panel evaluation results showed that the slices treated with NatureSeal were better in sensory attributes of colour, texture, flavour and overall acceptability. Overall, package type had no or minimal effect on the slice quality attributes. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This paper evaluated various shipping packages (corrugated boxes and reusable plastic crates) on their protective performance based on bruising and heat transfer characteristics for shipping and handling mangoes. The effect of maturity stage on bruise susceptibility of mangoes was also studied. Mangoes were evaluated for bruise damage after subjecting to shipping and vibration tests. The results indicated that proper shipping containers and cushioning methods significantly reduces bruising in mangoes. Design features of shipping containers, such as physical protection and pre-cooling characteristics, should be considered when shipping mangoes. The methods from this study can be used for selecting proper packaging to reduce damage of mangoes and other sensitive tropical fruits during distribution. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
There has been increasing demand for various fresh-cut tropical fruits. However, their short shelf-life has limited the market increase of this product. Quality changes (firmness, colour, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), sensory quality and microbial safety) of fresh-cut mangoes, pineapples, melons and mixes of these fruits were evaluated. Chemical treatments to reduce browning, firmness loss and decay of fresh-cut tropical fruits were investigated. The most effective agents for fresh-cut mangoes, pineapples and melons were 0.1m ascorbic acid, 0.2m ascorbic acid and 0.2m ascorbic acid + 0.2m calcium chloride, respectively. Fresh-cut tropical fruits were packaged in various rigid containers (PET, OPS and OPLA). Gas composition in the package headspace and time to reach steady-state condition varied among fresh-cut packaging systems and affected their quality and shelf-life. The effects of package permeability of O2 and CO2 on quality and shelf-life of the fresh-cut products are discussed. Extended shelf-life was observed in fresh-cut mangoes, pineapples and mixes packaged in PET due to reduced O2 and elevated CO2 atmosphere. A modified atmosphere of 6% O2 and 14% CO2 achieved in PET extended the shelf-life of fresh-cut pineapples from 6 to 13 days. Accumulation of CO2 may impart an off-odour of fresh-cut fruits. The results suggested that the shelf-life of fresh-cut fruits could be extended by using proper rigid containers. Suitable mixes to create optimal equilibrium modified atmosphere had a potential to extend shelf-life of short shelf-life fresh-cut tropical fruits. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
‘Active and intelligent’ (A&I) food packaging is based on a deliberate interaction of the packaging with the food and/or its direct environment. This article presents: (i) the main types of materials developed for food contact; (ii) the global market and the future trends of active and intelligent packaging with a special emphasis on safety concerns and assessment; and (iii) the EU Legislation and compliance testing of these novel food packaging technologies.
Article
a b s t r a c t An active film from chitosan incorporated with aqueous green tea extract (GTE) was developed. The effects of GTE concentrations including 2, 5, 10 and 20% (w/v) of green tea in the film-forming solution on the film properties were determined by measuring physical properties, total polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of the active films. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry was carried out to observe the potential modifications of the chitosan films when incorporated with GTE. The results suggested that incorporation of GTE into chitosan films improved mechanical and water vapor barrier properties and enhanced polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of the films. Changes in the FTIR spectra of the chitosan films were observed when GTE was incorporated, suggesting some interactions occurred between chitosan and the polyphenols from GTE. This study showed the benefits of incorpo-ration of GTE into chitosan films and the potential for using the developed film as an active packaging.
Article
Market increase efforts for tropical fruits have been previously limited by short shelf life. A modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) system for pineapple and mango was developed to increase shelf life of the fruits. Sample preparation consisted of hand-peeling, dicing, blanching, dipping in ascorbic acid and packaging. The treatments were: gas mixture (4% O2, 10% CO2 and 86% N2); vacuum packaging; 100% oxygen, and control. Microbial growth, texture, and color were significantly (P < 0.005) different between the gas and other treatments. The gas mixture treatment achieved the longest shelf life. The sensory analysis showed slight difference between fresh and MAP mango and no difference between fresh and MAP pineapple. MAP could be used as a technology to extend the shelf life of mango and pineapple.
Article
  One of the major growth segments in the food retail industry is fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables. This new market trend has thus increased the demands to the food industry for seeking new strategies to increase storability and shelf life and to enhance microbial safety of fresh produce. The technology of edible coatings has been considered as one of the potential approaches for meeting this demand. Edible coatings from renewable sources, including lipids, polysaccharides, and proteins, can function as barriers to water vapor, gases, and other solutes and also as carriers of many functional ingredients, such as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents, thus enhancing quality and extending shelf life of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables. This review discusses the rationale of using edible coatings on fresh and minimally processed produce, the challenges in developing effective coatings that meet the specific criteria of fruits and vegetables, the recent advances in the development of coating technology, the analytical techniques for measuring some important coating functionalities, and future research needs for supporting a broad range of commercial applications.
Article
Treatments to inhibit browning, decay and to extend shelf life of ‘Keitt’, ‘Kent’ and ‘Ataulfo’ mango cultivars as a fresh-cut produce were investigated. Combinations of calcium chloride (CaCl2), antioxidants [ascorbic acid (AA), citric acid (CA)] and two commercial film coatings resulted in a reduction of browning and deterioration of fresh-cut mangoes stored at 5 °C, especially for the Ataulfo cultivar. The use of CaCl2 + AA + CA significantly reduced colour deterioration, loss of firmness and did not affect sensory characteristics of fresh-cut mango, with a larger effect in the Ataulfo cultivar. In general, these treatments prevented loss of sugar and vitamin C of cubes during storage at 5 °C. Shelf life of this cultivar was 21 days, while that of Keitt and Kent was only 9 and 12 days, respectively. There is a correlation between carotene and vitamin C content of Ataulfo mango and its longer shelf life compared with the other cultivars.
Article
Non-thermal food processing/preservation methods interest food and food packaging scientists, manufacturers and consumers because they exert a minimal impact on the nutritional and sensory properties of foods, and extend shelf life by inhibiting or killing microorganisms. They are also considered to be more energy efficient and to preserve better quality attributes than conventional thermally based processes. Non-thermal processes also meet industry needs by offering value-added products, new market opportunities and added safety margins. This study reviewed non-thermal processing technologies currently available or developmental for the inactivation of microorganisms and thus microbiological shelf life in foods, and to identify packaging interactions that might result. Processes include ultra-high pressure, ionizing radiation, pulsed X-ray, ultrasound, pulsed light and pulsed electric fields, high-voltage arc discharge, magnetic fields, dense phase carbon dioxide and hurdle technologies. Copyright
Article
Mango juices were extracted from Ogbomoso variety using the method of Brekke et al. (1972). Mango juices were packaged in polyethylene films, polyethylene tetraphthalate (PET or plastic) bottles and transparent glass bottles and stored at 6C, 26C and 34C. Percentage ascorbic acid loss, browning index, titratable acidity, pH and soluble solids were evaluated at 2-week intervals for 8weeks. Percentage ascorbic acid loss, non-enzymatic browning and titratable acidity increased with storage time in all packaging materials. However, pH decreased with storage time and soluble solids remained constant. Higher percentage ascorbic acid loss, browning index and titratable acidity occurred in juices packaged in polyethylene film, than in PET and glass bottles. Percentage ascorbic acid, browning index and pH increased with increased storage temperature. However, titratable acidity decreased with increased storage temperature and soluble solids remained constant throughout the period of storage.
Article
A study was performed to assess volatile and quality changes in stored fresh-cut mangos prepared from “firm-ripe” (FR) and “soft-ripe” (SR) fruit, and to assess what effect passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) may have on cut fruit physiology, overall quality and volatile retention or loss. Florida-grown ‘Keitt’ and ‘Palmer’ mangos were used, without heat-treatment. Subjective appraisals of fresh-cut mangos based on aroma and cut edge or tissue damage indicated that most SR cubes were unmarketable by day 7 at 4 °C. Both varieties stored in MAP at 4 °C had almost identical O2 consumption, which was independent of ripeness. Percent CO2 and O2 data for cubes stored in passive MAP indicates that the system was inadequate to prevent potential anaerobic respiration after 7 days storage. A significant three-way interaction (container×ripeness×day) was observed for L* (lightness) between stored cubes prepared from FR versus SR fruit of both varieties. There was a linear L* decrease for SR ‘Keitt’ cubes stored in clamshell containers. δ-3-Carene was the dominant terpene in both varieties in all treatments throughout most of the study, and FR cubes had statistically higher levels of seven terpenes compared with the respective SR treatments. Most terpenes in FR and SR cubes stored in both package types displayed a transient increase, occurring on day 4 or 7, followed by a decline.
Article
The main objective of this work was to determine the optimal composition of edible coatings in view of their application to extend the shelf life of several tropical fruits. Coatings constituted by galactomannans from different sources (Caesalpinia pulcherrima and Adenanthera pavonina) and glycerol were characterized as coatings for five tropical fruits: acerola (Malpighia emarginata), cajá (Spondias lutea), mango (Mangifera indica), pitanga (Eugenia uniflora) and seriguela (Spondias purpurea). The surface properties of the five fruits were determined and different aqueous galactomannan solutions (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%) with glycerol (1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%) were tested for their wettability on fruits. For the solutions having a better wettability, films were casted and water vapour permeability, oxygen permeability, carbon dioxide permeability, tensile strength and elongation at break were determined. Taking into account the surface and permeability properties of the obtained films, four compositions were selected as the best coatings to the studied fruits: acerola – 0.5% of A. pavonina galactomannan and 1.0% of glycerol; cajá – 1.0% of A. pavonina galactomannan and 1.0% of glycerol; mango and pitanga – 1.5% of A. pavonina galactomannan and 1.0% of glycerol; and seriguela – 0.5% of C. pulcherrima galactomannan and 1.5% of glycerol. For the coating, the values of the measured properties were as follows: wettability ranged from −36.33 ± 3.39 to −26.45 ± 4.58 mN · m−1; water vapour permeability ranged from 4.89 ± 0.11 to 6.25 ± 0.20 × 10−11 g m−1 s−1 Pa−1; oxygen permeability ranged from 0.31 ± 0.01 to 0.99 ± 0.13 × 10−15 g m (Pa s m2)−1; carbon dioxide permeability ranged from 28.81 ± 3.08 to 61.19 ± 1.44 × 10−15 g m (Pa s m2)−1; tensile strength ranged from 2.56 ± 0.15 to 3.96 ± 0.43 MPa; and elongation at break ranged from 28.26 ± 4.53% to 46.36 ± 2.29%.
Article
Storage of mango (Mangifera indica L. cvs. Tommy Atkins and Keitt) fruits at 12°C caused slight chilling injury (CI) symptoms on the fruit peel, expressed as red spots around the lenticels (lenticel spotting). A modified atmosphere (∼5% CO2 and ∼10% O2) was created in 4-kg film-lined cartons by using microperforated polyethylene (PE) or Xtend® film (XF). For ‘Keitt’ fruit, a similar atmosphere was also applied using controlled atmosphere chambers. After 3 weeks of storage at 12°C plus 1 week at 20°C, both modified and controlled atmosphere treatments were effective in reducing CI. The most effective reduction was found in fruits that were packed in the XF film. A second advantage of using XF film was the reduction in the level of sap inside the package due to the lower relative humidity in the XF film (∼90%) compared with that of PE packaging (∼99%).
Article
Effects of thermal mango processing on β-carotene stability and inactivation of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were systematically evaluated on a laboratory scale, mimicking typical operations in continuous and small-size batch production of mango purée. Treatments comprised pasteurisation between 85 and 93 °C up to 16 min of holding time, with pasteurisation values () of 0.34–14.91 min, and thermal routines usually applied in enzymatic maceration for pectin degradation to standardise mango pulp viscosity. Although significant trans–cis-isomerisation of β-carotene (P < 0.05) was shown by the formation of 13-cis-β-carotene, maximum vitamin A loss during pasteurisation of mango purée did not exceed 15.4%, owing to a total β-carotene retention of 93%. PPO was readily inactivated after 1 min, whereas residual POD activities of 4.0–6.3% were detected, even after 16 min, at all pasteurisation temperatures. To study the influence of the fruit matrix during pasteurisation, β-carotene stability was additionally evaluated at modified physical states in aqueous and in oil-in-water (o/w) emulsified model preparations. After disintegration of the mango matrix, trans–cis-isomerisation was higher than in model preparations, indicating a non-crystalline state of β-carotene in the mango mesocarp. In semi-continuous production of mango nectar on a pilot-plant scale, evaluated by stepwise process control, four heating treatments used for steam peeling, thermal inactivation of endogenous enzymes prior to enzymatic pulp liquefaction, and pasteurisation of purée and nectar, respectively, consistently resulted in a final retention of 83% of the vitamin A value of the fruit dry matter.
Article
Treatments to inhibit browning and decay and prolong shelf life of fresh-cut mangoes were investigated. Combinations of antibrowning agents and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) resulted in a reduction of browning and deterioration of fresh-cut mangoes stored at 10 degrees C. Combinations of several browning inhibitors were more effective than those applied individually. Among these treatments, solutions containing 4-hexylresorcinol (0.001 M) (HR) plus potassium sorbate (0.05 M) (KS) and HR plus KS plus D-isoascorbic acid (0.5 M) (ER) reduced changes in color (L, a, and b) and microbial growth and did not affect sensory characteristics of fresh-cut mangoes. In general, these treatments did not affect significantly the changes in organic acids and sugar content of slices during the 14 days of storage at 10 degrees C. High humidity created in the in-package atmosphere alleviated tissue dryness and was an important factor in the ability of the antibrowning solutions to prevent browning and decay. It appears that the maintenance of quality of fresh-cut mangoes is more related to particular combinations of the antibrowning agents used rather than the modified atmosphere created inside the package. HR + ER + KS treatment in combination with MAP could be used to inhibit browning, decay, and deterioration of fresh-cut mangoes.