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Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study

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No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h) and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD)) performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey) or an energy-matched placebo (CHO) immediately post-exercise (0 h), and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery). A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest). Participants ingested [15N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO (P = 0.064; effect size (ES) = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO) during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO (P = 0.036) but not in CHO (P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO), which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO < CHO; P < 0.01. Exercise decreased repetitions to failure (REP), maximal strength (MVC), peak and mean power, and countermovement jump performance (CMJ) at 0 h (all P < 0.05 vs. Pre). At 10 h, there were small-to-moderate effects for enhanced recovery of the MVC (ES = 0.56), mean power (ES = 0.49), and CMJ variables (ES: 0.27–0.49) in PRO. At 24 h, protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76), REP (ES = 0.44), and peak power (ES = 0.55). In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of exercise performance after a strenuous bout of resistance exercise.
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nutrients
Article
Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole
Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery
after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind
Crossover Study
Daniel W. D. West 1, Sidney Abou Sawan 1, Michael Mazzulla 1, Eric Williamson 1and
Daniel R. Moore 2, *
1Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A1, Canada;
daniel.west@utoronto.ca (D.W.D.W.); sidney.abousawan@mail.utoronto.ca (S.A.S.);
m.mazzulla@mail.utoronto.ca (M.M.); eric.williamson@mail.utoronto.ca (E.W.)
2Kinesiology and Physical Education University of Toronto 100 Devonshire Place, Toronto,
ON M5S 2C9, Canada
*Correspondence: dr.moore@utoronto.ca; Tel.: +1-416-946-4088
Received: 13 June 2017; Accepted: 5 July 2017; Published: 11 July 2017
Abstract:
No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism
and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed
to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery
of exercise performance during overnight (10 h) and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance
exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76
±
8 kg, 24
±
4 years
old, 14%
±
5% body fat; means
±
standard deviation (SD)) performed resistance exercise in the
evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey) or an
energy-matched placebo (CHO) immediately post-exercise (0 h), and again the following morning
(~10 h of recovery). A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no
exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest). Participants ingested [
15
N]glycine
to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery.
Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests.
Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO (p= 0.064; effect size (ES) = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO)
during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO (p= 0.036) but not in
CHO (p= 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO), which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein
breakdown (PRO < CHO; p< 0.01. Exercise decreased repetitions to failure (REP), maximal strength
(MVC), peak and mean power, and countermovement jump performance (CMJ) at 0 h (all p< 0.05 vs.
Pre). At 10 h, there were small-to-moderate effects for enhanced recovery of the MVC (ES = 0.56),
mean power (ES = 0.49), and CMJ variables (ES: 0.27–0.49) in PRO. At 24 h, protein supplementation
improved MVC (ES = 0.76), REP (ES = 0.44), and peak power (ES = 0.55). In conclusion, whey protein
supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of exercise
performance after a strenuous bout of resistance exercise.
Keywords: net protein balance; dietary protein; ergogenic aid; strength; power
1. Background
Consuming a source of protein after resistance exercise is essential to maximize muscle protein
synthesis and net protein balance [
1
,
2
], both of which are required to support muscle hypertrophy
with training. Current research supports the consumption of a moderate dose (~20–25 g) of rapidly
digested, leucine-rich proteins to optimize muscle protein synthesis [
3
5
]; this ostensibly positions
Nutrients 2017,9, 735; doi:10.3390/nu9070735 www.mdpi.com/journal/nutrients
Nutrients 2017,9, 735 2 of 18
whey protein as a valuable supplemental source for individuals aiming to maximize their recovery
from and adaptation to resistance exercise. Individuals who train at night due to preference and/or
lifestyle may be particularly sensitive to nutrition interventions given that muscle and whole body
protein balance is negative during the overnight period in the absence of dietary protein [
6
,
7
]. Res and
co-workers [
7
] recently reported that ingesting 40 g of casein before sleep improved whole body protein
synthesis and net balance, and enhanced muscle protein synthesis during overnight recovery compared
to a carbohydrate placebo. Post-exercise/pre-bedtime protein ingestion for evening exercisers may also
translate into greater increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy with chronic training and protein
consumption [
8
]. Thus, research to date points toward the importance of protein feeding to enhance
protein accretion after resistance exercise, especially if normal dietary patterns preclude the ability to
eat during prolonged (e.g., 8–12 h) overnight recovery in evening exercisers. Whether rapidly digested
whey protein, also enhances anabolism, similar to slowly digested casein, and exercise recovery when
consumed after an evening training bout remains to be determined.
Athletes aiming to maximize lean mass growth and post-exercise recovery would ostensibly
benefit from enhancing whole body anabolism. The use of oral tracers such as [
15
N]glycine have a
long history of use in noninvasively measuring free-living whole body protein metabolism in a variety
of populations (for an extensive review of the end-product method of measuring protein turnover
and its historical use, see [
9
]). This method can be used to measure whole body protein synthesis,
protein breakdown, and net protein balance over both shorter (i.e., ~10 h) and longer (i.e., ~24 h)
time frames [
10
], which highlights its utility in determining protein metabolism over early and later
post-exercise recovery periods in controlled yet free-living scenarios (e.g., [
11
13
]). Moreover, the
noninvasive nature of the tracer would minimize any residual effects of the tracer methodology (e.g.,
muscle biopsies) on subsequent performance tests. While measures of whole body protein metabolism
cannot delineate an effect in any one tissue, nutritionally-mediated changes in whole body net protein
balance have been shown to qualitatively mirror that of myofibrillar protein synthesis over relatively
prolonged (i.e., 12 h) post-exercise recovery periods [
14
,
15
]. Therefore, individuals who can maximize
whole body net protein balance would likely also support greater skeletal muscle remodeling, which
may persist for up to 24–48 h after an acute bout of exercise [16,17].
Strenuous training can result in changes in muscle function characterized by acute impairments
in strength and exercise performance over the subsequent hours-to-days after a training bout [
18
,
19
].
While this acute loss of performance, potentially mediated by exercise-induced muscle damage [
19
,
20
],
may be considered a normal byproduct of any training program, the rapid resolution of these negative
effects could ultimately facilitate a higher quality training stimulus during in-season trainig and/or
sport performance. Whereas the beneficial effect of protein supplementation on chronic muscular
adaptations have been investigated extensively [
12
,
21
23
], little research has addressed whether
post-exercise protein ingestion may facilitate the acute (e.g.,
24 h) recovery of exercise performance.
One study [
24
] reported improved force-generating capacity in sedentary men over a 24-h recovery
period after whey hydrolysate ingestion. However, it is unclear whether these findings are similar in
trained athletes and/or when whey is consumed after an evening bout of exercise. Furthermore, studies
examining the relationship between exercise recovery and protein ingestion post-exercise tend to use a
between-group [
24
,
25
] rather than a repeated-measures experimental design, and sometimes without
controlling for diet [
24
,
26
]. Both of these factors are potentially important in order to draw meaningful
conclusions regarding the effect of a nutritional supplement towards enhancing performance [
27
].
Therefore, additional research is warranted to determine to what extent protein supplementation may
facilitate a more rapid recovery of muscle performance after an acute bout of resistance exercise. Thus,
in the present study, we employed a crossover design, controlled diet, and conducted a battery of tests
to assess the recovery of exercise performance.
The primary aim of the present study was to determine if consuming a whey protein supplement
post-exercise enhances whole body net protein balance over a 10 h overnight recovery period.
Moreover, given the unequal distribution of dietary protein typical of Western diets [
28
], a secondary
Nutrients 2017,9, 735 3 of 18
aim was to determine if the greater 10 h overnight response could be sustained over 24 h in a free-living
environment by supplementing the breakfast meal with a second protein supplement. Finally, given
the ability of whey protein to enhance post-exercise rates of muscle protein synthesis, which would
presumably enhance the repair of exercise-induced muscle damage, we also conducted performance
tests to assess the recovery of muscle strength and endurance as well as anaerobic power and
neuromuscular function over 10 and 24 h of recovery. We hypothesized that protein supplementation
would enhance net protein balance at 10 and 24 h of recovery, primarily by enhancing protein synthesis,
and that this response would be associated with greater indices of exercise performance.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Experimental Protocol
Twelve healthy young men (76
±
8 kg, 24
±
4 years old, 14%
±
5% body fat; means
±
standard
deviation (SD)), who were resistance training two to four times per week for at least six months,
provided written consent to participate in a protocol that was written in accordance with standards
set by the revised (2008) Declaration of Helsinki, and that was approved by the research ethics
board at the University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada (protocol # 32576). Additional self-reported
inclusion criteria to participate were as follows: non-smoking, no supplement consumption for at least
3 weeks prior to the trial’s commencement, and no medication that may affect protein metabolism
(e.g., corticosteroids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatories). Participants completed a Physical Activity
Readiness Questionnaire ([
29
], revised 2002 version) in order to help confirm that they could safely
perform the exercise protocol. After an overnight fast, air displacement plethysmography (BOD-POD,
COSMED USA Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used characterize participant lean mass, fat mass, and
body composition (Supplemental Table S1).
2.2. Carbohydrate and Protein Supplemented Trials
In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover fashion, participants performed a strenuous bout
of whole body resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming one serving of MuscleTech
100% Whey protein (PRO) or an energy-matched placebo (CHO). The supplements were consumed
immediately after exercise as well as the following morning (i.e., after 10 h of recovery). One serving of
the protein supplement contained 25 g of whey protein (a proprietary blend of whey peptides, isolates,
and concentrates), 2.5 g fat, and 3 g carbohydrate, yielding ~130 kcal of energy. The supplements
were consumed on each of the two trial days (two trial days per condition; see Figure 1) in addition to
controlled diets (described below). At the beginning of each trial, participants completed a performance
test and then consumed a mixed-macronutrient meal (~18:00), which was a standardized proportion
of their daily controlled diet: 28% kcal, 20% protein, 31% carbohydrate, and 31% fat. Participants then
completed the remainder of the given trial (i.e., whole-body resistance exercise at 20:00, according to
Figure 1). Trial randomization, study blinding, and supplement preparation were performed by an
individual who was external to the study. Each trial was separated by approximately one week.
Nutrients 2017,9, 735 4 of 18
Nutrients 2017, 9, 735 4 of 18
Figure 1. A schematic representation of the trial day. Participants were free-living in recovery and
consumed a controlled diet that mimicked their habitual dietary intake. * Exercise: on supplemented
trials only; whole body, heavy resistance exercise. † Isometric maximal voluntary contraction, squat
jump, Wingate test, knee extension repetitions to failure at 75% of 1-repetition maximum. ‡ Mixed-
macronutrient meal. A twenty-five gram (25 g) whey protein supplement (PRO) or isocaloric
carbohydrate (control; CTL) supplement. Q, nitrogen turnover; S, whole body protein synthesis; B,
whole body protein breakdown; NB, whole body net protein balance. Urine collection was collected
over two intervals: 0–10 h, and 10–24 h; after obtaining a sample from the 0–10 collection, both
collections were pooled to obtain a 24 h recovery sample.
2.3. Rest Trial
A third randomized trial involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control
trial (Rest), and controlled for potential time-of-day effects in performance testing [30]. All of the
aspects of the rested trial were identical to the supplemented trials described above, except that
participants rested (sat quietly) in the laboratory instead of performing a whole body resistance
exercise bout and consuming a supplement.
2.4. Dietary Controls
Prior to the study trials, participants completed 3-day diet logs. The diet logs were analysed
using ESHA (Elizabeth Stewart Hands and Associates, company founders) Research Food Processor
Nutrition Analysis Software (Salem, Oregon, OR, USA). Prepackaged diets were prepared by a
registered dietician, and provided energy requirements estimated using the Harris–Benedict
equation and a moderate activity factor (1.5). Participants were provided with four individualized
meals on each of the two trial days for each of the three conditions (Rest, CHO, PRO). The protein
content provided in the controlled diets was equal to habitual intake, and was evenly distributed
between the four meals. The carbohydrate content provided was 4–5 g/kg/day. Fat provided the
balance of total energy. A food checklist was completed by each participant to track dietary
compliance. Pilot data from our lab estimated that the energy expended as a result of the whole body
exercise used in the present study was ~200 kcal. Given that each supplement (protein or
carbohydrate placebo) provided after the exercise bout contained 130 kcal of energy, participants
consumed an additional 70 kcal of energy in the form of a protein-free cookie [31] to help achieve
energy balance during overnight recovery.
2.5. Exercise
Participants were familiarized with performance test protocols and the whole body resistance
exercise bout approximately one week before the first trial. Participants’ three repetition maximum
(RM) strength was determined for the exercises to be performed in the whole body exercise trials.
The exercise bout (CHO and PRO trials only) consisted of supersets of barbell bench press and
pulldown superset, and barbell overhead press and seated row, respectively, as well as leg press and
leg extension (isolated). For all of the supersets or isolated exercises, participants performed 4 sets of
Figure 1.
A schematic representation of the trial day. Participants were free-living in recovery and
consumed a controlled diet that mimicked their habitual dietary intake. * Exercise: on supplemented
trials only; whole body, heavy resistance exercise.
Isometric maximal voluntary contraction,
squat jump, Wingate test, knee extension repetitions to failure at 75% of 1-repetition maximum.
Mixed-macronutrient meal. A twenty-five gram (25 g) whey protein supplement (PRO) or isocaloric
carbohydrate (control; CTL) supplement. Q, nitrogen turnover; S, whole body protein synthesis;
B, whole body protein breakdown; NB, whole body net protein balance. Urine collection was collected
over two intervals: 0–10 h, and 10–24 h; after obtaining a sample from the 0–10 collection, both
collections were pooled to obtain a 24 h recovery sample.
2.3. Rest Trial
A third randomized trial involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial
(Rest), and controlled for potential time-of-day effects in performance testing [
30
]. All of the aspects
of the rested trial were identical to the supplemented trials described above, except that participants
rested (sat quietly) in the laboratory instead of performing a whole body resistance exercise bout and
consuming a supplement.
2.4. Dietary Controls
Prior to the study trials, participants completed 3-day diet logs. The diet logs were analysed
using ESHA (Elizabeth Stewart Hands and Associates, company founders) Research Food Processor
Nutrition Analysis Software (Salem, OR, USA). Prepackaged diets were prepared by a registered
dietician, and provided energy requirements estimated using the Harris–Benedict equation and a
moderate activity factor (1.5). Participants were provided with four individualized meals on each of
the two trial days for each of the three conditions (Rest, CHO, PRO). The protein content provided
in the controlled diets was equal to habitual intake, and was evenly distributed between the four
meals. The carbohydrate content provided was 4–5 g/kg/day. Fat provided the balance of total energy.
A food checklist was completed by each participant to track dietary compliance. Pilot data from our
lab estimated that the energy expended as a result of the whole body exercise used in the present
study was ~200 kcal. Given that each supplement (protein or carbohydrate placebo) provided after the
exercise bout contained 130 kcal of energy, participants consumed an additional 70 kcal of energy in
the form of a protein-free cookie [31] to help achieve energy balance during overnight recovery.
2.5. Exercise
Participants were familiarized with performance test protocols and the whole body resistance
exercise bout approximately one week before the first trial. Participants’ three repetition maximum
(RM) strength was determined for the exercises to be performed in the whole body exercise trials.
The exercise bout (CHO and PRO trials only) consisted of supersets of barbell bench press and
pulldown superset, and barbell overhead press and seated row, respectively, as well as leg press and
leg extension (isolated). For all of the supersets or isolated exercises, participants performed 4 sets of
Nutrients 2017,9, 735 5 of 18
10 reps at 75% of their 1 repetition maximum (RM) with 2 min rest intervals between sets. Participants
were asked to refrain from exercise in the 48 h period prior to the start of each trial, as well as during
the 24 h intervention period.
2.6. Performance Testing
Exercise performance was assessed pre-exercise, and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery (Figure 1).
On Rest, all of the aspects of the protocol were maintained (e.g., the timing of performance testing),
except that participants rested instead of performing the resistance exercise bout. For each trial,
participants reported to the lab at 17:30. After a 3 min treadmill warm-up at a self-selected pace,
participants completed four performance tests in the following order: countermovement jump
(CMJ), knee extension isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), repetitions to failure at
75% of 1 RM (REP), and a 30 s Wingate test. These tests were used to assess neuromuscular
fatigue [
32
], static [
33
,
34
] and dynamic strength/muscular endurance, and anaerobic power [
35
],
respectively. Verbal encouragement from the investigators was provided to participants for all of the
tests. Three minutes rest were given after the countermovement jump and MVC tests, and 5 min rest
were given between REP and the Wingate test.
2.6.1. Countermovement Jump
Participants performed three countermovement jumps on a force plate (Advanced Mechanical
Technology Inc. (AMTI), Watertown, MA, USA) with 60 s rest between repetitions. To begin each test,
participants stepped on the force plate and were asked to stand still briefly (~3 s), before instruction
from the investigator to jump when they were ready. Participants were instructed to descend to
a comfortable depth before jumping as high as possible (no pauses were required, and arm swing
was permitted). Force plate output signals were amplified and converted (AMTI GEN 5 Amplifier,
Watertown, MA, USA) to a digital ground reaction force for each millisecond over the 10 s collection
period. Jump variables were analysed from ground reaction force data in Excel, in a manual and
blinded fashion, using previously described criteria/calculations [32].
2.6.2. Isometric Maximal Voluntary Contraction
Unilateral knee extensor MVC was assessed using a custom dynamometer in which participants
were seated with their legs secured to a pad that was coupled to a strain gauge. Force output signals
were recorded using PowerLab with LabChart Pro v.8.0.5 (ADInstruments Inc., Colorado Springs,
CO, USA). The knee was positioned at a 90
angle, and aligned with the axis of rotation. Participants
performed three warm-up contractions (25–75% of maximal effort) prior to three maximal 5 s
contractions, separated by 60 s of rest between repetitions. The best of the three scores was used in
the analysis.
2.6.3. Dynamic Repetitions to Failure
Participants performed as many knee extension repetitions as possible at 75% of 1 RM. Repetition
counts were standardized using the maximal height to which participants could lift the weight by fully
extending their legs; repetitions below this cut-off were omitted.
2.6.4. Wingate
Participants performed a 30 s maximal Wingate test on a stationary bicycle (Monark Ergomedic
839 E; Monark Exercise AB, Vansbro, Sweden). After performing a brief warm-up, the tests were
initiated once participant pedalling reached 140 revolutions per minute. Participants pedalled as fast
as they could against a resistance set to 7.5% of their body weight for 30 s; data was recorded using
Monark Anaerobic Test Software v3.3 (Monark Exercise AB, Vansbro, Sweden).
Nutrients 2017,9, 735 6 of 18
2.7. Stable Isotope and Urine Analysis
To determine whole body nitrogen turnover, [
15
N]glycine (2 mg/kg body weight, Cambridge
Isotope Inc., Andover, MA, USA) was dissolved in 200 mL of water before oral consumption after
exercise and immediately before supplement consumption (or corresponding time during Rest).
‘Spot’ urine samples, obtained upon arrival to the lab prior to each trial, were used to determine
baseline enrichments. The urine was collected over two consecutive intervals for each trial: 21:00–07:00
(10 h overnight recovery) and 07:00–21:00 the day after the trial (pooled with urine produced in the
10 h recovery, for 24 h analyses). The urine was collected in plastic containers containing glacial acetic
acid as a chemical preservative, and was kept at 4
C before being aliquoted and stored at
80
C
until analysis. The creatinine concentration was measured using a QuantiChrom Creatinine Assay
Kit (cat. DICT-500, BioAssay Systems, Hayward, CA, USA). The urea concentration was measured
using a QuantiChromTM Urea Assay Kit (cat. DIUR-500, BioAssay Systems, Hayward, CA, USA).
Coefficients of variation for the creatinine and urea assays were 5.4% and 2.8%, respectively. Isotopic
enrichments of urea and ammonia were analysed in duplicate by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry
(Metabolic Solutions Inc., Nashua, NH, USA). Whole body nitrogen turnover (Q) was calculated from
urinary nitrogen end-products, ammonia and urea, as follows:
Q(ammonia)=d
Time 10h t:Tr - 0h t:Tr÷body mass ×time (1)
Q(urea)=d
Time 24h t:Tr - 0h t:Tr÷body mass ×time (2)
where d is the oral
15
N dose (g glycine
×
0.1972), t:Tr is the tracer-to-tracee ratio of ammonia or
urea. Q over 10 h was calculated as per Q(ammonia) above. Q over 24 h was calculated as the
harmonic mean:
Q(24 h)=1
2×Q(ammonia)×Q(urea)
Q(ammonia)+Q(urea)(3)
Whole body protein synthesis was calculated as:
Synthesis =(Q(NCr +Nurea +Nmisc)) ×6.25 (4)
where N
Cr
is N excretion from creatinine, N
urea
is N excretion from urea, and N
misc
is miscellaneous
nitrogen excretion (estimated at 0.5 mg N/kg body wt/h).
Whole body protein breakdown was calculated as:
Breakdown =Qtotal N intake
body mass ×6.25 (5)
Whole body net protein balance was calculated as:
Net balance = Synthesis Breakdown (6)
2.8. Sample Size and Statistics
Sample size.
Our primary outcome was whole body net protein balance over 10 h of recovery.
Previous research has demonstrated that pre-bedtime protein feeding increases whole body net protein
balance relative to a protein-free control using intravenous tracer administration [
7
]; here, we aimed to
determine whole body net balance by oral [
15
N]glycine tracer. Providing a 25 g dose of whey protein
in PRO results in ~0.3 g protein/kg body weight (assuming an average body mass of 80 kg) difference
in protein intake over the acute 10 h recovery period compared to a protein-free isocaloric control. This
difference in protein intake is similar to that which was previously reported to result in a greater whole
body net protein balance over 9 h (as determined by oral [
15
N]glycine) in children who consumed
Nutrients 2017,9, 735 7 of 18
~0.32 g/kg protein immediately after exercise compared to a group that consumed a protein-free
control [
13
]. Therefore, the study by Moore et al. [
13
] utilizing a cross-over design is the most similar
from a methodological and intervention standpoint to the present study, and was used to power our
study to detect a difference in the primary outcome. In the study by Moore et al. [
13
], the whole body
net protein balance in the high protein (HP) group over 9 h was 46.8 mg/kg/h and the control group
was 18.5 mg/kg/h, with an average standard deviation of 22.3 mg/kg/h. With
α
= 0.05,
β
= 0.8,
and utilizing a between participant comparison (to be conservative given any unknown child–adult
differences with this methodology), n= 10 participants were determined to be sufficient to detect a
significant difference between PRO and CHO (according to: [
36
]). To account for a potential 20% drop
out rate, we recruited n= 12 participants.
Statistics.
Protein metabolism data at 10 and 24 h were calculated using different end-product
pools (see 2.7 above), which contributed to unequal variance between time points. However, because
the data were normally distributed within each time point, and because the primary outcome of
interest at each time point was between-condition differences, protein metabolism data were analyzed
by one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (condition: Rest, CHO, PRO) at 10 h and 24 h.
One-way repeated measures (time: Pre, 0 h; CHO and PRO only) analysis of variance (ANOVA) was
also used to determine if performance was impaired at 0 h, due to the exercise bout in PRO and CHO.
Tukey’s post hoc was used to determine significant (p< 0.05) pairwise differences. The analysis of
variance and post hoc analyses were conducted using SigmaStat version 3.1 software (Systat Software,
Point Richmond, CA, USA). While conventional ‘P-value statistics’ are well-suited to determine if
something is false by rejecting a zero-effect hypothesis, effect size calculations have been recommended
for data analyses in the sports sciences because the magnitude of an effect is not confounded by the
sample size, is not prone to false-discovery conclusions that may occur due to multiple comparisons,
and often helps the investigator/reader to make a practical conclusion [
37
,
38
]. Thus, effect size analysis
was planned a priori during the conception and design of the study protocol with Cohen’s deffect
sizes (ES, [
39
]) and the Probability of Protein Superiority being calculated to assess whether protein
supplementation affected protein metabolism and the rate of exercise performance recovery over
10 and 24 h post-exercise. Effect sizes were calculated using the standard deviation from the Rest
trial [
40
,
41
]. Percent (%) probability of PRO Superiority (PS) versus CHO was calculated from Cohen’s
das follows: % =
φ
(d/
2
), where
φ
is the cumulative distribution function of the standard normal
distribution, and dis the Cohen Effect Size [
42
]. If there was no effect of protein supplementation—i.e.,
CHO and PRO distribution curves show 100% overlap—PS would equal 50%. An exploratory analysis
was also performed with Pearson correlations of whole body net protein balance with percent recovery
of exercise performance and habitual protein intake over 10 and 24 h of recovery.
3. Results
3.1. Participant Characteristics and Study Controls
3.1.1. Participant Characteristics
Participant characteristics are shown in Supplemental Table S1.
3.1.2. Dietary Intake on Trial Days
Participants completed compliance logs to record the food that they consumed during the 2-day
controlled diet period (all food was provided). According to the logs, compliance was high, with
participants consuming 98.4% of the energy and 98.4% of the protein that was provided in the diets.
3.1.3. Study Blinding
Given that the performance testing involved in this study and potential placebo effects, it
was important that the participants were effectively blinded to the supplement condition. For the
Nutrients 2017,9, 735 8 of 18
24 trials involving supplement consumption, participants answered ‘(C) I don’t know’ ten times
to a questionnaire asking whether they believed they received ‘(A) a protein supplement’, ‘(B) a
carbohydrate supplement’, or ‘(C) I don’t know’. Of the remaining 14 times that participants responded
(A) or (B), they guessed correctly 9 times and incorrectly 5 times (on average, 7 correct guesses would
be expected merely due to chance). Only 1 of 12 participants correctly identified both CHO and PRO
supplements. Thus, we have good reason to believe that the participants were well-blinded and that
knowledge of the supplement condition was not a factor in the study’s outcomes.
3.2. Protein Metabolism
At 10 h of recovery, there were no major effects of exercise or protein supplementation on whole
body nitrogen turnover or protein synthesis or breakdown (Figure 2A,B). Net protein balance was
negative during overnight recovery (all groups), and there was a trend toward an effect of condition
on net protein balance during overnight recovery (p= 0.064; ES = 0.61; PS = 67%; Figure 2C). Over
24 h of recovery, whole body protein synthesis was greater after CHO (Figure 3A), whereas protein
breakdown was suppressed in PRO (Figure 3B); the net effect was a protein balance that was enhanced
in PRO (p= 0.036 vs. Rest; ES = 0.69; PS = 69%; Figure 3C) but not in CHO (p= 0.84 vs. Rest).
Nutrients 2017, 9, 735 8 of 18
guesses would be expected merely due to chance). Only 1 of 12 participants correctly identified both
CHO and PRO supplements. Thus, we have good reason to believe that the participants were well-
blinded and that knowledge of the supplement condition was not a factor in the study’s outcomes.
3.2. Protein Metabolism
At 10 h of recovery, there were no major effects of exercise or protein supplementation on whole
body nitrogen turnover or protein synthesis or breakdown (Figure 2A,B). Net protein balance was
negative during overnight recovery (all groups), and there was a trend toward an effect of condition
on net protein balance during overnight recovery (P = 0.064; ES = 0.61; PS = 67%; Figure 2C). Over 24
h of recovery, whole body protein synthesis was greater after CHO (Figure 3A), whereas protein
breakdown was suppressed in PRO (Figure 3B); the net effect was a protein balance that was
enhanced in PRO (P = 0.036 vs. Rest; ES = 0.69; PS = 69%; Figure 3C) but not in CHO (P = 0.84 vs. Rest).
Figure 2. 10 h whole body (WB) protein synthesis (A), protein breakdown (B), and protein balance
(C), at rest (Rest) and after whole body resistance exercise supplemented with 25 g whey protein
(PRO) and isocaloric carbohydrate (CHO), calculated using urinary [15N]ammonia end product
enrichment. P = 0.064 for one-way (condition) repeated-measures ANOVA of whole body protein
balance. Values are individual means; n = 12. WB, whole body.
Figure 2.
10 h whole body (WB) protein synthesis (
A
), protein breakdown (
B
), and protein balance (
C
),
at rest (Rest) and after whole body resistance exercise supplemented with 25 g whey protein (PRO)
and isocaloric carbohydrate (CHO), calculated using urinary [15N]ammonia end product enrichment.
p= 0.064 for one-way (condition) repeated-measures ANOVA of whole body protein balance. Values are
individual means; n= 12. WB, whole body.
Nutrients 2017,9, 735 9 of 18
Figure 3.
24 h whole body (WB) protein synthesis (
A
), protein breakdown (
B
), and protein balance
(
C
) at rest (Rest) and after whole body resistance exercise supplemented with 25 g whey protein (PRO)
and isocaloric carbohydrate (CHO), calculated using the harmonic mean of urinary [
15
N]ammonia
and urea end product enrichments. Data were analysed by one-way (condition) repeated-measures
ANOVA: * CHO > PRO, p= 0.017; p= 0.11 for CHO vs. Rest. Protein breakdown:
PRO < CHO,
p= 0.006. Net protein balance:
PRO > Rest, p= 0.036; p= 0.11 for PRO vs. CHO. Values are individual
means; n= 12.
Correlation of Net Protein Balance and Habitual Dietary Intake
We correlated the net protein balance with habitual dietary protein intake to examine whether
individuals’ different habitual protein intakes had differential protein losses (in the overnight fasted
state) or gains (24 h recovery). The net protein balance was negatively correlated with habitual dietary
protein intake at 10 h recovery in CHO and PRO (r=
0.64 and
0.68, respectively both p< 0.05), but
only in CHO at 24 h recovery (r= 0.69, p= 0.013), not PRO (r= 0.43, p= 0.16).
Nutrients 2017,9, 735 10 of 18
3.3. Exercise Performance Recovery
All of the performance data percent differences and 90% CI are summarized in Supplemental
Table S2. As expected, the bout of whole body resistance exercise decreased (all p< 0.05 by one-way
(time) ANOVA) performance at 0 h across all tests: MVC (~20%), repetitions to failure (~19%), peak
and average anaerobic power (both ~7%), and CMJ height (~12%).
3.3.1. Recovery of Maximal Strength, Muscle Endurance, and Anaerobic Power
Effect sizes and the Probability Protein Superiority for MVC, REP, and the Wingate tests are
shown in Table 1. At 10 h of recovery, there were small-to-moderate beneficial effects of protein
supplementation for MVC and mean anaerobic power during the Wingate. At 24 h of recovery, there
was a moderate beneficial effect of protein supplementation on MVC, REP, and peak power during
the Wingate.
Table 1. Exercise performance recovery effect sizes: REx + CHO vs. REx + PRO.
Cohen Effect Size Probability of Protein Superiority
Outcome 10 h recovery 24 h recovery 10 h recovery 24 h recovery
Protein metabolism
Net protein balance 0.61 0.69 67% 69%
Knee extension
Peak isometric force 0.28 0.76 58% 70%
Repetitions to failure 0.11 0.44 53% 62%
Wingate test
Peak power 0.27 0.55 58% 65%
Mean power 0.49 0.12 64% 53%
Unless indicated otherwise, effect sizes were calculated as the mean difference between PRO and CHO divided by
the standard deviation (SD) of Rest (control) [
40
]. The thresholds for Small, Moderate and Large effect sizes are 0.2,
0.5 and 0.8, respectively. [
39
]. Probability of protein superiority: the percent chance that a value from PRO will be
greater than CHO, calculated as % =
φ
(d/
2
), where
φ
is the cumulative distribution function of the standard
normal distribution, and dis the Cohen Effect Size [42]; 50% = no effect. REx = whole body resistance exercise.
3.3.2. Recovery of Countermovement Jump Performance
The CMJ results are presented in Table 2. Briefly, there was a moderate beneficial effect of protein
supplementation on jump height at 10 h, which was associated with moderate improvements in the
following CMJ variables: maximum rate of force development, eccentric (pre-load) velocity, peak
power, and eccentric and total duration. At 24 h, movement through the eccentric (pre-load) phase
still favoured PRO, as indicated by a greater peak eccentric velocity, a shorter eccentric duration,
and a greater eccentric phase force-velocity area-under-the-curve. However, these superior eccentric
phase variable profiles were accompanied by a longer (compared to CHO) concentric duration, which
decreased average force in the concentric phase, and likely nullified the force potential developed in
the eccentric phase from carrying forward to the final jump height.
Nutrients 2017,9, 735 11 of 18
Table 2. Neuromuscular fatigue effect sizes: REx + CHO vs. REx + PRO.
Cohen Effect Size Probability of Protein Superiority
CMJ Outcome 10 h recovery 24 h recovery 10 h recovery 24 h recovery
Jump height 0.49 0.29 64% 42%
Force
Mean force (CON) 0.04 0.56 49% 35%
Max RFD 0.72 0.12 69% 53%
Total impulse (CON) 0.36 0.01 60% 50%
Peak force 0.07 0.08 48% 48%
Force-Velocity AUC (ECC) 0.48 0.56 63% 65%
Velocity
Peak velocity 0.27 0.05 58% 48%
Take-off velocity 0.29 0.09 58% 48%
Mean velocity (CON) 0.27 0.05 58% 48%
Kinetic energy at take-off 0.29 0.09 58% 47%
Peak ECC (pre-load) velocity 0.54 0.49 65% 64%
Power
Peak power 0.24 0.38 58% 39%
Time to peak power 0.58 0.28 66% 58%
Neuromuscular strategy
Concentric duration 0.29 00.94 42% 25%
Eccentric duration 0.56 0.45 65% 62%
Total duration 0.56 0.26 65% 57%
Effect sizes were calculated as the mean difference between PRO and CHO divided by the SD of Rest (control) [
40
].
The thresholds for Small, Moderate and Large effect sizes are 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8, respectively [
39
]. Beneficial effects
are shown as mathematically positive for all CMJ variables (e.g., a positive effect size is shown for a shorter CMJ
duration). Probability of protein superiority: the percent chance that a value from PRO will be greater than CHO,
calculated as % =
φ
(d/
2
), where
φ
is the cumulative distribution function of the standard normal distribution,
and dis the Cohen Effect Size [
42
]; 50% = no effect. CMJ, countermovement jump; CON, concentric; ECC, eccentric.
RFD = rate of force development. AUC = area-under-the-curve. Impulse is the area under the force-time curve.
REx = whole body resistance exercise.
3.3.3. Correlation of Net Protein Balance and Performance
We correlated whole body net protein balance with the percent recovery of performance outcomes
to explore whether the moderate performance effects that we observed in PRO were associated with
changes in net protein balance. No correlations were apparent for MVC, REP, or Wingate peak or mean
power with net protein balance at 10 h (Pearson r< 0.30 and p> 0.15 for all correlations) or at 24 h
(Pearson r< 0.30 and p> 0.25 for all correlations).
4. Discussion
The main finding of the present study was that whey protein, but not carbohydrate,
supplementation after a bout of resistance exercise in the evening enhanced whole body net protein
balance over 10 h and 24 h of recovery compared to a rested control day. In contrast to our hypothesis,
we did not observe a statistically greater whole body net protein balance with protein supplementation
over the acute 10 h period compared to a carbohydrate control, which may reflect the unexpected
response variation in our outcome measure. Nevertheless, magnitude-based statistics revealed there
were moderate beneficial effects of protein supplementation relative to a protein-free isocaloric control
to enhance early (i.e., 10 h) and later (i.e., 24 h) acute whole body anabolism during the immediate
24 h post-exercise recovery period. Additionally, we present data that suggests that whey protein
supplementation enhances the rate of acute performance recovery in trained young men. Specifically,
there were moderate beneficial effects of protein supplementation for enhanced maximal strength,
anaerobic power, and neuromuscular function at 10 h, and maximal strength, anaerobic power, and
repetitions to failure at 24 h of recovery.
Nutrients 2017,9, 735 12 of 18
4.1. Effect of Protein Ingestion on Net Protein Balance
Although recovery is clearly multi-faceted, individuals who intend to facilitate their recovery
from an exercise stimulus and/or promote subsequent adaptation should ostensibly aim to enhance
whole body protein anabolism. The accretion of lean body mass with resistance training is ultimately
underpinned by acute exercise-induced increases in net protein balance that, over time, summate to
changes in lean body mass [
12
,
43
]. Prof. van Loon’s group was the first to report that protein ingestion
(in the form of slowly digested casein) before bed enhances muscle protein synthesis, whole body
protein synthesis, and net protein balance during the overnight, post-exercise recovery period [
7
,
44
].
The lack of any apparent effect on whole body protein synthesis or breakdown over the 10 h recovery
period in our hands appears at odds with that of Res and colleagues from the van Loon group [
7
], but
is nonetheless consistent with previous research with this oral tracer [
13
]. Importantly, the lack of any
detectable change in protein kinetics does not preclude the possibility that subtle changes in synthesis
and/or breakdown may still translate into meaningful differences in whole body net protein balance.
Here, we show that whey protein tends to improve overnight whole body net protein balance, and
demonstrates a moderately beneficial effect relative to an isocaloric control.
We have previously demonstrated that [
15
N]glycine end-product derived rates of whole body net
protein balance (see ref. [
9
] for a review of the method) generally align with the rates of myofibrillar
protein synthesis over 12 h of recovery [
14
,
15
], and qualitatively predict training-induced increases
in lean body mass when measured over 24 h [
12
]. Thus, the greater net protein balance after protein
ingestion in the present study was likely associated with enhanced rates of muscle protein synthesis,
which is consistent with previous work demonstrating that pre-bedtime protein ingestion increases
muscle protein synthesis and tracer-derived rates of whole body net protein balance [
7
]. Interestingly,
whereas whole body net balance was greater over 24 h with whey protein ingestion, this appeared
to be facilitated in part by a reduction of whole body protein breakdown. This could suggest that
the combination of 25 g (~0.32 g/kg) of protein in the morning in addition to a moderate breakfast
protein intake (~0.48 g/kg) resulted in a saturation in muscle protein synthesis, but also an attenuation
in whole body protein breakdown to maximize anabolism, as previously observed [
45
]. In contrast,
the greater whole body protein synthesis over 24 h with carbohydrate intake is likely a reflection
of enhanced rates of non-muscle protein synthesis, given that: (i) carbohydrate (and the associated
insulin response) does not enhance muscle protein synthesis with adequate protein ingestion [
46
,
47
];
and (ii) this 24 h increase in whole body protein synthesis was not associated with greater whole
body net protein balance, which would be expected to occur in concert with enhanced rates of muscle
protein synthesis [
14
,
15
]. Regardless, supplementing a balanced diet with a rapidly digested protein
source such as whey protein can enhance overnight and 24 h whole body anabolism and, if sustained
chronically, may enhance anabolic signaling [48] and training-induced lean mass accretion [21,49].
4.2. Impact of Habitual Protein Intake on Net Protein Balance
The observation of generally greater whole body protein balance with post-exercise whey protein
ingestion is consistent with a postprandial stimulation of muscle and whole body anabolism after
whey protein ingestion [
50
,
51
]. Although whole body anabolism was greater with protein ingestion,
the single 25 g dose was insufficient to generate a net positive protein balance over this overnight
recovery period. This may be related to the relatively high (i.e., ~1.9 g/kg/day) habitual protein intake
of our participants, which, although slightly higher than current recommendations for athletes [
52
],
is generally consistent with reported intakes in strength athletes [
43
]. Indeed, there was a negative
correlation between habitual intake and overnight net protein balance, which is consistent with a
previous study showing greater fasted losses at higher protein intakes [
53
]. The 25 g dose of whey
protein (~0.32 g/kg) provided ~17% of the participants’ habitual intake for this macronutrient, which
is less than the ~45% (~0.54 g/kg) provided to participants in the study by Res and colleagues [
7
].
Notwithstanding differences in tracer methodology and protein type between the studies, these data
could collectively suggest that individuals who have higher habitual protein intakes may benefit from
Nutrients 2017,9, 735 13 of 18
a greater protein dose and/or more repeated protein feedings after evening exercise to optimize whole
body anabolism. In support of this notion, the negative relationship between protein intake and whole
body net balance was sustained over 24 h with the carbohydrate supplement, but was absent in the
protein condition, which benefited from an additional 25 g of whey protein feeding in the morning.
Therefore, whereas muscle protein synthesis is maximized with the ingestion of ~20–25 g of high
quality protein [
4
,
5
], more frequent protein feedings may be required to replenish fasted state losses
and maximize whole body protein balance [15].
4.3. Effect of Whey Supplementation on Exercise Performance Recovery
In addition to protein metabolism ‘growth’ outcomes, we were interested in examining whether
whey supplementation impacted the rate of exercise performance recovery. Intense resistance exercise
that involves an eccentric component often induces muscle damage that can manifest as increased
muscle soreness and/or impaired muscle function [
18
20
]. In theory, protein supplement-facilitated
improvements in net protein balance may promote muscle remodelling and speed the recovery of
muscle function [
26
], which in turn could improve the quality of subsequent training/performance
demands. Milk-based protein supplementation immediately after a bout of damaging exercise
(i.e., maximal lengthening contractions) has been shown to attenuate decrements in muscle strength
and repeated sprints 24–72 h after exercise [
54
56
]. Our study extends these findings, by demonstrating
that whey protein ingestion can enhance muscle performance, as observed through the beneficial
effects on maximal isometric force and anaerobic mean power, as early as 10 h into recovery. Moreover,
we report beneficial effects of whey protein supplementation that extend up to 24 h into recovery
with improvements in repetitions to failure, peak aerobic power, and maximal strength; these
findings are consistent with the beneficial effects of milk-protein consumption over similar recovery
periods [
56
]. Given that impaired strength is a hallmark of muscle damage [
20
], the protein supplement
may have facilitated a more rapid restoration of muscle function through a greater remodelling of
the force-generating myofibrillar protein pool [
5
,
57
]. Although speculative, greater myofibrillar
remodelling would ostensibly be consistent with an improved recovery of anaerobic power in the
protein compared to the carbohydrate supplemented condition at 24 h post-exercise. Collectively,
our results suggests that whey protein ingestion after evening exercise and the following morning
may improve muscle reconditioning following exercise, and may be advantageous for those aiming to
enhance the recovery of force generation and maintain training quality [27].
The countermovement jump test is of practical importance for athletes and provides a reasonable
reflection of neuromuscular function [
32
,
58
,
59
], which can be impaired by resistance exercise-induced
muscle damage [
60
]. Gathercole and colleagues have recently demonstrated that monitoring the force,
velocity, and power outcomes of the CMJ, as well as neuromuscular/movement strategy variables
(e.g., duration of various CMJ phases), can reveal fatigue-induced neuromuscular changes for 24 h
or longer [
32
,
58
]. In the present study, there was a moderate effect for jump height to be greater
with protein supplementation at 10 h but not 24 h of recovery, suggesting that acute post-exercise
protein ingestion may facilitate a more rapid restoration of neuromuscular function when the recovery
duration is limited (e.g., <10 h). Examining CMJ variables revealed that post-exercise protein ingestion
tended to improve the maximum rate of force development at 10 h of recovery (ES = 0.72). Moreover,
whereas the concentric phase appeared to be slightly enhanced at 10 h and hindered at 24 h, there
was a moderate beneficial effect of protein supplementation on eccentric phase variables at both 10 h
and 24 h. These findings are generally aligned with a previous observation [
55
] that ~34 g of milk
protein consumed immediately after a bout of muscle damaging exercise (i.e., maximal lengthening
contractions) improves reactive strength 48 h into recovery. Therefore, our data suggest that whey
protein supplementation can aid in the recovery of an explosive functional movement after an acute
bout of high-volume resistance exercise, and may have additional relevance for athletes competing in
high intensity stop-and-go sports [56].
Nutrients 2017,9, 735 14 of 18
The mechanisms underpinning the generally greater markers of exercise performance with whey
protein ingestion are not yet elucidated; however, it has previously been suggested that a greater
muscle protein repair/remodeling subsequent to enhanced rates of protein synthesis may facilitate a
more rapid performance recovery with protein supplementation [
27
]. Previous work has suggested that
the beneficial effects of protein supplementation on the recovery of force production are independent
of muscle damage and oxidative stress [
61
]. However, some evidence suggests that essential amino
acids may attenuate inflammation/muscle soreness [
62
,
63
] and muscle damage [
64
] after exercise;
if this were to be the case in the present study, then it could have positively impacted all performance
tests, including the CMJ movement strategy (pre-load velocity was higher, and eccentric phase shorter,
with protein supplementation).
4.4. Enhancements in Whole Body Net Protein Balance and Performance Were Not Correlated
Inasmuch as the greater net protein balance in the present study may reflect greater rates of muscle
protein remodelling, we performed correlations to determine whether participants with a higher net
protein balance also experienced superior performance recovery. We observed no association between
10 and 24 h whole body net protein balance and change of performance (relative to post-exercise),
suggesting there was no evidence of a ‘responder’ phenotype that had concomitantly enhanced
whole body protein accretion and exercise performance recovery. This observation may be related
to the fact that, due to its slow rate of turnover, skeletal muscle contributes ~30% of whole body
protein balance [
65
], which may have precluded our ability to model with sufficient precision the net
muscle protein balance from our whole body tracer. Alternatively, it is possible that a dose-response
relationship for muscle and/or whole body protein balance towards performance recovery does
not exist, in which case inducing some undefined minimum net anabolism is sufficient to enhance
and/or maximize performance recovery. However, we are aware of no other studies that have
concomitantly measured protein metabolism (either at the muscle or whole body level) and acute
performance recovery in strength-trained athletes that could yield insight to the present results. Thus,
whereas protein ingestion may be a viable strategy for those aiming to enhance exercise performance,
determining the mechanism(s) for this effect requires further research that includes measures of both
protein metabolism and muscle function. Nevertheless, our results support the concept that whey
protein supplementation after an evening training session [
7
,
8
] could potentially support greater
training adaptations [
21
,
27
] through an enhancement of whole body net protein balance (present
results and [
7
,
8
]) and/or greater training quality/volume due to a more rapid recovery of exercise
performance (present study and [8]).
5. Conclusions
In summary, the consumption of 25 g of whey protein after an evening bout of resistance exercise
tended to improve whole body net protein balance over 10 h of overnight recovery compared to a rested
control, and was moderately beneficial versus an isocaloric carbohydrate post-exercise supplement.
Consuming an additional 25 g of whey protein in the morning after exercise contributed to the
maintenance of a greater whole body protein balance over the 24 h recovery period compared to a rested
control and carbohydrate supplementation. The greater whole body anabolism with whey protein
supplementation was also associated with enhanced recovery exercise performance after an intense
bout of resistance exercise. Collectively, our data suggest that resistance-trained individuals may benefit
from protein supplementation after an evening bout of resistance exercise as well as the following
morning to attenuate overnight fasted-state protein losses and enhance exercise performance recovery.
Supplementary Materials:
The following are available online at www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/9/7/735/s1,
Table S1: Participant anthropometric and habitual dietary characteristics; Table S2: Post-exercise performance
recovery. All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article and its
supplementary information files.
Nutrients 2017,9, 735 15 of 18
Acknowledgments:
D.W.D.W. was supported by a Mitacs postdoctoral fellowship (Mitacs & Iovate funding).
Study analyses were supported by CFI funding to D.R.M. Funding for the study was provided by Iovate Health
Sciences International Inc. and provided consultation for the study design. Thank you to Mark Orlando,
Sarkis Hannaian, and Kim Volterman for assistance with the study protocol, to Sachin Raina for assistance with
CMJ analysis, and to our participants for their time and effort.
Author Contributions:
All of the authors contributed to the design of the study. All of the authors collected and
analyzed the data. D.W.D.W. and D.R.M. drafted the manuscript, and all of the authors were responsible for
revising its intellectual content. All of the authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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... Pre-sleep protein has also been reported to improve muscle recovery following an evening bout of damaging exercise [13,14]. West et al. provided 25 g whey or calorie matched CHO control to young men immediately following a nighttime bout of whole-body resistance training (2000 h) [14]. ...
... Pre-sleep protein has also been reported to improve muscle recovery following an evening bout of damaging exercise [13,14]. West et al. provided 25 g whey or calorie matched CHO control to young men immediately following a nighttime bout of whole-body resistance training (2000 h) [14]. These authors reported improvements in net protein balance, maximal isometric voluntary contraction, repetitions to failure, and Wingate power output in the 24-hour recovery period with pre-sleep whey protein consumption compared to CHO control [14]. ...
... West et al. provided 25 g whey or calorie matched CHO control to young men immediately following a nighttime bout of whole-body resistance training (2000 h) [14]. These authors reported improvements in net protein balance, maximal isometric voluntary contraction, repetitions to failure, and Wingate power output in the 24-hour recovery period with pre-sleep whey protein consumption compared to CHO control [14]. Similarly, in the 60-h following nighttime professional soccer matches, Abbott et al. reported improvements in maximal jump height, reactive strength index, and muscle soreness when 40 g of pre-sleep casein protein was ingested compared to an iso-energetic carbohydrate supplement [13]. ...
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Background: To evaluate the effect of pre-sleep protein supplementation after an acute bout of evening resistance training on next day performance and recovery the following day in physically active men. Methods: Eighteen resistance trained men performed a single bout of resistance exercise then received either a pre-sleep protein (PRO) supplement containing 40 g of casein protein (PRO; n = 10; mean ± SD; age = 24 ± 4 yrs; height = 1.81 ± 0.08 m; weight = 84.9 ± 9.5 kg) or a non-caloric, flavor matched placebo (PLA; n = 8; age = 28 ± 10 yrs; height = 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight = 86.7 ± 11.0 kg) 30 min before sleep (1 h after a standard recovery drink). Blood samples were obtained pre-exercise and the following morning (+12-h) to measure creatine kinase and C-reactive protein. Visual analog scales were utilized to assess perceived pain, hunger, and recovery. One-repetition maximum (1RM) tests for barbell bench press and squat were performed pre-exercise and the following morning (+12-h). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (V.23) and p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There were no significant differences between the groups in next morning performance or muscle damage biomarkers. However, pre-sleep PRO resulted in a lower perception of hunger that approached significance the following morning when compared to PLA (PRO:43.6 ± 31.2, PLA: 69.4 ± 2.22; 95% C.I. = −53.6, 2.0; p = 0.07; d = 0.95). Conclusions: Following an evening bout of exercise, pre-sleep PRO did not further improve next morning muscle damage biomarkers or maximal strength performance in resistance trained men compared to a non-caloric PLA. However, there may be implications for lower perceived hunger the next morning with pre-sleep PRO consumption compared to PLA.
... Підвищення фізичної працездатності під впливом значних тренувальних навантажень при забезпеченні повноцінного відновлення та попередження виникнення стану перетренованості є важливими складовими підтримання здоров'я та якості життя спортсменів [1,2]. Позатренувальні засоби як фармакологічного, так і нефармакологічного походження призначені саме для цілеспрямованого впливу на різні функціональні та метаболічні ланки, що є більш уразливими при фізичних навантаженнях, а також на організм в цілому [3,4]. Ці засоби можуть бути використані на фоні тренувальних навантажень для підвищення фізичної працездатності за відносно короткий термін і водночас повинні забезпечувати зменшення ризику перевтоми [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
One of the powerful methodologies of ergogenic nature is the use of vibration loads in the mode of «whole body vibration», which in terms of frequency of oscillations mostly coincides with the frequency of oscillations of the microstructures of the body itself. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of non-pharmacological agents with antioxidant nature of action in vibration loads in athletes. Materials and methods. To assess the effectiveness of vibration loads as a non-pharmacological ergogenic agent, we have chosen vibration loads as one of the most characteristic mechanical effects on the human body. The study of the effectiveness and impact mechanisms of vibration loads on the body of athletes using domestic spiral-vortex simulator involved 24 representatives of cyclic sports. They are qualified rowers in kayaks and canoes. These athletes were divided into equal groups (12 people) by the number of group members – control and main. In the dynamics of research, not only changes under the influence of additional vibration loads of indicators of special physical performance were evaluated, but also numerous homeostatic parameters that reflect the severity of oxidative stress, structural and functional state of cell membranes, the degree of endogenous toxicity, intensity of humoral immunity, and also systemic factors that affect the formation of physical performance – the activity of the factor induced by hypoxia and the main angiogenic factor. Vibration load after the main standard training session was created using a spiral-vortex simulator «PLH- 9051» for 30 minutes. The examination of the participants was conducted before starting and at the end of the stage of direct preparation for the competition. Results and discussion. The results of our study have proven that the vibration of the whole body in this mode does not lead to negative changes in the basic standard laboratory parameters of the body. At the same time, it was found that the indicators in the 12-minute test (endurance characteristics) and in the one-minute test (speed characteristics) significantly improved.As for the metabolic changes that are the basis for such rearrangements of the parameters of special physical performance, it is established that there is no additional activation of oxidative stress during vibration training. Vibration loads, firstly, have a positive effect at the subcellular level – the activity of lipid peroxidation reduces and antioxidant protection improves. At the same time, positive changes occur in the activation links of angiogenetic characteristics, which are an indirect reflection of the increase in the number of microvessels and the improvement of tissue blood circulation with the increase of oxygen transfer and plastic and energy substrates. Conclusion. Thus, according to the obtained data, vibration loads in the mode of vibration load of the whole body lasting 30 minutes after standard training load are similar to hypoxic training conditions, but without the occurrence of oxidative stress, and can be used for the same purpose – to improve adaptation mechanisms and increase physical performance at the special preparatory stage of athletes specializing in cyclic sports, and in a more general interpretation – in sports with a predominantly aerobic mechanism of energy supply.
... Підвищення фізичної працездатності під впливом значних тренувальних навантажень при забезпеченні повноцінного відновлення та попередження виникнення стану перетренованості є важливими складовими підтримання здоров'я та якості життя спортсменів [1,2]. Позатренувальні засоби як фармакологічного, так і нефармакологічного походження призначені саме для цілеспрямованого впливу на різні функціональні та метаболічні ланки, що є більш уразливими при фізичних навантаженнях, а також на організм в цілому [3,4]. Ці засоби можуть бути використані на фоні тренувальних навантажень для підвищення фізичної працездатності за відносно короткий термін і водночас повинні забезпечувати зменшення ризику перевтоми [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
One of the powerful methodologies of ergogenic nature is the use of vibration loads in the mode of "whole body vibration", which in terms of frequency of oscillations mostly coincides with the frequency of oscillations of the microstructures of the body itself. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of non-pharmacological agents with antioxidant nature of action in vibration loads in athletes. Materials and methods. To assess the effectiveness of vibration loads as a non-pharmacological ergogenic agent, we have chosen vibration loads as one of the most characteristic mechanical effects on the human body. The study of the effectiveness and impact mechanisms of vibration loads on the body of athletes using domestic spiral-vortex simulator involved 24 representatives of cyclic sports. They are qualified rowers in kayaks and canoes. These athletes were divided into equal groups (12 people) by the number of group members – control and main. In the dynamics of research, not only changes under the influence of additional vibration loads of indicators of special physical performance were evaluated, but also numerous homeostatic parameters that reflect the severity of oxidative stress, structural and functional state of cell membranes, the degree of endogenous toxicity, intensity of humoral immunity, and also systemic factors that affect the formation of physical performance – the activity of the factor induced by hypoxia and the main angiogenic factor. Vibration load after the main standard training session was created using a spiral-vortex simulator «PLH-9051» for 30 minutes. The examination of the participants was conducted before starting and at the end of the stage of direct preparation for the competition. Results and discussion. The results of our study have proven that the vibration of the whole body in this mode does not lead to negative changes in the basic standard laboratory parameters of the body. At the same time, it was found that the indicators in the 12-minute test (endurance characteristics) and in the one-minute test (speed characteristics) significantly improved. As for the metabolic changes that are the basis for such rearrangements of the parameters of special physical performance, it is established that there is no additional activation of oxidative stress during vibration training. Vibration loads, firstly, have a positive effect at the subcellular level – the activity of lipid peroxidation reduces and antioxidant protection improves. At the same time, positive changes occur in the activation links of angiogenetic characteristics, which are an indirect reflection of the increase in the number of microvessels and the improvement of tissue blood circulation with the increase of oxygen transfer and plastic and energy substrates. Conclusion. Thus, according to the obtained data, vibration loads in the mode of vibration load of the whole body lasting 30 minutes after standard training load are similar to hypoxic training conditions, but without the occurrence of oxidative stress, and can be used for the same purpose – to improve adaptation mechanisms and increase physical performance at the special preparatory stage of athletes specializing in cyclic sports, and in a more general interpretation – in sports with a predominantly aerobic mechanism of energy supply
... Ageing is associated with the gradual loss of muscle mass and strength called sarcopenia, 1 which leads to increased risk of falls and fractures, hospitalization, immobilization, and mortality rates. 2 Numerous non-pharmacological interventions including resistance exercise and protein, creatine, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, and vitamin D supplementation have been studied with the aim to reduce the prevalence of sarcopenia. [3][4][5] Preliminary evidence suggests that vitamin D supplementation improves muscle mass and strength in older adults; however, most studies that have investigated the impact of vitamin D supplementation on musculoskeletal outcomes have been conducted in combination with structured exercise, whey protein, and/or calcium supplementation with no consideration of co-morbidity status. 6,7 Hence, the effect of vitamin D supplementation as a monotherapy on musculoskeletal health outcomes in community-dwelling older adults remains unclear. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Vitamin D supplementation is proposed as a potentially effective nutritional intervention to mitigate the risk of sarcopenia. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the impact of vitamin D supplementation monotherapy on indices of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. Methods: A comprehensive search of the literature was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) compared the effect of vitamin D supplementation (as monotherapy) with placebo on indices of sarcopenia in older (>50 years) adults. Using the random effects inverse-variance model, we calculated the mean difference (MD) in handgrip strength (HGS), short physical performance battery (SPPB), timed up and go (TUG), and appendicular lean mass (ALM) between groups. We also calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) in general muscle strength and general physical performance (composite plot of all muscle strength and physical performance outcomes, respectively) between groups. Results: Ten RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. A significant decrease in SPPB scores was observed with vitamin D supplementation compared with placebo (MD: -0.23; 95% CI -0.40 to -0.06; I2 = 0%; P = 0.007). Vitamin D supplementation conferred no effect on HGS (MD: -0.07 kg; 95% CI -0.70 to 0.55; I2 = 51%, P = 0.82), TUG (MD: 0.07 s; 95% CI -0.08 to 0.22; I2 = 0%, P = 0.35), ALM (MD: 0.06 kg/m2 ; 95% CI: -0.32 to 0.44; I2 = 73%, P = 0.77), general muscle strength (SMD: -0.01; 95% CI -0.17 to 0.15; I2 = 42%, P = 0.90), or general physical performance (SMD: -0.02; 95% CI -0.23 to 0.18; I2 = 71%, P = 0.83). Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation did not improve any sarcopenia indices in community-dwelling older adults and may compromise some aspects of physical performance. Future studies are warranted to investigate the impact of vitamin D supplementation on individual indices of SPPB, including mobility and balance, in older adults.
... They are involved in normal functioning of various body systems, improves physiology and performance when consumed in appropriate amounts (Lollo et al., 2011;McGregor and Poppitt 2013;Madzima et al., 2018). They improve appetite, energy expenditure, body weight, and composition (Bendtsen et al., 2013) and enhances whole body protein metabolism, performance recovery after resistance exercise (West et al., 2017). They may have preventive role against obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and some cancers (Thorning et al., 2016). ...
... Areta et al., 2013;Burd et al., 2011;Koopman et al., 2007;Morton et al., 2015;Res et al., 2012;Trommelen and van Loon, 2016;van Loon, 2013;West et al. ...
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The term ‘food first’ has been as the within sport nutrition although there is no of this and often of the implications. We propose that food first should mean come from whole foods and drinks rather than from isolated food components or dietary supplements”. There are many reasons to commend a food first the risk of supplement contamination resulting in anti-doping a few supplements can enhance health and/or performance and therefore a food only approach could be inappropriate. We propose six reasons why a food only approach may not always be optimal for athletes: 1) some nutrients are difficult to obtain in in the diet, or may intake of other nutrients, 2) some nutrients are abundant only in foods athletes do not eat/like, 3) the nutrient content of some foods with is highly variable, 4) concentrated doses of some nutrients are required to correct deficiencies and/or promote immune tolerance, 5) some foods may be difficult to consume immediately before, during or immediately after exercise and 6) tested supplements could help where there are concerns about food hygiene or contamination. In these situations, it is acceptable for the athlete to that a comprehensive risk is implemented. As a consequence, it is important to stress that the be “food first but not always food only”.
... These factors lead to further preventions, increasing the immune system ability to fight diseases such as Covid-19 (32). Studies have shown that proteins, especially WP, may include further comprehensive uses as functional foods in prevention and control of diseases such as cancers, hepatitis B disease, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, CVDs, osteoporosis and chronic stress (33). The WP may help prevent allergies as well (34). ...
Article
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Due to the lack of definite therapy and prevention protocols for Covid-19, nutrition and exercise are considered preventative measures in dealing with the epidemic. Healthy diets, dietary supplements and exercises boost the immune system. These factors can be effective in improving functions of the immune system. The current study investigated immune-enhancing characteristics of exercises, dietary supplements (proteins, vitamins, minerals, oils, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), probiotics, ginseng, antioxidants and Chlorella vulgaris) and food additives (titanium dioxide, sodium nitrite, monosodium glutamate, tartrazine, sweeteners and emulsifiers). The current study investigated functions of dietary supplements and exercises in strengthening the immune system, as well as assessing roles of food additives in illness prevention, particularly Covid-19, when combined with a balanced nutrition strategy. Light exercises, healthy lifestyles and nutritional supplements have been shown to boost the immune system.
Article
It is known that a balanced diet and the intake of specialized foods that combine various types of proteins play a key role in expanding the adaptive potential of athletes and affect the effectiveness of the training process. In recent decades, various biomedical and technological strategies have been implemented in the development of specialized food products, including those for the nutrition of athletes. Proteins of milk and whey occupy an important place among the functional ingredients. Despite the fact that the average per capita consumption of protein in the structure of the diet in the Russian Federation over the past few years has been at a satisfactory level (in 2019 — 80.4 g/day, in 2020 — 81.4 g/day), for athletes with high body weight and extremely high energy consumption (4000 kcal/day and above), these values will be insufficient. In connection with this, special attention should be paid to various protein fractions in the development of SPP at a consumption level of at least 1.2 g/kg of the athlete’s body weight daily to ensure plastic and other functions in the body, physical performance and endurance.
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Gathercole, RJ, Sporer, BC, Stellingwerff, T, and Sleivert, GG. Comparison of the capacity of different jump and sprint field tests to detect neuromuscular fatigue. J Strength Cond Res 29(9): 2522-2531, 2015-Different jump and sprint tests have been used to assess neuromuscular fatigue, but the test with optimal validity remains to be established. The current investigation examined the suitability of vertical jump (countermovement jump [CMJ], squat jump [SJ], drop jump [DJ]) and 20-m sprint (SPRINT) testing for neuromuscular fatigue detection. On 6 separate occasions, 11 male team-sport athletes performed 6 CMJ, SJ, DJ, and 3 SPRINT trials. Repeatability was determined on the first 3 visits, with subsequent 3 visits (0-, 24-, and 72-hour postexercise) following a fatiguing Yo-Yo running protocol. SPRINT performance was most repeatable (mean coefficient of variation ≤2%), whereas DJ testing (4.8%) was significantly less repeatable than CMJ (3.0%) and SJ (3.5%). Each test displayed large decreases at 0-hour (33 of 49 total variables; mean effect size = 1.82), with fewer and smaller decreases at 24-hour postexercise (13 variables; 0.75), and 72-hour postexercise (19 variables; 0.78). SPRINT displayed the largest decreases at 0-hour (3.65) but was subsequently unchanged, whereas SJ performance recovered by 72-hour postexercise. In contrast, CMJ and DJ performance displayed moderate (12 variables; 1.18) and small (6 variables; 0.53) reductions at 72-hour postexercise, respectively. Consequently, the high repeatability and immediate and prolonged fatigue-induced changes indicated CMJ testing as most suitable for neuromuscular fatigue monitoring.
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Introduction: We have previously shown that protein ingestion prior to sleep increases overnight muscle protein synthesis rates. Whether prior exercise further augments the muscle protein synthetic response to pre-sleep protein ingestion remains to be established. Objective: To assess whether resistance-type exercise performed in the evening increases the overnight muscle protein synthetic response to pre-sleep protein ingestion. Methods: Twenty four healthy young men were randomly assigned to ingest 30 g intrinsically L-[1-C]-phenylalanine and L-[1-C]-leucine labeled casein protein before going to sleep with (PRO+EX: n=12) or without (PRO: n=12) prior resistance-type exercise performed in the evening. Continuous intravenous L-[ring-H5]-phenylalanine, L-[1-C]-leucine and L-[ring-H2]-tyrosine infusions were applied. Blood and muscle tissue samples were collected to assess whole-body protein balance, myofibrillar protein synthesis rates and overnight incorporation of dietary protein-derived amino acids into de novo myofibrillar protein. Results: A total of 57±1% of the ingested protein-derived phenylalanine appeared in the circulation during overnight sleep. Overnight myofibrillar protein synthesis rates were 37% (0.055±0.002 vs 0.040±0.003 %[BULLET OPERATOR]h, P<0.001; based upon L-[ring-H5]-phenylalanine) and 31% (0.073±0.004 vs 0.055±0.006 %[BULLET OPERATOR]h, P=0.024; based upon L-[1-C]-leucine) higher in PRO+EX compared to PRO. Substantially more of the dietary protein-derived amino acids were incorporated into de novo myofibrillar protein during overnight sleep in PRO+EX compared to PRO (0.026±0.003 vs 0.015±0.003 MPE, P=0.012). Conclusions: Resistance-type exercise performed in the evening augments the overnight muscle protein synthetic response to pre-sleep protein ingestion and allows more of the ingested protein-derived amino acids to be used for de novo myofibrillar protein synthesis during overnight sleep.
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We have determined whole body protein kinetics i.e., protein synthesis (PS), breakdown (PB), and net balance (NB) in human subjects in the fasted state and following ingestion of ~40g (moderate protein, or MP) that has been reported to maximize the protein synthetic response or ~70g (higher protein, HP) protein, more representative of the amount of protein in the dinner of an average American diet. Twenty three healthy young men who had performed prior resistance exercise (X-MP or X-HP) or time-matched resting (R-MP or R-HP) were studied during a primed continuous infusion of L-[2H5]phenylalanine and L-[2H2]tyrosine. Subjects were randomly assigned into an exercise (X, n=12) or resting (R, n=11) group, and each group was studied at the two levels of dietary protein intake in random order. PS, PB, and NB were expressed as increases above the basal, fasting values (mg/kg LBM/min). Exercise did not significantly affect protein kinetics and blood chemistry. Feeding resulted in positive NB at both levels of protein intake: NB was greater in response to the meal containing HP (p<0.00001). The greater NB with HP was achieved primarily through a greater reduction in PB and to a lesser extent stimulation of protein synthesis (for all, p<0.0001). HP resulted in greater plasma EAA responses (p<0.01) vs. MP, with no differences in insulin and glucose responses. In conclusion, whole body net protein balance improves with greater protein intake above that previously suggested to maximally stimulating muscle protein synthesis because of a simultaneous reduction in protein breakdown.
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We have determined whole body protein kinetics i.e., protein synthesis (PS), breakdown (PB), and net balance (NB) in human subjects in the fasted state and following ingestion of ~40g (moderate protein, or MP) that has been reported to maximize the protein synthetic response or ~70g (higher protein, HP) protein, more representative of the amount of protein in the dinner of an average American diet. Twenty three healthy young men who had performed prior resistance exercise (X-MP or X-HP) or time-matched resting (R-MP or R-HP) were studied during a primed continuous infusion of L-[2H5]phenylalanine and L-[2H2]tyrosine. Subjects were randomly assigned into an exercise (X, n=12) or resting (R, n=11) group, and each group was studied at the two levels of dietary protein intake in random order. PS, PB, and NB were expressed as increases above the basal, fasting values (mg/kg LBM/min). Exercise did not significantly affect protein kinetics and blood chemistry. Feeding resulted in positive NB at both levels of protein intake: NB was greater in response to the meal containing HP (p<0.00001). The greater NB with HP was achieved primarily through a greater reduction in PB and to a lesser extent stimulation of protein synthesis (for all, p<0.0001). HP resulted in greater plasma EAA responses (p<0.01) vs. MP, with no differences in insulin and glucose responses. In conclusion, whole body net protein balance improves with greater protein intake above that previously suggested to maximally stimulating muscle protein synthesis because of a simultaneous reduction in protein breakdown.
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BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that protein ingestion before sleep increases muscle protein synthesis rates during overnight recovery from an exercise bout. However, it remains to be established whether dietary protein ingestion before sleep can effectively augment the muscle adaptive response to resistance-type exercise training. OBJECTIVE: Here we assessed the impact of dietary protein supplementation before sleep on muscle mass and strength gains during resistance-type exercise training. METHODS: Forty-four young men (22 ± 1 y) were randomly assigned to a progressive, 12-wk resistance exercise training program. One group consumed a protein supplement containing 27.5 g of protein, 15 g of carbohydrate, and 0.1 g of fat every night before sleep. The other group received a noncaloric placebo. Muscle hypertrophy was assessed on a whole-body (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), limb (computed tomography scan), and muscle fiber (muscle biopsy specimen) level before and after exercise training. Strength was assessed regularly by 1-repetition maximum strength testing. RESULTS: Muscle strength increased after resistance exercise training to a significantly greater extent in the protein-supplemented (PRO) group than in the placebo-supplemented (PLA) group (+164 ± 11 kg and +130 ± 9 kg, respectively; P < 0.001). In addition, quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area increased in both groups over time (P < 0.001), with a greater increase in the PRO group than in the PLA group (+8.4 ± 1.1 cm(2) vs. +4.8 ± 0.8 cm(2), respectively; P < 0.05). Both type I and type II muscle fiber size increased after exercise training (P < 0.001), with a greater increase in type II muscle fiber size in the PRO group (+2319 ± 368 μm(2)) than in the PLA group (+1017 ± 353 μm(2); P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Protein ingestion before sleep represents an effective dietary strategy to augment muscle mass and strength gains during resistance exercise training in young men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02222415.