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Abstract

The notion of designer empathy has become a cornerstone of design philosophy in fields such as product design, human-computer interaction, and service design. But the literature on instructional designer empathy and learner analysis suggests that distance learning designers are generally quite removed from the learners with whom they could be empathizing. We describe a qualitative study conducted with practicing distance learning designers across the United States. We selected designers in varying sectors within the workforce, and interviewed our participants via videoconferencing. Our inquiry uncovered important tensions designers live with regarding empathy in practice. Designers struggle to know how much learner analysis is sufficient, which of many stakeholders to empathize with, and navigating constraints. Future work in this area could help designers practice more empathically and, in doing so, improve the learning environments they create for learners.

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... Synergies exist between instructional design (ID) and design thinking, although it is not yet clear how, and to what effect, design thinking can be used in the development of instructional materials. While there is considerable awareness of how ID models can be used in higher education (HE), more evidence relating to the use of design thinking as part of the instructional design process is needed (Christensen & West, 2017;Matthews et al., 2017;Svihla, 2017). The application of design thinking to ID in HE courses has the potential to create more authentic and empathetic learning experiences for students thus fostering student engagement (Kahu, 2013). ...
... Empathic design practices are at the core of design thinking and ensure that the design process remains focused on the student experience. Thus, the use of the design thinking process, as documented in this article, may be used by instructional designers to overcome some of the barriers that have been identified in successfully empathising with learners (Matthews et al., 2017). ...
... There is evidence to suggest that instructional designers, involved in online learning, have difficulty with the process of empathising with their learners due to tensions such as settling on a methodology and dealing with multiple stakeholders and time or project constraints (Matthews et al., 2017). This study has demonstrated how a design thinking methodology can be used to ensure empathy with learners is established. ...
Article
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Online education is becoming the norm in higher education. Effective instructional design methods are required to ensure that “ever-connected” students’ needs are being met. One potential method is design thinking: an agile methodology that stresses the importance of empathy with the student. The #OpenTeach fully online course was designed using design thinking principles and delivered in Spring 2020. This article reports on a case study which focused on the use of design thinking to design and develop the #OpenTeach course. The five iterative stages of design thinking (empathy, define, ideate, prototype and test) were integrated into the design and development of the course materials. The findings of this study indicate that the use of the design thinking process may be used by instructional designers to achieve empathy with their learners, which will ensure learners successfully engage and achieve the learning objectives of the course. Implications for practice or policy: A rich case study of the successful integration of design thinking within the instructional design methodology of an online teacher education project is valuable to educationalists who wish to follow a user-cntred empathetic approach. Instructional designers should focus on empathising with their student cohort to successfully engage students in the content that has been designed, and developed, as part of an online course.
... More recently, theorists have begun to embrace elements of user experience (UX), which is used to design technologies in human-centered ways that are engaging, functional, and user-friendly (McLellan, 2000;Schmidt et al., 2020). Borrowing practices from user experience design (UXD) and applying them to learning design practice has led to productive application of associated methods and processes, with clear, practical value for the design of digital environments for learning (Dimitrijević & Devedžić, 2021;Haldane et al., 2019;Matthews et al., 2017;Shernoff et al., 2020). When UX methods are applied in the field of LIDT, the focus on the user of a technology system necessarily shifts to a focus on the learner-as-user of a given learning technology, e.g., learning management system, serious game, virtual learning environment, etc. (Jahnke et al., 2020). ...
... Our process of developing personas follows design thinking processes (Chokshi & Mann, 2018;Ector et al., 2020) that begin with empathy interviews and are followed by empathy mapping (Klamerus et al., 2019;Weijers et al., 2021). Although techniques such as empathy interviews, empathy mapping, and development of personas are widely used methods in UXD and design thinking circles, application of empathy methods in the field of learning design is less prevalent, but has garnered some attention both in research (e.g., Mehta & Gleason, 2021;Morel, 2021;Tracey & Hutchinson, 2019) and in practice (e.g., C. Gray et al., 2015;Matthews et al., 2017). Empathy interviews and empathy mapping are methodological tools that provide a means to learn what is important to learners, to reveal emotional and perhaps tacit insights, to explore behaviors, needs, and challenges, and ultimately to develop a deep understanding for the daily lived experiences of target learners. ...
Article
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Theoretically-informed design is a hallmark of the field of learning and instructional design and technology (LIDT). Designing digital environments for learning on the basis of theory can lead to theoretically pure and potentially effective learning interventions, yet theory alone is insufficient to consider the myriad of issues that emerge while a learner is engaged in digitally mediated learning. As the field of LIDT shifts towards more human-centered design practice, the phenomenon of learning experience design (LXD) has emerged as a novel, multidisciplinary focus area. LXD equips designers with a range of useful methods for explicitly considering the learner within the learning context. Two methods that we argue are particularly well-suited for this are personas and scenarios. The development of personas and scenarios can be informed by activity theory, which provides a lens for holistically considering the technology usage context and the learner's role therein. The current article discusses the interplay of activity theory, personas, and scenarios, and illustrates how this can be potentially useful in learning experience design practice in two separate case examples. Implications are discussed.
... A empatia é fundamental para o desenvolvimento de experiências de EaD, conforme Matthews et al. (2017). Nesse sentido, são criticadas ações que consideram o aluno como alguém sem identidade, necessidades, gostos e experiências de vida. ...
... Nesse sentido, são criticadas ações que consideram o aluno como alguém sem identidade, necessidades, gostos e experiências de vida. Matthews et al. (2017), apresentam um estudo que mostra como um grupo de designers enxerga a empatia na prática projetual da EaD e como é possível exercitá-la e utilizá-la nas práticas reais. A empatia surge pela preocupação e cuidado dos designers com a experiência de aprendizagem proposta para o aluno, pelas memórias de quando eram estudantes e pelo exercício de imaginação que os coloca no papel do discente. ...
Article
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Este artigo discute a influência da institucionalização da Educação a Distância (EaD) na implementação do Ensino Remoto Emergencial (ERE) em instituições de ensino superior durante a pandemia de Covid-19 em 2020 no Brasil. O objetivo é compreender o impacto da experiência institucional em EaD no processo de implementação do ERE. O caso da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), tomado como exemplo neste trabalho, sugere que o desenvolvimento prévio de tecnologias digitais voltadas à EaD pela instituição, bem como a existência de uma estrutura organizacional para a gestão acadêmica da EaD, foram fundamentais para um processo de implementação do ERE.
... As one example, if it is true that practical judgment "is mediated through feelings" (Dunne, 1997, p. 358), what emotional sensitivities are important for LIDT professionals to cultivate? One emotional sensitivity is certainly empathy (Matthews et al., 2017)-a disposition shared, of course, with other fields; this includes design. But how would our empathy change if we understood it in the same way the caring professions did-as the foundation of real relationships-instead of as a technique for making better products, as sometimes seems to be the case in design fields (Heylighen & Dong, 2019)? ...
Chapter
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We currently face a problem in the field of learning and instructional design and technology (LIDT). We have an important contribution to offer towards what Beckwith (1988) called “the transformation of learners and . . . learning” (p. 18). However, in pursuit of this mission, we have become too fixated on being designers and applying the methods of design thinking. As valuable as design has been for our field, it’s ultimately too narrow an approach to help us have the impact we desire because it overemphasizes the importance of the products and services we create. To be more influential, we need approaches that focus our efforts on nurturing people’s “intrinsic talents and capacities” that are ultimately outside of our ability to manage and control (Thomson, 2005, p. 158; see also Biesta, 2013). Tying ourselves to design will not accomplish this, so we need to cultivate an identity of our own—an identity centered on what Dunne (1997) called the character and dispositions of “practical judgment” (p. 160). In this chapter I hope to make these issues clear. I start by describing how design’s focus on creating and making misleads our understanding and application of important dimensions of our field. Doing this limits our impact. I then describe how we can cultivate an LIDT identity that is better suited for the aims we are pursuing. An LIDT-specific identity may include some methods from design thinking, but it will also encompass additional ways of improving the human condition, all centered in the character of practical judgment. I end by calling on readers to consider what this important evolution for our field means for their personal practice.
... Autrement dit, étant basé sur le principe user-as-designer (Buchanan et al., 2013) ou user-design (Carr-Chellman, 2006, le design a pour objectif de créer une « expérience » pour l'utilisateur, ce qui exige l'« empathie » envers ce dernier et la compréhension profonde de son environnement (Brown, 2008). Cette approche favorise l'usage des stratégies d'idéation à base de l'empathie à côté ou même à la place des stratégies d'analyse (Crawford, 2004 ;Matthews et al., 2017;Parrish, 2006;Rapanta & Cantoni, 2013;Stefaniak, 2018). ...
... For instance, expert LDT professionals recognize cues that distinguish a situation as a candidate for applying a learning technology (Hoard et al., 2019), feel empathy for learner groups that demands their action (Matthews et al., 2017), and are drawn into situationally appropriate phases of the design process without deliberating on a rule that tells them it is time to start (Kirschner et al., 2002). Together, these kinds of affective responses help define the particular "style" (Wrathall, 2017, p. 22) of responding to situations that are recognizable as being LDT practice. ...
Chapter
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My purpose in this chapter is to offer a reimagined view of theory in the field of learning design and technology (LDT). Instead of viewing theory as an external storehouse of knowledge, or a rule-like system for professionals to apply, in this framework theory is viewed as an orienting aid that supports practitioners as they refine their personal capacities for perception, discrimination, and judgment. Theory plays this orienting role as it offers insights into LDT-relevant practical knowledge, productive heuristics, points professionals towards opportunities to act, or identifies significant patterns and forms of excellence to which they can pay attention as they attempt to improve their craft. The chapter concludes with some implications for this framework for future research and practice in the field.
... In practice, Floor (2018) defines the five fundamentals of LXD as human-centered, goal-oriented, based upon theory of learning, including learning through practice, and being heavily interdisciplinary. In each of these five facets, there is a major emphasis on empathy, focusing on the intended and unintended design outcomes for the learners (Matthews et al., 2017). As such, LXD broadens our definitions of what is to be considered a learning experience, affording instructors, designers, and researchers the opportunity to empathize with learners and develop experiences that expand our design toolbox to support students' motivation as well as learning behaviors in diverse learning settings Weigel, 2015). ...
Article
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Higher education may benefit from investigating alternative evidence-based methods of online learning to understand students’ learning behaviors while considering students’ social cognitive motivational traits. Researchers conducted an in situ design-based research (DBR) study to investigate learner experience design (LXD) methods, deploying approaches of asynchronous video, course dashboards, and enhanced user experience. This mixed-methods study (N = 181) assessed associations of students’ social cognitive motivational traits (self-efficacy, task-value, self-regulation) influencing their learning behaviors (engagement, elaboration, critical thinking) resulting from LXD. Social cognitive motivational traits were positively predictive of learning behaviors. As motivational factors increased, students’ course engagement, usage of elaboration, and critical thinking skills increased. Self-efficacy, task-value, and self-regulation explained 31% of the variance of engagement, 47% of the explained variance of critical thinking skills, and 57% of the explained variance in the usage of elaboration. As a predictor, task-value beliefs increased the proportion of explained variance in each model significantly, above self-efficacy and self-regulation. Qualitative content analysis corroborated these findings, explaining how LXD efforts contributed to motivations, learning behaviors, and learning experience. Results suggest that mechanisms underpinning LXD and students’ learning behaviors are likely the result of dynamically catalyzing social cognitive motivational factors. The discussion concludes with the LXD affordances that explain the positive influences in students’ social cognitive motivational traits and learning behaviors, while also considering constraints for future iterations.
... Example emerging approaches to ERTL also include Ravitch's (2020) flux pedagogy that encourages responsiveness, compassion, and adaptability; and Baran and Alzoubi's (2020) human-centered design that emphasizes empathy and pedagogical problem-solving. Caring for the learners, referencing personal experiences, and considering the learners' perspectives are the three conceptions of designer empathy in distance learning contexts (Matthews et al., 2017). These examples can help educators model good practices in integrating humanity, care, and empathy into ERTL or future online teaching. ...
Book
This is an open access book which can be downloaded at https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-030-99634-5#about-this-book. It focuses on making the transition from in-person, classroom education to other feasible alternative modes and methodologies to deliver education at all levels. The book presents and analyzes research questions to explore in this arena, including pedagogical issues relating to technological and infrastructure challenges, teacher professional development, issues of disparity, access and equity, and impact of government policies on education. It also provides unique opportunities and vehicles for generating scholarship that helps explain the varied educational needs, perspectives and solutions that arise during an emergency and the different roles educational institutions and educators may play during this time. Developed from a highly successful Presidential Session at the annual meeting of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT), this edited volume presents AECT and its membership as the premier organization focusing on the provision of educational communications and technology leadership. In addition, it functions as a contemporary document of this global crisis as well as a rich resource for possible future emergency scenarios in the educational arena.
... Example emerging approaches to ERTL also include Ravitch's (2020) flux pedagogy that encourages responsiveness, compassion, and adaptability; and Baran and Alzoubi's (2020) human-centered design that emphasizes empathy and pedagogical problem-solving. Caring for the learners, referencing personal experiences, and considering the learners' perspectives are the three conceptions of designer empathy in distance learning contexts (Matthews et al., 2017). These examples can help educators model good practices in integrating humanity, care, and empathy into ERTL or future online teaching. ...
Chapter
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This chapter reports the results of a qualitative study on students’ perception of the characteristics of the online learning environment and on how those characteristics affect their basic psychological needs and engagement during the emergency transition to online learning due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Semi-structured interviews with 24 students from a higher education institution in Vietnam revealed three main factors, including the instructor, peer groups, and technologies that either undermined or satisfied students’ basic psychological needs and affect students’ engagement in online learning. The findings shed light on the contextual factors that fulfill students’ needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness, thus the findings provide instructors, course designers, and institutional leaders with useful information for the manipulation of instructional strategies and online learning conditions that promote student engagement in online learning in time of crisis.
... Example emerging approaches to ERTL also include Ravitch's (2020) flux pedagogy that encourages responsiveness, compassion, and adaptability; and Baran and Alzoubi's (2020) human-centered design that emphasizes empathy and pedagogical problem-solving. Caring for the learners, referencing personal experiences, and considering the learners' perspectives are the three conceptions of designer empathy in distance learning contexts (Matthews et al., 2017). These examples can help educators model good practices in integrating humanity, care, and empathy into ERTL or future online teaching. ...
Chapter
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The COVID-19 pandemic compelled universities worldwide to address the issue of continuity of teaching and learning. The request for teaching and learning continuity took many by surprise and as such, many universities were unprepared for the rapid shift. The transition from face to face to remote teaching therefore required a quick, but careful consideration to the planning, design, implementation and evaluation of remote teaching and learning. Notwithstanding this challenge, it becomes necessary to ground decisions within theoretical contexts that support and advance effective remote teaching and learning practice. Theory is well established as a tool to shape the effective teaching and learning within the higher-education setting and while there are frameworks that support traditional teaching and learning, not much attention is given to distance education frameworks. This chapter therefore intimates reflection on the utility of distance education theoretical frameworks to advance and sustain remote teaching practice at a Caribbean university.
... Example emerging approaches to ERTL also include Ravitch's (2020) flux pedagogy that encourages responsiveness, compassion, and adaptability; and Baran and Alzoubi's (2020) human-centered design that emphasizes empathy and pedagogical problem-solving. Caring for the learners, referencing personal experiences, and considering the learners' perspectives are the three conceptions of designer empathy in distance learning contexts (Matthews et al., 2017). These examples can help educators model good practices in integrating humanity, care, and empathy into ERTL or future online teaching. ...
Chapter
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Teaching through the pandemic has revealed critical educational issues related to online learning as well as the importance of considering contextual influences and creative solutions. The purpose of this chapter is to reflect on those issues and discuss creative alternatives in response to the changing social, cultural, and technological systems. The reflection centers around three themes with a focus on recommendations for the future based on what we can learn from the emergency remote teaching and learning (ERTL) experience. The ideas proposed in the reflection themes can help establish the needed mindsets and generate creative approaches to ERTL during crisis times. Creativity is discussed and redefined within the context of ERTL during the pandemic. We should develop creative thinking, creative mindset, and creative design in re-conceptualizing assessment activities and the assessment culture for online learning as well. Recommendations to help sustain the impact of creative solutions include the need for solid network infrastructure, an innovative mindset for assessment, and a need for educational design research on creative solutions to online learning problems.
... Example emerging approaches to ERTL also include Ravitch's (2020) flux pedagogy that encourages responsiveness, compassion, and adaptability; and Baran and Alzoubi's (2020) human-centered design that emphasizes empathy and pedagogical problem-solving. Caring for the learners, referencing personal experiences, and considering the learners' perspectives are the three conceptions of designer empathy in distance learning contexts (Matthews et al., 2017). These examples can help educators model good practices in integrating humanity, care, and empathy into ERTL or future online teaching. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Emergency remote teaching began suddenly and widely by March 2020 after the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus pandemics Chilean education, as many other countries around the globe, adopted the methodology of remote teaching with little no previous experience and a lack of adequate and pertinent administrator, teacher, student, and parent preparation. This chapter presents, analyzes, and discusses the Chilean higher education experiences and innovations in emergency contexts during the COVID-19 pandemic. Actual and future perspectives are discussed on the basis of education in a country with frequent emergency contexts such as earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, fires and now a pandemic. We applied a systematic review research method to the higher education data and information that emerged during the coronavirus pandemic in Chile during the last year. As a result, we ended up drawing some trends, issues, and perspectives on Chilean higher education teaching and learning activities and innovation in emergency contexts. Finally, considering the results obtained, we discuss the main themes that emerged, and some lessons learned by Chilean education in times of pandemic, in order to be better prepared and equipped to face emergency situations with less disruption and detriment to teaching and learning in the future.
... Example emerging approaches to ERTL also include Ravitch's (2020) flux pedagogy that encourages responsiveness, compassion, and adaptability; and Baran and Alzoubi's (2020) human-centered design that emphasizes empathy and pedagogical problem-solving. Caring for the learners, referencing personal experiences, and considering the learners' perspectives are the three conceptions of designer empathy in distance learning contexts (Matthews et al., 2017). These examples can help educators model good practices in integrating humanity, care, and empathy into ERTL or future online teaching. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic when in-person courses were switching to emergency remote learning formats, even students online needed flexibility. This case study describes how a graduate-level online class on open learning and open educational resources (OER) was redesigned to both allow students to apply their course-related knowledge and skills in the service of others and accommodate students whose other life responsibilities had changed. Findings show that these online students experienced great stress during Spring 2020, and many had increased job duties related to the shift to remote learning. These students appreciated the flexible redesign and used it as an opportunity to help integrate OER in their own remote teaching and assist others to do the same. They provided their colleagues and the field at large with educational resources about finding, using, creating, and sharing OER, all while meeting course objectives. Even students who were not employed as educators or instructional designers embraced the opportunity to be helpers and deploy their new knowledge and skills. Student learning outcomes were assessed using reflective portfolios, and course objectives were met whether students followed the original course plan or took advantage of the course redesign.
... Example emerging approaches to ERTL also include Ravitch's (2020) flux pedagogy that encourages responsiveness, compassion, and adaptability; and Baran and Alzoubi's (2020) human-centered design that emphasizes empathy and pedagogical problem-solving. Caring for the learners, referencing personal experiences, and considering the learners' perspectives are the three conceptions of designer empathy in distance learning contexts (Matthews et al., 2017). These examples can help educators model good practices in integrating humanity, care, and empathy into ERTL or future online teaching. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter reflects on lessons learned from a year of emergency remote teaching at a technology-focused university since the pandemic outbreak in March 2020. We focus on practical implications for supporting faculty in future emergency remote teaching situations based on an understanding of how faculty adapted to this novel phenomenon and the challenges they encountered during the rapid transition. Specifically, we examine faculty members’ perceptions and attitudes toward emergency remote teaching by taking a mixed-methods approach. We conducted a study using data collected from two anonymous online surveys administered in April 2020 and December 2020 as well as case study interviews conducted in May 2020. Our findings suggest that engaging students in interactive discussions or collaborative activities and assessing students’ learning were the areas in which faculty struggled the most persistently across both semesters. Yet, we observed between the two semesters an increasing trend in the proportion of faculty who felt their course was suitable for online instruction. We also observed a similar uptick in faculty who sought instructional resources from within their department and technology experts on campus. Our study findings capture creative and flexible strategies that our instructors have used to overcome these instructional challenges (e.g., re-configuring projects to handle logistical difficulties). We also identify varying needs and other important individual factors that might explain different transitioning experiences among faculty. The chapter concludes by discussing next steps to effectively support faculty members’ instructional practices and rebuild “the hybrid model” of education for the post-pandemic era.
... Example emerging approaches to ERTL also include Ravitch's (2020) flux pedagogy that encourages responsiveness, compassion, and adaptability; and Baran and Alzoubi's (2020) human-centered design that emphasizes empathy and pedagogical problem-solving. Caring for the learners, referencing personal experiences, and considering the learners' perspectives are the three conceptions of designer empathy in distance learning contexts (Matthews et al., 2017). These examples can help educators model good practices in integrating humanity, care, and empathy into ERTL or future online teaching. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
On the eve of spring break March 2020, we received an emergency email from Purdue University’s Office of Teaching and Learning. We were invited to be part of the University’s contingency team planning for and developing resources to assist faculty with transitioning from face-to-face to emergency remote teaching and learning. Using the experience and expertise we have in the online learning realm, we were tasked to develop resources covering the most essential topics faculty needed for emergency remote teaching. Seven topics were selected based on the Community of Inquiry framework and the needs shared by our colleagues: (1) Availability and Communication, (2) Discussion Board Tips, (3) Setting Student Expectations, (4) Building Community, (5) Delivering Course Materials, (6) Adding Technology to Your Toolkit, and (7) Checking for Student Understanding. Recognizing the recommended resources and strategies needed to be relatable and replicable to earn faculty’s buy-in, we used the snowball sampling method to identify faculty from across campus who could help achieve this goal. This process gave us the opportunity to get to know our colleagues, uncover their talents, and create a new platform for shared expertise in teaching and learning. This book chapter will discuss how we structured and developed the resources for faculty by including them in the process. Further, it will show how faculty driven approach can augment the collaboration between the administration and faculty to enhance teaching and learning.
... Example emerging approaches to ERTL also include Ravitch's (2020) flux pedagogy that encourages responsiveness, compassion, and adaptability; and Baran and Alzoubi's (2020) human-centered design that emphasizes empathy and pedagogical problem-solving. Caring for the learners, referencing personal experiences, and considering the learners' perspectives are the three conceptions of designer empathy in distance learning contexts (Matthews et al., 2017). These examples can help educators model good practices in integrating humanity, care, and empathy into ERTL or future online teaching. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic brought severe, widespread disruptions to education worldwide. As the first country to encounter the COVID-19 outbreak, China has taken fast and decisive steps to mitigate the impact of the pandemic on education. Shortly after the outbreak, the Chinese government launched the “Classes Suspended but Learning Continues” emergency plan, which urged all schools to close and shift their teaching and learning activities entirely online. This chapter provides a critical account of the collective efforts made by different sectors across the country to maintain the continuation of education at all levels. These include: (1) a survey of the policies and measures introduced to facilitate the emergent transition to online delivery modes; (2) a reflection on the country’s experience of successfully maintaining the provision of education for over 200 million students; and (3) an elaboration of the challenges encountered that suggest directions for future research. We hope that sharing China’s experience in this chapter can contribute to the ongoing global conversations on how to better prepare education in times of crisis.
... Example emerging approaches to ERTL also include Ravitch's (2020) flux pedagogy that encourages responsiveness, compassion, and adaptability; and Baran and Alzoubi's (2020) human-centered design that emphasizes empathy and pedagogical problem-solving. Caring for the learners, referencing personal experiences, and considering the learners' perspectives are the three conceptions of designer empathy in distance learning contexts (Matthews et al., 2017). These examples can help educators model good practices in integrating humanity, care, and empathy into ERTL or future online teaching. ...
Chapter
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The purpose of this chapter is to explore how PK-12 teachers can use rapid needs assessment strategies to support their students during emergency remote teaching. Using the contextual lens of the emergency remote teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic, this chapter provides a review of challenges faced by teachers and students. In response to similar future emergency remote teaching situations, we recommend the use of rapid needs assessment to mitigate similar challenges. This chapter provides an overview of needs assessment and outlines applicable rapid needs assessment strategies that can be used by PK-12 teachers if they are faced with emergency remote teaching in the future.
... Example emerging approaches to ERTL also include Ravitch's (2020) flux pedagogy that encourages responsiveness, compassion, and adaptability; and Baran and Alzoubi's (2020) human-centered design that emphasizes empathy and pedagogical problem-solving. Caring for the learners, referencing personal experiences, and considering the learners' perspectives are the three conceptions of designer empathy in distance learning contexts (Matthews et al., 2017). These examples can help educators model good practices in integrating humanity, care, and empathy into ERTL or future online teaching. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Caribbean as a region managed the education delivery response to COVID-19 through policy that emphasised a holistic government approach. Though each State maintains its sovereign right, throughout the various phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, locally governed Ministries of Education (Carrington, 1993) created guidance for what and how education was to continue in this region. This approach produced unique ways of continuing primary and secondary school education in the region. It also inevitably had unintended outcomes that many other regions experienced but few could quantify and qualify as to its impact on education as we knew it. Some of the unintended outcomes included how ministerial mandates were translated into actionable activities by teachers, parents and students given the challenges to financial, technological, and teaching resources. This chapter uses the pandemic as the landscape within which the stories of a variety of stakeholders (i.e., teachers, principals, parents) from the pre-tertiary sectors, in select countries outline points of intersectionality and compromise. This thus illustrates how solutions were formalised and actioned, as well as drawing on similarities and differences to extrapolate into a regional and international view.
... Example emerging approaches to ERTL also include Ravitch's (2020) flux pedagogy that encourages responsiveness, compassion, and adaptability; and Baran and Alzoubi's (2020) human-centered design that emphasizes empathy and pedagogical problem-solving. Caring for the learners, referencing personal experiences, and considering the learners' perspectives are the three conceptions of designer empathy in distance learning contexts (Matthews et al., 2017). These examples can help educators model good practices in integrating humanity, care, and empathy into ERTL or future online teaching. ...
Chapter
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The process of reopening of college campuses in response to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic sheds light on underlying features of the educational system. Understanding the various models of reopening gives us insight into how the education system is structured through the responses of the various college campuses—a unique opportunity to capturing issues of inertial momentum against change in the past, and projecting into the future. We propose visualizing the structure of a system problem as a way to allow the problem to become visible through mental models. We illustrate our approach through causal loops—the core tool for systems thinking. We discuss the construction of one visual model, based on publicly available resources, to be used as a starting point for a discussion. The model points to the importance of making informed, high-level early decisions, in the case of a crisis, as this shows to be a highly dependent variable in the model. This finding is shown to be supported by ongoing research on faculty adaptability in different contexts. Visualizing mental models in systems thinking does not seek to unnecessarily capture all the details of the complexity of the educational system; rather, it aims to externalize deep problems, which, in turn, demonstrate opportunities for transformation in the future.
... Example emerging approaches to ERTL also include Ravitch's (2020) flux pedagogy that encourages responsiveness, compassion, and adaptability; and Baran and Alzoubi's (2020) human-centered design that emphasizes empathy and pedagogical problem-solving. Caring for the learners, referencing personal experiences, and considering the learners' perspectives are the three conceptions of designer empathy in distance learning contexts (Matthews et al., 2017). These examples can help educators model good practices in integrating humanity, care, and empathy into ERTL or future online teaching. ...
Chapter
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Early Childhood Education (ECE) is understood to take place between birth and the age of 9 including preschool as well as primary school years. It is also at this stage that the greatest damage can be inflicted on the vulnerable growing child. This chapter through literature and data from one country internationally, one on the African continent and South Africa explores challenges of teaching and learning, at early childhood environments during the pandemic. These serve as bases for mapping out how these nations continue to survive and lay foundation for the future productive citizenry in their respective contexts. Issues of race and social class are laid bare so as to come up with plausible strategies to create sustainable early childhood learning environments. These are understood to be contexts where economic development of all in an environmentally sustainable manner for the social inclusion of all are emphasized. The chapter over and above the research literature also examines strategies as well as theories of sustainable early childhood learning environments by way of making recommendations for South Africa in its search for solutions under such emergency situations.
... Example emerging approaches to ERTL also include Ravitch's (2020) flux pedagogy that encourages responsiveness, compassion, and adaptability; and Baran and Alzoubi's (2020) human-centered design that emphasizes empathy and pedagogical problem-solving. Caring for the learners, referencing personal experiences, and considering the learners' perspectives are the three conceptions of designer empathy in distance learning contexts (Matthews et al., 2017). These examples can help educators model good practices in integrating humanity, care, and empathy into ERTL or future online teaching. ...
Chapter
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Innovation is at its best when we are thrusted into an emergency situation that tests protocols and established norms. In this chapter, authors reflect on the journey of a team of instructional designers in an online learning design unit of a large mid-western university amidst COVID-19. With the influx of a multitude of courses to be transitioned to the online platform, authors describe challenges faced by their unit, coping mechanisms, and lessons learned during this phase. They describe inclusive design thinking and uninterrupted practice in return to robust instructional design models, such as Understanding by Design and Universal Design for Learning. The chapter concludes with examples of tried and tested internal tools and an adaptive workflow catering to a shortened development timeline. These practices and reflections serve as a guiding light as the global world navigates online learning to meet increasing demands of new-age digital accessibility and online course design considerations in higher education beyond COVID-19.
... In some studies, empathy is ambiguously described or defined (Artha & Etikariena, 2020;Cox et al., 2012;Ge et al., 2021;Huang et al., 2020;Huyen, 2021;Israelashvili et al., 2020;LeBlanc et al., 2012;Morelli et al., 2017;Ogle et al., 2013;Park & Hyun, 2021;Petrocchi et al., 2021;Sochacka et al., 2020;von Bieberstein et al., 2021;Wa, 2020;Wang et al., 2018). Yet, in other literature, the meaning is assumed to be known (Drayton et al., 2018;Jiang et al., 2021;Martini et al., 2018;Yazdi et al., 2019), is reliant upon broad or varied descriptions by earlier authors (Bagdasarov et al., 2019;Kellett et al., 2002;Madera et al., 2011;Oplatka, 2017;Pfattheicher et al., 2020;Rahman, 2016;Scott et al., 2010;Stojiljkovic et al., 2014), or the author(s) did not provide a distinct overarching definition (Cameron et al., 2019;Cornelis et al., 2013;Drimalla et al., 2019;Jenkins, 2019;Lumma et al., 2020;Matthews et al., 2017;Rockwell et al., 2019;Wieck et al., 2021). ...
Preprint
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The complex nature of empathy is well-established in research. Nevertheless, there is little consensus on the topic of empathy. Indeed, scholars do not even agree on a set definition of empathy. Uniform methods to evaluate synergy between the complexity of empathy and how interactions influence a variety of situations across the field are likewise unresolved. This study qualitatively explores current literature concerning empathy to reconcile the deficit in evaluating the organic emergence of empathy.
... Our broader concept of design thinking encompasses "the kinds of thinking that occur in taking the design approach to deal with real-world problems or challenges" (Koh et al., 2015, p. 2). We consider human-centred design more important than ever when we are physically apart from one another, where organisational and technical constraints may reduce opportunities for empathy in education (Matthews et al., 2017). At the heart of our design thinking is centering user or student needs, designing learning experiences with and for participants, despite a challenging environment (Brown & Green, 2018). ...
Article
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Design thinking is becoming more commonly used as a collaborative, problem-solving approach in higher education outside design disciplines. With the pivot to remote and online learning in response to Covid-19 and lockdown measures, many educators have had to rethink their practice and collaboration in design thinking, without the usual recourse to shared physical space and material resources. This reflective study brings together four educators who take their human-centred design thinking approaches to higher education online. Through a process of collaborative reflective professional inquiry, the authors offer practice-oriented insights into learning design, educational development and facilitation in design thinking online. Findings challenge commonly held assumptions about teaching online, the role of technology, and the importance of 'best practice' in education. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research to explore design thinking online as a practice and mindset outside the confines of the design studio.
... User-centered design (UCD) and user experience (UX) methods increasingly are being applied in learning design contexts (Cheng, 2019;Dimitrijević & Devedžić, 2021;Jahnke et al., 2020;Matthews & Yanchar, 2018;Shernoff et al., 2020;. This signals a shift in the field of learning design and technology (LDT), moving the field towards more human-centered approaches to designing digital environments for learning (Matthews et al., 2017;McDonald et al., 2019;Quintana et al., 2000;Soloway et al., 1994). Human-centered approaches to learning design seek to provide learners pleasing and effective digital learning tools that are easy to use and that efficiently propel them towards their learning goals (Robinson et al., 2017;Roman et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Increasing interest in user experience design (UXD) in the field of learning design and technology (LDT) signals a growing recognition of the importance of the individual experience of using learning technologies to learning—the learner experience (LX). However, a need exists to better define and conceptualize the phenomenon of learning experience design (LXD). Imprecise, interchangeable, and reductive usage of terms and concepts related to LXD frustrates efforts to situate and connect the established traditions of our field with complimentary methods and processes external to LDT (e.g., UXD, human-computer interaction). To approach this need, we performed qualitative content analysis on a corpus of 15 chapters from a recently published edited volume focused specifically on LXD in the field of LDT. Our research questions focused on identifying key terms and concepts, exploring how chapter authors characterized LXD, and examining the perspectives that informed authors’ conceptions of LXD. We approached these questions using a rigorous, multi-phase inquiry process in which we conducted systematic, iterative open-coding. These coding efforts led to the emergence of a rich tapestry of terminology, methods, and concepts associated with LXD. Importantly, while book chapter authors drew from outside the field of LDT, the manner in which they intentionally located their work within established traditions of this field was particularly revealing. Grounded in the voices of these researchers and practitioners, we assert that LXD is a human-centric, theoretically-grounded, and socio-culturally sensitive approach to learning design, intended to propel learners towards identified learning goals, and informed by UXD methods. On the basis of this operational definition, directions for future research are proposed.
... User-centered design (UCD) and user experience (UX) methods increasingly are being applied in learning design contexts (Cheng, 2019;Dimitrijević & Devedžić, 2021;Jahnke et al., 2020;Matthews & Yanchar, 2018;Shernoff et al., 2020;. This signals a shift in the field of learning design and technology (LDT), moving the field towards more human-centered approaches to designing digital environments for learning (Matthews et al., 2017;McDonald et al., 2019;Quintana et al., 2000;Soloway et al., 1994). Human-centered approaches to learning design seek to provide learners pleasing and effective digital learning tools that are easy to use and that efficiently propel them towards their learning goals (Robinson et al., 2017;Roman et al., 2020). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Increasing interest in user experience design (UXD) in the field of learning design and technology (LDT) signals a growing recognition of the importance of the individual experience of using learning technologies to learning-the learner experience (LX). However, a need exists to better define and conceptualize the phenomenon of learning experience design (LXD). Imprecise, interchangeable, and reductive usage of terms and concepts related to LXD frustrates efforts to situate and connect the established traditions of our field with complimentary methods and processes external to LDT (e.g., UXD, human-computer interaction). To approach this need, we performed qualitative content analysis on a corpus of 15 chapters from a recently published edited volume focused specifically on LXD in the field of LDT. Our research questions focused on identifying key terms and concepts, exploring how chapter authors characterized LXD, and examining the perspectives that informed authors' conceptions of LXD. We approached these questions using a rigorous, multi-phase inquiry process in which we conducted systematic, iterative open-coding. These coding efforts led to the emergence of a rich tapestry of terminology, methods, and concepts associated with LXD. Importantly, while book chapter authors drew from outside the field of LDT, the manner in which they intentionally located their work within established traditions of this field was particularly revealing. Grounded in the voices of these researchers and practitioners, we assert that LXD is a human-centric, theoretically-grounded, and socio-culturally sensitive approach to learning design, intended to propel learners towards identified learning goals, and informed by UXD methods. On the basis of this operational definition, directions for future research are proposed.
... These changes in the instructional context require instructors to focus on compassion and empathy during their facilitation of ERE at levels that probably are not required outside of ERE . It is important to explicitly include these considerations during ERE as it has specifically been noted that distance learning designers are often quite removed from the learners for whom they are designing (Matthews, Williams, Yanchar, & McDonald, 2017). Making design decisions regarding assessment for ERE, and the other decisions needed to successfully implement ERE are short-term results based on immediate needs. ...
Article
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The authors discuss the applicability of common assessment types used in online instruction to the context of emergency remote education. Written assignments, online discussions, fieldwork, tests and quizzes, presentations, and e-portfolios are specifically addressed. The discussion includes the concepts of synchronous versus asynchronous assessments and issues related to academic integrity. The authors conclude by noting that empathy and radical flexibility are integral to assessment in emergency remote education. SOMMARIO Gli autori affrontano il tema dell'applicabilità dei tipi di valutazione comunemente utilizzati nella formazione online al contesto della didattica a distanza in situazioni emergenziali. In particolare, si considera il caso di compiti scritti, discussioni online, lavoro educativo sul campo, i test e i quiz, le presentazioni e gli e-portfolio. La discussione include i concetti di valutazione sincrona e asincrona e le problematiche relative all'integrità accademica. Gli autori concludono osservando che l'empatia e una flessibilità "radicale" sono parte integrante della valutazione nella didattica a distanza in emergenza. PAROLE CHIAVE Valutazione dell'apprendimento; Apprendimento Online; Didattica a Distanza in Emergenza; Valutazione Online.
... Finally, we encourage instructional design researchers to consider how the themes of our study could be accounted for in the theories, models, or principles of good practice related to instructional design teams. We also encourage them to study how the themes relate to interpersonal factors associated with instructional design such as negotiation (Kim, 2015), or empathy (Matthews et al., 2017). This is the case even though some of the accounts we reported were related by team members who did not identify as instructional designers. ...
Article
In this article we report our research into the concerns and other matters of significance for members of instructional design teams. Specifically we studied how members of a design team depicted the quality of their own motives while participating in team pursuits. This is a type of self-evaluation known as drawing distinctions of worth. Our research took the form of a case study, focusing on an instructional design team at a university in the United States. Based on interviews with team members and observations of their work, we developed an account of our research participant’s distinctions of worth organized around three themes: (a) distinctions of worth could guide their decision-making more than did the goals of the project; (b) competing distinctions of worth could be difficult for them to reconcile; and (c) their distinctions of worth could be accompanied by unanticipated costs. Overall, these themes reflect that distinctions of worth were a real aspect of our participants’ team involvement, and not merely their subjective responses to situational factors. This has implications for those managing teams or otherwise helping teams improve, which we discuss. We also discuss how research into instructional design teams that only focuses on external dynamics team members experience, and not on factors such as their distinctions of worth, cannot fully account for what it means for people to contribute towards team outcomes.
... While empathy is not typically featured in a specific sense in the systematic design of instruction, consideration for the learners and the learning context can form the basis for empathetic design. Lessons learned from the research conducted by Matthews et al. (2017) describe concrete ideas, as well as identify realistic tensions, involved in the deliberate inclusion of empathy in the design of distance and online learning. Possible strategies to support the well-being of learners during these challenging times include setting flexible expectations, creating a sense of belonging, incorporating routines, prioritizing design decisions with an eye toward streamlining requirements, and humanizing the learning experience (Hodges et al., in press). ...
... Segundo Brown (2017, p. 47), a empatia é a tentativa de enxergar o mundo através dos olhos dos outros, de compreender o mundo por meio de experiências alheias e de sentir o mundo por suas emoções. De acordo com Matthews et al. (2017), a empatia também é fundamental na prática projetual da EaD, surgindo pela preocupação e cuidado dos designers educacionais com a experiência de aprendizagem proposta para o aluno, pelas memórias de quando eram estudantes e pelo exercício de imaginação que os coloca no papel do discente. No processo de estruturação do AVA orientado pela empatia, surgem demandas pela criação de uma interface organizada e de fácil navegação, capaz de estabelecer uma comunicação clara e agradável, não apenas por meio de textos, mas sobretudo por imagens. ...
... In recent years, we have begun to see a transition in instructional design research to focus more on empathetic design (Parrish, 2006;Vann, 2017). This attention to employing a more empathetic approach to instructional design tasks instructional designers with taking a more learner-centered approach to the design process by gathering information that provides a more personal and holistic overview of the learner as a person (Matthews et al., 2017;Parrish, 2006;Rapanta & Catoni, 2013). ...
Book
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Researchers in the field of Learning/Instructional Design and Technology have been engaged in productive scholarly endeavors at the intersection of Learning Design, User Experience, Human-Computer Interaction, and associated disciplines for some time. This edited volume captures the collective voices of authors working in this area. This book focuses on explicating the ontological and epistemological underpinnings of user-centered design and user experience as applied in the field of Learning/Instructional Design and Technology with the goal of foregrounding the importance of learner experience as an emerging design paradigm for the field. This volume is comprised of 15 chapters and organized into three parts: (1) Methods and Paradigms (5 chapters), (2) Conceptual and Design Frameworks (6 chapters), and (3) LX Design-in-practice (4 chapters). This volume serves as a contribution to an emerging, transdisciplinary, and complex phenomenon that requires multiple literacies. LX is not only concerned with the effectiveness of designed learning interventions, but also with the interconnected and interdependent relationship between the learner- (or the teacher-/instructor-) as-user, the designed technology, novel pedagogical techniques or instructional strategies, and the learning context. The diversity and breadth of perspectives presented herein serve as a topographical sketch of the emerging focus area of learner experience and represent an opportunity to build upon this work in the future.
... Analysis followed a hermeneutic approach (Fleming, Gaidys, & Robb, 2003) that has been used successfully in previous research of a similar nature (e.g. Matthews, Williams, Yanchar, & McDonald, 2017;Matthews & Yanchar, 2018). Our process was to. ...
Article
In this paper we inquire into the moral goods that are significant for design studio instructors, by examining how they talk about the way critiques fit into the studio as a social practice. We studied this issue using in-depth interviews with six studio instructors. Through these interviews, we found that critiques are how they structure the studio so they can pursue three types of moral goods: a) for student development; b) for their own self-cultivation; and c) for other stakeholders. Along with presenting these goods, we discuss what instructors say about multiple goods exerting influence on them at the same time. Finally, we discuss implications these findings have for understanding the studio environment, and why critiques matter within this environment.
Chapter
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Teaching and learning through a global pandemic have significantly changed PK-12 education. As a result, consideration is necessary to determine how these changes impact how preservice teachers are prepared to effectively design and implement eLearning, especially as a tool that works cohesively with face-to-face learning experiences. While eLearning has great potential for enhancing traditional approaches, many challenges exist, including how to productively include parents and guardians as a part of the learning process. In this systematic literature review, we considered articles focused on the experiences of parents or guardians during the COVID pandemic of supporting young learners during eLearning. By analyzing these articles, themes were identified across experiences. Implications for preparing preservice teachers to meaningfully engage parents during eLearning are provided.
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated a systematic change in course modalities due to the nationwide suspension of in-person instruction, resulting in the transition to emergency remote distance learning via Zoom. This transition certainly facilitated affordances of flexibility and continuity, but with it brought issues of unfamiliarity, lack of confidence, anxiety, distractions, and validity from both the instructors and the student perspectives. This in situ study aimed to better understand the students' learning experiences with Zoom by assessing the social, cognitive, and behavioral factors influencing learner's mind-wandering and its effect on online engagement. Undergraduate students from 14 classes across two research institutions in California (N = 633) were recruited to participate in an online survey while distance learning through a pandemic. Structural equation modeling was used to conduct a path analysis to explain the factors impacting students' online engagement mediated by students' frequency to mind-wander. Study findings revealed that (1) self-efficacy and trait anxiety had significant direct effects on students' mind-wandering; (2) self-efficacy, trait anxiety, task-value beliefs, and mind-wandering had significant direct effects on students' online engagement; and finally (3) the frequency of students' mind-wandering partially mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and engagement and between trait anxiety and engagement. Identifying these structural relationships further confirmed our hypotheses on sources contributing to students' mind-wandering while learning remotely, provided insights into potential mechanisms underpinning students' online engagement, and suggests practical pedagogical learning experience design recommendations for instructors to immediately implement while teaching and learning with Zoom..
Article
Traditional teacher professional development (PD) programs frequently lack sufficient face-to-face preparation time to adequately support the implementation of evidence-based pedagogical strategies in classrooms, with teachers citing insufficient preparedness and training time for new methods. To investigate potentials for online PD methods to effectively address these issues, while increasing sustainability, this study examined teachers in Title-I elementary schools spanning multiple school districts participating in a large-scale online PD certificate program preparing teachers over 10 instructional weeks to implement Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (S)cience, (T)echnology, (E)ngineering, (A)rts, (M)ath (STEAM) curricular instruction with goals of increasing teachers’ science content knowledge, self-efficacy to implement STEAM instruction, and STEAM teaching perceptions. Paired sample t-tests indicate teachers’ life science content knowledge, self-efficacy, and STEAM perceptions increased significantly after completing the online PD. Multiple regression analyses identified teachers’ science content knowledge and STEAM perceptions as statistically significant predictors of teachers’ self-efficacy to implement STEAM instructional strategies. Teachers’ posttest course evaluations were gleaned, highlighting three emergent themes: learning experience design, modality, and online teacher collaboration. Utilizing a mixed method approach, these qualitative insights corroborated the quantitative trends, describing how specific aspects of the pedagogical learning experience design (LXD) framework operationalized in the online course fostered a practitioner development learning environment, focused on supporting teachers’ learning needs. Results suggest practical design implications for sustainably increasing the efficacy of PD through online teacher training developed in conjunction with LXD models for iterative improvement and design of high-quality online instructional PD programs.
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The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in immediate and necessary changes to many aspects of K-12 and postsecondary education. In order to support teachers and teacher educators during this challenging time, a call was released in April of 2020 for short articles to be published in a special issue of the Journal of Technology and Teacher Education (JTATE). The process mirrored what was happening in medicine at the time; in other words, hapters were short (1000-2000 words), the timeline for submission was compressed (2 weeks), and reviewers were given limited time to critique (1 week). While the fast-track publishing was relatively new to education, the goal was to quickly identify and then share best practices for teaching and learning during a very challenging time. The call resulted in an overwhelming number of manuscripts (N = 266) describing important and innovative work around the globe. After careful but rapid peer review, and in consultation with the Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), a decision was made to publish both an open-access special issue in JTATE titled Preservice and Inservice Professional Development During the COVID-19 Pandemic (Hartshorne et al., 2020) and an eBook titled Teaching, Technology, and Teacher Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Stories from the Field (Ferdig et al., 2020). There were thirty-three articles in the special issue and 133 chapters in the eBook that were all submitted, reviewed, and published in 8 weeks (Ferdig et al., 2021). Existing data to measure the success of either publication, at least quantitatively, include the number of downloads and citations of the book, the editorials for both publications, the articles, and the chapters. Having said that, anecdotally, authors and readers have shared that the publications gave them both specific strategies and hope during a difficult time. The hope came from ideas for moving forward and the knowledge that they were not alone in their frustrations, needs, and concerns. While such quantitative and anecdotal outcomes are desirable, and while the rapid publication process was relatively novel for many in the field, there was one significant and acknowledged weakness. The speed at which the pandemic swept the world meant that there was limited time to propose a research project, gain institutional review board (IRB) approval, collect and analyze data, and then prepare an article or chapter for submission. There were a few articles and chapters that did have data because they were working in areas related to pandemic solutions (e.g., online learning). However, most of the writings lacked their own empirical data to support their claims. Authors wrote about their ideas and current work and then used other research to attempt to triangulate and theoretically support their proposed solutions. At the time of conception in 2020, the value of supporting educators outweighed empirical needs (vs. theoretical or conceptual publications). However, it did provide an opportunity to be able to return to the topic two years later. In April of 2022, authors from both the special issue and the book were invited to share the research they had conducted since 2020 on the issue they presented in either of the earlier publications. They were asked to be transparent about what had worked, what had not worked, and what direction they had taken since their previous initiative. And, as with both earlier publications, they were asked to draw implications related to technology and teacher education.
Chapter
This chapter revisits proposed suggestions and implications of utilizing virtual worklabs to complete coursework when the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the education system in 2020. Using reflexivity and ongoing data collection, this chapter evaluates how worklabs build upon accountability and goal setting (e.g., structure, attendance, macro and micro goals). Reviewing strategies and tools from that period of time forward brings a deeper understanding to what is still relevant in learning today (e.g., flexibility in settings, collaboration, choice) and how reflecting on these processes during the last two years continues to evolve and provide implications for teacher educators, professional development, and K-12 classroom learning environments.
Chapter
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The Oxford Dictionary (2022) defines encouragement as the “act of giving someone support, confidence, or hope.” The use of encouragement in the classroom is nothing new, and the positive implications for encouraging students are known. However, there is a question of how teachers are receiving the much-needed support, confidence and hope post-pandemic. The impact of using safe texting platforms to provide more frequent encouragement for teachers at various stages of their educational careers has not been investigated. This study examines the extent in which teachers receive encouraging words, as well as the effects (if any) of encouraging text messages on in-service alumni and pre-service teachers. A purposive sample of 31 participants from the mid-Atlantic region were surveyed. Results suggest weekly encouraging messages positively impacted both in-service and pre-service teachers, while also aiding in relationship building. Participants indicated messages were timely, supportive, motivating, and impacted their overall mindset each week.
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COVID-19 caused many rapid changes to the education system, often involving technology in one way or another, and assessment was no outsider to these transformations. Many educators quickly realized that traditional methods of assessment were not always the best or most practical way to assess students in online environments. Screencasting is a multimedia assessment approach that was previously suggested. As we transition back to more in-person learning, the use of screencasting for assessment in a variety of learning environments is examined.
Article
Design thinking can be broadly defined as a set of creative skills to understand and problem-solve ambiguous and complex problems, and a practice that places humans at the heart of the design process. Such collaborative ways of design thinking and design-doing are much needed to address twenty-first century challenges such as climate change. Design thinking methodology is well known for teaching and learning in design disciplines, and to a lesser extent, as an innovative problem-solving framework for business education. Typically design thinking has been taught and practised in physical settings and to a lesser extent online. While design thinking is also increasingly practised online, this is challenging at scale in higher education contexts. This case study analyses design thinking activities with educational technologies in a large undergraduate cohort of first-year business students. Eleven students and three teachers were interviewed to ascertain their level of engagement with design thinking with digital tools and to identify common themes that enabled or inhibited such practice. Student artefacts of design thinking are explored and compared to the interview data. Findings indicate that students may develop novice design thinking skills, process knowledge and mindsets in online and remote delivery modes, despite limited experience, technical and time constraints. Broader learning design implications of design thinking constraints in digital practice are discussed to assist educators. It is suggested that higher education adopt and support design thinking, as a subject and practice, more widely.
Chapter
A number of studies have been conducted exploring competencies expected of instructional designers in the field. The results of these studies that have explored competencies and the alignment and discrepancies between instructional designers and their clients’ and employers’ expectations demonstrate the need for instructional designers to be prepared to serve in a number of expanded roles as instructional designers. In order to prepare instructional designers for what will be expected of them upon entering the instructional design workforce, graduate programs need to look at which competencies are being emphasized through their respective curricula. The purpose of this chapter is to explore instructional design course offerings among programs across the United States as they relate to design pedagogy and praxis. We also offer discussion on the types of instructional exposure needed to prepare aspiring instructional designers for the field.
Article
Designing within a system is ubiquitous to instructional design. In order to understand the systemic impact of design decisions within an organization, one must understand the interrelatedness of the objects within the system. Developing an understanding of context as it relates to the utility of instructional design solutions will position instructional designers to systemically influence the organization in a positive manner. This paper acknowledges the systemic challenges encountered by instructional designers in the workplace and discusses how design thinking can be leveraged with HPT strategies to assist the instructional designer with designing solutions that have a systemic impact on the organization. This paper also introduces a conceptual framework, grounded in general systems theory, that combines design thinking principles with instructional design practices to improve performance.
Article
Schools in South Korea are experiencing problems such as bullying and school violence, so solutions are needed. Developing students’ empathy could reduce or prevent these problems. Thus, the purpose of this study was to apply an empathy-based learning model to elementary social studies classes and document its effects on students’ empathy at school and academic engagement. The participants were 54 fifth-grade students from two classes in Korea (27 in the experimental group and 27 in the control group). The experimental group was placed in a social studies class using the empathy-based learning model, while the control group was placed in a different class taught in a traditional way. Quantitative data measuring students’ empathy at school and academic engagement were analyzed using independent sample t tests and covariance analysis. A teacher and students from the experimental group also participated in written interviews to provide more in-depth perspectives about the model. Qualitative data were analyzed by referring to Creswell’s (A concise introduction to mixed methods research, Sage Publications, Thousands Oaks, 2014) data analysis spiral methodology. The analysis was conducted through data collection, data transcription, data reading, classification, and interpretation based on this method. The results showed that empathy-based instruction had stronger positive effects on students’ empathy and academic engagement than traditional lecture-oriented instruction. Interviews with experimental group students and the teacher indicated that they were satisfied with the empathy-based class and acknowledged the importance of empathy. This suggests a positive influence of the empathy-based learning model on students in social studies. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Chapter
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This chapter surveys methods, techniques, practices, and challenging issues in user-centered design and development (UCDD). The traditional instructional systems design (ISD) approach has been criticized for its bureaucratic and linear nature and its slow process. Two alternatives to that approach are discussed here: rapid prototyping and participatory design. These have been put forth as alternative models that address the many limitations of the conventional ISD model.
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I critique the role of learners and context to more fully explore the latent conceptions and performance of aesthetic learning experiences in instructional design and technology. This critique is intended to allow for a fuller interrogation of how individual learners apprehend designed learning experiences, heightening the role of the instructional designer in envisioning such experiences. Using a 1-year ethnography of a graduate human–computer interaction program to document the felt student experience, I highlight the importance of understanding how learners construct their own experiences during the learning process through the roles they take on and the informal pedagogical experiences they create. I identify additional areas of research that are needed to expand our notions of designing for experience, informing both theory construction and practice.
Article
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While user-centred design and user experience are given much attention in the e-learning design field, no research has been found on how users are actually represented in the discussions during the design of online courses. In this paper we identify how and when end-users' experience—be they students or tutors—emerges in designers' discussions during their meetings in well-established open universities. More precisely, we observed 15 design meetings of two design teams during the development of specific online courses. Designers' discourse was analysed on the basis of six dimensions regarding relevant actors, contents and strategies (purposes) of user experience anticipation. Results show the emergence of a solution-oriented anticipatory discourse in form of scenarios regarding how learners and tutors will react to the course and the proposed activities. Moreover, this discourse is related to an emergent type of users-based expertise, translated as the capacity of some designers to empathise with the end-users more than other designers do. The participation of designers with this type of expertise in e-learning design teams emerges as relevant for the decisions related to the course activities, interface or overall experience. Further research is invited towards this direction. Further discussion on this article can be found in “Being in the users' shoes: Is there maybe another way?” (DOI: 10.1111/bjet.12104).
Article
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Recent theories of empathy highlight perception-action components as a basis for automatic responses to perceived emotions. Since music is universally based on human actions and often elicits strong emotions, it was hypothesized that empathy influences audiovisual estimations of emotional expression. In this study, the performance and perception of a string quartet was investigated using time-series analyses. Quartet musicians rated video presentations of their own performance, resulting in relationships between visual-only and auditory-only judgments as well as acoustical intensity measures. Independent observers accurately perceived the string quartet's expressive intentions in multimodal presentations. Observers with higher affective and overall empathy were more accurate at estimating the musicians' intentions. It is argued that empathy—via the perception of bodily motion—has an impact on the appreciation of performing arts such as music. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The amount of resources being poured by Western universities, companies, and governments into creating educational content to be exported (via the Internet) to other cultures is astounding. Those assigned to accomplish this task are left with the great challenge of meeting the needs of learners who come from cultures that are foreign to them, and who often have very different abilities and expectations than originally assumed. This study explores the cultural competence in the lived experience of 12 professionals who have been involved with such efforts. Often they have had to question their assumptions, recognizing flaws in their own thinking and in the organizations that support them, and tried to alter their practice accordingly. Their awareness of cultural differences and the importance and impact of these differences in their practice will be discussed.
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Conference Paper
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For a decade HCI researchers and practitioners have been developing methods, practices and designs 'for the full range of human experience'. On the one hand, a variety of approaches to design, such as aesthetic, affective, and ludic that emphasize particular qualities and contexts of experience and particular approaches to intervening in interactive experience have become focal. On the other, a variety of approaches to understanding users and user experience, based on narrative, biography, and role-play have been developed and deployed. These developments can be viewed in terms of one of the seminal commitments of HCI, 'to know the user'. Empathy has been used as a defining characteristic of designer-user relationships when design is concerned with user experience. In this article, we use 'empathy' to help position some emerging design and user-experience methodologies in terms of dynamically shifting relationships between designers, users, and artefacts.
Conference Paper
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Persona is a technique being used by practicing designers in interaction design. Existing research presents the ways personas should/could be used, or report new efforts of making good use of the persona concept. Comparing to the primary idea of persona, this paper explores some manners with which practitioners actually utilize persona in their work, which has not been emphasized in-depth in current literatures. Our findings provide an initial step showing how practitioners in a creative way develop various usages of personas in practice. We believe this research not only expands the understanding of personas in design, but also gives insights about how practicing designers adapt and make design "tools" their own.
Article
In this exploratory inquiry into the nature of the relationship between systematic instructional design models and teachers’ planning practices and needs, the researchers conducted open-ended interviews with six teachers of science and math in order to discover how they conceptualized and practiced instructional design. The most important finding to emerge from this research was that, from the teachers’ perspective, caring must be a central component of any instructional design activity. Regardless of gender and grades taught, the teachers indicated that they need to be able to make instructional decisions based upon their caring relationships with individual learners. Les enseignant de sciences et mathématiques comme concepteurs pédagogiques: relier l’identité et l'éthique de la sollicitude Résumé : Dans cette enquête exploratoire de la nature de la relation entre les modèles systématiques de conception pédagogique et les besoins ainsi que la pratique de planification des enseignants, les chercheures ont effectué des entrevues ouvertes avec six enseignants de sciences et mathématiques afin de découvrir leurs représentations et leurs pratiques de la conception pédagogique. Le résultat le plus important émergent de cette enquête a été que selon la perspective des enseignants, la sollicitude se doit d’être une des composantes centrales de n’importe quelle activité de conception pédagogique. Indépendamment du genre et du niveau d’enseignement, les enseignants ont indiqué qu’ils doivent être en mesure de pouvoir faire des décisions pédagogiques en fonction de leurs relations empathiques avec les apprenant individuels.
Chapter
A growing demand to be empathic can be witnessed in organization studies and management advice literature. This requirement does not only focus on the leadership anymore, but rather on the whole staff. Design Thinking has ultimately provided methods and techniques for fostering empathy in teamwork settings. From these developments two questions arise that shall be addressed by this article: How could empathy have become one of the most important things for the economy today? And second: Does Design Thinking indeed deliver useful empathy-techniques that will help employees in their daily routine? For this study we used a documentary analysis approach. The results show that empathy in organizations is a creator of sense and knowledge, but misconceptions of it may also lead to unintentional costs for employees.
Article
This article describes the historical antecedents of empathy, elaborates on the Rogerian definition of basic and advanced empathy, and relates how some authors have expanded on those definitions. It then describes six creative and novel empathic responses that fit the original Rogers definition of empathy: reflecting deeper feelings, pointing out discrepancies, and the use of visual imagery, analogies, metaphors, and targeted self-disclosure. The benefits and limits of how empathy is taught in counselor training programs are discussed and ways seasoned counselors can improve their skill in making complex empathic responses are suggested.
Article
This study employed a qualitative research design to investigate informal learning among practicing instructional designers. Prior research has examined how instructional designers spend their time, make decisions, use theory, solve problems, and so on, but no published research has explored the nature and role of informal learning in instructional design work. Based on intensive interviews of practitioners in the field, this study produced eight themes organized according to two metathemes: (a) the nature of informal learning in instructional design practice and (b) instructional design as informal learning. Specific themes concerned what instructional designers learn through informal practical experience, how they learn it, and the meaning of this kind of learning for various aspects of their work. Overall, these results suggest that informal learning is a vital part of instructional design practice and that design itself can be thought of as a specialized type of informal learning. Other conclusions regarding informal learning in design are discussed and future directions for research are offered.
Article
Design ethnography is the appropriation of ethnography for the purposes of informing design. This paper investigates the effects of these appropriations, through a comparative study of how designers and anthropologists approach the same field site and by a review of new techniques introduced by designers to do ethnography. The techniques reviewed all apply artefacts to mediate the ethnographic process. Conducting ethnography through artefacts can be done in a number of ways and three ways are discussed here, including techniques which remove the researcher from the context of study. The implications for design ethnography of the comparative study and the introductions of artefacts to facilitate ethnographic work are discussed. The implications focus on potential methodological pitfalls of the ‘designification’ of ethnography as design ethnography matures.
Book
Humans did not discover fire—they designed it. Design is not defined by software programs, blueprints, or font choice. When we create new things—technologies, organizations, processes, systems, environments, ways of thinking—we engage in design. With this expansive view of design as their premise, in The Design Way, Harold Nelson and Erik Stolterman make the case for design as its own culture of inquiry and action. They offer not a recipe for design practice or theorizing but a formulation of design culture’s fundamental core of ideas. These ideas—which form “the design way”—are applicable to an infinite variety of design domains, from such traditional fields as architecture and graphic design to such nontraditional design areas as organizational, educational, interaction, and health care design. Nelson and Stolterman present design culture in terms of foundations (first principles), fundamentals (core concepts), and metaphysics, and then discuss these issues from both learner’s and practitioner’s perspectives. The text of this second edition is accompanied by new detailed images, “schemas” that visualize, conceptualize, and structure the authors’ understanding of design inquiry. This text itself has been revised and expanded throughout, in part in response to reader feedback.
Article
Presents a case for viewing instructional design as a moral endeavor; offers a framework for discussing the moral dimensions of the profession, including conscience formation and competency development; and discusses ways the framework can be used to improve the practice of instructional design. (LRW)
Article
This paper considers some empirical research into the modelling of moral values in schools, which highlights the hidden impact of working environments on classroom relationships. After an initial survey and pilot study, a range of primary, secondary and student teachers, selected for their empathy, were interviewed and observed in order to understand the nature of empathy in different contexts. The findings revealed four particular types of empathy used in learning relationships: fundamental, functional, profound and feigned. Of these, functional, used in large classes, was the most common, but revealed considerable negative implications for the moral model offered by state education. Profound empathy, more rarely seen, developed through close and frequent interaction and held the most beneficial consequences for moral modelling, learning relationships and achievement. However, the economic values embedded in the structures and systems of the state education sector, typified by large classes, restrict the flourishing of profound empathy.
Article
Draws upon the work of M. Heidegger (1927 [1962]) to compare hermeneutics with the other major paradigms of inquiry and explanation in psychology—rationalism (cognitivism and structuralism) and empiricism (experimentalism and behaviorism). These paradigms are compared in terms of their view of the form and origin of knowledge, notions of the proper object of study, and the type of explanation each seeks. In the process, the 3 modes of engagement distinguished by Heidegger are described: the ready-to-hand, the unready-to-hand, and the present-at-hand. A study of moral conflicts, which developed between college students during a prisoner's dilemma game, is used as an example of the form a hermeneutic inquiry can take. Advantages of the interpretive nature of the hermeneutic approach are discussed. (59 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Over the course of a century of professional practice, designers have mastered a set of skills that can be productively applied to a wider range of problems than has commonly been supposed. These include complex social problems, issues of organizational management, and strategic innovation. Conversely, non-designers—those in leadership positions in companies, governmental and non-governmental organizations, professionals in a broad range of services and industries—can benefit from learning how to think like designers. We offer some large-scale and more finely grained ideas about how this might happen.
Article
Information technology is reshaping relationships between companies and customers, often bringing benefits to both. The unfettered use of technology, however, can erode customer care. For a company to care for customers, its managers and front-line employees must listen empathetically to what they have to say. But a rash of 'innovations' aimed primarily at reducing costs has made many companies opaque to their customers, who are--as a consequence--inadequately served and increasingly frustrated. Equally damaging is the resulting estrangement of employees from customers, a separation that dampens the empathy upon which true care for customers depends. As a number of innovative companies have shown, though, technology need not necessarily sour relations between businesses and those they serve. Indeed, technology can actually enrich them if senior managers (1) affirm their commitment to active, empathetic involvement with customers; (2) understand the ways in which current procedures and systems mediate interactions with customers; and (3) promote the deployment of social networks and other technologies to help customers tell their stories, and to enable workers and managers alike to hear them. Only when employees can step into their customers' shoes can companies add authenticity to the claim: "We care for you."
Article
The study of empathy has a long and checkered history in psychology. There has been attention to empathic processes partly because of their pervasiveness and inherent interest, and partly because empathy has been suggested as an organizer and regulator of a variety of behaviors. However, for all of the consensus regarding the important regulating role of empathic affect in behavior, the empirical investigation of that role has often been stymied by the difficulties of definition and operation. So little agreement has existed among investigators regarding the phenomena to be investigated that the development of any sort of coherent view has been difficult to achieve. Investigative tactics have often been so heterogeneous as to render agreement difficult that they were investigations of the same phenomena. These general problems, while characteristic of the study of affective phenomena in general, are nowhere more apparent than in the study of empathy. For here investigators are confronted with the problem of inferring the emotional match between two or more people and then establishing links between those inferred affects to subsequent behaviors.
Article
This paper reflects upon the emerging uses of ethnography in engineering and systems design. Although ethnography is often equated simply with fieldwork, a driving force in the early development of classical ethnography was to provide accounts for what is observed in terms of a priori anthropological and sociological theories. Recent studies of collaborative work systems informed by ethnomethodology have exposed the shortcomings of classical ethnography, and have shifted the emphasis of fieldwork towards describing the accountable practices through which those in work constitute and organise their joint activity. However, a second wave of fieldwork-based studies of work systems and design is now gaining force that threatens to dilute this analytic emphasis. Using examples drawn from the production printing industry, I argue that recent examples of scenic fieldwork—fieldwork that merely describes and codifies what relevant persons do in the workplace—may well be missing out on the constitutive practices of how they do what they do, the `interactional what' of their activities. Rather than ethnography, or even fieldwork itself, it is the explication of members' knowledge—what people have to know to do work, and how that knowledge is deployed in the ordering and organisation of work—that provides the key to understanding the contribution of sociology to engineering and design.
Article
Empathy (affective sensitivity) was hypothesized to be positively related to creativity and expressiveness and inversely related to dogmatism, when gender and age were controlled. Participants were 56 graduate students enrolled in counseling and educational psychology courses at a large southwestern (U.S.) university. Participants were administered the Affective Sensitivity Scale (Kagan & Schneider, 1977) to measure empathy, the Statement of Past Creative Activities (Bull & Davis, 1980) to measure creativity, the Opinion Scale (Kleiber, Veldman, & Menaker, 1973) to measure dogmatism, and the Extended Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence, Helmreich, & Holahan, 1979) to measure expressiveness. The results of multiple regressions provide support for the hypotheses that empathy is positively related to creativity and inversely related to dogmatism, but the results do not support the hypothesized positive relationship between empathy and expressiveness. Implications of these findings for persons serving as counselors and counselor educators are discussed.
Article
Hermeneutic research in nursing: developing a Gadamerian-based research method This paper takes the stance that although there are many different approaches to phenomenological and hermeneutic research, some of these have become blurred due to multiple interpretations of translated materials. Working from original texts by the German philosophers, this paper reconsiders the relevance of phenomenology and hermeneutics to nursing research. We trace the development of Gadamer's philosophy in order to propose a research method based in this tradition. Five steps have been identified as a guide for nurse researchers. These are deciding upon a question, identification of preunderstandings, gaining understanding through dialogue with participants, gaining understanding through dialogue with text and establishing trustworthiness.
Embodied thinking as a trans-disciplinary habit of the mind
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Henriksen, B. D., Mehta, R., Mishra, P., Holmes, S., Arthur, S., Coyle, C., & Root-Bernstein, R. (2015). Embodied thinking as a transdisciplinary habit of the mind. TechTrends, 58(1), 9-12.
Heart versus head: Examining differential effects of empathy versus perspective taking on creative product design. NA-Advances in Consumer Research
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Herd, K. B., & Mehta, R. (2013). Heart versus head: Examining differential effects of empathy versus perspective taking on creative product design. NA-Advances in Consumer Research, 41.
This week in fiction: Mohsin Hamid
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Leyshon, C. (2012, September 16). This week in fiction: Mohsin Hamid. The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com.
Empathy and the instructional designer, Unpublished master’s thesis
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Williams, G. S. (2016). Empathy and the instructional designer, Unpublished master's thesis. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University.
Research-based personas: Teaching empathy in professional education
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Rooij, S. W. (2012). Research-based personas: Teaching empathy in professional education. The Journal of Effective Teaching, 12(3), 77-86.
Introduction to user experience and empathic design
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Koskinen, I., & Battarbee, K. (2003). Introduction to user experience and empathic design. In K. Koskinen, K. Batterbee, & T. Mattelmäki (Eds.), Empathic design: User experience in product design. Helsinki: IT Press.
Doing ethnography: Researching firsthand experience
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Pole, C., & Morrison, M. (2003). Doing ethnography: Researching firsthand experience. In Ethnology for education (pp. 17-46). Berkshire: Open University Press.
Empathy in education: Engagement, values, and achievement
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Cooper, B. (2011). Empathy in education: Engagement, values, and achievement. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.
Research-based personas: Teaching empathy in professional education
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