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Abstract and Figures

Southernmost records of Hyalinobatrachium eischmanni (Anura:
Fernando K. Cruz,1 Veronica L. Urgiles,2, 4 Juan Carlos Sánchez-Nivicela,2, 4 David C. Siddons,3
Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia4, 5
1 Universidad de Guayaquil, Escuela de Biología, Av. Delta yAv. Kennedy, Guayaquil, Ecuador. 2 Universidad del Azuay, Museo de Zoología,
Laboratorio de Herpetología, Av. 24 de Mayo 7-77, Cuenca, Ecuador. 3 Universidad del Azuay, Escuela de Biología, Ecología y Gestión, Av. 24
de Mayo 7-77, Cuenca, Ecuador. 4 Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad del Ecuador, División de Herpetología, calle Rumipamba 341 y Av. de los
Shyris, Quito, Ecuador. 5 Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ, Colegio de Ciencias Biológicas y Ambientales, Laboratorio de Zoología
Terrestre, Quito 170901, Ecuador.
Corresponding author: Veronica L. Urgiles,
We present new records for Fleischmann’s Glassfrog, Hyalinobatrachium eischmanni (Boettger, 1893), which extend
the distribution of this species into central and southwestern Ecuador and thus represent the southernmost known
localities. These new reports are based on specimens collected at Cerro de Hayas, province of Guayas, and Macul,
province of Los Ríos. These new localities extend the known geographic range of H. eischmanni by approximately
250 km south of previous known occurrences.
Key words
Glassfrogs; western Ecuador; distribution; Guayas; Los Ríos.
Academic editor: Rodrigo Lingnau | Accepted 9 March 2017 | Accepted 30 May 2017 | Published 11 July 2017
Citation: Cruz FK, Urgiles VL, Sánchez-Nivicela JC, Siddons, DC, Cisneros-Heredia DF (2017) Southernmost records of Hyalinobatrachium
eischmanni (Anura: Centrolenidae). Check List 13 (4): 67–70. https://doi.og/10.15560/13.4.67
Check List 13 (4): 67–70
Copyright Cruz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Hyalinobatrachium eischmanni (Boettger, 1893) has
the widest geographic distribution of any species of the
family Centrolenidae. It occurs from southern Mexico
to central-western Ecuador, from sea level up to 1800
m elevation (Kubicki 2007, Frost 2016). In Ecuador,
H. eischmanni inhabits Lowland Seasonal and Non-
Seasonal Evergreen forests in the northern and central
Pacic lowlands below 800 m elevation, with records in
the provinces of Esmeraldas, Manabí, Pichincha, and Los
Ríos (Lynch and Duellman 1973, Cisneros-Heredia and
McDiarmid 2007a, 2007b, Delia et al. 2010).
Information regarding amphibians of western Ecua-
dor is still fragmentary, and several species of the family
Centrolenidae are known from just a few widely dispersed
localities. The main explanation for this is the absence of
information regarding alpha diversity for the family in
the central and southern regions of Ecuador (Campos et
al. 2007, Ortega-Andrade et al. 2010, Yanez-Muñoz et al.
2014). Herein, we present 2 new latitudinal records of H.
eischmanni, which expand its geographic range along
the foothills and lowlands of central and southwestern
68 Check List 13 (4)
Specimens of H. eischmanni reported herein are
deposited at the Museo de Zoología, Universidad del
Azuay and were collected by the authors under research
permits of the Ministerio del Ambiente Ecuador
(008-2015-IC-FLO/FAU-DPG/MAE and 002-2015-UB-
UPN-DPALR-MAE). An adult male (Fig. 1) and a juvenile
male (MZUA.AN.1693–1694) were collected at Cerro de
Hayas (–02.7299, –079.6297, 127m), approximately 20
km southwest of Naranjal, province of Guayas (Fig. 3)
on 12 December 2015. One juvenile (MZUA.AN.0660,
Fig. 2) and 1 adult male (MZUA.AN.0661) were collected
at Macul (–01.2279 S, –079.7531, 84m), approximately
40 km southwest of Quevedo, province of Los Ríos on
16 August 2015 (Fig. 3). All the specimens were found
in fragments of riparian vegetation near paddocks and
The specimens exhibit the diagnostic features described
by Goin (1964), Lynch and Duellman (1973), Ortega-
Andrade et al. (2010), and Wild (2003). No signicant
variation is distinguished among the 4 specimens, either
alive or preserved. Diagnostic features include: green
dorsum with small yellow spots, and yellow iris with dark
spots in life; transparent parietal peritoneum; pericardium
and visceral peritonea covered by iridophores (i.e. white),
and all other internal peritonea transparent; extensive
webbing between ngers III and IV, but basal among all
other ngers; and humeral spine absent (Figs 1, 2).
These new records signicantly extend the known
geographic range of H. eischmanni, representing the
southernmost known localities for the species. Macul is
roughly 95 km south and Cerro de Hayas is approximately
250 km south from the nearest previously documented
locality (Río Palenque, –00.5667, –079.3333, province
of Santo Domingo; Lynch and Duellman 1973, Cisneros-
Figure 2. Hyalinobatrachium eischmanni, juvenile (MZUA.AN.0660) collected at Macul, province of Los Ríos, Ecuador. Note the distinctive
coloration of this species, with green dorsum and yellow spots, with a yellow iris with dark spots. Photo by Juan Carlos Sánchez-Nivicela.
Figure 1. Hyalinobatrachium eischmanni, adult male (MZUA.
AN.1693) collected at Cerro de Hayas, province of Guayas, Ecuador.
Photo by Fernando K. Cruz.
Cruz et al. | Southernmost records of Hyalinobatrachium eischmanni 69
Heredia and McDiarmid 2007b; Fig. 3). In addition, Cerro
de Hayas is the rst known locality of H. eischmanni in
the province of Guayas.
These new records reveal the presence of H. eis-
chmanni across the Pacic lowlands of Ecuador, in the
Western Ecuador Biogeographic Province (sensu Mor-
rone 2014). Despite extensive habitat destruction within
this region, H. eischmanni still maintains small popula-
tions in small forest fragments; more studies are needed
in order to determine whether there is any need for local
conservation eorts. However, as H. eischmanni is a
widespread species, even more studies are needed in
order to explore its biogeography and taxonomic status
to determine if we are indeed dealing with one species
or a species complex. From this, we will be able to truly
determine its local conservation status and extinction
We would like to thank Ronald Navarrete, Pedro X. Astu-
dillo, and Jacinto Guillén for institutional support. Erik
Wild and Juan Manuel Guayasamin provided valuable
comments to this paper. The work of VLU and JCS was
possible because of funding by Universidad del Azuay
under budget code Fondos UDA 2016 [39, 2016].
Authors’ Contributions
FKC, VLU and JCS collected the specimens; JCS and
DFCH identied the specimens; VLU and DFCH wrote
the text; VLU and JCS elaborate the map; DCS and
DFCH reviewed the text and distributional maps.
Acosta-Galvis AR (2012) First record of Hyalinobatrachium
eischmanni (Boettger, 1893) (Anura: Centrolenidae) from the
Caribbean region of Colombia. Check List 8 (4): 794–795. https://
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idad en el Ecuador Continental. Instituto Nazca de Investigaciones
Marinas / EcoCiencia / Ministerio del Ambiente / The Nature Con-
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Cisneros-Heredia DF (2009) Amphibia, Anura, Centrolenidae, Chi-
Figure 3. Geographic distribution of Hyalinobatrachium eischmanni. The cross represents the previous southernmost record for the species
in Río Palenque (Ecuador). The triangle and square represent the new southernmost records for the species as reported herein at Macul and
Cerro de Hayas (western Ecuador). Information about the distribution of Hyalinobatrachium eischmanni was obtained from IUCN (2016)
and Acosta-Galvis (2012).
70 Check List 13 (4)
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linobatrachium ruedai en Ecuador con notas sobre otras especies
congenéricas. Herpetotropicos 3 (1): 21–28.
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Observations on the reproductive behavior of a neotropical glass-
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Heredia, 312 pp.
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... Although our knowledge of the diversity and natural history of reptiles in western Ecuador is limited, important herpetological discoveries have been made in recent years, such as new species and significant expansion of the geographic range extensions of previously recorded species (e.g. Jadin et al. 2009;Cisneros-Heredia et al. 2010;Ortega-Andrade et al. 2010;Passos et al. 2012;Torres-Carvajal et al. 2012, 2015Ayala-Varela et al. 2014;Yánez-Muñoz et al. 2014Cisneros-Heredia and Romero 2015;Pyron et al. 2015;Salazar-Valenzuela et al. 2015;Cruz-García 2017;Cruz et al. 2017;Arteaga et al. 2017Arteaga et al. , 2018Reyes-Puig et al. 2019). ...
... Eighty-four species of reptiles have been previously reported in the province of Guayas (Almendáriz and Carr 1992;Cornejo 2015;Cruz et al. 2017;Torres-Carvajal et al. 2019). Records presented herein reinforce the probability that there are still several unreported species of reptiles in Guayas, remaining in small relicts of native vegetation. ...
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Southernmost record of Rhinobothryum bovallii (Andersson 1916), new country records and notes of distribution range of Anolis lyra (Poe, Velasco, Miyata and Williams 2009), Corallus blombergi (Rendahl and Vestergren 1941) and, Spilotes megalolepis (Linnaeus 1758), are provided from specimens collected in Cerro de Hayas forest, Guayas province, southwestern Ecuador.
... (3) tympanum covered by skin; (4) dorsal skin shagreen; (5) ventral skin granular, transparent; (6) parietal peritoneum transparent, visceral and pericardium peritoneum covered in white iridophores; (7) liver bulbous; (8) humeral spines absent; (9) hand webbing II 2 -3 1/2 III 2 -2 IV, absent between fingers I and II and basal between fingers II and III; (10) webbing between toes 1 -2 II 1-2 III 1 --2 IV 2 -1 V; (Cruz et al., 2017). The species ranges from sea level to 1,640 m asl. ...
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Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni is one of the widest ranging glassfrog species, occurring in the lowlands from Mexico through Central America to Ecuador. Despite its conservative morphology, previous studies suggested that the species is comprised of multiple lineages. Here we test the hypothesis of cryptic species within H. fleischmanni by means of morphology, morphometrics, bioacoustics, and molecular analysis. Molecular delimitation based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes detected 17 candidate species within H. fleischmanni but combined with other sources of evidence, we support the recognition of at least three different species within the name H. fleischmanni. The identity of H. fleischmanni sensu stricto is supported for populations from Costa Rica to eastern Honduras while the name Hyalinobatrachium tatayoi corresponds to the southern lineages in Costa Rica and South America. Those two species differ in the note duration of the advertisement call and in the absence of nuptial pads in the hand webbing of H. fleischmanni males. Populations from Mexico and Guatemala represent a third species to which we assign the available name H. viridissimum comb. nov. Hyalinobatrachium viridissimum differs from H. fleischmanni and H. tatayoi in mitochondrial DNA divergence, variation in peak frequency, and note duration of the advertisement call. A divergent lineage from western and central Honduras is tentatively assigned to H. viridissimum. Based on these results, we provide updated information for each species.
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Glassfrogs (family: Centrolenidae) represent a fantastic radiation (~150 described species) of Neotropical anurans that originated in South America and dispersed into Central America. In this study, we review the systematics of Ecuadorian glassfrogs, providing species accounts of all 60 species, including three new species described herein. For all Ecuadorian species, we provide new information on the evolution, morphology, biology, conservation, and distribution. We present a new molecular phylogeny for Centrolenidae and address cryptic diversity within the family. We employ a candidate species system and designate 24 putative new species that require further study to determine their species status. We find that, in some cases, currently recognized species lack justification; specifically, we place Centrolene gemmata and Centrolene scirtetes under the synonymy of Centrolene lynchi; C. guanacarum and C. bacata under the synonymy of Centrolene sanchezi; Cochranella phryxa under the synonymy of Cochranella resplendens; and Hyalinobatrachium ruedai under the synonymy of Hyalinobatrachium munozorum. We also find that diversification patterns are mostly congruent with allopatric speciation, facilitated by barriers to gene flow (e.g., valleys, mountains, linearity of the Andes), and that niche conservatism is a dominant feature in the family. Conservation threats are diverse, but habitat destruction and climate change are of particular concern. The most imperiled glassfrogs in Ecuador are Centrolene buckleyi, C. charapita, C. geckoidea, C. medemi, C. pipilata, Cochranella mache, Nymphargus balionotus, N. manduriacu, N. megacheirus, and N. sucre, all of which are considered Critically Endangered. Lastly, we identify priority areas for glassfrog conservation in Ecuador.
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The complex geological history of Central America has been useful for understanding the processes influencing the distribution and diversity of multiple groups of organisms. Anurans are an excellent choice for such studies because they typically exhibit site fidelity and reduced movement. The objective of this work was to identify the impact of recognized geographic barriers on the genetic structure, phylogeographic patterns and divergence times of a wide-ranging amphibian species, Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni . We amplified three mitochondrial regions, two coding (COI and ND1) and one ribosomal (16S), in samples collected from the coasts of Veracruz and Guerrero in Mexico to the humid forests of Chocó in Ecuador. We examined the biogeographic history of the species through spatial clustering analyses (Geneland and sPCA), Bayesian and maximum likelihood reconstructions, and spatiotemporal diffusion analysis. Our data suggest a Central American origin of H. fleischmanni and two posterior independent dispersals towards North and South American regions. The first clade comprises individuals from Colombia, Ecuador, Panama and the sister species Hyalinobatrachium tatayoi ; this clade shows little structure, despite the presence of the Andes mountain range and the long distances between sampling sites. The second clade consists of individuals from Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and eastern Honduras with no apparent structure. The third clade includes individuals from western Honduras, Guatemala, and Mexico and displays deep population structure. Herein, we synthesize the impact of known geographic areas that act as barriers to glassfrog dispersal and demonstrated their effect of differentiating H. fleischmanni into three markedly isolated clades. The observed genetic structure is associated with an initial dispersal event from Central America followed by vicariance that likely occurred during the Pliocene. The southern samples are characterized by a very recent population expansion, likely related to sea-level and climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene, whereas the structure of the northern clade has probably been driven by dispersal through the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and isolation by the Motagua–Polochic–Jocotán fault system and the Mexican highlands.
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The distribution of Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni in Colombia is reviewed. The first occurrence of this species from the floodplain forests of Caribbean region of Colombia is reported.
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A biogeographic regionalisation of the Neotropical region is proposed as a hierarchical classification of sub-regions, dominions, provinces and districts. This regionalisation is based on biogeographic analyses of terrestrial plant and animal taxa, and seeks to provide universality, objectivity and stability, such that it can be applied when describing distributional areas of particular taxa or comparing different biogeographic analyses. The Neotropical region is currently comprised of three sub-regions (Antillean, Brazilian and Chacoan), two transition zones (Mexican and South American), seven dominions (Mesoamerican, Pacific, Boreal Brazilian, Southwestern Amazonian, Southeastern Amazonian, Chacoan and Parana) and 53 provinces. For some of the latter, sub-provinces and districts are recognized. Complete synonymies and brief descriptions of the areas are provided, as well as the endemic taxa that diagnose the different provinces.
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D. F. Cisneros-Heredia and R. W. McDiarmid. "First record of Hyalinobatrachium ruedai (Amphibia: Centrolenidae) in Ecuador, with notes on other congeneric species". We report the first record of Hyalinobatrachium ruedai for Ecuador, extending its distribution range from Colombia to the central slopes of the Cordillera Oriental of Ecuador. Analysis of additional material and the type series of H. ruedai let us to comment on its morphological and coloration variation. Some characters previously known just from taxa of the Guiana Shield (eg. bicolored iris) are reported from H. ruedai. We suggest to maintain undivided the H. fleischmanni group, without recognition of subgroups. We comment on the taxonomic status of some species from the Pacific region of Ecuador, characterizing H. petersi, and recognizing that currently under the names Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni and H. valerioi there are at least three undescribed species.
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Anurans of the family Centrolenidae are a diverse clade of arboreal frogs distributed across tropical America. Knowledge of their taxonomy, systematics, ecology, behavior, morphology, and other evolutionary aspects of their biology is deficient. Relationships among centrolenid species remain largely unresolved, with no satisfactory phylogenetic hypothesis, and none of the current genera has compelling evidence of monophyly. Further, understanding the phylogeny of glassfrogs is constrained by species-level taxonomic problems, including incorrect description of characters, incomplete analyses of intraspecific variation, and lack of appreciation of species diversity. Herein, we define and analyze the 23 characters that are useful, in combination, in diagnosing centrolenid species, and thereby provide a reference for the use of future workers. We propose revised classifications for the parietal and visceral peritoneal pigmentation, liver form and coloration of its associated hepatic peritoneum, nuptial excrescences, and hand ornamentation. We comment on the generic and species-level taxonomy of Centrolenidae, proposing the recognition of a new genus and describing a new species from Ecuador. We treat Hyla ocellifera Boulenger as a synonym of Centrolene prosoblepon (Boettger), Hyalinobatrachium cardiacalyptum McCranie & Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi (Taylor), and Hyalinobatrachium crybetes McCranie and Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium colymbiphyllum (Taylor). We also present an annotated list of the species of glassfrogs from the Republic of Ecuador with some distributional remarks.
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This study investigated geographic variation in a suite of reproductive behavioral traits in Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni across several sites in Mexico and Ecuador. We made observations on the frequency of egg-mass brooding behavior and compared brooding encounter rates between wet and dry forest types. Brooding encounter rates were significantly higher in the drier region, suggesting a potential relationship between paternal care and climatic conditions. We also compared calling and oviposition sites between geographic regions and tested for associations with the distributional range of the frog-eating bat, Trachops cirrhosus. In regions where H. fleischmanni and T. cirrhosus co-occur, both calling males and egg masses were more frequently found on ‘less exposed’ lower surfaces of leaves, where risk of attack from aerial predators may be reduced. We also provide novel information on brooding behavior and clutch guarding, and discuss the implications of our results in the framework of existing information on the reproductive biology of this species.
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We report several records of Ecuadorian Glassfrogs that extend their distributional, elevational, and provincial ranges: Centrolene peristictum, Centrolene prosoblepon, Cochranella cochranae, Cochranella midas, Cochranella resplendens, Cochranella spinosa, Hyalinobatrachium munozorum.
Ein neuer Laubfrosch aus Costa Rica. Berichte der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main
  • O Boettger
Boettger O (1893) Ein neuer Laubfrosch aus Costa Rica. Berichte der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main 1892-1893: 251-252.
Análisis de Vacíos y Áreas Prioritarias Para la Conservación de la Biodiversidad en el Ecuador Continental
  • F Campos
  • M Peralvo
  • F Cuesta-Camacho
  • S Luna
Campos F, Peralvo M, Cuesta-Camacho F, Luna S (2007) Análisis de Vacíos y Áreas Prioritarias Para la Conservación de la Biodiversidad en el Ecuador Continental. Instituto Nazca de Investigaciones Marinas / EcoCiencia / Ministerio del Ambiente / The Nature Conservancy / Conservación Internacional. Proyecto GEF: Ecuador Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas, BirdLife International y Aves / Conservación, Quito, 83 pp.