Article

Validating InBody ® 570 Multi-frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer versus DXA for Body Fat Percentage Analysis

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Abstract

The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the relation between body fat percentages determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) versus multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MfBIA). One hundred and ten recreationally active individuals (72 male, 38 female) completed a 12-hr fast, refrained from exercise for a minimum of 12 hrs, and alcohol consumption 24 hrs prior to testing. After anthropometric measures were assessed, the subjects’ body fat percentage was determined from DXA and MfBIA subsequently. Each subject completed both body composition assessments in one visit to the Human Performance Laboratory. Pearson’s correlations and paired t tests were computed for fat tissue percentage from DXA and MfBIA. Subjects’ mean age, height, and weight were 20.72 ± 2 yrs, 174.61 ± 10.09 cm, and 77.94 ± 17.76 kg, respectively. Body fat percentages between the DXA (25.61 ± 10.56%) and MfBIA (20.99 ± 9.34%) were significantly related (r =.94, P<0.0001). Body fat percentage determined by DXA shares 88% of the variance with MfBIA, leaving 12% variance unexplained. However, the t tests displayed significant differences between modalities for each group comparison (P<0.0001). The results of the current study reveal if strict guidelines are adhered to MfBIA is a comparable method for determining body fat percentage when compared to DXA.

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... b. Monthly body composition analysis with a validated electrical bioimpedance device (InBody770, BioSpace, South Korea) [43][44][45][46], air-displacement plethysmography (Bod Pod, CosMed, USA) [47], and 3D body scanning (MyBodee, Styku, USA). c. Regular phone calls performed every 2 weeks by a clinic staff member, with active inquires of diet, exercise, behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy adherences. ...
... The following clinical parameters were evaluated: BW, total weight excess (TWE), BMI, fat weight (FW), muscle weight (MW), WC, visceral fat (VF), and weight regain (WR). BW, VF, MW, and WR were evaluated by InBody 770 [42][43][44][45]. FW was analyzed by Bod Pod [46], TWE was estimated by the calculation provided by InBody 770 [44,46], which considers mineral, water, and muscle masses to determine the ideal weight. ...
... FW was analyzed by Bod Pod [46], TWE was estimated by the calculation provided by InBody 770 [44,46], which considers mineral, water, and muscle masses to determine the ideal weight. This calculation has been validated and can precisely define the amount of excess fat [44][45][46]. Although body analysis was performed monthly, we used only the initial and final results (at 1 year after the initial results) of body analysis in this study. ...
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Background The number of bariatric procedures has exponentially increased in the past decade, as a result of the lack of successful clinical weight-loss interventions. The main reasons for the failure of clinical obesity management are: (1) anti-obesity medications are administered as monotherapies (or pre-combined drugs); (2) lack of combination between pharmacotherapy and non-pharmacological modalities; (3) short duration of pharmacotherapy for obesity; (4) lack of weight-loss maintenance strategies; (5) misunderstanding of the complex pathophysiology of obesity; and (6) underprescription of anti-obesity medications. We developed a protocol that can potentially overcome the drawbacks that may lead to the failure of clinical therapy for obesity. The aim of this study is therefore to report the clinical and metabolic effects of our proposed obesity-management protocol over a 2-year period, and to determine whether this more intensive approach to obesity management is feasible and a possible alternative to bariatric surgery in patients with moderate-to-severe obesity. Methods This retrospective study involved 43 patients in whom bariatric surgery was indicated. Patients underwent an intensive anti-obesity protocol that included pharmacotherapy with multiple drugs; intense surveillance with monthly body analysis by air-displacement plethysmography, electrical bioimpedance, and 3D body scans; weekly psychotherapy; diet planning with a dietician every 2 months; and exercises at least 3 times a week with exercises prescribed by a personal trainer at least once a month. Body weight (BW), total weight excess (TWE), obesity class, body mass index, fat weight, muscle weight, waist circumference, and visceral fat were analyzed. Markers of lipid and glucose metabolism, liver function, and inflammation were also evaluated. Therapeutic success was defined as >20% BW loss or >50% decrease in TWE after 1 year. ResultsSignificant improvements were observed in all clinical and metabolic parameters. Thirty-eight (88.4%) patients achieved 10% BW loss, and 32 (74.4%) achieved 20% BW loss. TWE decreased by >50% in 35 (81.4%) patients. Forty (93.0%) patients were able to avoid bariatric surgery. Conclusion An intensive clinical approach to obesity management can be an effective alternative to bariatric surgery, although further randomized controlled studies are necessary to validate our findings.
... Body composition was evaluated by standard procedures [30]. Participants' body composition parameters were measured with the InBody ® 570 Body Composition Analyzer (Biospace, Inc. ...
... Tainan, Taiwan). The InBody ® 570 is a reliable method of estimating body composition, including skeletal muscle mass, percentage of body fat, and resting metabolic rate (RMR), with a multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analyser [30]. During the body composition measurement, all participants wore lightweight sportswear and removed their shoes, socks, and any metal objects. ...
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Background: Whether intermittent chest compressions have an effect on the quality of CPR is worthy of discussion. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the chest compression quality of emergency medical technicians (EMTs) performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with different rest intervals. Methods: Seventy male firefighters with EMT licenses participated in this study. Participants completed body composition measurements and three CPR quality tests, as follows: (1) CPR-uninterrupted for 10 minutes; (2) after 2 days of rest, CPR 10s-intermittent (CPR-10s), for 2 minutes each time and 5 cycles; (3) after another 2 days of rest, CPR 20s-intermittent (CPR-20s), for 2 minutes each time and 5 cycles. Results: Body composition results showed that body mass (BM), body mass index (BMI), upper limb muscle mass (ULMM), core muscle mass (CMM), and upper limb-core muscle mass (UL+CMM) were positively correlated with chest compression depth (CCD) (p < 0.05). Analysis of the three different modes of CPR quality analysis indicated significant differences in the chest compression fraction (CCF, F = 6.801, p = 0.001), chest compression rebound rate (CCRR, F = 3.919, p = 0.021), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE, F = 23.815, p < 0.001). Among the different performance cycles of CPR-10s, significant differences were found in CCF, CCD, CCR (chest compression rate), and RPE (p < 0.05). On the other hand, among the different performance cycles of CPR-20s, significant differences were found in CCD, CCR, and RPE (p < 0.05). Moreover, the CCF, CCD, and RPE scores of the two tests reached significant differences in specific phases (p < 0.05). Conclusions: This study confirmed that the upper limb muscle mass or the weight of the upper body of EMTs is positively correlated with the quality of CPR. In addition, intermittent chest compressions with safe interruption intervals can reduce fatigue caused by long-term chest compressions and maintain better chest compression quality.
... Anthropometric measurements and body composition were assessed through standard procedures (Miller, Chambers & Burns, 2016;Ndahimana et al., 2017). Participants' body mass index (BMI) and body composition were measured with the InBody R 570 Body ...
... Tainan, Taiwan). The InBody R 570 serves as a reliable method to estimate body composition, including skeletal muscle mass, percentage of body fat, and resting metabolic rate (RMR), with a multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analyzer (Miller, Chambers & Burns, 2016). All participants wore lightweight sportswear, except shoes and socks, and any external metal items were removed. ...
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Background Inertial sensors, such as accelerometers, serve as convenient devices to predict the energy expenditures (EEs) during physical activities by a predictive equation. Although the accuracy of estimate EEs especially matter to athletes receive physical training, most EE predictive equations adopted in accelerometers are based on the general population, not athletes. This study included the heart rate reserve (HRR) as a compensatory parameter for physical intensity and derived new equations customized for sedentary, regularly exercising, non-endurance athlete, and endurance athlete adults. Methods With indirect calorimetry as the criterion measure (CM), the EEs of participants on a treadmill were measured, and vector magnitudes (VM), as well as HRR, were simultaneously recorded by a waist-worn accelerometer with a heart rate monitor. Participants comprised a sedentary group (SG), an exercise-habit group (EHG), a non-endurance group (NEG), and an endurance group (EG), with 30 adults in each group. Results EE predictive equations were revised using linear regression with cross-validation on VM, HRR, and body mass (BM). The modified model demonstrates valid and reliable predictions across four populations (Pearson correlation coefficient, r : 0.922 to 0.932; intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC: 0.919 to 0.930). Conclusion Using accelerometers with a heart rate monitor can accurately predict EEs of athletes and non-athletes with an optimized predictive equation integrating the VM, HRR, and BM parameters.
... Such measurements have been used in prior studies 27,28 yielding values that compared favorably with those measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). 29 In use, the device has electrodes in the handles and also on a platform on which the subject stands and grasps the handles. In this configuration, the skin contacts the electrodes at the anterior and posterior soles of feet as well as the thumb and palm of each hand. ...
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Background: Skin tissue dielectric constant (TDC) measurements at a frequency of 300 MHz are used to assess skin properties in many conditions. Impacts of patient obesity on these values are unknown, and its quantitative assessment was the goal of this research. Materials and methods: Women in a weight loss program (N = 32) had TDC measured on forearm, biceps, neck, jowl, and submental regions along with measurements of total body fat (TBF), water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW), and extracellular water (ECW) via multi-frequency bioimpedance. Group age (mean ± SD) was 40.0 ± 11.6 years (20-70 years) with body mass index (BMI) of 31.8 ± 6.7 Kg/m2 (23.0-49.9 Kg/m2 ). For analysis, subjects were divided into those with BMI < 30 Kg/m2 (subgroup A, n = 16) vs ≥30 Kg/m2 (subgroup B, n = 16). Results: Tissue dielectric constant at forearm and biceps decreased significantly (P < .001) with increasing depth from 0.5 to 1.5 to 2.5 mm but TDC values and their inter-side ratios did not differ between subgroups A and B at any measured site. Although correlations between TBW, ECW, and ICW were significant (P < .001), there was no dependence of TDC values on any of these parameters. Conclusions: Previously unknown TDC values for obese persons are provided and based on subgroup analyses suggest that skin TDC values in overweight and obese persons are not confounded by variables such as TBW and TBF. Further, since inter-side ratios and their SD's yielded thresholds for forearm and biceps similar to those established for women with normal BMI, use of these clinical inter-arm TDC ratios now is extended to include a wider BMI range.
... When measuring body composition, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been considered the gold standards, but research has compared the accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analyzer (BIA) versus DXA. The correlation between DXA and BIA varies from reasonable to 'almost perfect' and is partly affected by the formula used with BIA (48)(49)(50). Studies have shown that BIA is a valid instrument for patients with a BMI up to 34 kg/m 2 (51), but the correlation decreases with a BMI greater than 35 kg/m 2 (52). ...
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Background: Research on aging in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is limited, although people with PWS are living longer. Individuals with PWS present with high fat mass, low lean mass, and low levels of physical activity (PA). Previous reports in children and young adults with PWS show inadequate nutrient intake and body fat percentage indicating obesity. Previous studies in PWS rarely included individuals beyond young adulthood, especially studies conducted in the United States. This study includes adults from 18 to 62 years of age, and includes 19 of the estimated 60 adult individuals with PWS in Oklahoma. Because individuals with PWS are living longer, information must be provided on aging with PWS. This study is a report of the initial data for a planned longitudinal study on aging with PWS. Objective: Determine associations between body composition, diet, PA, and a timed walk for adults with PWS, and to assess adequacy of dietary intake for those individuals aging with PWS. Design: This cross-sectional investigation determined dietary habits, PA, and body composition of adults with PWS, and tested associations between these variables. Results: Participants ranged in age from 18 to 62 years. They had healthier body composition, at 26.8% body fat, than previously reported. Mean body mass index (BMI) was in the overweight range at 26.7. Those who consumed higher amounts of fat (as a percent of total kilocalories) had statistically significant lower body fat percentage, but this may simply reflect that individuals with lower body fat percentages felt freer to consume fat. Mean steps taken per day was 7631.7 steps but only 16% of participants met healthy PA recommendations despite participating in daily structured exercise. All participants' diets met Dietary Guidelines for macronutrient distribution, but 80% were deficient in calcium, 100% were deficient in dietary vitamin D, and 87% were deficient in fiber. Sample size was small, so it was difficult to reach statistical significance, despite seeing clinical significance. Conclusions: Recommend working toward healthy PA recommendations for all age groups by decreasing time in sedentary activity. Recommend increasing vitamin A and D fortified dairy products and high-fiber foods, and consider dietary supplementation, especially for calcium, vitamin D, and fiber.
... This technique measures body water by obtaining the impedance index to calculate fat-free mass, body fat mass and percentage of body fat, which demonstrates a strong correlation with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. 32 We assessed participants' height using a digital stadiometer and weighed them to calculate their BMI (weight (kg)/height (m 2 )). ...
... In contrast, for BIA, the costs for both conducting the analyses and maintenance are lower than those of DXA (Beraldo et al., 2015). In addition, BF composition determinations performed using BIA are highly correlated with those determined by DXA (Miller et al., 2016). Thus, the use of BIA seems to be appropriate for body composition analyses, especially in situations with financial restrictions. ...
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Identification of the body fat (BF) percentage allows health professionals to detect healthy or risky patterns in a population. However, no studies have elaborated BF cut-off points using the bioelectrical impedance method in young Brazilian adults. Thus, the objective of the present study was to elaborate normative tables for BF in Brazilian men and women (sedentary and physically active) between 18 and 39 years of age. A total of 3111 adults (958 men and 2153 women) were evaluated using bioimpedance measurements with the InBody 520® 9 device. The data were distributed normally and divided into percentiles (P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90 and P97). The following values were observed: for men: P3 = 8.9-12.5%; P10 = 12.6-17.5%; P25 = 17.6-25.3%; P50 = 25.4-35.1%; P75 = 35.2-43.0%; P90 = 43.1-49.4% and P97 = 49.5%; for women: P3 = 18.7-23.1%; P10 = 23.2-28.7%; P25 = 28.8-35.7%; P50 = 35.8-42.9%; P75 = 43.0-49.1%; P90 = 49.2-52.1% and P97 ≥ 52.2%. These percentiles can be used to classify the adiposity of sedentary and physically active individuals evaluated by bioimpedanciometry. Key-words: Men's Health; Women's Health; Obesity; Adiposity.
... [8] Body fats can be measured with different methods such as skin-fold calipers and underwater weighing, dual X-ray absorptiometry and bioelectric impedance, near infrared interactance, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MR), and Ultrasonography. [9][10][11] Hydrostatic weighing is another method for estimation of body fats percentage. It does not measure visceral fat. ...
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Background: Body mass index (BMI) is used for the assessment of obesity and overweight worldwide. When body fat is increased BMI is also increased. Ultrasound is a reliable method to assess body fat. We have selected only one suprapubic region for the assessment of fat which is very easy to measure even in routine pelvic and abdominal ultrasound examination. During our routine examination, we can measure abdominal fat and inform the patient about his/her health state regarding obesity. It was a hypothesis that increases in abdominal subcutaneous fat will increase in BMI. Objective: The objective is to correlate subcutaneous fats measured on ultrasound with BMI. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study, which was performed in Gilani ultrasound center, Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 384 participants were included with simple random sampling technique. Individuals of 16–60 years age of both genders were included in that study. Pregnant ladies, athletes, children, and elderly participants were not included in that study. Toshiba (Xario) and Mindray (Z5) ultrasound machine were used for subcutaneous fats measurement. Participants were scanned in the supine position. Subcutaneous fats were measured on the suprapubic region in three different trials. Compression was avoided. Compression artifacts were avoided by applying more quantity of gel between transducer and skin. Stadiometer was used for the measurement of weight and height. To calculate BMI, Quetelet index was used. BMI was calculated with that formula BMI = weight (kg) divided by height (m2). Results: The result was made by calculation of mean and standard deviation. We calculated the Pearson correlation between BMI and subcutaneous fats measured on ultrasound at the suprapubic region. It showed a significantly high correlation between BMI and subcutaneous fat (P = 0.0000 which is < 0.001). Conclusion: There is a significantly high correlation between BMI and subcutaneous fat measured on ultrasound. Ultrasound is a reliable method to assess subcutaneous fat. It can be a predictor of obesity like BMI. Keywords: Anthropometric measurements, body mass index, subcutaneous adipose tissues, ultrasonography
... Bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA) is commonly used for an assessment of body composition, and to calculate extracellular water (ECW), intracel-lular water (ICW), total body water (TBW), fat-free mass, and fat mass. 9,11,12 It is usually applied to the whole body but can also be limited to body segments, depending on the electrode positions. [9][10][11]15 In general, BIA performs well in healthy subjects but may produce erroneous results in patients. ...
Article
Bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA) is frequently used to assess body composition in man. Its accuracy in patients is limited, possibly because the employed algorithms are based on the assumption that total body electrical resistance (TBER) is exclusively related to body water volume, and that variation in fluid composition and its effect on fluid resistivity can be ignored. This may introduce substantial calculation errors. The aim of this study was to develop an objective method to assess plasma resistivity (ρplasma) based on measurements by a conductivity probe, as a surrogate for extracellular fluid resistivity (ρe). Sample measurements were standardized at body temperature. Analytical variation was 0.6% within runs and 0.9% between runs. The critical difference, i.e. the smallest difference needed to consider changes within individuals significant, was 1.8% for measurements within runs and 4.3% for measurements between runs. The normal range was defined by a mean ± SD of 66.9 ± 1.8 Ω cm. Multiple regression demonstrated that ρplasma was inversely related to plasma sodium and chloride concentrations, and positively related to total protein (overall R² = 0.92, p < 0.001). In conclusion, ρplasma measurements were sufficiently robust to be useful as a tool to examine and improve the validity of BIA in clinical settings.
... Such measurements have been used in prior studies 27,28 yielding values that compared favorably with those measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). 29 In use, the device has electrodes in the handles and also on a platform on which the subject stands and grasps the handles. In this configuration, the skin contacts the electrodes at the anterior and posterior soles of feet as well as the thumb and palm of each hand. ...
Article
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Obesity is linked to the risk of breast cancer and treatment-related lymphedema (BCRL). Thus, knowledge of how obesity, or more specifically total body fat percentage (TBF) and body mass index (BMI), affect measurements that are used to detect or track lymphedema is clinically important. Tissue dielectric constant (TDC) is one measure used to help characterize lymphedema features, detect its presence, and assess treatment-related changes. The goal of this research was to determine the extent to which TDC values depend on TBF and BMI. TDC was measured on both forearms (2.5mm depth) in 250 women (18-72 years) along with TBF (impedance, 50KHz). TBF was 12.2%- 54.4% (median=29.3%) and BMI was 14.7Kg/m2-44.3 Kg/m2 (median=22.6 Kg/m2). TDC values and interarm ratios were compared between subgroups that had TBF and BMI values in lower vs. upper quartiles. Subjects in the upper quartile had slightly lower TDC values (1.3 TDC units, p <0.01) that was at most a 5% differential. Contrastingly, TDC interarm ratios were not dependent on TBF or BMI levels. These findings suggest that when tracking lymphedema changes using the TDC method, treatment-related or temporal changes in a woman's TBF or BMI are unlikely to significantly impact TDC values or their interarm ratios.
... Body mass and composition were measured using an electric tetrapolar bioimpedance with eight tactile points (InBody model 570, Biospace ® , Seul, Korea), that previously showed a nearly perfect correlation (r= 0.94; P < 0.0001) compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, in a study with recreationally active individuals [21]. In addition to the eligibility criteria of this study, the following procedures were adopted before data collection: a) fasting for 4 hours (without ingestion of any type of solid or liquid); b) urinating before the evaluation; and c) avoid drinking caffeinated beverages 24 hours before the assessment [22]. Also, stature was measured using a stadiometer (Sanny model ES2040, São Paulo, Brazil). ...
Article
Objective. — To investigate the aerobic and anaerobic performance of lower- and upper-bodyof Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes. Methods. — Twelve male Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes (26.3 ± 6.6-years-old, 80.8 ± 15.7 kg) were assessed for lower- and upper-body aerobic and anaerobic fitness, body composition, squat jump, countermovement jump, and a plyometric push-up. Results. — Higher values of aerobic fitness were obtained in the lower-body (treadmill: 45.6 ± 8.4 mL/kg/min) compared to the upper-body (arm cycloergometer: 36.6 ± 6.1 mL/kg/min) protocols in maximal graded exercise tests (GXT) (P = 0.002). In Wingate anaerobic tests, athletes reached 11.9 ± 1.4 W/kg for peak power and 8.4 ± 1.0 W/kg for mean power in the lower-body, and 10.5 ± 1.0 W/kg for peak power and 6.9 ± 1.3 W/kg for mean power in the upper-body. Athletes performed 37.8 ± 7.4 cm in squat jump, 41.5 ± 10.0 cm in countermovement jump, and 15.7 ± 1.9 cm in the plyometric push-up test. No significant correlations between absolute or relative measures of body composition (body fat mass and musculoskeletal mass) with aerobic (lower- and upper-body GXT) or anaerobic (lower- and upper-body Wingate and muscle power) performances were observed (P > 0.05). Conclusions. — This study is new in describing upper-body aerobic and anaerobic performance in Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes. In regards to aerobic and anaerobic performance of lower-body, results were similar to previous studies with Brazilian jiu-jitsu or other grappling combat sports athletes.
... At DF Physiotherapy we use a bioelectrical impedance analysis machine called InBody© to measure your body composition. This device is used across international militaries and has a high degree of accuracy [2,3,4]. ...
Poster
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Military Body Composition Information Sheet
... However, the current observations partially support those of Spitz et al. [28] in that we did not observe a sex difference with the narrower pBFR-RE cuff. Nevertheless, it is plausible that the observed differences may be related to males generally possessing larger quantities of muscle mass and strength compared to females [39][40][41]. During exercise, these differences may result in sex discrepancies between intramuscular pressure, consequently, the limited blood flow and oxygen availability results in a larger accumulation of metabolites resulting in elevated perceptual responses in males [42,43]. ...
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The purpose of the current investigation was to compare the acute perceptual responses during low-load resistance exercise (RE) with clinical blood flow restriction (cBFR-RE) and practical blood flow restriction (pBFR-RE), and during conventional low- (LL-RE) and high-load resistance exercise (HL-RE), to determine if these responses differed between young males and females. Twenty-nine participants (14 males: 23.6±2.7years, 25.3±3.1kg/m² and 15 females: 20.3±1.6years, 23.4±1.9kg/m²) completed the following exercise conditions in a randomized design: 1) cBFR-RE, 2) pBFR-RE, 3) HL-RE, and 4) LL-RE. Low-load conditions consisted of 30-15-15-15 repetitions of two-leg press (LP) and knee extension (KE) exercises with 30% one-repetition maximum (1-RM), and HL-RE consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 80% 1-RM, all with 60s rest intervals. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and discomfort were assessed before exercise and immediately following each set. RPE was significantly higher in HL-RE compared to all low-load conditions for both exercises after each set (all p<0.05). cBFR-RE resulted in significantly greater RPE than pBFR-RE and LL-RE for both exercises for sets 1-4 for LP and sets 2-3 for KE (all p<0.05). Levels of discomfort were similar between cBFR-RE and HL-RE, which tended to be significantly higher than pBFR-RE and LL-RE (p<0.05). Men reported significantly greater RPE than women following sets 2-4 during KE with cBFR-RE and sets 2 and 3 during KE for HL-RE (all p<0.05). Males also reported significantly greater discomfort than women following sets 2-4 for KE LL-RE (p<0.05). Altogether, these data suggest that pBFR-RE may provide a more favorable BFR condition based on perceptual responses and that perceptual responses may differ between sexes across varying resistance exercise conditions.
... El peso y los datos de composición corporal se tomaron con el método de análisis segmental directo de impedancia bioeléctrica multifrecuencia mediante la báscula InBody® 770; ésta maneja seis diferentes frecuencias (1, 5, 50, 250, 500 y 1000 kHz); esta báscula fue validada con el método DXA por Ling et al (2011), en el estudio se compararon los resultados de la masa magra en población normal y con sobrepeso, encontrándose una correlación del 99%. Ahora bien, Miller, Chambers& Burns (2016), compararon los resultados del porcentaje graso de los dos métodos (Inbody, DXA) encontrando una relación significativa (r =.94, P<0.0001). Test de Fuerza máxima. ...
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Introduction. The phase angle (AF) is currently used to establish cellular integrity, which is why it has been used to recognize body cell mass and is determined as a nutritional indicator in children and adults. Objective. Relate the values obtained from AF with variables of body composition and muscle strength in athletes. Methodology. Quantitative approach of a non-experimental type and with a cross-sectional correlational scope, as well as the type of data that were taken were from 129 athletes, 101 (78.3) men and 28 (21.7%) and women, to whom body composition (through InBody 770), and muscle strength (T-force, model TF-100) were taken. Results. A statistically significant but weak correlation is obtained between the phase angle and the percentage (%) of fat mass and between the mean forces, which are inverses. Likewise, a significant and moderate statistical correlation was found between phase angle and kilograms (Kg) of skeletal muscle mass, load (kg) maximum force, Average Power, maximum power and total body water and phase angle which are positive.
... The fatfree mass (FFM), body fat mass (BFM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM), and body fat percentage (BF%) of each participant were computed using direct segmental multifrequency (DSM) bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) (InBody 370, Biospace, Seoul, Korea), in agreement with the manufacturer's recommendations. DSM-BIA is considered valid and reliable for body composition measures in the general population when compared to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) [23]. ...
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Objective Persistent pain and loss of shoulder function are common adverse effects to breast cancer treatment, but the extent of these issues in comparison with healthy controls is unclear for survivors beyond 1.5 years after treatment. The purpose of this study was to benchmark differences in pressure pain thresholds (PPT), maximal isokinetic muscle strength (MIMS), and active range of motion (ROM) of females with persistent pain ≥1.5 years after breast cancer treatment (BCS) compared with pain-free matched controls (CON), and examine the presence of movement-evoked pain (MEP) during assessment of MIMS. Methods The PPTs of 18 locations were assessed using a pressure algometer and a numeric rating scale was used to assess intensity of MEP. Active ROM and MIMS were measured using a universal goniometer and an isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. Results A two-way analysis of variance revealed that PPTs across all locations, MIMS for horizontal shoulder extension/flexion and shoulder adduction, active ROM for shoulder flexion, horizontal shoulder extension, shoulder abduction, and external shoulder rotation were significantly lower for BCS compared with CON ( P < 0.05). MEP was significantly higher for BCS and MEP intensity had a significant, negative correlation with PPTs ( P < 0.01). Discussion/conclusion BCS with persistent pain ≥1.5 years after treatment demonstrates widespread reductions in PPTs and movement-specific reductions in MIMS and active ROM of the affected shoulder, along with MEP during physical performance assessment. Implications for cancer survivors BCS with persistent pain ≥1.5 years after treatment shows signs of central sensitization and may benefit from individualized rehabilitation.
... InBody is comparable, r = 0.94 (P < 0.001) to dual-energy xray absorptiometry to measure body composition. 18 Participants used a computer-assisted dietary recall method, the Automated Self-Administered 24hour dietary assessment tool (version 2018, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD) to report dietary intake on 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day during each time point (T1, T2, and T3; a total of 9 recalls). 19 These data were used to assess energy and macronutrient intake at each time point and were compared within-subject. ...
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Objective To evaluate the effects of a group-based Advance Quantity Meal Preparation (AQMP) program on the consumption of home-cooked meals, cooking attitudes, and self-efficacy in healthy adults. Methods Participants (n = 10) in a group setting prepared healthy meals weekly consisting of 10 entrees and 5 snacks for 6 weeks. A survey assessing cooking attitudes, cooking self-efficacy, and cooking behavior and consumption at 3 time points: preprogram, postprogram (T2), and 3 months postprogram (T3). Results The AQMP program increased the proportion of overall home-cooked meal consumption (T2, P = 0.03), home-cooked dinner consumption (T2, P = 0.04), cooking attitudes (T3, P = 0.01), and cooking self-efficacy (T2, P = 0.002). Conclusions and Implications This pilot study indicates that AQMP may increase home-cooked meal consumption, cooking attitudes, and cooking self-efficacy.
... As part of the consultation after the T 0 questionnaires, an EP assessed cardiorespiratory fitness [19] and 6-min walk test, [20] and body composition (In Body 570 bioelectrical impedance). [21] The EP consultation was designed based on a traditional EP assessment. [11] The EP discussed exercise levels, common barriers and how to overcome them (e.g., fatigue, lack of time, and equipment), [14] identifying individual preferences and needs using the Transtheoretical Model determining exercise Stage of Change. ...
Article
Purpose: Many childhood cancer survivors are not engaging in sufficient physical activity despite high chronic disease incidence. We assessed satisfaction and acceptability of attending an exercise physiology consultation. Methods: An 8–18-year-old cancer survivor> 1-year posttherapy were assessed by an exercise physiologist (T0). We assessed parents' and survivors' satisfaction and acceptability with the consultation and information received 1-month later (T1). Parents and survivors were asked whether they would see an exercise physiologist again and whether other survivors should be assessed. Results: We recruited 102 participants, with 70 unique families retained. Parents were more satisfied with information received about exercise from T0to T1 (43.4 ± 33.2 vs. 81.5 ± 17.6/100,P < 0.001). Parents reported high satisfaction from the consultation (94.7 ± 10.2/100). Most parents (96.6%) and survivors (95.9%) recommended other survivors see an exercise physiologist. Some parents (37.0%) wanted their child to be more active, while 47.8% of survivors wanted to be more active. Conclusions: There was support for an exercise physiology consultation from parents and survivors. Guidance from an exercise physiologist may be important to alter lifestyle behaviors, which can be potentially beneficial to cardiovascular and psychological well-being.
Article
Obesity is a major health issue. A community-based intervention was implemented on a college campus to help employees lose body weight and fat. Participants were scanned using the InBody device at pre- and post-intervention, measuring body weight, fat, and waist circumference. Participants attended 11 classes on healthy lifestyle education. A comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements was made using a paired t-test, resulting in a statistically significant difference in outcome measures. Correlation between class attendance and pounds lost showed a moderate negative correlation. Findings support a community-based lifestyle behavior intervention for weight and fat loss for university employees.
Article
Background Physical activity and aerobic fitness are modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) after childhood cancer. How survivors engage in physical activity remains unclear, potentially increasing CVD risk. We assessed survivors’ physical activity levels, barriers and enablers, fitness, and identified predictors of fitness and physical activity stage of change. Methods Childhood cancer survivors (CCS; 8‐18 years old) ≥1 year post‐treatment were assessed for aerobic fitness (6‐min walk test), used to extrapolate VO2max, and body composition (InBody 570). Survivors self‐reported physical activity to determine stage of change (Patient‐Centered Assessment and Counselling for Exercise). Physical activity and fitness were compared with guidelines and CVD‐risk cut‐points (VO2max < 42 mL/kg/min: males; VO2max < 35 mL/kg/min: females). Multiple regression and mediator‐moderator analysis were used to identify fitness predictors and stage of change. Results One hundred two survivors (12.8 ± 3.3 years) participated (46% acute lymphoblastic leukaemia). Forty percent of males (VO2max = 43.3 ± 6.3 mL/kg/min) and 28% of females (VO2max = 36.5 ± 5.9 mL/kg/min) were in the CVD‐risk category, while 25% met physical activity guidelines. Most prevalent physical activity barriers were fatigue (52%), preferring television instead of exercise (38%), and lacking time (34%). Predictive factors for reduced fitness included being older, female, higher waist‐to‐height ratio, higher screen time, and moderated by lower physical activity (r ² = 0.91, P < .001). Survivors with higher physical activity stage of change were male, lower body fat percentage, lower screen time, and lived with both parents (r = 0.42, P = .003). Conclusion Aerobic fitness and physical activity of CCS is low compared with population norms, potentially increasing CVD risk. Addressing physical activity barriers and enablers, including reducing screen time, could promote regular physical activity, reducing CVD risk.
Article
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the agreement among three bioelectrical impedance analysis devices (BIA) in athletic young adults. Fifty-one participants (26 men and 25 women) were assessed for percent body fat (PBF) using an arm-to-arm bipolar single-frequency device (ABIA), a leg-to-leg single-frequency device (LBIA), and an octopolar multi-frequency BIA device (MFBIA). PBF was measured with the three devices in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant (p < 0.001) differences in PBF estimates among all devices (ABIA = 19.1 ± 7.2%, LBIA = 21.6 ±7.5%, and MFBIA = 22.9 ± 8.8%). Pearson’s Correlations revealed a strong relationship between ABIA and MFBIA in both men (r = 0.948) and women (r = 0.947) and a moderately-strong relationship between LBIA and MFBIA (r = 0.870 and 0.679, respectively). Lin’s concordance coefficient revealed moderately-strong concordance between ABIA and MFBIA in men (ρc = 0.800) and women (ρc = 0.681) and between LBIA and MFBIA (ρc = 0.846 and ρc = 0.651, respectively). These data indicate a strong agreement among all three devices, suggesting that any of them could be used to track changes in PBF over time. However, the significant differences in PBF values among devices imply that best practice for monitoring body composition should be to use one device consistently over time for a reliable assessment.
Article
Compared with body mass index (BMI), lean body mass and fat‐free mass are strongly associated with lung function in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods of measuring body composition in youth with CF are often unreliable, expensive, or not clinically feasible. Grip strength (GS), a measure of muscle function, is used as a surrogate for muscle mass and is an indicator of nutrition status. This quality improvement project explored the feasibility of measuring GS in medically stable youth with CF, aged 6–21 years. A total 361 GS measurements were performed by using a digital hand dynamometer in youth from a single CF center. Using reference tables that were created for this project by merging data from the 2011–2012 and 2013–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, youth with CF were found to be weaker than age‐ and gender‐matched peers, even when controlled for differences in size. A positive association (P < .001) was found between GS percentile and lung function, as measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted (FEV1pp). Statistical analysis revealed that both BMI percentile and absolute GS (AGS) percentile were positively associated with FEV1pp and with each other, primarily at the lower levels of BMI percentile (<50%) and AGS percentile (<50%). GS may provide a reliable, less expensive, and clinically feasible alternative to body composition measurements in monitoring nutrition status in youth with CF, especially in youth whose BMI is in the <50th percentile.
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Background Resistance training (RT) has been established as the most efficient approach for lean body mass maintenance required for preserving a sufficiently high metabolism during weight loss. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of the ketogenic diet (KD) and regular diet (RE) in combination with 8-week resistance exercise (RT), on body weight, body fat mass (BFM), and lean body mass (LBM) of untrained individuals. Methods Twenty untrained participants were randomly assigned to the RE+RT and KD+RT as control and experimental groups, respectively. Sixty to ninety minutes of diversified resistance exercise were performed by both groups, three sessions weekly, and diet was self-administered with a recommended daily energy and protein intakes. Body composition was measured using a Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer. One-way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was applied to analyze the data. Results The results showed a greater post-intervention adjusted mean for body weight and LBM in the normal dietary group in comparison with the experimental group. After controlling for baseline measurements, there was a statistically significant difference in body weight ( p < .0005) and BFM ( p =.001) between groups. Conclusion Resistance training along with a ketogenic diet may decrease BFM without notable changes in LBM, whilst RT on a normal diet might increase LBM without remarkably influencing BFM.
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OBJECTIVES: We compared a 4-limb bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) system, HBF 359 (Omron, Kyoto, Japan), and a 2-limb foot-to-foot device, BC 532 (Tanita, Tokyo, Japan), with the standard dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods for the measurement of body fat percentage (BF), skeletal muscle mass percentage (SMM, or fat-free mass [FFM] for BC 532), and visceral fat level (VF). METHODS: Body composition was measured in 200 healthy volunteers (100 men and 100 women, mean age 48 years) by HBF 359 and BC 532 and by DXA and MRI. The agreement was assessed by correlation analysis and paired t test. RESULTS: The correlation coefficients between BIA and DXA or MRI ranged from 0.71 to 0.89 for BF, SMM and VF by HBF 359 and from 0.77 for BF, FFM and VF by BC 532 in all subjects and in men and women separately (P < 0.001 for all). Compared with DXA, HBF 359 significantly (P < 0.001) underestimated BF by -5.8% in men and -9.6% in women. Compared with MRI, the corresponding under- (negative) or over-estimations (positive) by HBF 359 in men and women were +1.9% (P = 0.02) and +1.7% (P = 0.10), respectively, for SMM, and +13.3% (P < 0.001) and -8.5% (P = 0.006), respectively, for VF. The corresponding values by BC 532 in men and women were -10.7% and -6.2% for BF, -1.4% and -2.5% for FFM and +20.4% and -18.0% for VF. CONCLUSIONS: The BIA devices are accurate in the estimation of body composition, especially skeletal muscle mass or fat free mass.
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To compare body composition determined by bioelectrical impedance (BIA) consumer devices against criterion estimates determined by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy normal weight, overweight and obese adults. In 106 adults (54 females, 52 males, age 54.2 +/- 16.1 years, BMI 25.8 +/- 4.4 kg/m(2)) fat mass (FM), skeletal muscle mass (SM), total body bone-free lean mass (TBBLM), and level of visceral fat mass (VF) were estimated by 3 single-frequency bipedal (foot-to-foot) and one tretrapolar BIA device, and compared to body composition measured by MRI and DXA. Bland-Altman and simple linear regression analyses were used to determine agreement between methods. %FMDXA, SMMRI or TBBLMDXA showed good relative and absolute agreement with two bipolar and one tetrapolar instrument (r(2) = 0.92-0.96; all p < 0.001; mean bias <1.5 %FM and <1 kg SM or TBBLM) and less relative and absolute agreement for another bipolar device (r(2) = 0.82 and 0.84, mean bias approximately 3 %FM and approximately 3 kg SM). The 95% limits of agreement (bias +/- 2 SD) were narrowest for the tetrapolar device (-6.59 to 4.61 %FM and -4.62 to 4.74 kg SM) and widest for bipolar instruments (up to -14.54 to 8.58 %FM and -9.52 to 3.92 kg SM). Systematic biases for %FM were found for all bipedal devices, but not for the tetrapolar instrument. Because of the lower agreement between foot-to-foot BIA and DXA or MRI for the assessment of body composition in individuals, tetrapolar electrode arrangement should be preferred for individual or public use. Bipolar devices provide accurate results for field studies with group estimation.
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The aim of the study was to investigate whether there is a difference between body fat mass percentage measured by BIA and DXA method. Transversal study, randomized. Lipid and Obesity Outpatient Clinic, Department of Pediatrics, University of Vienna, Austria. Twenty-seven children and adolescents from the Lipid and Obesity Outpatient Clinic, Department of Pediatrics, University of Vienna, were included in the study (14 boys and 13 girls between 6 and 18 y; mean age 12.6 and 13.1 y). The body fat percentage was measured with BIA (bioelectrical impedance analyzer BIA 2000-M) and DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) methods on the same day. The mean difference between the body fat mass percentage measured by BIA and DXA was 4.48 with a standard deviation of 2.93. The results measured by BIA were almost always lower than that by DXA by about 12%. The lower and upper limit of the difference in 95% confidence interval was -5.64 and -3.32. By paired t-test, these results were significantly different (P<0.001). The correlation between the two measurements was 0.826. The mean percentage of body fat mass measured by BIA was 34.86+/-7.08% and by DXA 39.75+/-5.63%. The differences were not changed by age and body fat percentage but they were by sex. The results of the study show that the body fat percentages measured by BIA and DXA method were significantly different. This is very important because BIA technique is a routine technique for clinical purposes. Adjustments to the formula used for calculating the total fat mass in obese children and adolescence are necessary. Underestimation of body fat percentage measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis compared to dual X-ray absorptiometry method in obese children is three times higher with boys than with girls.
Article
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Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a safe, low-cost, non-invasive, rapid method for the assessment of body composition. It has therefore a great potential to be employed for epidemiological and clinical studies. However, many devices are available to estimate total body water (TBW), fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) by bioelectrical impedance measurements. Moreover, bipedal devices allowing measurements in the only standing position are recently developed. They are easy and practical to use without operator, so a large diffusion can be forecasted in fields as sport and diet programs. Comparison of body composition estimation by a bipedal device with bioimpedance devices currently used, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method. The study was performed on 18 healthy women volunteers, age 32.0+/-10.7 years divided in two groups at different levels of body fatness. A Xitron 4000 impedance analyser, a BIA-101 RJL System, and the bipedal device Tanita were used for comparison. The measurements were performed in standing and supine position for Xitron and RJL devices. DXA measurements were performed with a total body scanner DPX, Lunar. FM and FFM were not statistically different when measured with Xitron and RJL in comparison with DXA, while these variables were significantly different between Tanita and DXA measurements. No significant difference were found between measurements in the supine and standing position with the Xitron and RJL system. Our results suggest that FM and FFM evaluated by bipedal device Tanita are significantly different from FM and FFM measured by DXA in both normal and obese population.
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To calibrate eight-polar bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) against dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the assessment of total and appendicular body composition in healthy adults. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Sixty-eight females and 42 males aged 21-82 years participated in the study. Whole-body fat-free mass (FFM) and appendicular lean tissue mass (LTM) were measured by DXA; resistance (R) of arms, trunk and legs was measured by eight-polar BIA at frequencies of 5, 50, 250 and 500 kHz; whole-body resistance was calculated as the sum R of arms, trunk and legs. The resistance index (RI), i.e. the height(2)/resistance ratio, was the best predictor of FFM and appendicular LTM. As compared with weight (Wt), RI at 500 kHz explained 35% more variance of FFM (vs 0.57), 45% more variance of LTM(arm) (vs 0.48) and 36% more variance of LTM(leg) (vs 0.50) (p < 0.0001 for all). The contribution of age to the unexplained variance of FFM and appendicular LTM was nil or negligible and the RI x sex interactions were either not significant or not important on practical grounds. The percent root mean square error of the estimate was 6% for FFM and 8% for LTM(arm) and LTM(leg). Eight-polar BIA offers accurate estimates of total and appendicular body composition. The attractive hypothesis that eight-polar BIA is influenced minimally by age and sex should be tested on larger samples including younger individuals.
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Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) is a potential field and clinical method for evaluating skeletal muscle mass (SM) and %fat. A new BIA system has 8-(two on each hand and foot) rather than 4-contact electrodes allowing for rapid 'whole-body' and regional body composition evaluation. This study evaluated the 50 kHz BC-418 8-contact electrode and TBF-310 4-contact electrode foot-foot BIA systems (Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan). There were 40 subject evaluations in males (n=20) and females (n=20) ranging in age from 6 to 64 y. BIA was evaluated in each subject and compared to reference lean soft-tissue (LST) and %fat estimates in the appendages and remainder (trunk+head) provided by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Appendicular LST (ALST) estimates from both BIA and DXA were used to derive total body SM mass. The highest correlation between total body LST by DXA and impedance index (Ht(2)/Z) by BC-418 was for the foot-hand segments (r=0.986; left side only) compared to the arm (r=0.970-0.979) and leg segments (r=0.942-0.957)(all P<0.001). The within- and between-day coefficient of variation for %fat and ALST evaluated in five subjects was <1% and approximately 1-3.7%, respectively. The correlations between 8-electrode predicted and DXA appendicular (arms, legs, total) and trunk+head LST were strong and highly significant (all r> or =0.95, P<0.001) and group means did not differ across methods. Skeletal muscle mass calculated (Kim equation) from total ALST by DXA (X+/-s.d.)(23.7+/-9.7 kg) was not significantly different and highly correlated with BC-418 estimates (25.2+/-9.6 kg; r=0.96, P<0.001). There was a good correlation between total body %fat by 8-electrode BIA vs DXA (r=0.87, P<0.001) that exceeded the corresponding association with 4-electrode BIA (r=0.82, P<0.001). Group mean segmental %fat estimates from BC-418 did not differ significantly from corresponding DXA estimates. No between-method bias was detected in the whole body, ALST, and skeletal muscle analyses. The new 8-electrode BIA system offers an important new opportunity of evaluating SM in research and clinical settings. The additional electrodes of the new BIA system also improve the association with DXA %fat estimates over those provided by the conventional foot-foot BIA.
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Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is widely used in clinics and research to measure body composition. However, the results of BIA validation with reference methods are contradictory, and few data are available on the influence of adiposity on the measurement of body composition by BIA. The goal was to determine the effects of sex and adiposity on the difference in percentage body fat (%BF) predicted by BIA compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 591 healthy subjects were recruited in Newfoundland and Labrador. %BF was predicted by using BIA and was compared with that measured by DXA. Methods agreement was assessed by Pearson's correlation and Bland and Altman analysis. Differences in %BF among groups based on sex and adiposity were analyzed by using one-factor analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction. Correlations between BIA and DXA were 0.88 for the whole population, 0.78 for men, and 0.85 for women. The mean %BF determined by BIA (32.89 +/- 8.00%) was significantly lower than that measured by DXA (34.72 +/- 8.66%). The cutoffs were sex specific. BIA overestimated %BF by 3.03% and 4.40% when %BF was <15% in men and <25% in women, respectively, and underestimated %BF by 4.32% and 2.71% when %BF was >25% in men and >33% in women, respectively. BIA is a good alternative for estimating %BF when subjects are within a normal body fat range. BIA tends to overestimate %BF in lean subjects and underestimate %BF in obese subjects.
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To compare the estimation of body fat between bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in overweight, African-American female adolescents. In total, 54 African-American adolescent female subjects were recruited for Study 1. Each adolescent's body mass index was greater than the 85th percentile and their average body fat was 45% according to DEXA. A total of 26 African-American adolescent female subjects were available for Study 2, and had an average body fat of 26% according to DEXA. Percent body fat was measured by DEXA and BIA. Seven different BIA equations were tested. Both sets of data were analyzed using Bland-Altman regression analyses, utilizing percent body fat measured by DEXA as the criterion. The Kushner equation provided estimates that were unaffected by body fat in both studies. Estimates were unbiased when applied to the exclusively overweight sample and biased when utilized with the separate sample of normal weight and obese girls. The remaining equations were biased, provided inconsistent estimates across body weight, or were biased and provided inconsistent estimates. Ethnicity-specific and ethnicity-combined equations performed similarly in the obese sample, but became more disparate when applied to a sample encompassing a wider body weight range. The limits of agreement between all BIA equations and the DEXA estimates ranged from 6 to 9%. The study suggests that the Kushner BIA equation is appropriate for use with African-American female adolescents across the weight spectrum, while the majority of BIA equations underestimated percent body fat as body fat increased.
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Several aspects of body composition, in particular the amount and distribution of body fat and the amount and composition of lean mass, are now understood to be important health outcomes in infants and children. Their measurement is increasingly considered in clinical practice; however, paediatricians are often unsure as to which techniques are appropriate and suitable for application in specific contexts. This article summarises the pros and cons of measurement technologies currently available for paediatric application. Simple techniques are adequate for many purposes, and simple regional data may often be of greater value than "whole body" values obtained by more sophisticated approaches.
Article
Protein energy wasting is closely related to increased morbidity and mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Simple reliable and easily available methods of determining nutritional status and recognition of short-term changes in body composition are therefore important for clinical practice. We compared whole-body and segmental composition using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in 104 stable PD patients. Assessment of whole-body composition showed that lean body mass (LBM) was highly correlated with good method agreement using DEXA as the reference test (r = 0.95, p < 0.0001; bias -0.88 kg, 95% CI -1.53 to 0.23 kg). Similarly, high correlation and good method agreement were found for fat mass (r = 0.93, p < 0.0001; bias 0.69 kg, 95% CI 0.03-1.36 kg). Segmental analysis of LBM revealed strong correlations between LBM for trunk, left and right arms and legs (r = 0.90, 0.84, 0.86, 0.89 and 0.90, respectively, p < 0.0001). Bone mineral content derived by MF-BIA overestimated that measured by DEXA (bias 0.740 kg, 95% CI 0.66-0.82 kg). MF-BIA may potentially be a useful tool for determining nutritional status in PD patients and serial estimations may help recognize short-term changes in body composition.
Article
The purpose of the study was to determine the agreement of bioelectric impedance (BIA) with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) among Singapore Chinese adults. Hundred subjects [63 healthy males (age: 25.2±0.5 yrs; weight: 69.7±1.9 kg; BMI: 22.8±0.4 kg m⁻²) and 37 females (age: 22.9±0.3 yrs; weight: 51.8±0.8 kg; BMI: 20.2±0.4 kg m⁻²)] were selected and body fat percentage (%BF) was measured by DEXA and BIA. Paired t test and coefficient of correlation statistics were utilized to compare the relationship between %BF(BIA) and %BF(DEXA). Bland and Altman plot was employed to investigate the agreement of %BF(BIA) with %BF(DEXA). The limits of agreement between different methods were defined as mean (M; bias)±1.96SD of the difference between the methods (95% confidence interval; CI). %BF(BIA), when compared to %BF(DEXA), revealed non-significant underestimation of %BF in females (24.1%<24.4%, p>0.05) and significant overestimation in males (15.5%<17.7%, p<0.01). There was good absolute agreement between %BF(BIA) and %BF(DEXA) among the whole cohort (1.3±6.9%) as well as among both genders (male: 2.2±6.7%, female: -0.3±6.1%) due to small mean differences between both methods. However, wider limits of agreement were revealed for %BF(BIA) among whole cohort and as well as on gender basis. The results indicate a good agreement between BIA and DEXA in measuring %BF among Singapore Chinese adults, but may not be a suitable method of measuring %BF for clinical purposes among this population due to wider limits of agreement.
Article
To evaluate the accuracy of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MFBIA) in assessing fat-free mass (FFM) in comparison with hydrostatic weighing (HW) and skinfolds (SK) in high school wrestlers in a hydrated state. Body composition was determined by MFBIA, HW, and three-site SK in 72 high school wrestlers (mean +/- SD; age = 15.3 +/- 1.4 yr, height = 1.71 +/- 0.08 m, body mass = 67.3 +/- 13.4 kg). Hydration state was quantified by evaluating urine specific gravity. There were no significant differences for estimated FFM between MFBIA (57.2 +/- 9.5 kg) and HW (57.0 +/- 10.1 kg) or SK (56.4 +/- 8.8 kg). The SEE for FFM with HW as the reference method were 2.73 kg for MFBIA and 2.66 kg for SK. Correlations were found for FFM between HW and MFBIA (r = 0.96, P < 0.001) and between HW and SK (r = 0.97, P < 0.001). A systematic bias was found for MFBIA because the difference between MFBIA and HW correlated with the FFM average of the two methods (r = -0.22, P < 0.001). A bias was also seen between SK and HW and correlated with the FFM average (r = -0.47, P < 0.001). This study demonstrates that MFBIA provides similar estimates of FFM when compared with HW in a heterogeneous high school wrestling population during a hydrated state. MFBIA is an attractive assessment tool, easy to use, and may be considered as an alternative field-based method of estimating the FFM of high school wrestlers.
Article
The purpose of this study was to validate the use of bioelectrical impedance in assessing human body composition and to explore the use of this technique in obesity. Eighty-seven adults varying widely in body composition (range: 8.8-59.0% body fat) underwent measurement of bioelectrical impedance and underwater weighing (density). Fat-free mass determined from density (FFMd) was compared with FFM estimated from bioelectric impedance according to previously published regression equations. Correlation coefficients were high at all levels of body fat (0.94-0.99) but impedance equations overestimated FFM compared with FFMd in subjects greater than 42% body fat. This effect was greatest in subjects greater than 48% body fat and a regression equation was derived for determination of FFM for these subjects. These data confirm the excellent agreement between body composition determined from bioelectrical impedance and density but suggest that caution should be used in applying existing regression equations to very obese subjects.
Article
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the reliability and validity of bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and near-infrared interactance (NIR) for estimating body composition in female athletes. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used as the criterion measure for fat-free mass (FFM). Studies were performed in 132 athletes [age = 20.4 +/- 1.5 (SD) yr]. Intraclass reliabilities (repeat and single trial) were 0.987-0.997 for BIA (resistance and reactance) and 0.957-0.980 for NIR (optical densities). Validity of BIA and NIR was assessed by double cross-validation. Because correlations were high (r = 0.969-0.983) and prediction errors low, a single equation was developed by using all 132 subjects for both BIA and NIR. Also, an equation was developed for all subjects by using height and weight only. Results from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis showed FFM = 49.5 +/- 6.0 kg, which corresponded to %body fat (%BF) of 20.4 +/- 3.1%. BIA predicted FFM at 49.4 +/- 5.9 kg (r = 0.981, SEE = 1.1), and NIR prediction was 49. 5 +/- 5.8 kg (r = 0.975, SEE = 1.2). Height and weight alone predicted FFM at 49.4 +/- 5.7 kg (r = 0.961, SEE = 1.6). When converted to %BF, prediction errors were approximately 1.8% for BIA and NIR and 2.9% for height and weight. Results showed BIA and NIR to be extremely reliable and valid techniques for estimating body composition in college-age female athletes.
Article
We compared three methods for evaluating body composition: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), skinfold thickness (Skinfolds), and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Subjects were 155 healthy young college-aged Japanese females whose mean+/-SD (range) age, body height, body weight and body mass index (BMI) were 20.1+/-0.3 (19.6-21.1) y, 158.9+/-4.7 (145.4-172.6) cm, 52.0+/-6.8 (39.4-84.6) kg and 20.6+/-2.3 (16.5-32.5), respectively. Their mean skinfold thickness at the triceps and subscapular were 16.9+/-4.7 (8.0-31.0) and 16.0+/-5.7 (7.0-40.0) mm, respectively. Mean body fat mass percentages evaluated by DXA, Skinfolds and BIA were 29.6+/-5.1, 22.8+/- 5.3 and 25.8+/-4.7%, respectively. Body fat mass was 15.4+/-4.4, 12.1+/-4.5 and 13.6+/-4.5 kg, respectively. Simple correlation coefficients between the three methods for body fat mass percentages provided the following coefficients: r=0.741 for DXA vs. Skinfolds, r=0.792 for DXA vs. BIA and r=0.781 for Skinfolds vs. BIA. Simple correlation coefficients for body fat mass were as follows: r=0.898 for DXA vs. Skinfolds, r=0.927 for DXA vs. BIA and r=0.910 for Skinfolds vs. BIA (all p<0.001). There were significant differences in the values among the three methods with the Skinfolds providing the lowest body fat mass and percentage, and DXA the highest (p<0.001). They all appear to be strongly correlated for evaluating body composition: however, different cut-off values for defining obese and lean need to be defined for each method.
Article
Human body composition, particularly the content of fat tissue and its distribution, has been extensively measured in healthy, diseased, obese and elderly subjects. A variety of non-invasive methods have been applied for these studies. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a commonly used method, based on the conduction of electrical current in the body and the differences in the ability to conduct electricity between the fat and water components of the body. Recently, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been introduced for bone mass, bone mineral density and body composition studies. Unlike other methods, DEXA measures three components of the body: bone mineral content, fat tissue mass, and lean tissue mass, and additionally regional fat distribution. The objective of this study was to compare body composition as assessed by DEXA and BIA methods in a sample of 100 patients. Body composition was studied in 100 consecutive subjects, 59 women and 41 men. The lean body mass (LBM), fat body mass (FBM), and percent body fat (%BF) were measured by the DEXA and BIA techniques. There were highly statistically significant linear relationships between LBM, FBM and %BF assessed by DEXA and BIA in both sexes (p<0.001 for all measurements). No influence of age or BMI on the relationship between DEXA and BIA results was observed. Differences were observed between DEXA and BIA measurements of both fat and fat-free tissue. The results suggest that DEXA may underestimate the LBM and overestimate body fat compared with BIA, probably due to different assumptions about the constants. We conclude that both methods are suitable for body composition studies.
Article
This study evaluated to what extent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and two types of bioimpedance analysis (BIA) yield similar results for body fat mass (FM) in men and women with different levels of obesity and physical activity (PA). The study population consisted of 37-81-year-old Finnish people (82 men and 86 women). FM% was estimated using DXA (GE Lunar Prodigy) and two BIA devices (InBody (720) and Tanita BC 418 MA). Subjects were divided into normal, overweight, and obese groups on the basis of clinical cutoff points of BMI, and into low PA (LPA) and high PA (HPA) groups. Agreement between the devices was calculated by using the Bland-Altman analysis. Compared to DXA, both BIA devices provided on average 2-6% lower values for FM% in normal BMI men, in women in all BMI categories, and in both genders in both HPA and LPA groups. In obese men, the differences were smaller. The two BIA devices provided similar means for groups. Differences between the two BIA devices with increasing FM% were a result of the InBody (720) not including age in their algorithm for estimating body composition. BIA methods provided systematically lower values for FM than DXA. However, the differences depend on gender and body weight status pointing out the importance of considering these when identifying people with excess FM.
Applied Body Composition Assessment
  • V Heyward
  • D Wagner
Heyward V, Wagner D. Applied Body Composition Assessment. (2nd Edition). Human Kinetics: Champiagn, IL; 2004.
Crossvalidation of bioelectrical impedance analysis for the assessment of body composition in a representative sample of 6-to 13-year-old children
  • S Kriemler
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