Conference PaperPDF Available


T. Fisher, S. Petrov,
Tyumen Research Centre, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Tyumen, Russia
A. Koptyug
Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden
Yu. Sukhovey
Institute of Immunology, Tyumen, Russia
E. Dotsenko
Tyumen State University, Tyumen, Russia
The research was carried out into the changes within psychic and immune domains of
the Russian Nenets people migrating from the traditional northern habitat (tundra) to urban
environment. It is noted that in the process of signicantly changing lifestyle supposedly
single ethnic group can be clearly sub-divided according to the differences in adaptation
dynamics. This division reects sociological differences and is connected to the psycho-
immunological aspects. Thus, with the adaptation of forest Nenets to the new conditions of
existence (from the tundra to the urban centers), we found a division of a whole ethnic group
into two groups according to a social attribute, which is xed at the psychophysiological
level. First, psychic and immune domains are not only sharing a number of common
features but also can have deep evolutionary connections and can be governed by similar
laws. Second, the psyche and the immune system show the most important functions and
properties that ensure an effective existence, generalizing the values of adaptation, protection
and vitality into a single structure. Such a concept is closed to “wholeness” and “integrity”
Fisher Tatiana Alexandrovna - Senior Researcher of Tyumen Research Centre, Siberian
Division of Russian Academy of Sciences,
Address: b. 86, Maligina str, Tyumen 625024, phone: +7 (919)9260582
showing that the distribution of vital forces or body resources can adjust the condition or
cope with the pre-illness or even disease.
Keywords: Forest Nenets, Russian North, psychic, immune, endocrine system,
tundra, urban center
Modern North is a complex and multi-faceted system where urbanistic eco- and
socio-system with its mines, factories and cities cohabits and collides with the historic way of
life of Nenets indigenous people engaged in traditional activities (reindeer herding, shing)
living in traditional tents and temporary dwellings, with traditional ways of cooking, arts
and crafts. Their beliefs formed under the inuence of the traditional national culture are
quite traditionalistic, animating the world around them and interacting to the multiple spirits.
Their way of life is strongly coherent with living environment as it is also common with
other indigenous people of north and arctic. But with increasing development northern and
arctic territories are rapidly urbanized, which leads to an increase in migration of indigenous
peoples between two very different environments. A certain part of the indigenous population
of tundra inevitably moves to the cities towns and modern villages. Very often this process
begins when children are starting to study in a boarding school. Then they continue their
studies and could be followed by the whole families moving away from their traditional
environment to live and work in the urbanized areas. This implies signicant changes in the
lifestyle of the indigenous population. A certain part of the indigenous population goes back
to the tundra and tries to ret into the traditional way of life after graduation, bringing home
modern appliances and technologies that actively penetrate into the traditional lifestyle.
Today in almost every tundra tent one can nd television sets, washing machines, microwave
ovens, computers and mobile phones (Sarnyai, Berger, & Jawan, 2015; Kue Young, Kelly,
Friborg, Soininen, & Wong, 2016; Nadtochiy, Smirnova, & Bronnikova, 2015; Burtseva,
Uvarova, Tomsky., & Odland, 2014).
Such changes are simultaneously happening at different levels of the organization
of human life and life-support systems. Dramatic changes in the lifestyle and the drive
for personal development engage adaptation mechanisms at both psychic and physiologic
domains that should be detectable within different levels and mechanisms including general
health, vitality and longevity, mental and psychological health, socialization (Gavrilenko,
Es’kov, Khadartsev, Khimikova, & Sokolova, 2014; Lyudinina, Eseva, Potolitsyna,
Chernykh, & Bojko, 2014).
State of the problem
Psychic and the immune domains comprise the key mechanisms of human self-
regulation and adaptation (Bogdanov, Dotsenko, 2010; Mikhaylenko 2012; Quan N.,
Banks WA, 2007; Capuron et al, 2007; Pacheco-Lopez G., Bermudez-Rattoni F., 2011;
Daruna, 2012; Dotsenko et al, 2013; Lanin, 2013; Suhovey et al, 2016; Fisher et al, 2016).
Historically it was assumed that psychic and physiological (including immune) domains
are independent and autonomous. But recent research shows that these two domains share a
number of similar key features and mechanisms, and possibly have common evolutionary-
developed strategies and laws (Suhovey et al, 2014; Fisher et al, 2016). This ndings
lead to the assumption that such domain separation may be articial. There is reason to
suspect that apparent synchronization of “mind” and “body” (psychic and physiological, in
particular immune domains) manifesting itself through similarities in operation strategies,
psychological and physiological adaptation dynamics and apparent functional duplication
and complementarity of the processes (Suhovey et al, 2014.) is due to the plane fact that we
are studying innitely complex, in reality probably inseparable system – a human being.
Taking into account a gap that exists in the knowledge about this extremely complex system
and basing on the pool of facts available today, it is possible to make a conclusion that there
are two separate systems (psychic and the immune) working together to provide optimum
adaptation to the life conditions and maintain the required level of the human body resources.
It does not seem proper to discuss the above dilemma “separable or inseparable” in
terms right/wrong. Human being is probably the most complex system we are studying today.
Modern science is just approaching understanding of some features of the simplied formal-
mathematical systems with closing to innity number of degrees of freedom (Feranchuk et al,
2014). And one of the conclusions is that with the number of degrees of freedom increasing
towards innity, system can gain unique properties that are not inherited from its ancestors
with small numbers of degrees of freedom, this making psychic and the immune systems in a
sense “inseparable”. The number of “degrees of freedom” in of the human being life system
is as close to innity as one can imagine. It may happen that certain features of its functioning
cannot be explained through the reduction and constructing dynamic models covering only
certain manifestations (psychic and immune domains etc.). And apparent contradictions and
coincidences between the two domains should be regarded as a traditional way of knowledge
development: thesis, antithesis, synthesis. Thus it is quite important working not only on
gathering new facts and clarifying existing “separate” approaches, but considering possible
“unication” of approaches at higher abstraction levels (Bakcheeva, Gorbach, Aljamovski, &
Mikhailova, 2013; Galantyuk, Isaeva, 2015).
According to A.V. Poletaev (1993) nature is strikingly “economical” and tends to
safeguard through evolution most general, universal principles and mechanisms that can work
effectively in a variety of situations. As a result high-level mechanisms have remained that
select the necessary programmes to survive and adapt to any conditions. It is assumed that
the main function of maintaining the viability of human being in the social environment is
delegated to the psychic domain, reected in the dynamics of mental (cognitive) processes
(reection, perception), and to the psychological defense mechanisms (primary and
secondary) working to minimize the negative impacts. On the contrary, immune domain is
maintaining the viability and integrity of live organism at the “inner body” level (Petrov,
2016). Therefore, specializing in areas of “responsibility”, the psychic and the immune
domains have kept the general principles of operation: each one performs adaptation
by means of structural and dynamic customizations of own activity under changing
environmental conditions. Hierarchy of these mechanisms can be described as follows:
• The activity of the human being in general, and of its organs and smaller structures,
in particular, is dynamically adjusted to the vitally critical changes in the environment. Within
the psychic domain it is performed through the feedback activated by sensors and receptors;
in the immune domain it is performed through the activation of the lymphocytes with their
receptors etc. This can be categorized as generalized (non-specic) mechanisms.
• In order to “speed up” adaptive responses certain patterns are preserved as
“templates”. Corresponding patterns are represented in the psychic domain by memory,
cognitive process pathways, neural and cerebral formations. In the immune domain these
are represented by the sets (“libraries”) of the specic molecular structures (receptors) and
antibodies, hormone and protein compounds, etc. This can be categorized as differentiated
(specic) mechanisms.
Both domains apparently are solving similar problems and have similar solution
• Recognition of the threat, its categorization and classication: certain object, being
or phenomenon is connected to a category among all dangerous or harmful factors.
• Forecast of the situation development, its categorization: relating to the
phenomena that have been dealt with before and constructing corresponding templates
through analysis of earlier actions. The forecast is related to the processes in memory and to
the capacity of the being in collecting, storing and updating traces of previous interactions.
• Blocking and counteracting the malicious agents or factors in order to avoid or reduce
the damage: learning from behavioral, generalized (non-specic) patterns, aiming at generating
faster response mechanisms that can be used in identical or similar cases in the future.
• Accumulation and storage of most successful templates: generation and formation
of hierarchical structures of the strategies and specic patterns capable of maintaining
physical and mental health under changing environmental conditions (related to both “inner”
and “outer” space).
It should be noted here, that speeding up responses of the regulatory and feedback
systems based on generating certain “inner templates” are well known in the neural network-
based systems (Csermely, 2016; Lee et al, 2004). It is more than a coincidence, as neural
networks are supposed to be modeling the processes happening in the brain (Galantyuk,
Petrov, Procopenko, & Shanina, 2013).
Our research approach is turning to complex situations in which environmental
conditions are changing quite abruptly, but the sample group of research subjects
experiencing changes is more uniform than one can possibly select in the general population.
Such situations can help clarify certain tendencies and draw better conclusions as the errors in
the resulting statistics tend to be smaller (Sukhovey et al, 2016). In this case, we have chosen
an ethnic group of indigenous people of the Russian North, Forest Nenets, relatively small
isolated population with very traditional lifestyle disturbed today by industrialization and
urbanization. Indigenous peoples of the North and Arctic are also known to have the capacity
to survive in extreme conditions still maintaining good health and longevity, supposedly due
to keeping inner peace and integrity.
The goal of research is to study the functional coupling of the psychic, immune and
endocrine domains/systems during the adaptation to extreme changes in the environment
(physical and social) using an example of the urbanization-forced migration of the Forest
Nenets, indigenous people of the Russian North.
Materials and methods
The study was conducted in the Kharampur village and “Chebacjhe” camp (the
southern part of the Purov region of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District, in the northern
taiga subzone of the Russian Federation). This area is 120 km away from the nearest district
center Tarko-Sale. The village is quite modern with one- and two-stored brick administrative
and residential buildings. It has centralized water supply, sewerage and heating networks,
asphalt and concrete coated streets. The industrial zone has boiler and transformer stations,
sh storage and processing plant, re station. “Chebacjhe “ camp is located in a wooded area
15-25 km from the village. People are living there in the tents made of natural materials like
rain deer skin and wood (“Chum”) 2-3 km from each other covering the area in the radius of
10-12 km. A total of 75 indigenous people took part in the study. Data analysis was carried
out for the whole group of the subjects and separately for the two separate sub-groups:
the Nenets who “live in the wild” (in the camp), and the Nenets who live in the urbanized
conditions (the Kharampur village). It should be mentioned, that genetically the whole group
is rather homogeneous: all belong to the traditional ethnic community living in relative
isolation until recently. This ethnic group for historically long time have experienced stable
climatic, geographic and cultural environment, and social conditions and accommodation
(with related aspects included) being reasonably independent variable factors.
The rst group consisted of 36 Nenets living “in the wild”, mainly engaged in shing,
rain deer herding and housekeeping (natural conditions). Most of them had neither secondary
nor higher education. The mean age for the rst group of participants was 41.48 ± 1.85 years.
The second group consisted of 39 people (aged 36.25 ± 1.98 years) of the same ethnic group,
lived and worked in the village (urban conditions) for a long time. About 75% of them had
a higher education, and 25% - secondary education. All participants have signed informed
consent forms. The study was approved by the local Ethics Committee, on the basis of the
Constitution (Articles 18, 20, 21, 22, 28 and 41) and the Federal Law №323 from 21.11.2003,
the “On the basis of protection of health of citizens of Russia” (articles 18-22).
Interviews were carried out and a questionnaire was used to assess the psychological
characteristics of the participants in particular the “aggressiveness” and “hostility” levels
(Buss, Durkee, 1957). In the present context aggression was used to describe certain human
responses, characterized by the presence of destructive tendencies; and hostility was used
to describe reactions, developing negative feelings and negative evaluations of people and
events. Three indices (“physical aggression”, “irritation” and “verbal aggression”) calculated
from the questionnaire data (Buss, Durkee, 1957) formed a cumulative index of aggression,
determining the overall active reaction towards other individuals. Indices “insult” and
“suspicion” formed a cumulative index of hostility, determining generally negative, skeptical
attitude towards others. The values of cumulative parameters of aggressiveness (21.0 ± 4.0)
and hostility (7.0 ± 3.0), both in relative units, were considered as “normal”, while the values
exceeding these corresponding reactions were regarded as aggressive and hostile.
Evaluation of immune and endocrine system response parameters was performed
by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) using universal photometer Anthos Reader Zenyth 200st
(Biochrom, UK). The functional activity of T-cell immunity was assessed by the level of
blood serum level of cytokines IL-4 and IFN-γ, which were determined using the bioassays
produced by the company VECTOR-BEST. Molecular integrity of the immune system
functioning was assessed using the serotonin and cortisol levels. Cortisol level was measured
using reagent set produced by ALKOR-Bio (Russia); serotonin level was measured using
corresponding reagent by IBL International (Germany, Hamburg).
Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using statistics software package SPSS
11.5 by Microsoft (mean, variance, average, parametric comparison of the Student’s criterion,
Pearson correlation coefcients, and ranking).
Results and their discussion
Resulting data extracted from the questionnaires according to Buss, Durkee (1957)
indicate that for both sub-groups cumulative index of aggression does not exceed normal
levels (see Table 1, Figure 1).
Table 1.
Comparison of the aggression and hostility related indices for the studied Forest Nenets sub-
Calculated indices
1 sub-group
"living in the wild"
2 sub-group
"living in an urban
aggression index
Index "physical aggression" 5.58±0.49 6.22±0.59
Index "irritation" 6.25±0.52 7.22±0.57
Index "verbal aggression" 7.41±0.78 7.33±0.50
hostility index
Index "insult" 3.91±0.54 5,66±0,49*
Index "suspicion" 4.91±0.56 6.55±0.50**
Index "indirect aggression" 4.5±0.58 5.11±0.54
Index "negativism" 2.66±0.37 3.33±0.23
Index "guilt" 5.58±0.65 6.00±0.70
Corresponding reliability of the difference between sub-groups: * - р <0.05; ** - р <0.01
"Living in the wild" sub-group"Urban living" sub-group
Cumulative aggression Cumulative hostility
Figure 1. Cumulative aggression and hostility indices for the studied Forest Nenets sub-
Corresponding reliability of the hostility index difference between sub-groups is
Signicant differences between the surveyed groups were found only for the
indices “insult” (p <0.05) and “suspicion” (p <0.01) forming a cumulative hostility
index. In both cases the values for the “urban living” (Kharampur village) sub-group
were signicantly higher than those for the indices for the “living in the wild” (camp)
sub-group (Figure 1). The results of the tests can be interpreted as indicating higher envy
and hatred towards others, lack of condence and caution in relations with other people
for the “urban living” sub-group. Apparently, those Nenets who have migrated to urban
conditions experienced an increased concern for the survival under new (non-traditional)
circumstances (not having mastered the rules yet). Apparently it can be considered as
a special case of a search response (omnidirectional activity). Possibly it is a sort of
mechanism helping to increase the anxiety and to speed up responses through treating
all others as potential threat. Being a part of a social group these individuals can also
cause similar responses from the others, which contributes to overall situation together
with other external conditions perceived as “potentially hostile”. One can, therefore,
consider changing conditions due to the relocation/migration between the different
environments (infrastructure, quality of life, social contacts etc.) as a trigger for changing
the functional state of the psychic domain. And certain mechanisms within this domain
are relevant to the constructive strategy of adaptation, which is reected in the changing
behavioral patterns. It is possible to conclude that changes of the living environment of
the initially homogeneous group of indigenous people lead to qualitative changes in the
psychic domain and help clear distinction between the corresponding sub-groups related
to these differences in the environment.
The analysis of hormonal content (cortisol and serotonin) in blood serum did not
reveal signicant differences between the sub-groups of surveyed Forest Nenets, and
these gures did not exceed the reference values (Table 2). At the same time there are
strong correlations of cortisol level (a marker of stress reaction) with the indices of “verbal
aggression” (r = -0.87, p <0.01), “indirect aggression” (r = -0.70, p <0. 05) and “guilt” (r =
-0.68, p <0.05).
Table 2.
Comparative characteristics of the immune and endocrine indicators of Forest Nenets
Corresponding levels: 1 sub-group
"living in the wild"
2 sub-group
"living in an urban environment"
Serotonin, x10-9 g/ml 315.15 ± 30.95 359.51 ± 34.01 40-400
x10-9 mol/ml 398.56 ± 40.16 368.84 ± 36.95 150-660
x10-12 g/ml 3.12 ± 0.53 5.17 ± 0.59* 0-4
x10-12 g/ml 20.24 ± 2.11 3.22 ± 0.31** 0-15
Corresponding reliability of the difference between sub-groups: * - р <0.05; ** - р <0.01
Serotonin is known to be a neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of feeding
behavior and certain mental processes (impulsiveness, mood, etc.) and cognitive processes
(concentration, attention, Schuur et al., 2014). So the positive correlation between serotonin
levels and the “verbal aggression” index (r = +0.72, p <0.05) is unexpected. There is no stress
(by judging from the serotonin level), but “verbal aggression” is present. It implies that we
actually deal not with the search type adaptation mechanisms, but probably with increased
aggressiveness “in return” (mainly manifesting itself as verbal aggression) as a reaction to the
generally increased levels of surrounding social aggressiveness. One can presume that in the
process of adaptation certain external factors (or complexes of factors) trigger a functional
reorganization of the endocrine system. Probably endocrine processes are also developing
certain reaction patterns basing upon the accumulated experience of interaction with the
environment, which is benecial in the competition for “increased quality of life”.
The analysis of markers of humoral (IL-4) and cellular (INFγ) parts of the immune
system (Table 2) indicates that for the Forest Nenets living in an urban environment the level
of IL-4 is 1.6 times higher (p <0, 05), and INFγ - 6.3 times lower (p <0.01) as compared to
the corresponding values for the Nenets living in tundra (”living in wild”). It may indicate
a change in patterns of functional activity of the immune response. Perhaps this is due to an
exogenous spectrum of the protein antigen loading. In particular, viruses and bacteria mainly
cause activation of the Th1 lymphocytes, while parasites and allergens predominantly cause
Th2 lymphocyte activation. At the same time direct correlation of IL-4 levels with the “guilt”
indicator (r = 0,78, p <0.01) was found for the Forest Nenets living in an urban environment.
Thus, we can clearly observe the difference in the two sub-groups of the single (and
supposedly uniform) ethnic group when people are adapting to the changing environment
and lifestyles (living “in the wild” or living in an urban environment). These differences
are connected to the social factors, but are also mirrored as certain differences in the
psycho-physiological reactions in process of adaptation. It is also possible to assume that
the immune defense (cell level) is mainly responsible for dealing with the changes in the
physical environment, and humoral defenses- for building/changing relationships (especially
for the interpersonal communication), but this hypothesis requires a special verication.
Some researchers are even proposing that the immune system can be regarded as a kind of
special sensory organ (”the 6th sense”), which was formed in the course of evolution and
serves for the perception and processing of a variety of stimuli (Camara, Danao, 1989,
Ferench, Strtinov, 1997). However, this assumption is not proved for the moment. Our results
suggest that adaptation processes can be supplemented (either causing direct changes or
just followed) by the establishing of specic patterns of the immune response. Perhaps the
humoral branch of the immune system is connected to (may be responsible for or provide
resources to) building social relationships under signicant changes in the environment
(in our case between two different physical environments and lifestyles). Though it is not
possible at the moment to speculate about causality in the relations between the adaptation
and immunity, but it is experimentally clear that changes in the natural conditions of
existence of small indigenous population of the North lead to the qualitative (but measurable)
changes in the immune system operation. The same time there are no statistically reliable
differences in the endocrine system of two population sub-groups, but endocrine responses
are clearly connected to the adaptation processes (this is conrmed by the corresponding
correlations). Again no conclusion on the causality can be made in this case basing solely
upon the existing data.
Apparent connection between the adaptation process, and the psychic and immune
responses discussed above, supports the hypotheses that psychic and immune domains are
jointly involved into the most important and critical life support activities, linking adaptation
and protection tasks into a single meta-system (Sukhovey et al, 2014).
It is not possible to speculate yet if moving to rural environment will cause any
long-term health consequences or changes in the longevity for the Nenets people who have
moved to the rural lifestyle. But Nenets folk living traditionally are proverbially illustrious
of being calm, placid, being generally healthier than other Russians and commonly living
longer life in peace with themselves and with the extreme nature of the North. But examples
of successful adaptation of the Nenets sub-population moved to the rural living indicates
that major “body and mind” resources can be effectively re-distributed to cope with quite
extreme survival challenges. And it is also feasible that indigenous Nenets population has a
high adaptation capacity also in the case of coping with disease and pre-disease conditions,
and corresponding re-distribution of the “vitality resources” may be achieved via the psychic
domain. And psychic health help immune system to keep physical health. This in a sense
supports the holistic approach to the health care when mind and body are treated as integrated
and inseparable.
In present research there are possible factors that can potentially bias our results or
bring errors. There is a difference in the average age of about 5 years between the two groups
of participants. And the group living traditionally (“in the wild”) is some elder, whereas
younger people are usually considered to be more adaptable. But both groups represent
mature people in the prime of their life, not youngsters at all, and thus we do not expect
signicant inuence there. Another potential issue can be related to the size of test groups. It
may be possible to widen the studies including people from other villages, but it may disturb
the genetic uniformity of the test subject group. In our studies we conducted the tests with the
group of Nenets people from the same localized area who can be treated as a kind of large
“extended family” and in many cases are genetically related.
Possible connection of adaptation mechanisms to the responses in psychic and the
immune domains was studied with the group of indigenous people of the Russian north, Forest
Nenents forced to migrate between two different environments and lifestyles. It was found, that:
• Forest Nenets, constantly living in the village (urban environment) have
increased levels of psychological and physiological tension: higher “insult” and “suspicion”
indicators and lower levels of IL-4 and serum INFγ, as compared to the ones living in traditional
environment (in the camp).
• There were no differences between the groups in the expression of stress-
reaction at the physiological level: there is no signicant change in the level of cortisol and
serum serotonin.
Acquired results additionally support the hypothesis of apparent connection between
the psychic and immune domains. In the particular example, both domains seem to be jointly
involved into the process of adaptation to the life conditions, and are jointly maintaining the
required level of resources of the human body, linking adaptation and protection tasks into a
single meta-system.
It is also possible to assume that the immune defenses (cell level) are mainly
responsible for dealing with the changes in the physical environment, and humoral defenses-
for building/changing relationships (especially for the interpersonal communication), but this
hypothesis requires special verication.
Examples of successful adaptation of the Nenets sub-population moved to the
rural living indicates that major “body and mind” resources can be effectively re-
distributed to cope with quite extreme survival challenges. Corresponding re-distribution
of the “vitality resources” may possibly be achieved via the stimulation of psychic
domain, and so the psychic health can be helping immune system to keep physical health.
This in a sense supports the holistic approach to the health care when mind and body
are treated as integrated and inseparable, and that mind can inuence the body and vice
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Introduction: The goal of this study was to examine the fatty acid (FA) composition of the total plasma lipids of the native inhabitants of the Russian European North, taking into consideration the differences in lifestyles and nutritional habits as well as the interrelationship between the plasma FA profile and nutrition. Methods: In total, 78 native residents of the Russian European North (61 men and 17 women) from two regions of Komi Republic of Northern Russia (Izhma settlement and city Syktyvkar), aged 25-45 years, were included in this study. The Izhma group consisted of reindeer herders (17 men and 17 women). The comparison group (44 men) consisted of citizens of Syktyvkar. Venous blood plasma after overnight fasting was used for analysis of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, vitamins and total FA composition. A modified questionnaire 'Seafood and the health of the people of the North' was used for the assessment of nutrition. Results: The levels of total FAs in the blood plasma of Indigenous inhabitants of Russian European North were at the lower border of the reference range. In the Izhma group, levels of n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (1.3/0.9-1.8; p<0.001) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (2.2/1.5-2.8; p=0.025), n-7 palmitoleic FA (2.3/1.9-2.5; p<0.001) were higher than in the Syktyvkar group. At the same time, levels of n-6 linoleic acid (32.1/29.2-35.5; p=0.003) were significantly lower in the male reindeer herders of Izhma. Comparison of the nutritional habits of both groups revealed larger consumption of fish, meat and reindeer fat (p<0.001), eggs (p=0.004), high-carbohydrate products (white bread (p=0.033) and macaroni (p<0.001)) by reindeer herders of Izhma. The participants in the urban group demonstrated higher consumption of fruits (p<0.001), butter (p=0.013), cultured milk foods (p=0.010) and vegetables (p=0.009). © AY Lyudinina, TV Eseva, AA Chernykh, ER Bojko, 2014. A licence to publish this material has been given to James Cook University, 2 Conclusions: The results of the study showed more beneficial n-6/n-3 FA ratios in reindeer herders of Russian European North than in urban inhabitants. Higher plasma polyunsaturated n-3 FA (EPA, DHA) levels in reindeer herders who had more fish in their diet were demonstrated. In addition, inland reindeer herders showed higher palmitoleic acid levels and lower linoleic acid levels in blood total lipids than urban inhabitants. The nutritional features and environmental conditions were assumed to have the greatest effects on plasma FA profiles and lipid metabolism in the Indigenous inhabitants of Russian European North.
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Present article discusses the physiological mechanisms of the state employees adaptation during active training in temporary groups. It is suggested that adaptive mechanisms to adverse effects may be studied basing on the concept of functional isomorphism of the psychic and immune systems. Adaptive mechanisms were studied through the monitoring of the stress factors’ impact upon the law enforcement officers when training outside the places of permanent deployment. The specific purpose of present study was to evaluate the physiological indicators of the psychic, immune and endocrine systems dynamics at different stages of adaptation of the live organism to a stressful situation, hoping to get better insight into possible relations between psychic and immune domains. Through monitoring of the dynamics of the endocrine and immune responses to the psychic stimuli, it was possible to correlate the stages of the stress onset to the phases of specific immune reactions. Strong correlations between the parameters characterizing activation of the psychic and immune responses support the hypothesis of the presence of “strong cooperation” between psychic and immune domains. It supports earlier hypothesis that we are monitoring different manifestations of the functioning of a complex inseparable psycho-immune meta-system.
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Objectives: To determine and compare the incidence of cancer among the 8 Arctic States and their northern regions, with special focus on 3 cross-national indigenous groups - Inuit, Athabaskan Indians and Sami. Methods: Data were extracted from national and regional statistical agencies and cancer registries, with direct age-standardization of rates to the world standard population. For comparison, the "world average" rates as reported in the GLOBOCAN database were used. Findings: Age-standardized incidence rates by cancer sites were computed for the 8 Arctic States and 20 of their northern regions, averaged over the decade 2000-2009. Cancer of the lung and colon/rectum in both sexes are the commonest in most populations. We combined the Inuit from Alaska, Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Greenland into a "Circumpolar Inuit" group and tracked cancer trends over four 5-year periods from 1989 to 2008. There has been marked increase in lung, colorectal and female breast cancers, while cervical cancer has declined. Compared to the GLOBOCAN world average, Inuit are at extreme high risk for lung and colorectal cancer, and also certain rare cancers such as nasopharyngeal cancer. Athabaskans (from Alaska and Northwest Territories) share some similarities with the Inuit but they are at higher risk for prostate and breast cancer relative to the world average. Among the Sami, published data from 3 cohorts in Norway, Sweden and Finland show generally lower risk of cancer than non-Sami. Conclusions: Cancer among certain indigenous people in the Arctic is an increasing public health concern, especially lung and colorectal cancer.
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Objectives: A considerable gap exists in health and social emotional well-being between Indigenous people and non-Indigenous Australians. Recent research in stress neurobiology highlights biological pathways that link early adversity and traumas as well as life stresses to ill health. We argue that the neurobiological stress response and its maladaptive changes, termed allostatic load, provide a useful framework to understand how adversity leads to physical and mental illness in Indigenous people. In this paper we review the biology of allostatic load and make links between stress-induced systemic hormonal, metabolic and immunological changes and physical and mental illnesses. Conclusions: Exposure to chronic stress throughout life results in an increased allostatic load that may contribute to a number of metabolic, cardiovascular and mental disorders that shorten life expectancy in Indigenous Australians.
This chapter is dedicated to the applications of operator method for the analysis of propagation of electron in ionic crystal, called often as propagation of polaron of a large radius. This task is qualitatively distinguishable from the ones discussed in previous chapters by the fact that Hamiltonian includes the interaction of electron with the system possessing infinite degrees of freedom and describing the phonon field of the lattice vibration. A similar problem arises for the systems, which require the self-consistent description of objects with external media, and the significance of polaron covers much wider area than the description of the interaction between electrons and phonons initially constructed by Fröhlich [1].
Realization and introduction of social economic and medical measures, which are aimed at protection and promotion of health of indigenous and small-numbered peoples of North-Eastern Russia do not provide efficient conditions for improvement of health quality. Demographic processes, increased morbidity and changes in its structure require a different approach to establishment of a system of monitoring and development of medical social infrastructure for northern ethnic groups. Development and organization of medical measures should be realized in association with specific characteristics of gene- and phenotype-caused mechanisms of adaptation, that have been formed during many thousands of years in indigenous and small-numbered peoples.