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Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy goals and initiatives

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This research was supported by the Government of Ontario through the Ontario Human
Capital Research and Innovation Fund (OHCRIF)
Policy options for
outbound student
mobility: An inter-
jurisdictional review of
policy goals and
initiatives
Diane Barbarič
CIHE Report 2017.03
A report to the Ontario
Ministry of Advanced
Education and Skills
Development
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
2
A!report!by:!
!
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Ontario!Institute!for!Studies!in!Education!(OISE)!
University!of!Toronto!
252!Bloor!St.!West,!6th!Floor!
Toronto,!Ontario!M5S!1V6!Canada!
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www.oise.utoronto.ca/cihe!
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!
!
Please!cite!this!publication!as:!
!
Barbaric,!D.!(2017).!Policy!options!for!outbound!student!mobility:!
An!inter-jurisdictional!review!of!policy!goals!and!initiatives.!Toronto:!Centre!for!the!Study!of!
Canadian!and!International!Higher!Education,!OISE-University!of!Toronto.!
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!
!
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Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
3
Contents'
Executive Summary ............................................................................................................................... 5!
Key Findings ...................................................................................................................................... 6!
Policy Implications ............................................................................................................................ 6!
Recommendations ............................................................................................................................. 7!
List of Organizational Acronyms ........................................................................................................... 8!
List of Tables ......................................................................................................................................... 9!
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 10!
Background ...................................................................................................................................... 10!
Objectives ........................................................................................................................................ 11!
Research Questions .......................................................................................................................... 11!
Scope ............................................................................................................................................... 12!
Methods ............................................................................................................................................... 13!
Research Design ............................................................................................................................... 13!
Data Sources and Collection ............................................................................................................. 13!
Participant!Recruitment ................................................................................................................ 13!
Primary!Data ................................................................................................................................. 13!
Secondary!Data ............................................................................................................................. 14!
Data Analysis .................................................................................................................................... 15!
Documents ................................................................................................................................... 15!
Findings ............................................................................................................................................... 16!
Key Findings: Ontario ....................................................................................................................... 16!
Government!Programs .................................................................................................................. 16!
Government!Policies ..................................................................................................................... 17!
Advocacy!Groups’!Positions ........................................................................................................... 19!
Student!Groups ......................................................................................................................... 19!
Universities ............................................................................................................................... 19!
Business .................................................................................................................................... 20!
Key Findings: Federal ...................................................................................................................... 24!
Government!Programs ................................................................................................................. 24!
Government!Policies ..................................................................................................................... 25!
Partner/Advocacy!Groups’!Positions .............................................................................................. 27!
Student!Groups ......................................................................................................................... 27!
Universities!and!International!Education!Sector ......................................................................... 28!
Business .................................................................................................................................... 28!
Provinces .................................................................................................................................. 28!
Discussion ............................................................................................................................................ 32!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
4
Inter-Jurisdictional Comparison ........................................................................................................ 32!
Semantics ........................................................................................................................................ 33!
Data Deficit ...................................................................................................................................... 33!
Online Repository ............................................................................................................................. 34!
Ontario ......................................................................................................................................... 34!
Federal Level ................................................................................................................................ 34!
Policy Implications ............................................................................................................................... 35!
Recommendations and Suggestions for Further Research .................................................................... 36!
Recommendations ........................................................................................................................... 36!
Suggestions for Further Research ..................................................................................................... 36!
Appendix A: Outbound Student Mobility Programs (Ontario) .............................................................. 37!
Appendix B: Outbound Student Mobility Programs (Federal) .............................................................. 38!
References ........................................................................................................................................... 41!
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Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
5
Executive'Summary'
According!to!the!2014!“Erasmus!Impact!Study,”!European!students!who!have!studied!or!trained!abroad!
are!half!as!likely!to!face!long-term!unemployment,!and!one!in!ten!have!started!their!own!business.!At!
both!the!regional!and!national!levels,!European!leaders!have!understood!the!benefits!of!promoting!
outbound!student!mobility.!In!Germany,!30%!of!graduates!have!spent!at!least!three!months!studying!
abroad,!and!last!year!both!its!federal!and!state!governments!boosted!the!medium-term!international!
student!mobility!goal!to!50%!for!all!students!in!postsecondary!education.!The!EU’s!outward!student!
mobility!target!is!20%!by!2020,!and!the!UK!and!France!have!made!outbound!mobility!a!national!priority.!!
!
Here!in!Canada,!increasing!the!international!mobility!of!domestic!students!in!both!Ontario!and!Canada!
has!been!mentioned!in!recent!government!and!government-commissioned!reports!as!a!means!of!
increasing!experiential!learning,!employability,!and!the!labour!mobility!of!students.!It!has!also!been!
discussed!as!a!way!of!allowing!Canadian!and!Ontario!students!to!gain!further!insight!into!global!issues.!
However,!despite!establishing!its!first-ever!International!Education!Strategy!(IES)!in!2014,!Canada!has!
yet!to!set!any!outward!student!mobility!targets.!It!is!currently!estimated!that!approximately!3%!of!
Canadian!postsecondary!students!are!studying!abroad.!
!
This!report!aims!to!provide!a!comprehensive!review!of!government-led!outbound!student!mobility!
(OSM)!policies!and!programs!in!both!Ontario!and!at!the!federal!level.!Such!a!review!is!currently!lacking!
in!the!policy!literature,!which!makes!it!difficult!to!situate!either!Canada!on!an!international!scale!or!
Ontario!on!a!pan-Canadian!scale.!!
!
By!analyzing!ten!years!(20052015)!of!outbound!student!mobility!policies!and!programs!across!
ministries!as!well!as!policies!and!positions!of!key!provincial!and!national!postsecondary!(PS)!stakeholder!
organizations,!this!report!sought!to!answer!the!following!four!questions:!!
!
1. What!governmental!programs!and!policies!are!currently!availableor!have!been!available!in!the!
last!10!yearsto!support!Ontario!and!Canadian!students!seeking!to!have!an!international!
learning!experience!abroad?!
2. What!is!the!scope!of!these!programs!and!which!ministries!or!governmental!agencies!fund!them?!!
3. How!do!these!policies!relate!to!other!key!postsecondary!goals,!as!defined!by!government!and!
key!advocacy!documents,!such!as!preparing!students!to!participate!effectively!in!a!global!
workforce!environment?!
4. Are!there!any!program!or!policy!gaps!or!overlaps,!either!within!a!jurisdiction!or!between!the!
two!jurisdictions!studied!in!this!report?!
!
The!results!of!this!study!will!allow!Ontario!and!Canadian!policymakers!to!have!a!better!understanding!of!
the!current!domestic!policy!environment!for!this!important!facet!of!student!and!youth!training.!The!
study!was!limited!to!university-level!programs,!policies!and!advocacy.!It!did!not!include!colleges!or!
apprenticeship!programs,!although!they!are!both!equally!important.!
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Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
6
Key'Findings'
Both!the!Ontario!government!and!the!federal!government!support!a!limited!number!of!outbound!
student!mobility!programs!for!university!students.!However,!these!programs!are!hard!to!find!and!would!
benefit!from!better!communication!strategies.!
!
International!education!policy!in!general,!and!outbound!student!mobility!policy!specifically,!has!tended!
to!be!the!result!of!political!will.!Both,!however,!have!historically!taken!a!back!seat!to!domestic!policy!
issues.!Only!when!they!have!shown!an!easily-communicated!domestic!benefit!have!they!succeeded!in!
enduring.!Policies!that!form!part!of!diplomatic!relations!are!also!more!likely!to!endure.!
!
In!Ontario,!international!education!has!not!been!an!advocacy!priority!for!student!groups!in!the!province!
over!the!last!10!years,!neither!outbound!student!mobility!nor!international!work!placements!are!on!the!
university!advocacy!radar!in!Ontario,!and!the!Ontario!business!sector!has!not!advocated!in!favour!of!
providing!Ontario!students!with!the!opportunity!to!acquire!global!competencies!abroad.!
!
In!Ottawa,!international!education!is!not!on!the!advocacy!agenda!of!federal-level!student!organizations!
in!Canada!nor!is!it!on!the!advocacy!radar!of!business!groups!at!the!federal!level.!
!
In!contrast,!Universities!Canada!and!the!Canadian!Bureau!for!International!Education!have!consistently!
called!on!the!federal!government!to!increase!support!for!and!facilitate!access!to!learning!opportunities!
abroad!for!Canadian!students.!
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Policy'Implications'
Unless!there!is!a!strong!and!vocal!champion!leading!the!charge!for!outbound!student!mobility!as!part!of!
a!comprehensive!international!education!strategy!either!for!Ontario!or!for!Canada,!possibly!combined!
with!increasing!evidence!of!the!benefits!of!such!outward!student!movement!for!the!home!jurisdiction,!
this!file!will!continue!to!languish!at!the!policy!level.!
!
Without!a!lead,!will,!and!a!coordinated!and!conscious!effort!to!see!and!reframe!international!learning!
abroad!as!both!an!access!and!a!quality!learning/student!success!issue,!it!will!remain!on!the!margins!as!a!
fringe!endeavour,!a!“nice!to!have”!instead!of!an!important!component!of!preparing!students!for!life!in!a!
globalized!world.!
!
This!risk!of!enduring!marginalization!is!more!acute!in!Ontario!than!at!the!federal!level,!as!national-level!
advocacy!groups!such!as!CBIE!and!Universities!Canada!are!more!vocal!about!wanting!to!see!
governmental!action!on!this!file!than!comparable!groups!in!Ontario!where!the!issue!really!is!not!on!the!
advocacy!radar.!
!
Policy-wise,!an!IE!strategy!will!first!and!foremost!need!clear!objectives.!It!will!then!need!a!way!of!
determining!ifor!to!what!extentthose!objectives!are!being!met.!Setting!an!outbound!target!number!
or!percentage!would!signal!a!public-policy!desire!for!more!PS!students!to!benefit!from!the!opportunity!
of!having!an!international!mobility!experience!as!part!of!a!high-quality!learning!experience.!Hard!targets!
and!open!and!transparent!reporting!are!good!starts.!For!these,!Ontario!and!Canada!can!turn!to!the!
Erasmus!program!and!its!policymakers!for!best!practices!and!lessons!learned.!!
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Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
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A!sustainable!outbound!policy!will!also!need!to!clearly!articulate!the!benefits!that!accrue!not!just!to!the!
individual!but!also!to!the!jurisdiction!at!large.!Here,!measuring!outcomes!will!most!likely!prove!to!be!
key.!For!this,!there!exist!a!number!of!intercultural!metrics!that!can!guide!the!establishment!of!reporting!
mechanisms,!and!Canadian!universities!are!well-placed!to!assist!with!this!as!they!may!already!be!in!use!
on!some!campuses!across!the!country.!
!
And!finally,!no!outbound!strategy!has!any!hope!of!succeeding!without!good,!comparable,!and!reliable!
data:!participation!starting!points,!trends!analyses,!activity!categories,!participant!demographics,!levels!
and!fields!of!study,!etc.!!
!
In!short,!clear!policy!goals,!parameters,!and!rationales!are!needed!to!establish!a!convincing!and!
sustainable!outbound!strategy.!Data!collection!and!dissemination,!as!well!as!outcomes!reporting!will!be!
crucial,!and!wording!will!be!key.!
!
Recommendations'
1. Designate!a!credible!and!well-respected!international!learning!experience!champion.!
2. Provincial!policy!levers:!While!universities!in!Canada!are!autonomous,!the!Ontario!government!
nonetheless!has!some!policy!levers!at!its!disposal,!such!as!reporting!requirements,!which!could!
be!put!in!place!in!order!to!obtain!outbound!mobility!numbers!from!each!institution.!These!could!
be!linked!to!outcomes-based!reporting,!which!would!be!especially!worthwhile!if!the!province!
established!an!outward!mobility!target!for!its!postsecondary!students.!
3. Open!administrative!data!for!research!analysis.!!
4. Incentivize!universities!to!share!institutional!data!for!research!analysis.!
5. Build!a!national!outbound!database!with!figures!and!categories!that!are!comparable!within!and!
among!Canadian!jurisdictions,!and!also!internationally.!There!is!such!penury!of!information!that!
this!database!had!might!as!well!be!constructed!from!scratch.!Before!embarking!on!database!
construction,!however,!a!study!of!international!best!practices!should!be!undertaken,!as!
countries!such!as!Germany!may!already!be!collecting!this!type!of!data!and!have!a!data!collection!
framework!that!could!be!adapted!or!applied!to!the!Canadian!context.!Alternatively,!task!a!
multilateral!organization!such!as!the!OECD!or!UNESCO!with!the!project.!
6. Contribute!dedicated,!ongoing!funding!to!Statistics!Canada’s!Education!Data!division!in!order!to!
ensure!reliable!and!sustainable!data!collection!and!dissemination!in!a!timely!manner.!!
7. Communicate!the!importance!of!international!learning!experiences!and!provide!access!and!
support!to!them!for!all!students!interested,!including!by!leveraging!financial!support!from!the!
private!sector.!
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Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
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List'of'Organizational'Acronyms'
!
Full'Name'
Business!Council!of!Canada!(formerly!Council!of!Chief!Executives)!!
Canadian!Alliance!of!Student!Associations!
Canadian!Association!of!University!Teachers!
Canadian!Bureau!for!International!Education!
Conference!Board!of!Canada!
Canadian!Chamber!of!Commerce!
Canadian!Federation!of!Students!
Canadian!Federation!of!Students!-!Ontario!
Canadian!Institutes!of!Health!Research!
Council!of!Ministers!of!Education,!Canada!
Council!of!the!Federation!
Council!of!Ontario!Universities!
Department!of!Employment!and!Social!Development!Canada!
Department!of!Global!Affairs!Canada!
Higher!Education!Quality!Council!of!Ontario!
Department!of!Immigration,!Refugees!and!Citizenship!!
Ministry!of!Economic!Development,!Employment!and!Infrastructure!
Ministry!of!Research!and!Innovation!
Ministry!of!Training,!Colleges!and!Universities!
Natural!Sciences!and!Engineering!Research!Council!of!Canada!
Ontario!Chamber!of!Commerce!
Ontario!Confederation!of!University!Faculty!Associations!
Ontario!Graduate!Student!Alliance!
Ontario!Universities!International!
Ontario!Undergraduate!Student!Alliance!
Social!Sciences!and!Humanities!Research!Council!
Statistics!Canada!
UNESCO!Institute!for!Statistics!
Universities!Canada!(formerly!Association!of!Universities!and!Colleges!Canada)!
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Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
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List'of'Tables'
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Table!1:!Participant!Tally ....................................................................................................................... 14!
Table!2:!Symbolic!Representations!of!Degrees!of!Advocacy!or!Elimination ............................................ 15!
Table!3:!Policies!and!Government-Commissioned!Reports!(Ontario) ..................................................... 18!
Table!4:!Advocacy!Group!Position!Papers!(Ontario) ............................................................................... 20!
Table!5:!Policies!and!Government-Commissioned!Reports!(Federal) ..................................................... 26!
Table!6:!Partner/Advocacy!Group!Position!Papers!(Federal) ................................................................. 29!
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Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
10
Introduction''
Background'
!
According!to!the!2014!“Erasmus!Impact!Study,”!European!students!who!have!studied!or!trained!abroad!
are!half!as!likely!to!face!long-term!unemployment,!and!one!in!ten!have!started!their!own!business!
(European!Commission,!2014).!At!both!the!regional!and!national!levels,!European!leaders!have!
understood!the!benefits!of!promoting!outbound!student!mobility.!In!Germany,!30%!of!graduates!have!
spent!at!least!three!months!studying!abroad,!and!last!year!both!its!federal!and!state!governments!
boosted!the!medium-term!international!student!mobility!goal!to!50%!for!all!students!in!postsecondary!
education!(Kercher!&!Rohde,!2014).!The!EU’s!outward!student!mobility!target!is!20%!by!2020!(EU!
Ministers!Responsible!for!Higher!Education,!2009),!and!the!UK!and!France!have!made!outbound!mobility!
a!national!priority!(Fioraso,!2012;!UK!Higher!Education!International!Unit,!2013).!!
!
Here!in!Canada,!increasing!the!international!mobility!of!domestic!students!in!both!Ontario!and!Canada!
has!been!mentioned!in!recent!government!and!government-commissioned!reports!as!a!means!of!
increasing!experiential!learning,!employability,!and!the!labour!mobility!of!students!(e.g.,!Drummond,!
2012;!Ministry!of!Training,!2012).!It!has!also!been!discussed!as!a!way!of!allowing!Canadian!and!Ontario!
students!to!gain!further!insight!into!global!issues!(Advisory!Panel!on!Canada’s!International!Education!
Strategy,!2012;!Rae,!2005).!However,!despite!establishing!its!first-ever!International!Education!Strategy!
(IES)!in!2014,!Canada!has!yet!to!set!any!outward!student!mobility!targets!(Department!of!Foreign!Affairs,!
2014).!It!is!currently!estimated!that!approximately!3%!of!Canadian!postsecondary!students!are!studying!
abroad!(OECD,!2014;!UNESCO!Institute!for!Statistics,!2016).!
!
At!the!provincial!level,!in!Ontario,!the!Ministry!of!Training,!Colleges!and!Universities!(MTCU)!has!just!
launched!a!discussion!paper!to!develop!a!province-wide!postsecondary!international!education!
strategy!(Ministry!of!Training,!2016).!Input!is!currently!being!sought!from!the!higher!education!
community!(i.e.,!students,!faculty!members,!and!postsecondary!institutions)!as!well!as!employers!and!
community!organizations,!with!the!stated!goal!of!creating!a!comprehensive!strategy!that!will!benefit!the!
province!and!all!Ontarians,!and!bring!a!“coordinated!approach!to!internationalization!in!the!province”!
(Ministry!of!Training,!2016,!p.!9).!
!
In!this!context!of!policy!development!in!Ontario,!the!time!is!ripe!to!take!stock!of!the!current!
international!education!(IE)!policy!and!program!environment!at!both!the!provincial!and!federal!
levels.!This!report!does!not!linger!on!general!discussions!about!internationalization!nor!does!it!
expound!on!the!continually!honed!and!refined!meanings!given!to!the!concept!(e.g.,!De!Wit,!2015;!
Knight,!2012,!2014)!For!that!discussion,!please!visit!the!constantly-updated!definitions!page!
maintained!by!the!International!Association!of!Universities:!http://www.iau-
aiu.net/content/definitions.!This!report!also!does!not!discuss!the!inbound!movement!of!
international!students.!Since!the!Kunin!Economic!Impact!Report!(2009),!and!certainly!since!its!
update!in!2012!(Kunin!&!Associates,!2012),!there!has!been!an!inordinate!amount!of!attention!given!
to!the!economic!benefits!of!attracting!international!students!to!Canadian!campuses.!While!the!
recruitment!of!international!students!is!indeed!an!important!aspect!of!international!education!and!
international!student!mobility,!for!a!number!of!reasons,!it!is!but!one!facet.!Instead,!this!report!is!
centered!on!Canadian!students.!It!focuses!on!the!opportunities!that!are!offered!to!them!to!go!
abroad.!Specifically,!have!the!provincial!and!federal!governments!established!programs!or!policies!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
11
that!allow!domestic!students!to!have!access!to!high-quality!learning!experiences!outside!of!Canada!
for!either!all!or!part!of!their!studies?!
!
For!the!purposes!of!this!report,!the!concept!of!outbound!student!mobility!(OSM)!has!deliberately!
been!kept!large,!in!order!to!capture!a!maximal!number!of!opportunities,!programs,!and!policy!
discussions.!OSM!in!this!context!encompasses!any!out-of-country!learning!experience!targeting!or!
available!to!undergraduate!or!graduate!university!students,!ranging!from!the!purely!academic!(i.e.,!
student!exchanges,!study!abroad,!full-degree!abroad),!to!work-integrated!or!experiential!learning!
opportunities!(i.e.,!co-op,!internship!or!service!learning!placements!abroad),!and!also!research!
training/field!research!abroad.!Although!examining!OSM!opportunities!for!college!and!post-
doctoral!students!was!beyond!the!scope!of!this!report,!such!analyses!would!be!interesting!to!
explore!at!a!later!date!in!order!to!get!a!better!idea!of!what!is!available!throughout!the!entire!
postsecondary!sector.!
!
Objectives'
!
This!report!aims!to!provide!a!comprehensive!review!of!government-led!outbound!student!mobility!
policies!and!programs!in!both!Ontario!and!at!the!federal!level.!Such!a!review!is!currently!lacking!in!the!
policy!literature,!which!makes!it!difficult!to!situate!either!Canada!on!an!international!scale!or!Ontario!on!
a!pan-Canadian!scale.!This!report!fills!these!voids!by!providing!initial!insight!into!where!we!stand!in!
Ontario!and!at!the!federal!level,!and!why.!
!
Through!jurisdictional-level!inventories!as!well!as!analyses!of!current!programs!and!policies!pertaining!
to!outbound!student!mobility,!this!study!allows!Ontario!and!Canadian!policymakers!to!have!a!better!
understanding!of!the!current!domestic!policy!environment!for!this!important!facet!of!student!and!youth!
training.!!
!
Concretely,!the!Ontario-!and!federal-level!indexes!constitute!an!important!tool!to!horizontally!examine!
policy!and!program!options!across!ministries!in!each!jurisdiction.!As!such,!these!indexes!are!meant!to!
support!discussions!about!competing!or!converging!policy!trends!and!rationales,!and!also!highlight!
possible!vulnerabilities!or!biases!toward!or!against!certain!student!or!youth!populations.!They!also!allow!
for!cross-jurisdictional!comparisons!between!the!Ontario!and!federal!levels,!thereby!assisting!in!
identifying!potential!policy!or!service!delivery!overlaps,!efficiencies,!redundancies!or!gaps.!
!
In!short,!the!purpose!of!this!report!is!to!analyze!outbound!student!mobility!programs!and!policies!in!
both!Ontario!and!at!the!federal!level!in!order!to!provide!a!comprehensive!picture!of!what!is!being!said!
and!done,!by!whom,!and!why.!
!
Research'Questions'
!
Four!research!questions!guided!this!study:!
1. What!governmental!programs!and!policies!are!currently!availableor!have!been!available!in!the!
last!10!yearsto!support!Ontario!and!Canadian!students!seeking!to!have!an!international!
learning!experience!abroad?!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
12
2. What!is!the!scope!of!these!programs!and!which!ministries!or!governmental!agencies!fund!them?!!
3. How!do!these!policies!relate!to!other!key!postsecondary!goals,!as!defined!by!government!and!
key!advocacy!documents,!such!as!preparing!students!to!participate!effectively!in!a!global!
workforce!environment?!
4. Are!there!any!program!or!policy!gaps!or!overlaps,!either!within!a!jurisdiction!or!between!the!
two!jurisdictions!studied!in!this!report?!
!
Scope'
!
At!the!provincial!level,!this!study!was!limited!to!Ontario!only.!At!the!federal!level,!it!included!a!review!of!
the!outbound!student!mobility!policies!and!programs!across!ministries.!It!also!examined!the!policies!and!
positions!on!the!issue!of!outbound!mobility!for!Ontario!and!Canadian!students!as!they!have!been!
articulated!by!key!provincial!postsecondary!(PS)!stakeholder!organizations!speaking!for!and!from!
Ontario,!as!well!as!national!organizations!speaking!for!Canada!as!a!whole.!
!
Time-wise,!given!that!the!objective!of!the!project!was!to!review!present!policies!and!programs,!only!
current,!publicly-available!grey!literature!was!analyzed.!Policy!documents!and!position!papers!published!
prior!to!the!year!2005!were!not!considered.!!
!
The!study!was!limited!to!university-level!programs,!policies!and!advocacy.!It!did!not!include!colleges!or!
apprenticeship!programs,!although!they!are!both!equally!important.!For!those!interested!in!the!college!
sector,!a!good!starting!place!would!be!Elizabeth!Martin’s!2015!report!for!the!Conference!Board!of!
Canada:!Mobilizing!College!Students!For!Learning!Abroad:!SAIT!Polytechnic!And!The!Global!Education!
Network!(Martin,!2015b).!
!
'
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
13
Methods'
Research'Design'
!
This!was!a!qualitative!research!study!comprising!three!phases.!
!
Phase!One!entailed!creating!indexes!of!relevant!outbound!student!mobility!programs!and!policies!across!
ministries!at!the!both!the!provincial!and!federal!levels!of!governmentas!such!indexes!do!not!yet!
existas!well!as!relevant!government-commissioned!reports!from!20052015!that!informed!the!
policymaking!process!(see!Appendices!A!and!B).!These!indexes!were!then!subjected!to!intra-!and!inter-
jurisdictional!analyses.!
!
As!a!reminder,!the!abovementioned!indexes!do!not!include!programs!targeting!college!students!
exclusively.!They!also!do!not!include!such!programs!as!the!NSERC!Postdoctoral!Fellowships!Program!
(Natural!Sciences!and!Engineering!Research!Council!of!Canada,!2015)!or!the!now-defunct!Young!
Professionals!International!(YPI)!program!(Department!of!Foreign!Affairs,!2006),!which!targeted!post-
doctoral!scholars!and!recent!graduates!respectively.!
!
Phase!Two!consisted!of!creating!provincial-!and!federal-level!postsecondary!advocacy!indexes!using!
relevant!publications!from!20052016.!Advocacy!groups!represented!the!interests!of!students,!business,!
and!academia.!These!indexes!were!also!subjected!to!intra-!and!inter-jurisdictional!analyses.!!
!
The!third!and!final!phase!of!the!study!comprised!interviews!with!officials!from!key!federal!and!provincial!
ministries,!governmental!agencies!and!crown!corporations,!and!also!representatives!from!major!
national!and!provincial!stakeholder!groups!involved!in!postsecondary!policy!advocacy.!This!phase!is!not!
included!in!the!current!report,!as!it!is!still!in!progress!and!will!be!used!in!partial!fulfillment!for!the!degree!
of!Doctor!of!Philosophy,!Higher!Education,!in!the!Department!of!Leadership,!Higher!and!Adult!Education!
at!the!Ontario!Institute!for!Studies!in!Education,!University!of!Toronto.!
!
Data'Sources'and'Collection'
!
Participant!Recruitment!
!
A!list!of!potential!government!and!stakeholder!participants!was!established!by!reviewing!publicly-
available!staff!directories,!biographies,!publications,!and!reports.!Participants!were!then!purposefully!
chosen!based!on!their!influence!and/or!expertise!in!policymaking.!!
!
Each!participant!was!contacted!by!email!via!their!publicly-available!email!address.!The!invitation!email!
was!bilingual!(English!and!French),!and!English-!and!French-language!consent!forms!were!attached!to!
the!message.!Ensuing!correspondence!was!carried!out!in!the!language!in!which!the!email!was!answered.!
If!an!individual!was!referred!via!an!initial!contact,!that!individual!was!then!also!contacted!by!email,!
following!the!same!protocol.!
!
Primary!Data!
!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
14
In!total,!forty-one!individuals!were!invited!to!participate!in!this!study:!28!at!the!provincial!level!and!13!at!
the!federal!level.!Twenty!individuals!accepted.!However,!due!to!scheduling!conflicts,!only!fourteen!
individuals!participated!in!this!study:!nine!at!the!provincial!level!and!five!at!the!federal!level!(see!Table!
1).!!
!
Table'1:'Participant'Tally'
!
!
!
!
Jurisdiction!
Invited!
Accepted!
Participants!
Ontario!
28!
10!
9!
Federal!
13!
10!
5!
Total!
41!
20!
14!
'
Participants!were!public!sector!employees!working!for!governmental!ministries,!agencies,!and!crown!
corporations!(five!in!Toronto,!four!in!Ottawa)!as!well!as!members!of!leading!higher!education!advocacy!
groups!(four!in!Toronto,!one!in!Ottawa).!They!were!asked!open-ended!questions!about!their!views!on!
and!experiences!with!international!student!mobility!policy!development!and!advocacy!in!Ontario!and!
Canada,!focussing!particularly!on!outbound!student!mobility.!
!
At!the!provincial!level,!in-person!semi-structured!interviews!were!conducted!in!English!as!well!as!one!
focus!group!in!English.!At!the!federal!level,!semi-structured!in-person!and!telephone!interviews!were!
conducted!in!both!French!and!English.!
!
Both!males!and!females!participated!in!this!study!and!each!participant!was!given!the!option!of!
maintaining!confidentiality.!Consequently,!to!better!preserve!the!confidentiality!of!certain!participants,!
the!pronoun!“they”!is!used!in!this!report!to!denote!the!singularinstead!of!he/sheand!the!possessive!
pronoun!“their”!is!used!instead!of!the!gendered!his/her.!
!
Interviews!and!the!focus!group!session!lasted!between!60!and!90!minutes,!with!one!interview!extending!
to!two!hours.!Audio!recording!and!note-taking!were!done!only!with!each!participant’s!permission.!
!
Interviews!as!well!as!the!focus!group!were!conducted!in!March!2016,!at!both!the!federal!and!provincial!
levels.!!
!
Secondary!Data!
!
Secondary!data!comprised!publicly-available!governmental!policy!documents,!program!information,!and!
government-commissioned!reports.!They!also!included!stakeholder!briefs,!issue!and!position!papers,!
and!thematic!reports.!!
!
'
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
15
Data'Analysis'
!
Documents!
!
Textual!and!content!analysis!were!used!for!the!secondary!data.!!
!
Two!major!postsecondary!advocacy!and!public!policy!themes!were!identified!in!both!stakeholder!and!
public!policy!documents:!preparing!students!for!the!global!workforce!(or!similar!iterations!of!this!theme)!
and!experiential/work-integrated!learning.!Only!publications!advocating!at!least!one!of!these!themes!
were!retained!for!the!indexes.!Each!publication!was!then!subjected!to!a!second!thematic!analysis,!this!
time!identifying!the!presence!or!absence!of!advocacy!for!international!student!mobility,!broken!down!
into!inbound!and!outbound!movements.!
!
Two!degrees!of!advocacy!were!established!for!this!study:!Favourable!mention!(e.g.,!positive!testimonial,!
X!brings!Y!benefits),!and!Advocacy!for!(e.g.,!“We!recommend,”!“We!call!on,”!“We!are!working!for,”!“We!
are!working!towards,”!etc.).!Additionally,!“Cut”!was!used!when!an!OSM!program!or!policy!was!
eliminated.!Each!degree!of!advocacy!was!symbolically!represented!in!the!indexes!(see!Table!2).!
!
Table'2:!Symbolic!Representations!of!Degrees!of!Advocacy!or!Elimination!
Degree!of!Advocacy!
Symbol!
Favourable!mention!
!
Advocacy!for!
!
Cut!
!
!
This!double-loop!thematic!analysis!was!applied!to!both!provincial-!and!federal-level!documents.!
!
Intra-jurisdictional!comparative!analyses!were!then!conducted!to!determine:!
a) the!consistency!or!evolution!of!advocacy!themes!within!a!ministry!or!stakeholder!organization,!
b) advocacy!convergences!or!divergences!between!stakeholder!groups,!and!!
c) the!extent!to!which!public!policies!are!aligned!with!stakeholder!positions!and/or!
recommendations!in!government-commissioned!reports.!
!
Finally,!a!second!set!of!comparative!analyses!was!then!conducted!between!jurisdictions!in!order!to!
determine!if!similar!patterns!emerged!or!if!there!were!any!notable!differences,!for!example!between!
sector!advocacy!or!public!policy!emphasis.!
!
!
!
!'
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
16
Findings'
Key'Findings:'Ontario'
!
Government!Programs!
!
The!Government!of!Ontario!currently!funds!five!umbrella!programs!with!an!outbound!mobility!
component!for!students.!Through!bilateral!agreements!with!four!subnational!regions!abroad,!Ontario!
undergraduate!and!graduate!students!may!receive!modest!levels!of!financial!support,!ranging!from!
$1,000!to!$3,500often!depending!on!the!length!of!stay!in!the!host!regionin!order!to!study,!conduct!
research!or!undertake!an!internship!placement!in!China,!France,!Germany,!and!India.!These!bilateral!
programs!are!funded!by!the!Ministry!of!Training,!Colleges!and!Universities!(MTCU),!and!managed!by!a!
third-party!organization:!Ontario!Universities!International!(http://www.ouinternational.ca/).!They!are!
available!to!students!from!a!consortium!of!Ontario!universities.!
!
The!Ontario!Global!Edge!Program!is!the!only!non-MTCU!program!supporting!international!learning!
experiences!abroad.!It!is!funded!by!the!Ministry!of!Economic!Development,!Employment!and!
Infrastructure!(MEDEI)!to!support!work!placements!in!foreign!SMEs.!Students!from!10!colleges!and!
universities!around!the!province!are!eligible!to!participate!in!it!
!
There!had!been!a!short-lived!MTCU-run!program!to!support!international!study!or!work-placements!
abroad:!the!Ontario!International!Education!Opportunity!Scholarship!(OIEOS).!It!ran!from!2007!to!2012!
and!provided!modest!financial!support!($1,250!or!$2,500,!depending!on!the!length!of!stay!abroad)!to!
Ontario!students.!It!was!the!only!program!specifically!targeted!to!historically!underrepresented!student!
populations!in!the!province:!Aboriginal!students,!students!with!disabilities,!and!Francophone!students.!It!
was!eliminated!in!2012,!along!with!a!number!of!other!Ontario!Student!Assistance!Programs,!in!order!to!
fund!the!30%!Off!Tuition!grant!(Ministry!of!Finance,!2012,!p.!176;!Office!of!the!French!Language!Services!
Commissioner,!2013,!p.!18).!No!outbound!mobility!program!currently!exists!to!specifically!support!this!
group!of!students!in!the!province.!
!
Two!ministries,!therefore,!are!involved!in!outbound!student!mobility!in!Ontario:!the!Ministry!of!Training,!
Colleges!and!Universities!(MTCU),!which,!since!2005,!has!delivered!and!funded!new,!bilateral!student!
exchange!programs!with!regions!in!India!and!China,!re-established!funding!for!the!bilateral!exchange!
program!with!Bad-Württemberg!in!Germany,!and!is!currently!embarking!on!a!province-wide!
consultation!regarding!the!creation!of!a!new!international!education!strategy!for!Ontario!(Ministry!of!
Training,!2016),!and!the!Ministry!of!Economic!Development,!Employment!and!Infrastructure!(MEDEI),!
which!has!maintained!funding!for!the!Ontario!Global!Edge!Program!since!its!creation!in!2008.!
!
See!Appendix!A!for!an!index!of!Ontario’s!outbound!student!mobility!programs!(20052016).!
!
!!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
17
Government!Policies!
!
Since!2005,!four!major!government!or!government-commissioned!reports!have!discussed!the!way!
forward!for!the!postsecondary!education!sector!in!Ontario:!the!Rae!Report!(Rae,!2005),!the!Drummond!
Report!(Drummond,!2012),!the!Murray!Report!(Ministry!of!Training,!2012),!and!the!Herbert!Report!
(Ministry!of!Training,!2015).!Increasing!study!and/or!work!abroad!opportunities!for!Ontario!students!
was!recommended!in!all!but!the!Herbert!Report.!This!latter!report!took!a!student-centred!ethos!and!
focused!on!the!need!to!enhance!the!student!experience!and!ensure!student!success,!notably!by!
providing!experiential!learning!opportunities!but!without!mentioning!the!global!economy!or!any!
international!dimension!whatsoever.!The!Drummond!and!Murray!Reports!did!not!advocate!for!
attracting!international!students!to!Ontario!but!they!did!advocate!for!an!increased!outward!movement!
of!Ontario!students,!either!by!increasing!study!abroad!opportunities!outright!(Recommendation!7-8!in!
Drummond,!2012,!p.!248)!or!by!“establishing!‘Bologna!compatible’!credentials!to!improve!international!
mobility!of!Ontario!graduates”!(Ministry!of!Training,!2012).!!
!
In!examining!the!remaining!policy!documents!in!Table!3,!what!is!most!striking!is!the!prevalence!of!
governmental!advocacy!for!outbound!student!mobility!for!Ontario!students:!it!is!in!three!out!of!five!of!
the!budget!documents!that!announce!new!initiatives!for!postsecondary!education!in!the!province.!
Budget!2005!announces!a!new!international!education!strategy!that!includes!encouraging!study!abroad!
for!Ontario!students!(Ministry!of!Finance,!2005),!Budget!2008!announces!the!launch!of!the!Ontario!
Global!Edge!Program!(Ministry!of!Finance,!2008),!and!Budget!2016!announces!the!launch!of!
consultations!to!establish!a!new!international!education!strategy!for!the!province!(Ministry!of!Finance,!
2016).!!
!
Budget!2010!is!inward-looking,!focussing!on!rebuilding!the!provincial!economy!after!the!global!
recession,!notably!by!increasing!international!student!enrolment!in!Ontario!colleges!and!universities!by!
50%!(Ministry!of!Finance,!2010,!p.!6).!!
!
Budget!2012!stands!in!stark!contrast!to!the!preceding!budget!papers!and!indeed!signals!a!turning!point!
in!Ontario’s!postsecondary!internationalization!efforts.!Budget!2012,!Strong!Action!For!Ontario,!
comprised!funding!cuts!to!international!education!in!Ontario,!notably!the!elimination!of!the!Ontario!
International!Education!Opportunity!Scholarship!(OIEOS)!for!study!abroad,!and!a!$750!reduction!in!
operating!funds!to!universities!for!each!international!student!enrolled.!These!measures!were!alluded!to!
in!two!obscure!passages!of!the!budget!paper!announcing!support!for!Ontario!students!and!families!via!
the!30%!Off!Tuition!grant.!The!first!passage!indicates!that!the!“cost!of!the!30%!Off!Ontario!Tuition!grant!
is!being!offset!by!reducing!funding!to!non-core!programs”!(Ministry!of!Finance,!2012,!p.!17),!and!the!
second!refers!to!“measures!to!contain!costs,!such!as!savings!from!efficiencies!and!elimination!of!lower-
priority!grants!and!scholarships!to!offset!the!costs!of!the!new!30%!Off!Ontario!Tuition.”!(Ministry!of!
Finance,!2012,!p.!176).!The!international!student!recovery!measure,!colloquially!known!as!a!“head!tax”!
on!international!students,!was!vociferously!opposed!by!the!Ontario!Undergraduate!Student!Alliance!
(Madden,!2012)!and!also!mentioned!in!a!blog!post!one!year!later!by!the!Ontario!Confederation!of!
University!Faculty!Associations!(OCUFA)!as!evidence!of!declining!public!investment!in!Ontario!
universities!(Stewart,!2013).!
!
In!short,!when!preparing!the!province!to!succeed!in!the!global!knowledge!economy,!ensuring!
international!learning!opportunities!for!Ontario!postsecondary!students!was!a!priority!for!the!
government!until!2010,!when!its!attention!turned!to!economic!recovery!and!issues!of!access.!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
18
International!education!has!come!back!on!the!provincial!radar!in!2016,!but!in!what!form!remains!to!be!
seen.!
!
Table'3:!Policies!and!Government-Commissioned!Reports!(Ontario)!
Policy'Document'/'Government-Commissioned'Report''
(Ontario)'
Advocacy'
21st''
C.'
WIL'
ISM'
IN'
OUT'
Drummond,!D.!(2012).!Commission!on!the!reform!of!Ontario's!public!services.!
Public!services!for!Ontarians:!A!path!to!sustainability!and!excellence.!
Retrieved!from!http://www.fin.gov.on.ca/en/reformcommission/!!
!
!
!
!
Ministry!of!Finance.!(2005).!2005!Ontario!budget:!Budget!papers.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.ontla.on.ca/library/repository/mon/10000/252125.pdf!
!
!
!
!
Ministry!of!Finance.!(2008).!2008!Ontario!budget:!Budget!papers.!Retrieved!from!
https://books1.scholarsportal.info/viewdoc.html?id=636586!
!
!
!
!
Ministry!of!Finance.!(2010).!2010!Ontario!budget:!Budget!papers.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.fin.gov.on.ca/en/budget/ontariobudgets/2010/!
!
!
!
!
Ministry!of!Finance.!(2012).!2012!Ontario!budget:!Budget!papers.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.fin.gov.on.ca/en/budget/ontariobudgets/2012/!!
!
!
!
−!
Ministry!of!Finance.!(2016).!2016!Ontario!budget:!Budget!papers.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.fin.gov.on.ca/en/budget/ontariobudgets/2016/papers_all.p
df!
!
!
!
!
Ministry!of!Training,!Colleges!and!Universities.!(2007).!McGuinty!government!
enriching!the!learning!experience!of!Ontario!students![Press!release].!
Retrieved!from!
https://news.ontario.ca/archive/en/2007/05/29/McGuinty-Government-
Enriching-The-Learning-Experience-Of-Ontario-Postsecondary-S.html!!
!
!
!
!
Ministry!of!Training,!Colleges!and!Universities.!(2009).!Enhancing!the!learning!
experience!of!postsecondary!students:!Ontario!International!Education!
Opportunity!Scholarships![Press!release].!Retrieved!from!
https://news.ontario.ca/tcu/en/2009/11/post.html!!
!
!
!
!
Ministry!of!Training,!Colleges!and!Universities.!(2012).!Strengthening!Ontario's!
centres!of!creativity,!innovation!and!knowledge.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.tcu.gov.on.ca/pepg/publications/DiscussionStrengtheningO
ntarioPSE.pdf!
!
!
!
!
Ministry!of!Training,!Colleges!and!Universities.!(2015).!Focus!on!outcomes,!centre!
on!students:!Perspectives!on!evolving!Ontario’s!university!funding!model.!
Final!consultation!report.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.tcu.gov.on.ca/pepg/audiences/universities/uff/UniversityFu
ndingFormulaConsultationReport_2015.pdf!
!
!
!
!
Ministry!of!Training,!Colleges!and!Universities.!(2016).!Developing!global!
opportunities:!Creating!a!postsecondary!international!education!strategy!
for!Ontario.!Discussion!paper.!Retrieved!from!
https://www.tcu.gov.on.ca/pepg/consultations/international_education
_strategy.html!
!
!
!
!
Rae,!B.!(2005).!Ontario:!A!leader!in!learning.!Retrieved!from!
https://www.tcu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/reports/postsec.pdf!!
!
!
!
!
!
!!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
19
Advocacy!Groups’!Positions!
!
Student!Groups!
!
For!the!Canadian!Federation!of!StudentsOntario!(CFSON),!lobbying!on!international!education!issues!
has!largely!consisted!of!social!justice!advocacy!for!international!students!in!Ontario.!The!four!main!
advocacy!campaigns!along!this!vein!have!included!calling!for!the!reinstatement!of!OHIP!coverage!for!
international!students!after!its!elimination!in!1994!(Canadian!Federation!of!StudentsOntario,!2008,!
2012,!2015),!the!regulation!and!reduction!of!tuition!fees!for!international!students!(Canadian!Federation!
of!StudentsOntario,!2008,!2013,!2014,!2015,!2016),!expanding!needs-based!grants!to!international!
students!(Canadian!Federation!of!StudentsOntario,!2008),!and!increasing!the!number!of!international!
students!who!would!be!eligible!to!receive!an!Ontario!Graduate!Scholarship!(Canadian!Federation!of!
StudentsOntario,!2008,!2009).!In!its!2016!pre-budget!submission,!CFS-ON!advocated!for!funding!to!
support!experiential!learning!but!there!was!no!mention!of!extending!this!funding!to!include!global!work-
integrated!opportunities!(Canadian!Federation!of!StudentsOntario,!2016).!And!while!the!CFSON!
references!the!Kunin!(2012)!report!on!the!Economic!Impact!of!International!Education!in!Canada,!it!is!
not!to!advocate!in!favour!of!international!education;!rather,!the!key!findings!of!the!report!are!used!to!
remind!the!government!of!the!economic!benefit!of!having!international!students!in!the!province!in!
order!to!support!the!Federation’s!advocacy!in!favour!of!OHIP!coverage!for!these!students!(Canadian!
Federation!of!StudentsOntario,!2012,!2015).!!
!
Similarly,!the!Ontario!Graduate!Student!Alliance!(OGSA)!is!silent!on!the!issue!of!outbound!student!
mobility!(Ontario!Graduate!Student!Alliance,!2015);!although,!admittedly,!it!is!impossible!to!get!a!sense!
of!the!OGSA’s!advocacy!priorities!since!there!is!only!one!publication!available!on!its!website.!
!
Finally,!the!Ontario!Undergraduate!Student!Alliance!(OUSA)!rounds!out!the!triad!of!major!student!
advocacy!groups!in!Ontario.!It!too!has!been!relatively!mum!on!the!issue!of!outbound!student!mobility.!
Contrary!to!its!graduate!counterpart,!OUSA!is!an!extremely!prolific!student!advocacy!organization.!
However,!of!the!nineteen!publications!that!fulfilled!the!postsecondary!advocacy!and!public!policy!
thematic!criteria!(preparing!students!for!the!global!workforce,!or!similar!iterations!of!this!theme,!and!
experiential/work-integrated!learning),!only!five!include!statements!in!favour!of!international!learning!
experiences!for!Ontario’s!undergraduate!students!(Eftekarpour,!Williams,!Flesch,!Graham,!&!Madden,!
2014;!Fernlund,!Abbas,!Bristow,!&!Sloan,!2014;!Ontario!Undergraduate!Student!Alliance,!2009,!2010;!
Spence!&!Stewart,!2005).!Interestingly,!international!learning!experiences!and!work-
integrated/experiential!learning!only!appear!together!in!two!OUSA!publications:!the!response!to!the!Rae!
Report!(Spence!&!Stewart,!2005)!and!a!systems!vision!policy!paper!(Eftekarpour!et!al.,!2014).!References!
to!preparing!Ontario’s!undergraduate!students!to!better!compete!in!the!global!knowledge!economy!are!
similarly!lacking.!
!
International*education*has*not*been*an*advocacy*priority*for*student*groups*in*Ontario*over*the*last*
10*years.*
!
Universities!
!
The!Council!of!Ontario!Universities!(COU)!represents!the!interests!of!Ontario’s!20!publicly-funded!
universities!and!advances!their!interests!with!government.!According!to!its!website,!for!COU,!
“international”!is!currently!a!key!issue!in!Ontario!higher!education!(http://cou.on.ca/key-issues/).!Yet,!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
20
the!Council!only!makes!reference!to!study!abroad!in!one!of!its!publications:!Experiential!Learning!
Report.!Bringing!Life!to!Learning!at!Ontario!Universities!(Council!of!Ontario!Universities,!2014)!where!
positive!testimonials!about!international!experience!abound.!The!COU!does!not,!however,!go!so!far!as!
to!advocate!for!international!placements!for!Ontario!university!students.!In!contrast,!the!Council!is!
advocating!in!favour!of!attracting!“top!talent!from!across!the!globe!to!the!province”!as!well!as!
designating!a!small!number!of!funded!PhD!spaces!for!international!students!(Council!of!Ontario!
Universities,!2016a).!It!also!touts!the!academic!and!cultural!benefits!of!having!international!students!on!
Ontario!campuses,!and,!citing!the!Kunin!Report!(2012),!lauds!the!economic!benefits!that!international!
students!provide!to!the!province!(Council!of!Ontario!Universities,!2016b).!!
!
Neither*outbound*student*mobility*nor*international*work*placements*are*on*the*university*advocacy*
radar*in*Ontario.!!
!
Business!
!
Finally,!when!it!comes!to!Ontario’s!business!sector,!the!Ontario!Chamber!of!Commerce!(OCC)!has!
consistently!advocated!for!“building!a!21st-century!workforce”!in!Ontario.!For!the!OCC,!this!success!
comes!from!leveraging!Ontario’s!existing!immigrant!network!and!also!attracting!international!students!
to!Ontario!in!order!to!close!the!skills!gap!in!the!province!(Ontario!Chamber!of!Commerce,!2016;!Ontario!
Chamber!of!Commerce,!Mowat!Centre!for!Policy!Innovation,!&!Leger!Marketing,!2013).!It!has!not!
recommended!international!mobility!experiences!for!Ontario!students!to!equip!them!with!an!export!
culture!or!to!prepare!them!to!work!in!the!international!labour!market.!
!
The*Ontario*business*sector*has*not*advocated*in*favour*of*providing*Ontario*students*with*the*
opportunity*to*acquire*global*competencies*abroad.*
!
Table'4:!Advocacy!Group!Position!Papers!(Ontario)!
Org'
Publication'
Advocacy'
21st''
C.''
WIL'
ISM'
IN'
OUT'
CFS-ON!
Canadian!Federation!of!StudentsOntario.!(2016).!Bright!horizons:!
Bringing!meaningful!change!to!Ontario's!post-secondary!
sector.!Retrieved!from!http://cfsontario.ca/wp-
content/uploads/sites/50/2015/12/2016-Pre-budget-
submission-reducedsize.pdf!
!
!
!
!
COU!
Council!of!Ontario!Universities.!(2014).!Experiential!learning!report.!
Bringing!life!to!learning!at!Ontario!universities.!Retrieved!
from!http://cou.on.ca/reports/bringing-life-to-learning/!
!
!
!
!
COU!
Council!of!Ontario!Universities.!(2016).!International!Students.!
Retrieved!from!http://cou.on.ca/key-
issues/international/international-students/!!
!
!
!
!
COU!
Council!of!Ontario!Universities.!(2016).!Study!Abroad.!Retrieved!from!
http://cou.on.ca/key-issues/international/study-abroad/!
!
!
!
!
OCC!
Ontario!Chamber!of!Commerce.!(2012).!2012!pre-budget!submission.!
Retrieved!from!http://www.occ.ca/portfolio/2012-pre-
budget-submission/?id=26!
!
!
!
!
OCC!
Ontario!Chamber!of!Commerce.!(2013).!2013!pre-budget!submission.!
Retrieved!from!http://www.occ.ca/portfolio/2015-pre-
budget-submission/?id=26!
!
!
!
!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
21
Org'
Publication'
Advocacy'
21st''
C.''
WIL'
ISM'
IN'
OUT'
OCC!
Ontario!Chamber!of!Commerce.!(2014).!2014!pre-budget!submission.!
Retrieved!from!
http://www.occ.ca/Publications/2014_Pre_Budget_Web.pdf!
!
!
!
!
OCC!
Ontario!Chamber!of!Commerce.!(2016).!Skilled!workforce.!Retrieved!
from!http://www.occ.ca/issue/skilled-workforce/!
!
!
!
!
OCC!
Ontario!Chamber!of!Commerce,!&!Mowat!Centre!for!Policy!
Innovation.!(2012).!Emerging!stronger!2012:!A!
transformative!agenda!for!Ontario.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.occ.ca/portfolio/emerging-stronger/?id=26!
!
!
!
!
OCC!
Ontario!Chamber!of!Commerce,!Mowat!Centre!for!Policy!Innovation,!
&!Leger!Marketing.!(2013).!Emerging!stronger!2013.!
Retrieved!from!http://www.occ.ca/portfolio/emerging-
stronger-2013/?id=26!
!
!
!
!
OCC!
Ontario!Chamber!of!Commerce,!The!Mowat!Centre,!&!Leger.!(2015).!
Emerging!stronger!2015:!Ontario’s!path!from!recovery!to!
growth.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.occ.ca/portfolio/emerging-stronger-2015-
ontarios-path-from-recovery-to-growth/?id=26!
!
!
!
!
OCC!
Ontario!Chamber!of!Commerce,!The!Mowat!Centre,!&!Leger.!(2016).!
Emerging!stronger!2016:!Measuring!progress,!charting!a!new!
course.!Toronto,!Canada:!Author.!
!
!
!
!
OCC!
Ontario!Chamber!of!Commerce,!The!Mowat!Centre,!&!Leger!
Marketing.!(2014).!Emerging!stronger!2014:!A!transformative!
agenda!for!Ontario's!economic!future.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.occ.ca/portfolio/emerging-stronger-2014/?id=26!
!
!
!
!
OGSA!
Ontario!Graduate!Student!Alliance.!(2015).!Response!to!the!university!
funding!model!reform!consultation!discussion!paper.!
Retrieved!from!Toronto,!Canada:!
http://www.ontariogsa.com/index.php/download_file/view/
29/146/!
!
!
!
!
OUSA!
Spence,!A.,!&!Stewart,!G.!(2005).!Response!paper:!An!analysis!of!the!
final!report!of!the!postsecondary!review!"Ontario:!A!leader!in!
learning".!Retrieved!from!Ontario!Undergraduate!Student!
Alliance!website:!http://www.ousa.ca/wordpress/wp-
content/uploads/2015/06/2005-Response-to-Rae-Review.pdf!
!
!
!
!
OUSA!
Ontario!Undergraduate!Student!Alliance.!(2009).!Ontario:!A!province!
of!knowledge.!Report!on!the!future!of!higher!education.!
Retrieved!from!http://www.ousa.ca/wordpress/wp-
content/uploads/2009/10/OUSA-RH2-Submission3.4.pdf!
!
!
!
!
OUSA!
Ontario!Undergraduate!Student!Alliance.!(2010).!The!differentiation!
debate:!Submission!to!the!Higher!Education!Quality!Council!of!
Ontario.!Retrieved!from!http://www.ousa.ca/wordpress/wp-
content/uploads/2011/01/Differentiation-for-print.pdf!
!
!
!
!
OUSA!
Ontario!Undergraduate!Student!Alliance.!(2011).!Going!global:!
Supporting!Ontario's!international!students.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.ousa.ca/wordpress/wp-
content/uploads/2011/03/Going-Global.pdf!
!
!
!
!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
22
Org'
Publication'
Advocacy'
21st''
C.''
WIL'
ISM'
IN'
OUT'
OUSA!
Pin,!L.,!Martin,!C.,!&!Andrey,!S.!(2011).!Rising!costs:!A!look!at!spending!
at!Ontario!universities.!Retrieved!from!Ontario!
Undergraduate!Student!Alliance!website:!
http://www.ousa.ca/wordpress/wp-
content/uploads/2011/11/Rising-Costs-FINAL.pdf!
!
!
!
!
OUSA!
Martin,!C.!(2012).!Educated!reform:!Striving!for!higher!quality!of!
education!at!Ontario!universities.!Retrieved!from!Ontario!
Undergraduate!Student!Alliance!website:!
http://www.ousa.ca/wordpress/wp-
content/uploads/2012/07/Educated-Reform_July-2012.pdf!
!
!
!
!
OUSA!
Ontario!Undergraduate!Student!Alliance.!(2013).!Youth!employment:!
Re-imagining!the!link!between!learning!and!labour.!Retrieved!
from!http://www.ousa.ca/wordpress/wp-
content/uploads/2013/09/OUSA-Youth-Employment-
Submission-Sept-2013-Final1.pdf!
!
!
!
!
OUSA!
Garcia,!A.,!Li,!A.,!&!Martin,!C.!(2013).!Policy!Paper:!Student!
employment.!Retrieved!from!Ontario!Undergraduate!Student!
Alliance!website:!http://www.ousa.ca/wordpress/wp-
content/uploads/2013/03/Student-Employment.pdf!
!
!
!
!
OUSA!
Saeed,!H.,!&!Martin,!C.!(2013).!Policy!paper:!Students,!universities!and!
the!private!sector.!Retrieved!from!Ontario!Undergraduate!
Student!Alliance!website:!
http://www.ousa.ca/wordpress/wp-
content/uploads/2013/07/Students-Universities-and-the-
Private-Sector-Policy-Paper.pdf!
!
!
!
!
OUSA!
Ontario!Undergraduate!Student!Alliance.!(2013).!Unlocking!student!
potential:!The!key!to!Ontario's!success.!2013!Ontario!budget!
submission.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.ousa.ca/wordpress/wp-
content/uploads/2013/03/Unlocking-Student-Potential-The-
Key-to-Ontarios-Success-2013-Ontario-Budget-Submission-
Web-Quality.pdf!
!
!
!
!
OUSA!
Ontario!Undergraduate!Student!Alliance.!(2013).!Education!works:!
Envisioning!a!fairer!society!for!Ontario’s!youth.!2014!Ontario!
budget!submission.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.ousa.ca/wordpress/wp-
content/uploads/2014/01/Education-Works-Envisioning-a-
Fairer-Society-for-Ontarios-Youth-2014-Budget-Submission-
Small1.pdf!
!
!
!
!
OUSA!
Eftekarpour,!A.,!Williams,!A.,!Flesch,!J.,!Graham,!S.,!&!Madden,!S.!
(2014).!Policy!paper:!System!vision.!Retrieved!from!Ontario!
Undergraduate!Student!Alliance!website:!
http://www.ousa.ca/wordpress/wp-
content/uploads/2014/04/System-Vision-Final.pdf!
!
!
!
!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
23
Org'
Publication'
Advocacy'
21st''
C.''
WIL'
ISM'
IN'
OUT'
OUSA!
Franchetto,!S.,!Pritchard,!T.,!&!Bristow,!A.!(2014).!Policy!paper:!
Aboriginal!students.!Retrieved!from!Ontario!Undergraduate!
Student!Alliance!website:!
http://www.ousa.ca/wordpress/wp-
content/uploads/2014/04/Aboriginal-Students-Final-March-
30-2014.pdf!
!
!
!
!
OUSA!
Ontario!Undergraduate!Student!Alliance.!(2014).!An!educated!
election:!Ontario’s!student!platform.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.ousa.ca/wordpress/wp-
content/uploads/2014/05/An-Educated-Election-Final-
Web.pdf!
!
!
!
!
OUSA!
Fernlund,!C.,!Abbas,!A.,!Bristow,!A.,!&!Sloan,!B.!(2014).!Policy!paper:!
International!students.!Retrieved!from!Ontario!
Undergraduate!Student!Alliance!website:!
http://www.ousa.ca/wordpress/wp-
content/uploads/2014/04/International-Students-GA-
Approved-Final2.pdf!
!
!
!
!
OUSA!
Ontario!Undergraduate!Student!Alliance.!(2015).!Educated!
investments:!Building!a!healthy!future!for!Ontario.!2015!
Ontario!budget!submission.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.ousa.ca/wordpress/wp-
content/uploads/2015/01/Budget-Submission-2015.pdf!
!
!
!
!
OUSA!
Hobbs,!A.,!Sergi,!A.,!&!Fernlund,!C.!(2015).!Policy!paper:!Promoting!
success!through!the!broader!learning!environment.!Retrieved!
from!Ontario!Undergraduate!Student!Alliance!website:!
http://www.ousa.ca/wordpress/wp-
content/uploads/2015/12/BLE-Polished.pdf!
!
!
!
!
OUSA!
Ontario!Undergraduate!Student!Alliance.!(2015).!Formulating!change:!
Recommendations!for!Ontario’s!university!funding!formula!
reform.!Retrieved!from!http://www.ousa.ca/wordpress/wp-
content/uploads/2015/08/Funding-Formula-Draft-for-
Upload.pdf!
!
!
!
!
OUSA!
Wai,!J.,!Leask,!R.,!&!Nestico-Semianiw,!S.!(2015).!Policy!paper:!
Teaching!and!assessment.!Retrieved!from!Ontario!
Undergraduate!Student!Alliance!website:!
http://www.ousa.ca/wordpress/wp-
content/uploads/2015/12/Teaching-and-Assessment-
2015.pdf!
!
!
!
!
!
!
'
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
24
Key'Findings:'Federal'
!
Government!Programs!
!
Within!the!context!of!this!report,!it!is!only!at!the!federal!level!that!Canadian!students!may!receive!
funding!to!pursue!Doctoral!degrees!abroad!(there!is!no!funding!provided!by!the!Government!of!Ontario!
for!degree!mobility!at!either!the!undergraduate!or!graduate!level,!except!in!very!exceptional!
circumstances!when!a!degree!program!is!not!offered!by!an!Ontario!higher!education!institution).!
Federal!doctoral!scholarship!amounts!range!from!$20,000!to!$35,000!per!year,!for!a!limited!number!of!
years,!are!awarded!on!an!extremely!competitive!basis,!and!are!administered!by!the!federal!funding!
agencies,!commonly!known!as!the!Tri-Council!Agencies:!the!Canadian!Institutes!of!Health!Research!
(CIHR),!the!Natural!Sciences!and!Engineering!Research!Council!of!Canada!(NSERC),!and!the!Social!
Sciences!and!Humanities!Research!Council!of!Canada!(SSHRC).!Also!through!a!competitive!process,!
recipients!of!the!Tri-Councils’!prestigious!Canada!Graduate!Scholarships!at!both!the!Master’s!and!
Doctoral!levels,!may!apply!for!a!competitive!$6,000!travel!supplement!to!conduct!research!study!
abroad.!These!awards!are!tenable!anywhere!in!the!world.!
!
Additionally,!through!Global!Affairs!Canada,!students!may!also!apply!for!competitive!funding!to!pursue!
both!Master’s!and!Doctoral!degrees!regionally!(i.e.,!in!the!Americas),!via!the!Organization!of!American!
States!(OAS)!Academic!Scholarships!Program.!Funding!for!these!degrees!is!capped!at!a!maximum!of!
$30,000!USD!for!one!year,!renewable!once,!for!a!maximum!of!two!years!total.!
!
Substantial!fellowships!and!awards!are!available!to!graduate!students!pursuing!field!research!in!
development.!Available!through!the!International!Development!Research!Centre!(IDRC),!a!Canadian!
Crown!Corporation,!this!competitive!funding!covers!amounts!of!$15,000!and!$20,000!per!project.!
!
The!Development!branch!of!Global!Affairs!Canada!runs!one!international!internship!program!aimed!
specifically!at!Aboriginal!youth:!the!International!Aboriginal!Youth!Internship!
(http://www.international.gc.ca/development-developpement/partners-partenaires/iayi-
sija/index.aspx?lang=eng).!This!program!provides!Aboriginal!youth!four-!to!six-month!internship!
opportunities!in!developing!countries.!It!is!currently!the!only!internationally-oriented!federal-level!
program!specifically!targeting!Aboriginal!youth.!
!
A!variety!of!other,!smaller!funding!pockets!($5,000$8,000)!have!been!established!by!the!Government!
of!Canada!and!are!available!to!senior-undergraduate!and!also!graduate!students!pursuing!studies,!
research,!and!internships!abroad.!This!funding!is!usually!awarded!on!a!competitive!basis!within!the!
framework!of!specific,!geographically-limited!agreements!(i.e.,!bilateral!or!Commonwealth!
arrangements).!!
!
One!program!that!is!currently!run!by!the!Department!of!Immigration,!Refugees!and!Citizenship!Canada!
(IRCC),!International!Experience!Canada!(IEC),!does!not!provide!any!funding!whatsoever!for!
international!experience.!Rather,!it!facilitates!the!outward!movement!of!Canadian!young!people!by!
negotiating!bilateral!treaties!and!arrangements!that!facilitate!entry!and!labour!market!access!in!the!host!
country!for!Canadian!students,!youth,!and!young!professionals.!
!
Finally,!it!should!be!noted!that!it!is!only!at!the!federal!level!that!students!are!eligible!to!receive!loan!
assistance.!The!Canada!Student!Loan!Program!(CSLP)!covers!study!abroad!to!a!limited!extent,!with!loan!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
25
caps!below!the!domestic!study!rate.!The!Ontario!Student!Assistance!Program!(OSAP)!does!not!cover!
international!activities!abroad.!
!
See!Appendix!B!for!an!index!of!federal-level!outbound!student!mobility!programs!(20052016).!!
!
Note:!The!funding!amount!listed!in!Appendix!B!does!not!necessarily!indicate!the!total!amount!of!funding!
available!to!recipients,!only!the!Canadian!portion.!Some!programs,!such!as!the!Canada-China!Scholars'!
Exchange!Program!and!the!Mitacs!Globalink!Partnership!Award!(Global!Affairs!Canada,!2016;!Mitacs,!
2016)!provide!matching!funds!from!the!host!country!or!industry!partner,!thereby!doubling!the!amount!
listed!in!the!index.!
!
Government!Policies!
!
Between!2005!and!2015,!six!major!publicly-available!government-commissioned!reports!have!informed!
federal!government!policy!on!international!student!mobility:!People!and!Excellence:!The!Heart!of!
Successful!Commercialization!(Expert!Panel!on!Commercialization,!2006a,!2006b),!Compete!to!Win!
(Competition!Policy!Review!Panel,!2008),!Economic!Impact!of!International!Education!in!Canada!(Kunin!
&!Associates,!2009),!Canada’s!Capacity!For!International!Student!Enrollment!(Illuminate!Consulting!
Group,!2011),!International!Education:!A!Key!Driver!Of!Canada's!Future!Prosperity!(Advisory!Panel!on!
Canada’s!International!Education!Strategy,!2012),!and!the!2012!update!to!the!Kunin!Report:!Economic!
Impact!Of!International!Education!In!Canada!--!An!Update!(Kunin!&!Associates,!2012).!Two!things!stand!
out!when!analyzing!these!reports.!First,!the!Expert!Panel!on!Commercialization,!the!Competition!Policy!
Review!Panel!and!also!the!Advisory!Panel!on!Canada’s!International!Education!Strategy!all!advocate!for!
all!four!of!the!themes!highlighted!in!this!report:!preparing!for!the!21st-!century!knowledge!economy,!
experiential!learning,!inbound!and!outbound!student!mobility.!And!second,!it!is!the!three!reports!
commissioned!to!inform!the!International!Education!Marketing!strategy!that!all!focus!on!international!
student!recruitment,!emphasizing!the!capacity!in!the!higher!education!sector!to!absorb!more!
international!students!and!also!the!enormous!economic!benefits!of!increasing!(non-subsidized)!
international!student!enrolment!across!the!country!(Illuminate!Consulting!Group,!2011;!Kunin!&!
Associates,!2009,!2012).!The!resulting!Trade!and!Foreign!Affairs!policies!themselves!focus!on!building!
skills!for!the!21st-!century!knowledge!economy!and!international!student!recruitment!(Department!of!
Foreign!Affairs,!2008,!2013).!!
!
Canada’s!first-ever!International!Education!Strategy!purports!to!encompassing!all!four!themes!but!only!
makes!vague!mention!of!including!“Canadians!studying!outside!of!Canada,”!“collaboration!between!
educational!and!research!institutes!in!Canada!and!abroad”!(Department!of!Foreign!Affairs,!2014,!p.!9),!
and!supporting!institutional!partnership-building!by!focusing!on!student!and!faculty!exchanges!and!
mobility!(Department!of!Foreign!Affairs,!2014,!p.!11).!These!are!far!from!the!hard!target!of!establishing!
an!“International!Mobility!Program!for!Canadian!Students!to!serve!50,000!students!per!year!by!the!year!
2022”!that!was!recommended!by!the!Advisory!Panel!in!its!report!in!2012!(Advisory!Panel!on!Canada’s!
International!Education!Strategy,!2012,!p.!xiii).!!
!
Finally,!Canada’s!ultimate!federal-level!policy!document!is!the!annual!budget.!In!the!13!budgets!that!
have!been!presented!between!2005!and!2015,!seven!include!measures!either!supporting!outbound!
student!mobility!or!facilitating!(re)integration!into!the!Canadian!labour!market!for!individuals!who!had!
acquired!higher!education!credentials!abroad!(Department!of!Finance!Canada,!2007,!2008,!2011a,!
2011b,!2013,!2015,!2016).!It!is!interesting!to!see!this!prevalence!since!these!measures!were!totally!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
26
eclipsed!by!the!announcements!of!new!federal!funding!to!promote!Canada!as!a!leading!study!
destination!for!international!students!(Department!of!Finance!Canada,!2007,!2011a,!2011b,!2013).!
'
Table'5:'Policies!and!Government-Commissioned!Reports!(Federal)!
Policy'Document'/'Government-Commissioned'Report''
(Federal)'
Advocacy'
21st''
C.'
WIL'
ISM'
IN'
OUT'
Advisory!Panel!on!Canada’s!International!Education!Strategy.!(2012).!International!
education:!A!key!driver!of!Canada's!future!prosperity.!Retrieved!from!
Global!Affairs!Canada!website:!
http://www.international.gc.ca/education/assets/pdfs/ies_report_rappo
rt_sei-eng.pdf!
!
!
!
!
Competition!Policy!Review!Panel.!(2008).!Compete!to!win:!Final!report.!Retrieved!
from!https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/cprp-
gepmc.nsf/vwapj/Compete_to_Win.pdf/$FILE/Compete_to_Win.pdf!
!
!
!
!
Department!of!Finance!Canada.!(2006).!Advantage!Canada:!Building!a!strong!
economy!for!Canadians.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.fin.gc.ca/ec2006/plan/pltoc-eng.asp!
!
!
!
!
Department!of!Finance!Canada.!(2007).!The!budget!plan!2007:!Aspire!to!a!
stronger,!safer,!better!Canada.!Retrieved!from!
www.budget.gc.ca/2007/pdf/bp2007e.pdf!
!
!
!
!
Department!of!Finance!Canada.!(2008).!The!budget!plan!2008:!Responsible!
leadership.!Retrieved!from!www.budget.gc.ca/2008/pdf/plan-eng.pdf!
!
!
!
!
Department!of!Finance!Canada.!(2011).!The!next!phase!of!Canada's!economic!
action!plan:!A!low-tax!plan!for!jobs!and!growth.!March!22,!2011.!
Retrieved!from!http://www.budget.gc.ca/march-mars-
2011/plan/Budget2011-eng.pdf!
!
!
!
!
Department!of!Finance!Canada.!(2011).!The!next!phase!of!Canada's!economic!
action!plan:!A!low-tax!plan!for!jobs!and!growth.!June!6,!2011.!Retrieved!
from!www.budget.gc.ca/2011/plan/Budget2011-eng.pdf!!
!
!
!
!
Department!of!Finance!Canada.!(2013).!Jobs,!growth!and!long-term!prosperity:!
Economic!action!plan!2013.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.budget.gc.ca/2013/doc/plan/budget2013-eng.pdf!
!
!
!
!
Department!of!Finance!Canada.!(2015).!Strong!leadership.!A!balanced-budget,!
low-tax!plan!for!jobs,!growth!and!security.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.budget.gc.ca/2014/docs/plan/pdf/budget2014-eng.pdf!
!
!
!
!
Department!of!Finance!Canada.!(2016).!Growing!the!middle!class.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.budget.gc.ca/2016/docs/plan/budget2016-en.pdf!
!
!
!
!
Department!of!Foreign!Affairs,!Trade!and!Development.!(2008).!Seizing!global!
advantage:!A!global!commerce!strategy!for!securing!Canada's!growth!&!
prosperity.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.international.gc.ca/commerce/assets/pdfs/gcs-en.pdf!
!
!
!
!
Department!of!Foreign!Affairs,!Trade!and!Development.!(2013).!Global!markets!
action!plan:!The!blueprint!for!creating!jobs!and!opportunities!for!
Canadians!through!trade.!Retrieved!from!
http://international.gc.ca/global-markets-marches-
mondiaux/assets/pdfs/plan-eng.pdf!
!
!
!
!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
27
Policy'Document'/'Government-Commissioned'Report''
(Federal)'
Advocacy'
21st''
C.'
WIL'
ISM'
IN'
OUT'
Department!of!Foreign!Affairs,!Trade!and!Development.!(2014).!Canada's!
international!education!strategy:!Harnessing!our!knowledge!advantage!
to!drive!innovation!and!prosperity.!Retrieved!from!
http://international.gc.ca/global-markets-marches-
mondiaux/assets/pdfs/overview-apercu-eng.pdf!
!
!
!
!
Expert!Panel!on!Commercialization.!(2006).!People!and!excellence:!The!heart!of!
successful!commercialization!—!Volume!I:!Final!report!of!the!Expert!Panel!
on!Commercialization.!Retrieved!from!
http://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection/Iu4-78-2006E-I.pdf!
!
!
!
!
Expert!Panel!on!Commercialization.!(2006).!People!and!excellence:!The!heart!of!
successful!commercialization!—!Volume!II:!Supporting!material.!
Retrieved!from!http://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection/Iu4-78-
2006E-II.pdf!!
!
!
!
!
Illuminate!Consulting!Group.!(2011).!Canada’s!capacity!for!international!student!
enrollment.!Retrieved!from!www.cbie-bcei.ca/wp-content/.../icg-dfait-
capacity-report-final-2011.pdf!
!
!
!
!
Kunin,!R.,!&!Associates.!(2009).!Economic!impact!of!international!education!in!
Canada!-!Final!report.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.international.gc.ca/education/impact.aspx?lang=eng!
!
!
!
!
Kunin,!R.,!&!Associates.!(2012).!Economic!impact!of!international!education!in!
Canada!--!An!update.!Final!report.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.international.gc.ca/education/assets/pdfs/economic_impact
_en.pdf!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Partner/Advocacy!Groups’!Positions!
!
Student!Groups!
!
The!Canadian!Federation!of!Students!(CFS)!and!the!Canadian!Alliance!of!Student!Associations!(CASA)!are!
the!two,!main!federal-level!student!groups!lobbying!for!change!in!Ottawa.!Focused!on!issues!of!access!
and!domestic!student!debt!load,!neither!of!these!organizations!has!devoted!precious!time!to!advocating!
in!favour!of!increased!international!experiences!abroad!for!Canadian!students.!!
!
CASA!recently!advocated!in!favour!of!expanding!experiential!learning!opportunities!for!Canadian!
students!but!domestically,!in!order!to!facilitate!youth!transitions!into!the!Canadian!labour!market!
(Canadian!Alliance!of!Student!Associations,!2016).!Through!its!financial-aid!advocacy,!it!has!also!
recommended!an!increase!to!the!Canada!Student!Loan!Program’s!(CSLP’s)!weekly!maximum,!from!$210!
per!week,!which!would!be!a!first!increase!since!2004.!Although!this!advocacy!measure!has!not!been!
billed!as!internationally-oriented,!it!could!nevertheless!benefit!Canadian!students!studying!abroad!since!
the!CSLP!is!the!only!government!loan!program!to!which!Ontario!students!participating!in!a!study!
experience!abroad!have!access!(Canadian!Alliance!of!Student!Associations,!2014).!
!
International*education*is*not*on*the*advocacy*agenda*of*federal-level*student*organizations*in*
Canada.*
!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
28
Universities!and!International!Education!Sector!
!
With!the!exception!of!two!domestically-focused!advocacy!documents!(Association!of!Universities!and!
Colleges!of!Canada,!2012;!Universities!Canada,!2015),!Universities!Canada!has!consistently!advocated!
for!more!outbound!student!mobility!opportunities!for!Canadian!university!students.!When!analyzing!the!
documents!from!2011!to!2016,!it!is!clear!that!study!abroad!and!experiential!learning!opportunities!are!
inextricably!linked,!with!the!goal!of!providing!young!Canadians!with!the!skills!necessary!to!succeed!in!
the!21st-century!knowledge!economy.!!
!
It!is!through!access!to!international!and!work-integrated!learning!opportunities!that!Canadian!university!
students!will!succeed!in!the!globally-oriented!labour!market!of!today.!
!
For!the!international!education!sector,!international!experience!abroad!is!also!the!keystone!to!success!in!
today’s!globalized!world.!!
*
Universities*Canada*and*the*Canadian*Bureau*for*International*Education*have*consistently*called*on*
the*federal*government*to*increase*support*for*and*facilitate*access*to*learning*opportunities*abroad*
for*Canadian*students.*
!
Business!
!
Much!likes!its!provincial!counterpart,!the!Canadian!Chamber!of!Commerce!has!not!advocated!for!
international!learning!opportunities!to!make!Canadian!students!labour-market!ready.!Instead,!it!has!
focused!on!advocacy!favouring!entrepreneurship!and!experiential!learning!in!a!domestic!context.!
!
In!2013,!the!Business!Council!of!Canada!(formerly!the!Canadian!Council!of!Chief!Executives)!promisingly!
launched!a!public!initiative!called!Taking!Action!for!Canada:!Jobs!and!Skills!for!the!21st!Century.!Since!its!
inception,!23!publications!have!been!released.!Sadly,!to!date,!only!two!reports!in!that!series!advocate!
for!increased!international!experience!abroad!for!Canadian!students:!Bernard!Simon’s!critique!of!
Canada’s!International!Education!Strategy,!Canada’s!International!Education!Strategy:!Time!for!a!Fresh!
Curriculum!(Simon,!2014)!and!Stephen!Toope’s!report!I!Love!You,!Please!Change:!Universities!and!Their!
Relationships!(Toope,!2014).!!
!
International*education*is*not*on*the*advocacy*radar*of*business*groups*at*the*federal*level.*
!
Provinces!
!
Two!major!publications!mark!the!provincial!stance!on!international!education,!at!a!pan-Canadian!level.!
The!first!is!the!2006!report!by!the!Council!of!the!Federation:!Competing!For!Tomorrow:!A!Strategy!For!
Postsecondary!Education!And!Skills!Training!In!Canada!(Council!of!the!Federation,!2006),!which!focused!
on!attracting!international!students!to!Canada.!The!second!is!the!response!by!the!Council!of!Ministers!of!
Education,!Canada!(CMEC),!five!years!later:!Bringing!education!in!Canada!to!the!world,!bringing!the!
world!to!Canada:!An!international!education!marketing!action!plan!for!provinces!and!territories.!A!
response!to!the!Council!of!the!Federation!from!provincial!and!territorial!Ministers!of!Education!and!of!
Immigration!(Council!of!Ministers!of!Education,!2011),!wherein!measures!to!attract!and!retain!
international!students!are!recommended,!as!well!as!providing!more!study!abroad!opportunities!for!
Canadian!students.!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
29
!
On*international*education,*the*provinces*rarely*speak*with*a*pan-Canadian*voice.*
'
Table'6:!Partner/Advocacy!Group!Position!Papers!(Federal)'
Org'
Document'
Advocacy'
21st''
C.'
WIL'
ISM'
IN'
OUT'
BCC!
Simon,!B.!(2014).!Canada’s!International!Education!Strategy:!Time!for!
a!fresh!curriculum.!Retrieved!from!Business!Council!of!
Canada!website:!!http://thebusinesscouncil.ca/wp-
content/uploads/2014/06/Bernard-Simon-Canadas-
International-Education-Strategy-FINAL.pdf!
!
!
!
!
BCC!
Toope,!S.!(2014).!I!love!you,!please!change:!universities!and!their!
relationships.!Retrieved!from!Business!Council!of!Canada!
website:!http://thebusinesscouncil.ca/publication/love-
please-change-universities-relationships!
!
!
!
!
CASA!
Canadian!Alliance!of!Student!Associations.!(2016).!2016!advocacy!
priorities.!Retrieved!from!http://casa-acae.com/wp-
content/uploads/2014/10/LOBBY-DOCS-2016-6-group-FINAL-
EN.pdf!
!
!
!
!
CBIE!
Canadian!Bureau!for!International!Education.!(2012).!CBIE’s!
submission!to!the!Standing!Committee!on!Finance!of!the!
House!of!Commons:!Pre-budget!consultations!2012.!
Retrieved!from!http://www.cbie-bcei.ca/wp-
content/uploads/2011/10/Submission-to-Finance-
Committee-August-3-2012-FINAL-1.pdf!
!
!
!
!
CBIE!
Canadian!Bureau!for!International!Education.!(2013).!CBIE!submission!
to!the!House!of!Commons!Standing!Committee!on!Finance,!
pre-budget!consultations!2013.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.cbie-bcei.ca/wp-
content/uploads/2013/03/CBIE_Pre-
BudgetConsultations2013_EN.pdf!
!
!
!
!
CBIE!
Canadian!Bureau!for!International!Education.!(2014).!Canada’s!global!
engagement!challenge:!CBIE’s!pre-budget!submission!2014!to!
the!Finance!Committee!of!the!House!of!Commons.!Retrieved!
from!http://www.cbie-bcei.ca/wp-
content/uploads/2014/08/CBIE-FINA-Submission-2014-Aug-
14.pdf!
!
!
!
!
CBoC!
Stuckey,!J.,!&!Munro,!D.!(2014).!The!need!to!make!skills!work:!The!cost!
of!Ontario’s!skills!gap.!Ottawa,!Canada:!The!Conference!
Board!of!Canada.!
!
!
!
!
CBoC!
Martin,!E.!(2015).!International!mobility!for!undergraduate!students.!
Lessons!from!Australia’s!New!Colombo!Plan.!Ottawa,!Canada:!
The!Conference!Board!of!Canada.!
!
!
!
!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
30
Org'
Document'
Advocacy'
21st''
C.'
WIL'
ISM'
IN'
OUT'
CMEC!
Council!of!Ministers!of!Education,!Canada.!(2011).!Bringing!education!
in!Canada!to!the!world,!bringing!the!world!to!Canada:!An!
international!education!marketing!action!plan!for!provinces!
and!territories.!A!response!to!the!Council!of!the!Federation!
from!provincial!and!territorial!Ministers!of!Education!and!of!
Immigration.!Retrieved!from!
www.cmec.ca/Publications/Lists/Publications/Attachments/2
64/COF_Bringing_Ed_to_Canada_Eng_final.pdf!
!
!
!
!
COF!
Council!of!the!Federation.!(2006).!Competing!for!tomorrow:!A!strategy!
for!postsecondary!education!and!skills!training!in!Canada.!
Retrieved!from!
www.canadaspremiers.ca/phocadownload/.../pse_strategy-
july-eng.pdf!
!
!
!
!
CCC!
Canadian!Chamber!of!Commerce.!(2014).!A!battle!we!can’t!afford!to!
lose:!Getting!young!Canadians!from!education!to!
employment.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.chamber.ca/download.aspx?t=0&pid=b8baccde-
be50-e411-b0ed-000c29c04ade!
!
!
!
!
CCC!
Canadian!Chamber!of!Commerce.!(2015).!A!Canada!that!wins:!The!
national!election!platform!of!the!Canadian!Chamber!of!
Commerce.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.chamber.ca/download.aspx?t=0&pid=4ee149d5-
0d03-e511-be5d-000c29c04ade!
!
!
!
!
CCC!
Canadian!Chamber!of!Commerce.!(2015).!Fragmented!systems:!
Connecting!players!in!Canada’s!skills!challenge.!Retrieved!
from!
http://www.chamber.ca/download.aspx?t=0&pid=92fc5fd5-
ea5a-e511-9f7a-000c29c04ade!
!
!
!
!
UnivCan!
Association!of!Universities!and!Colleges!of!Canada.!(2011).!The!
Revitalization!of!Undergraduate!Education!in!Canada.!A!
report!on!the!AUCC!workshop!on!undergraduate!education!in!
Halifax,!March!6-8,!2011.!Retrieved!from!
https://www.univcan.ca/wp-
content/uploads/2015/11/revitalization-of-undergraduate-
education-in-canada-march-2011.pdf!
!
!
!
!
UnivCan!
Association!of!Universities!and!Colleges!of!Canada.!(2012).!Creative,!
analytical,!innovative,!global,!collaborative!graduates:!How!
universities!are!producing!the!workforce!Canada!needs.!
Retrieved!from!http://www.univcan.ca/wp-
content/uploads/2015/09/graduates-creative-analytical-
innovative-global-collaborative-brochure-jan-2012.pdf!
!
!
!
!
UnivCan!
Association!of!Universities!and!Colleges!of!Canada.!(2012).!
Universities:!Putting!ideas!to!work!for!Canadians.!Pre-budget!
submission!to!the!Honourable!James!Flaherty,!Minister!of!
Finance.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.nipissingu.ca/departments/presidents-
office/Documents/AUCC%202013%20prebudget%20for%20t
he%20web.pdf!
!
!
!
!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
31
Org'
Document'
Advocacy'
21st''
C.'
WIL'
ISM'
IN'
OUT'
UnivCan!
Association!of!Universities!and!Colleges!of!Canada.!(2014).!Brief!
Submitted!to!the!House!Of!Commons!Standing!Committee!On!
Finance!on!youth!employment!in!Canada.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.univcan.ca/wp-
content/uploads/2015/07/submission-on-youth-
employment-april-2014.pdf!
!
!
!
!
UnivCan!
Association!of!Universities!and!Colleges!of!Canada.!(2014).!AUCC!
Submission!to!the!House!of!Commons!Standing!Committee!on!
Finance!Priorities:!2015!Federal!budget.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/HOC/Committee/412/FINA/
WebDoc/WD6615327/412_FINA_PBC2014_Briefs/Associatio
nOfUniversitiesAndCollegesOfCanada-e.pdf!
!
!
!
!
UnivCan!
Universities!Canada.!(2014).!Know!Canada,!know!the!world:!Lessons!
from!Universities!Canada’s!workshop!on!innovation!in!
experiential!learning.!Retrieved!from!
http://www.univcan.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/know-
canada-know-the-world-experiential-learning-workshop-
december-2014.pdf!
!
!
!
!
UnivCan!
Universities!Canada.!(2015).!Crossing!borders,!opening!minds.!
Retrieved!from!http://www.univcan.ca/media-
room/publications/crossing-borders-opening-minds/!
!
!
!
!
UnivCan!
Universities!Canada.!(2015).!Equipping!Canada’s!youth!for!the!future.!
Retrieved!from!http://www.univcan.ca/wp-
content/uploads/2015/09/issue-equipping-canadas-youth-
for-the-future-jobs-and-skills-oct-2015.pdf!
!
!
!
!
UnivCan!
Universities!Canada.!(2016).!Universities!empowering!Canadians,!
empowering!communities:!Universities!Canada!submission!to!
the!House!of!Commons!Standing!Committee!on!Finance.!
Retrieved!from!https://www.univcan.ca/wp-
content/uploads/2015/06/pre-budget-submission-finance-
committee-2016.pdf!
!
!
!
!
!
'
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
32
Discussion''
Inter-Jurisdictional'Comparison'
!
Both!in!Ontario!and!at!the!federal!level,!student!groups!have!actively!advocated!for!increased!
postsecondary!funding!and!access,!and!also!equitable!treatment!for!all!students!in!Canada.!This!
advocacy!has!also!extended!to!international!students,!with!lobbying!for!better!health!coverage,!off-
campus!work!permits,!and!regulated!tuition!fee!hikes!for!this!group!of!students.!In!Ontario,!student!
advocacy!is!now!turning!to!the!student!experience,!with!advocacy!focused!on!work-
integrated/experiential!learning!opportunities!as!a!means!of!ensuring!a!“high!impact!experience”!for!
students!(Ontario!Undergraduate!Student!Alliance,!2015).!Student!group!advocacy,!while!firmly!
anchored!in!domestic!problem!solving,!has!not!yet!extended!to!international-education!policymaking!or!
policy!influencing.!In!fact,!the!student!groups!representing!those!most!directly!affected!by!study!and!
work!abroad!policy!have!been!surprisingly!silent!on!the!issue!over!the!last!eleven!years.!!
!
With!regard!to!university/institutional!advocacy,!the!picture!is!more!mixed.!In!Ontario,!the!Council!of!
Ontario!Universities!(COU)!has!not!published!a!document!advocating!for!increased!study!or!work!abroad!
opportunities!for!its!members’!students.!This!may,!however,!be!partly!due!to!direct!lobbying!efforts!by!
institutions!themselves.!At!the!federal!level,!where!it!is!harder!for!90+!public!universities!to!lobby!the!
federal!government!directly,!Universities!Canada!has,!in!the!name!of!its!pan-Canadian!membership,!
consistently!called!for!greater!access!to!international!experiences!for!university!students.!Furthermore,!
in!Ontario,!there!is!no!organization!in!the!province!devoted!exclusively!to!international!education!(IE)!
advocacy.!CBIE!does!not!have!an!outpost!in!Ontario!to!effectively!advocate!in!favour!of!increased!IE!
support!at!the!provincial!level;!their!activities!are!concentrated!on!influencing!federal-level!
policymaking.!
!
Finally,!the!major!business!sector!stakeholder!groups!in!both!Toronto!and!Ottawa!have!been!
inexplicably!mute!on!advocating!for!international!preparedness!for!the!next!generation!of!Canada’s!
leaders!and!workforce.!While!advocacy!rhetoric!systematically!speaks!of!the!need!to!ensure!that!
Ontario,!Canada,!and!Canadians!are!ready!to!succeed!in!the!21st-century!global!knowledge!economy,!
there!have!been!no!recommendations!from!this!sector!calling!on!either!government!or!even!
postsecondary!institutions!to!provide!international!experiences!abroad!for!Canadian!students!in!order!
for!them!to!build!global!networks!or!acquire!cross-cultural!competencies!to!thrive!in!an!export!culture.!
The!exceptions!to!this!rule!have!been!two!publications!authored!for!The!Business!Council!in!2014:!
Canada’s!International!Education!Strategy:!Time!For!A!Fresh!Curriculum!(Simon,!2014)!and!I!Love!You,!
Please!Change:!Universities!And!Their!Relationships!(Toope,!2014).!It!is!perhaps!interesting!to!note,!
however,!that!these!pieces!were!written!by!a!faculty!member!and!the!Director!of!the!University!of!
Toronto’s!Munk!School!of!Global!Affairs,!respectively.!
!
While!not!the!product!of!an!advocacy!group!per!se,!it!is!nonetheless!worth!mentioning!the!comparative!
study!released!by!The!Conference!Board!of!Canada!last!year,!which!aims!to!provide!policymakers!with!
examples!of!how!to!expand!education!abroad!activities!for!Canadian!students:!International!Mobility!For!
Undergraduate!Students.!Lessons!From!Australia’s!New!Colombo!Plan!(Martin,!2015a).!!
!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
33
'
Semantics'
!
Under!the!previous!federal!government,!and!certainly!since!the!publication!of!the!Kunin!Reports!(2009,!
2012),!there!was!a!veritable!obsession!in!policy!and!advocacy!documents!with!quoting!the!“economic!
benefits”!to!Canada!of!international!students.!However,!there!seems!to!be!a!semantic!shift!happening,!
at!least!at!the!provincial!level.!!
!
In!the!lead!up!to!the!Ontario!budget!and!since!the!release!of!the!Herbert!Report!in!December!2015!
(Ministry!of!Training,!2015),!the!semantic!focus!has!noticeably!shifted!away!from!dollars!and!cents!to!a!
more!holistic,!student-centred!vocabulary!emphasizing!the!importance!of!student!success!and!the!
quality!of!the!postsecondary!learning!experience.!!For!example,!OUSA!speaks!of!promoting!“high!quality!
experience”!and!“high!impact!experiences.”!(Ontario!Undergraduate!Student!Alliance,!2015,!p.!24)!
!
It!will!be!interesting!to!see!if!this!new!terminology!is!repeated!in!future!policy!and!advocacy!documents!
in!Ontario!and!also!in!Ottawa!under!the!new!federal!government!where!the!Prime!Minister,!a!former!
educator,!has!also!given!himself!the!Youth!portfolio.!!
!
Data'Deficit'
!
Unsurprisingly,!publicly-available!data!is!in!a!lamentable!state.!Depressingly,!this!situation!has!not!
improved!despite!persistent!calls!for!better!data,!data-gathering,!and!data-sharing!from!both!provincial-!
and!federal-level!stakeholder!groups!(Canadian!Chamber!of!Commerce,!2015;!Canadian!Federation!of!
Students,!2014;!Ministry!of!Training,!2015;!Ontario!Chamber!of!Commerce,!2013;!Ursacki,!Yendt,!Hobbs,!
Rose,!&!Madden,!2014),!government-commissioned!policy!consultants!(Drummond,!2012;!Illuminate!
Consulting!Group,!2011;!Kunin!&!Associates,!2012;!Rae,!2005)!and!also!academics!(Jones,!2015).!!
!
The!implications!of!this!data!deficit!are!considerable.!Any!sort!of!reliable!analyses!of!actual!numbers!of!
Canadians!students!studying!abroad!are!currently!impossible!to!do!with!any!level!of!confidence!at!this!
point.!While!the!OECD!and!UNESCO!provide!international!student!mobility!numbers,!they!only!capture!a!
fraction!of!the!outbound!activity!that!occurs!on!Canadian!campuses,!and!these!numbers!are!supplied!by!
host!countries.!Universities!Canada!reported!study!abroad!numbers!in!there!2014!Internationalization!
Survey!(Association!of!Universities!and!Colleges!of!Canada,!2014);!however,!it!is!equally!difficult!to!
ascertain!who!or!what!exactly!was!being!counted!as!well!as!the!precise!sources!of!that!data.!
!
What!this!means!on!a!global!scale!is!that!Canada!is!quite!simply!not!in!the!game.!While!countries!around!
the!world!tout!their!ever-increasing!outward!mobility!numbers!and!shift!to!publishing!analytic!studies!of!
the!outward!movement!of!their!students!(e.g.,!Campus!France,!2016),!Canada!is!left!in!the!dust.!We!are!
still!utterly!dependent!solely!on!the!study!permit!numbers!that!the!Department!of!Immigration,!
Refugees!and!Citizenship!Canada!shares!on!a!periodic!basis,!which,!in!turn,!only!capture!a!portion!of!the!
inbound!(i.e.,!international!student)!movement,!not!outbound!numbers.!!
!
Outbound!numbers!undoubtedly!exist!in!various!institutional!and!administrative!databases,!but!they!are!
not!publicly-available.!In!the!absence!of!any!such!Canadian!information,!we!are!still!not!able!to!position!
ourselves!on!the!global!scale.!!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
34
Online'Repository'
!
Ontario
Ontario!does!not!have!a!central,!online!portal!that!is!both!easy!to!find!and!navigate!if!a!student!is!
seeking!information!about!study!or!work!abroad!programs!or!scholarships.!Instead,!there!is!the!
provincial!Job!programs!for!youth!page!that!a!student!may!stumble!upon!by!accident!
(https://www.ontario.ca/page/job-programs-youth),!whichat!the!time!of!writing1lists!the!Ontario!
Global!Edge!Program,!and!the!sister!Study!abroad!page!(https://www.ontario.ca/page/study-abroad).!
This!latter!page!provides!dry,!negatively-toned!administrative!information!about!the!difficulties!of!
transferring!credits!or!credentials,!the!costly!nature!of!studying!internationally,!how!to!add!a!school!to!a!
list!in!order!to!be!eligible!to!apply!for!OSAP!funding,!and,!bizarrely,!the!address!of!the!OSAP!office!in!
Thunder!Bay!that!deals!with!students!studying!outside!of!Ontario.!By!no!stretch!of!the!imagination!is!the!
Study!abroad!page!a!promotional!site.!!
!
To!further!hammer!this!last!message!home,!the!Study!abroad!page!makes!no!mention!of!any!student!
exchange!or!study!abroad!programs!for!Ontario!students,!despite!MTCU!funding!16!bilateral!exchange!
and!internship!programs!with!China,!France,!Germany,!and!India!(see!Appendix!A!for!details).!It!simply!
refers!students!to!their!home!institutions!for!more!information,!to!CBIE,!or!to!the!federal!government’s!
International!Scholarships!portal!(http://www.scholarships-bourses.gc.ca/scholarships-
bourses/can/opportunities-opportunites.aspx?lang=eng),!although!the!URL!provided!on!the!Study!
abroad!page!is!currently!a!dead!link.!!
!
While!maintaining!correct!and!up-to-date!information!on!websites!is!cumbersome,!time!consuming,!and!
requires!constant!vigilance,!it!is!also!absolutely!critical!in!any!organizational!mission!in!2016!and!should!
really!be!an!integral!component!of!any!user-centred!public!policy.2!!
!
Federal Level
The!Department!of!Global!Affairs!Canada!manages!the!International!Scholarships!online!database.!While!
a!very!good!source!of!information,!it!is!necessarily!limited!in!scope!since!it!only!lists!scholarships,!
fellowships!and!funding!opportunities!made!available!by!Global!Affairs!Canada!and!other!Canadian!
federal!government!departments.!!
!
A!case!could!be!made!to!either!link!to!or!include!provincial-level!funding!opportunities!on!this!website,!
thereby!using!the!portal!as!a!pan-Canadian!starting!point!for!Canadian!students!looking!for!funding!for!
international!learning!experiences.!However,!such!discussions!would!need!to!rise!above!inter-
jurisdictional!turf!wars!and!put!students’!needs!at!the!centre.!Resources!would!also!need!to!be!
dedicated!to!promoting!and!maintaining!the!portal!for!it!to!be!truly!useful.!
!'
1 UPDATE: As of June 27th, 2017, the Job programs for youth page redirects to Get help finding a youth or student
job page (https://www.ontario.ca/page/get-help-finding-youth-or-student-job). On this page, there is no mention
of study abroad opportunities for Ontario students or youth nor is there a link to the Study abroad page.
2 UPDATE: As of June 27th, 2017, the URL to the federal!government’s!International!Scholarships!portal!has!been!
corrected.
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
35
Policy'Implications'
!
Unless!there!is!a!strong!and!vocal!champion!leading!the!charge!for!outbound!student!mobility!as!part!of!
a!comprehensive!international!education!strategy!either!for!Ontario!or!for!Canada,!possibly!combined!
with!increasing!evidence!of!the!benefits!of!such!outward!student!movement!for!the!home!jurisdiction,!
this!file!will!continue!to!languish!at!the!policy!level.!
!
In!Ontario,!it!clearly!appears!that!the!province’s!initial!international!education!(IE)!strategy!was!a!
product!of!political!will!and!a!response!to!the!2005!Rae!Report.!However,!as!had!been!foretold!in!an!
MTCU!presentation!on!Ontario’s!Postsecondary!Education!Internationalization!Strategy!in!2007,!
“international!can!suffer!at![the]!expense!of!domestic!demand”!(Manning,!2007).!And!that!was!indeed!
the!case!in!2012!when,!in!the!wake!of!domestic!policy!imperatives,!international!education!suffered!
substantial!funding!cuts.!The!IE!file!is!only!now!being!reactivated,!thanks!again!to!a!political!push.!!
!
Without!a!lead,!will,!and!a!coordinated!and!conscious!effort!to!see!and!reframe!international!learning!
abroad!as!both!an!access!and!a!quality!learning/student!success!issue,!it!will!remain!on!the!margins!as!a!
fringe!endeavour,!a!“nice!to!have”!instead!of!an!important!component!of!preparing!students!for!life!in!a!
globalized!world.!
!
This!risk!of!enduring!marginalization!is!more!acute!in!Ontario!than!at!the!federal!level,!as!national-level!
advocacy!groups!such!as!CBIE!and!Universities!Canada!are!more!vocal!about!wanting!to!see!
governmental!action!on!this!file!than!comparable!groups!in!Ontario!where,!as!this!report!has!shown,!the!
issue!really!is!not!on!the!advocacy!radar.!
!
Policy-wise,!an!IE!strategy!will!first!and!foremost!need!clear!objectives.!It!will!then!need!a!way!of!
determining!ifor!to!what!extentthose!objectives!are!being!met.!!
!
Setting!an!outbound!target!number!or!percentage!would!signal!a!public-policy!desire!for!more!PS!
students!to!benefit!from!the!opportunity!of!having!an!international!mobility!experience!as!part!of!a!
high-quality!learning!experience.!Hard!targets!and!open!and!transparent!reporting!are!good!starts.!For!
these,!Ontario!and!Canada!can!turn!to!the!Erasmus!program!and!its!policymakers!for!best!practices!and!
lessons!learned.!!
!
A!sustainable!outbound!policy!will!also!need!to!clearly!articulate!the!benefits!that!accrue!not!just!to!the!
individual!(personal!testimonials!only!go!so!far),!but!also!to!the!jurisdiction!at!large.!Here,!measuring!
outcomes!will!most!likely!prove!to!be!key.!For!this,!there!exist!a!number!of!intercultural!metrics!that!can!
guide!the!establishment!of!reporting!mechanisms,!and!Canadian!universities!are!well-placed!to!assist!
with!this!as!they!may!already!be!in!use!on!some!campuses!across!the!country.!
!
And!finally,!no!outbound!strategy!has!any!hope!of!succeeding!without!good,!comparable,!and!reliable!
data:!participation!starting!points,!trends!analyses,!activity!categories,!participant!demographics,!levels!
and!fields!of!study,!etc.!A!matrix!may!already!exist!in!other!jurisdictions!to!provide!a!starting!point!for!
discussions!in!the!Canadian!context.!
!
In!short,!clear!policy!goals,!parameters,!and!rationales!are!needed!to!establish!a!convincing!and!
sustainable!outbound!strategy.!Data!collection!and!dissemination,!as!well!as!outcomes!reporting!will!be!
crucial,!and!wording!will!be!key.!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
36
Recommendations'and'Suggestions'for'Further'Research'
!
Recommendations'
!
1. Designate!a!credible!and!well-respected!international!learning!experience!champion.!
2. Provincial'policy'levers:!While!universities!in!Canada!are!autonomous,!the!Ontario!government!
nonetheless!has!some!policy!levers!at!its!disposal,!such!as!reporting!requirements,!which!could!
be!put!in!place!in!order!to!obtain!outbound!mobility!numbers!from!each!institution.!These!could!
be!linked!to!outcomes-based!reporting,!which!would!be!especially!worthwhile!if!the!province!
established!an!outward!mobility!target!for!its!postsecondary!students.!
3. Open!administrative!data!for!research!analysis.!!
4. Incentivize!universities!to!share!institutional!data!for!research!analysis.!
5. Build!a!national!outbound!database!with!figures!and!categories!that!are!comparable!within!and!
among!Canadian!jurisdictions,!and!also!internationally.!There!is!such!penury!of!information!that!
this!database!had!might!as!well!be!constructed!from!scratch.!Before!embarking!on!database!
construction,!however,!a!study!of!international!best!practices!should!be!undertaken,!as!
countries!such!as!Germany!may!already!be!collecting!this!type!of!data!and!have!a!data!collection!
framework!that!could!be!adapted!or!applied!to!the!Canadian!context.!Alternatively,!task!a!
multilateral!organization!such!as!the!OECD!or!UNESCO!with!the!project.!
6. Contribute!dedicated,!ongoing!funding!to!Statistics!Canada’s!Education!Data!division!in!order!to!
ensure!reliable!and!sustainable!data!collection!and!dissemination!in!a!timely!manner.!!
7. Communicate!the!importance!of!international!learning!experiences!and!provide!access!and!
support!to!them!for!all!students!interested,!including!by!leveraging!financial!support!from!the!
private!sector.!
!
Suggestions'for'Further'Research'
!
The!forthcoming!Universities!Canada-IDRC!study!on!North-South!student!mobility!will!undoubtedly!
provide!invaluable!guidance!for!international-learning!policymaking!in!the!development!context!
(International!Development!Research!Centre,!n.d.).!!
!
Additional!inter-jurisdictional!comparative!policy!studies!would!provide!Ontario!with!existing!best!
practices!already!in!place!elsewhere!in!Canada!and!the!world,!thereby!saving!the!province!from!
reinventing!the!wheel.!
!
A!study!looking!at!OSM!advocacy!within!the!college!sector!would!be!an!excellent!complement!to!the!
present!report,!providing!an!important!overview!of!where!international!learning!fits!into!the!present-
day!mandates!of!colleges!and!institutes!in!Ontario!and!Canada.!
!'
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy goals and initiatives!
37
!""#$%&'(!)((*+,-.+$%(/,+%#$,(0.-&1&,2(34.54678(9*$,64&.:(
!
*+,-.+$%(/,+%#$,(0.-&1&,2((
(34.5467(9*$,64&.:(
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0&$&8,42(
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Ontario/Baden-Württemberg!Student!Exchange!
Program!
http://obw.ouinternational.ca/programs!!
MTCU!
19901999,!
2006present!
1.!Student!Exchange!Program!!
2.!International!Lake!Constance!Summer!
School!
3.!Summer!Research!Program!
$1,600/$2,500!
$1,000!
$2,600-$3,500!
Undergrad.!!
Graduate!
Bilateral!
Ontario/Rhône-Alpes!Student!Exchange!Program!
http://www.ora.ouinternational.ca/programs!!
MTCU!
1991present!
1.!Student!Exchange!Program!!
2.!Summer!Language!Program!
3.!Summer!Research!Program!
$1,600/$2,500!
$1,000!
$1,500!
Undergrad.!!
Graduate!
Bilateral!
Ontario!India!Student!Exchange!Program!
http://omg.ouinternational.ca/ontario-students!!
MTCU!
2007present!
1.!Study!India!Program!!
2.!Internship!in!India!Program!
3.!Summer!Research!Program!
$2,000!
$2,000!
$3,000!
Undergrad.!!
Graduate!
Bilateral!
Ontario/Jiangsu!Student!Exchange!Program!
http://ojs.ouinternational.ca/ontario-students!!
MTCU!
2009present!
1.!Student!Exchange!Program!
2.!Summer!Research!Program!
3.!Summer!Language,!History!&!Culture!
4.!Summer!Language!&!Food!Culture!
5.!Summer!Design!School!
6.!China!Studies!!
7.!Intensive!Mandarin!Program!
$2,500/$3,000!
$3,000!
$2,000!
$2,000!
$2,000!
$2,000!
$2,000!
Undergrad.!!
Graduate!
Bilateral!
Ontario!International!Education!Opportunity!
Scholarship!(OIEOS)!
--!ELIMINATED!IN!2012!
MTCU!
20072012!
Academic!study,!work!term!or!co-op!
placement.!
Based!on!financial!need.!
Special!consideration!given!to!Aboriginal!
students,!Francophone!students,!and!
students!with!disabilities.!
$1,250/$2,500!
“Ontario’s!
students”!
Global!
Ontario!Global!Edge!Program!
https://www.ontario.ca/page/get-international-
business-experience-students!!
MEDEI!
2008present!
Gives!students!a!chance!to!work!in!small-!
or!medium-sized!businesses!around!the!
world.!
Ten!universities!and!colleges!offer!the!
program.!
Not!specified!
Aged!1929!
Global!
!
!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy goals and initiatives!
38
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*+,-.+$%(/,+%#$,(0.-&1&,2(34.5467((
9;#%#461:(
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=#",D(.4(
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!-4.6%(
F6$6%&6$(
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Canada!Graduate!Scholarships!–!Michael!Smith!Foreign!Study!
Supplement!
http://www.sshrc-crsh.gc.ca/funding-financement/programs-
programmes/fellowships/cgs_foreign_study-besc_etudes_etranger-
eng.aspx!!
Tri-
Council!
Research!Study!
$6,000!
CGS!Master’s!
CGS!Doctoral!
Global!
Canada-China!Scholars'!Exchange!Program!
http://www.scholarships-bourses.gc.ca/scholarships-
bourses/can/ccsep-peucc.aspx?lang=eng!!
GAC!
Study!
Travel!
Costs!
Undergrad.!!
Graduate!
Bilateral!
Canada!Student!Loan!Program!(CSLP)!!
http://www.servicecanada.gc.ca/eng/goc/cslp.shtml!!
ESDC!
Not!specified!
Varies!!
<!domestic!
Demonstrate!
financial!need!
Global!
Canadian!Queen!Elizabeth!II!Diamond!Jubilee!Scholarship!
http://www.univcan.ca/programs-and-scholarships/queen-elizabeth-
scholars/!!
GoC!
Study!
Research!Study!
Internship!
$6,000/!
$8,000!
Senior!undergrad.!!
Graduate!
Commonwealth!!
Community!Forestry:!Trees!and!People!—!John!G.!Bene!Fellowship!
http://www.idrc.ca/EN/Funding/Grants/Pages/GrantsDetails.aspx?CallI
D=4!!
IDRC!
Field!Research!
$15,000!
Graduate!
Select!Countries!
Doctoral!Foreign!Study!Award!
https://www.researchnet-
recherchenet.ca/rnr16/vwOpprtntyDtls.do?prog=2269&view=search&t
erms=doctoral&org=CIHR&type=EXACT&resultCount=25!!
CIHR!
Doctoral!degree!
in!a!health-
related!field!
$35,000!
Doctoral!
Global!
EDC!International!Business!Scholarships!
http://www.edc.ca/EN/About-Us/Student-Programs/Youth-Education-
Program/Pages/default.aspx!!
EDC!
Not!specified!
$4,000!
Undergrad.!!
Global!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy goals and initiatives!
39
*+,-.+$%(/,+%#$,(0.-&1&,2(34.5467((
9;#%#461:(
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!-4.6%(
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IDRC!Doctoral!Research!Awards!
http://www.idrc.ca/EN/Funding/Grants/Pages/GrantsDetails.aspx?CallI
D=2!!
IDRC!
Field!Research!
$20,000!
Doctoral!
Select!Countries!
International!Aboriginal!Youth!Internship!(IAYI)!
http://www.international.gc.ca/development-
developpement/partners-partenaires/iayi-sija/index.aspx?lang=eng!!
GAC!
Internship!
Not!
specified!
Aboriginal!Aged!
1835!
Select!Countries!
International!Academic!Mobility!(IAM)!–!ELIMINATED!IN!2011!
1.#Program#for#North#American#(Canada-US-Mexico)#Mobility#in#Higher#
Education#
2.!Canada-European#Union#Program#for#Cooperation#in#Higher#
Education,#Training#and#Youth!
ESDC!
1.!Study!
2.!Internship!
N/A!
1.!Undergrad.!!
2.!Graduate!
USA,!Mexico!
European!Union!
International!Experience!Canada!(IEC)!
http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/residents/iec/index.asp!!
IRCC!
Internship!
$0!
Aged!1830!or!35!
Select!Countries!
International!Youth!Internship!Program!(IYIP)!
http://www.international.gc.ca/development-
developpement/partners-partenaires/iyip-psij/index.aspx?lang=eng!!
GAC!
Internship!
Not!
specified!
Aged!1930!
Select!Countries!
Mitacs!Globalink!Partnership!Award!
https://www.mitacs.ca/en/programs/globalink/globalink-partnership-
award!!
Mitacs!
Research!
$7,500!
Graduate!
Global!!
(except!USA)!
Mitacs!Globalink!Research!Award!
https://www.mitacs.ca/en/programs/globalink/globalink-research-
award!!
Mitacs!
Research!
$5,000!
Senior!undergrad.!!
Graduate!
Select!Countries!
Mitacs!Globalink!Research!Award!–!Campus!France!
https://www.mitacs.ca/en/programs/globalink/globalink-research-
award-campus-France!!
Mitacs!
Research!
$5,000!
Senior!undergrad.!!
Graduate!
Bilateral!
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy goals and initiatives!
40
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!-4.6%(
F6$6%&6$(
;+$%&$5(
?1&5&-1#(/,+%#$,8(
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/>."#(
Mitacs!Globalink!Research!Award!–!Inria!
https://www.mitacs.ca/en/programs/globalink/globalink-research-
award-inria!!
Mitacs!
Research!
$5,000!
Graduate!
Bilateral!
Mitacs!Globalink!Research!Award!–!MHESR!Tunisia!
https://www.mitacs.ca/en/programs/globalink/globalink-research-
award-mhesr-tunisia!!
Mitacs!
Research!
Not!
specified!
Senior!undergrad.!!
Graduate!
Bilateral!
Mitacs!Globalink!Research!Award!–!MHRD!India!
https://www.mitacs.ca/en/programs/globalink/globalink-research-
award-mhrd-india!!
Mitacs!
Research!
$5,000!
Senior!undergrad.!!
Graduate!
Bilateral!
NSERC!Postgraduate!Scholarships!–!Doctoral!Program!
http://www.nserc-crsng.gc.ca/Students-Etudiants/PG-
CS/BellandPostgrad-BelletSuperieures_eng.asp!!
NSERC!
Doctoral!degree!
in!natural!
sciences!and!
engineering!
$21,000!
Doctoral!!
Global!
Organization!of!American!States!(OAS)!Academic!Scholarships!Program!
http://www.scholarships-bourses.gc.ca/scholarships-bourses/can/oas-
oea.aspx?lang=eng!!
GAC!
Master’s!and!!
Doctoral!degrees!
abroad!
$30,000!
USD!
Graduate!
Regional!
SSHRC!Doctoral!Fellowship!
http://www.sshrc-crsh.gc.ca/funding-financement/programs-
programmes/fellowships/doctoral-doctorat-eng.aspx!!
SSHRC!
Doctoral!degree!
in!social!sciences!
or!humanities!
$20,000!
Graduate!
Global!
The!Bentley!Cropping!Systems!Fellowship!
http://www.idrc.ca/EN/Funding/Pages/Bentley-Cropping-Systems-
Fellowship.aspx!!
IDRC!
Field!Research!
Not!
specified!
Graduate!
Select!Countries!
!
!
!(
Policy options for outbound student mobility: An inter-jurisdictional review of policy
goals and initiatives!
41
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!
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Addressing a crisis: Students' recommendations for the 2014 Ontario budget
Canadian Federation of Students-Ontario. (2014). Addressing a crisis: Students' recommendations for the 2014 Ontario budget. Toronto, Canada: Author.
Public services for Ontarians: A path to sustainability and excellence
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Drummond, D. (2012). Commission on the reform of Ontario's public services. Public services for Ontarians: A path to sustainability and excellence. Retrieved from http://www.fin.gov.on.ca/en/reformcommission/
Data in decline: The gradual demise of Canada's national data systems for higher education Retrieved from http://forum.academica.ca/forum/data-in-decline-the-gradualdemise-of-canadas-national-data-systems-for-higher-education Kercher
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Jones, G. A. (2015). Data in decline: The gradual demise of Canada's national data systems for higher education. Retrieved from http://forum.academica.ca/forum/data-in-decline-the-gradualdemise-of-canadas-national-data-systems-for-higher-education Kercher, J., & Rohde, N. (2014). German students abroad. International Higher Education, 75, 18-19.
The forefront of international higher education: A festschrift in honor of Phil G
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Knight, J. (2014). Is internationalization having an identity crisis? In A. Maldonado-Maldonado & R. Basset (Eds.), The forefront of international higher education: A festschrift in honor of Phil G. Altbach (pp. 75-88). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer Publishing.
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Economic impact of international education in Canada-An update. Final report Retrieved from http://www.international.gc.ca Asking international students to pay for Ontario's deficitasking-international-students-to-pay-for-ontarios-deficit-bysean-madden
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Kunin, R., & Associates. (2012). Economic impact of international education in Canada-An update. Final report. Retrieved from http://www.international.gc.ca/education/assets/pdfs/economic_impact_en.pdf Madden, S. (2012). Asking international students to pay for Ontario's deficit [Blog]. Retrieved from http://www.ousa.ca/2012/04/10/asking-international-students-to-pay-for-ontarios-deficit-bysean-madden-april-10-2012/
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