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Abstract

This study addresses the question of how work commutes change positive versus negative and active versus passive mood experienced after the commutes. Analyses are presented for 230 time-sampled morning commutes to work, made by 146 randomly sampled people in three different Swedish cities, asking them to use smartphones to report mood before, directly after, and later in the work place after the commute. The results show that self-reported positive emotional responses evoked by critical incidents are related to mood changes directly after the commute but not later in the day. It is also shown that satisfaction with the commute, measured retrospectively, is related to travel mode, travel time, as well as both positive and negative emotional responses to critical incidents.

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... Of particular interest in travel behavior research is satisfaction with travel, a domain-specific component of satisfaction with life (Ettema et al. 2011) that can include, for instance, satisfaction with individual travel experiences, with the commute in general, or with certain modes. A relationship between traveler satisfaction, which is a cognitive evaluation of the travel experience, and travel emotions were also observed in some studies (Ettema et al. 2017;Friman et al. 2017b;Glasgow et al. 2018). Among all travelers, transit riders were found to experience more negative emotions (e.g., stress, anxiety, frustration, boredom), fewer positive emotions (e.g., happiness, relaxation) (Gardner and Abraham 2007;Gatersleben and Uzzell 2007;Morris and Guerra 2015a), and less satisfaction with their travel than users of other modes (Morris and Guerra 2015b;Smith 2017). ...
... Travel emotions and (dis)satisfaction vary across trips or days since they are often triggered by particularly memorable experiences while traveling, so-called critical incidents. Most research to date measured travel emotions at a single point in time (e.g., with respect to daily travel in general or the most recent trip- Friman et al. 2017a;Singleton 2019;Smith 2017;St-Louis et al. 2014) or multiple occasions within a day (Friman et al. 2017b; Morris and Guerra 2015b). So far, there has been little focus on the dynamics of travel emotions and on the interactions between travel emotions and travel satisfaction at a dayto-day level. ...
... Many past studies employed one of two methods for measuring affect and satisfaction related to a particular event: Either during the event itself, using the Experience Sampling Method (Csikszentmihalyi et al. 1977), or retrospectively after a short recall period of less than a day (Friman et al. 2017b;Singleton 2019). The latter approach is prevalent in the current literature due to the difficulty of acquiring real-time data. ...
Article
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Travel well-being encompasses three dimensions: cognitive satisfaction judgments, positive emotions, and negative emotions. Most previous literature on transit users focused either on satisfaction or emotions, but not both, and generally relied on data from one day. This study explores the day-to-day dynamics of travel satisfaction and emotions using a panel data set collected over several weeks from transit users in San Francisco using a smartphone survey. First, we compared emotions and satisfaction experienced during travel to measurements from retrospective surveys conducted at the beginning and the end of the study. Average levels of negative emotions were lower on a daily basis than in retrospective surveys, and the latter align more with the highest reported levels of negative emotions. Second, our dynamic panel models show lagged effects of satisfaction and emotions from the previous day on daily satisfaction, suggesting that dissatisfaction and emotions experienced while riding transit may carry over to the following day, with the effects of satisfaction and emotions having opposite signs. Third, when comparing retrospective emotions for transit travel and car travel, we found that car travel evokes higher positive emotions and lower negative emotions; however car trips are also more frustrating and stressful. Our study provides evidence for the influence of emotions on satisfaction, and advances the survey methods literature on measuring satisfaction in real-time and retrospectively. It also illustrates the need to enhance satisfaction and subjective well-being of transit riders, who are often found to be the least satisfied among all transportation users.
... vague travel information), socio-demographics (e.g. income and gender), weather conditions, physical health and talking to others play a role (Ettema et al., 2017;Friman et al., 2017b;Glasgow et al., 2018;Handy and Thigpen, 2019;Singleton, 2019;Smith, 2017). ...
... Second, emotional response to commuting affects diverse aspects of SWB. Emotional response to critical incidents and mood immediately after a commute influenced the STS (Friman et al., 2017b). Studies also showed that positive mood (e.g. ...
... Experience during travel is likely to differ from that after travel (i.e. experience of the whole journey) (Friman et al., 2017b;Mokhtarian, 2019). Wearable sensors and smartphone devices could complement traditional survey-based data collection while obviating recall bias (Chaix, 2018;Marzano et al., 2015;Vila et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Commuting as a habitual routine in people's daily lives is possibly related to subjective wellbeing (SWB) and mental health (MH). However, findings on the commuting–SWB–MH interplay are inconclusive, and a systematic synthesis of the available evidence is lacking. We therefore systematically reviewed the existing literature on the associations between commuting, SWB and MH. We searched seven databases for eligible English-language publications up to 9 February 2020. We summarized the study specifics in accordance with the PRISMA guideline and assessed the quality of the studies. In total, 45 studies were eligible for inclusion. We found that objective commute characteristics, such as duration and mode, affected experiential aspects of SWB and MH, but also general MH and cognitive wellbeing. External travel circumstances, like crowdedness and weather conditions, had no structural impacts on the experiential indicators of SWB and MH. Travel attitude and personality traits had effects on long-term cognitive wellbeing as well as domain satisfaction and mental state. Adverse effects of commuting negatively spill-over to home and job. Our results also reveal that the accumulation of commute experiences may change both overall wellbeing and MH, where emotional response seems to act as a moderator. The effects of commuting on MH and the correlations between different dimensions of MH and SWB are as yet unclear. Advances towards intensive longitudinal rather than cross-sectional study designs including ambulatory physiological measurements through global positioning system-enabled wearables seem critical to better understand the causal pathways along which commuting affects both short- and long-term SWB and MH directly and indirectly.
... The STS may therefore primarily measure less transient feelings (e.g. stress, relaxation, boredom, enthusiasm) commonly experienced during travel (e.g., Gatersleben & Uzzell, 2009), although Friman et al. (2017b) recently showed that the STS also correlates with self-reported events that evoked either positive or negative emotional responses during work commutes. This is to be expected if emotional responses change mood. ...
... A long trip may be remembered as more boring than it was experienced. Third, if memory is difficult to recall after a journey, the reported feelings during the journey may be influenced by how one feels at the moment of recall after the journey (Friman et al., 2017b). ...
... Heightened anxiety and discomfort were observed when participants experienced undesirable conditions. Ettema et al. (2017) and Friman et al. (2017b) obtained self-reports from smartphones before, immediately after, and 1 hour after morning commutes to work. The results showed that self-reported positive emotional responses evoked by events during travel (e.g. ...
Chapter
Frequent observations showing that travel influences satisfaction with life suggest that transport policy making and planning would increase society’s welfare by taking this influence into account. To do this requires detailed knowledge of how travel influences satisfaction with life. Two routes of influence have been proposed and empirically confirmed, one through the facilitation of out-of-home activities that are important for satisfaction with life, and the other through reducing negative feelings caused by hassles associated with daily travel. The latter route is the focus of the chapter. A theoretical framework is proposed that makes quantitative predictions of the impacts of transient feelings (emotional responses) on enduring feelings (mood) with consequences for well-being during and after travel. Positive and negative emotional responses are assumed to be evoked by both transient critical incidents (e.g. disruptions) and non-transient factors (e.g. noise) during travel. Numerical experiments illustrate the quantitative predictions of changes in mood during and after travel for both types of evoking factors. It is also shown how emotion regulation may moderate effects of transient factors as well as how hedonic adaptation and desensitization associated with non-transient factors may affect mood after travel. The conclusion is that measurement of mood at different points in time should be a valuable complement to or sometimes a substitute for retrospective self-reports of satisfaction with travel that are likely to be more susceptible to systematic errors.
... When perceived stress of commuting is measured immediately after arrival, car commuters reported less commuting stress than train commuters (Wener & Evans, 2011), whereas bicycle commuters reported less commuting stress than car commuters (Brutus, Javadian, & Panaccio, 2017). One study (Friman, Olsson, Ståhl, Ettema, & Gärling, 2017) did not report any differences between different types of commuters with respect to the dimension 'relaxation-stress' (although differences were observed for 'enthusiasm-boredom'). However, altogether, a recent review on the relationship between commuting and well-being showed that active commuting (walking, cycling) seems to be associated with relatively lower levels of perceived commuting stress compared to more physically passive commuting modes, such as using the car or public transport (Chatterjee et al., 2019). ...
... First, much of the evidence is based on data from large surveys without measurements in the free-living environment (LaJeunesse & Rodríguez, 2012;Morris & Hirsch, 2016). This rather unspecific approach reduces the external validity of the results and does not provide insight into the acute psychological stress responses during commuting, for instance due to recall problems (Friman et al., 2017). Secondly, of those studies in which perceived commuting stress was measured immediately upon arrival at work (Brutus et al., 2017;Friman et al., 2017;Wener & Evans, 2011), only one study (Friman et al., 2017) performed baseline measurements (e.g., moods before commuting). ...
... This rather unspecific approach reduces the external validity of the results and does not provide insight into the acute psychological stress responses during commuting, for instance due to recall problems (Friman et al., 2017). Secondly, of those studies in which perceived commuting stress was measured immediately upon arrival at work (Brutus et al., 2017;Friman et al., 2017;Wener & Evans, 2011), only one study (Friman et al., 2017) performed baseline measurements (e.g., moods before commuting). The lack of an appropriate baseline increases the susceptibility to other influences such as previous work stress (Beattie & Griffin, 2014) and sleep quality (Blaxton, Bergeman, Whitehead, Braun, & Payne, 2017). ...
Conference Paper
Das Arbeitsleben bietet zahlreiche Stressoren, die ein potentielles Gesundheitsrisiko darstellen können. Daher ist der Erhalt und Aufbau von Gesundheitsressourcen entscheidend. So kann beispielsweise körperliche Aktivität die physische und psychische Gesundheit in positiver Weise beeinflussen, wie etwa durch eine Risikoreduktion für Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen, Krebs aber auch Depressionen. In der Studie Gesund Unterwegs wurde untersucht, ob ein aktiver Arbeitsweg, bewältigt zu Fuß oder mit dem Fahrrad, einen solchen Beitrag leisten und das subjektive Stressempfinden reduzieren kann. 227 Personen wurden gebeten, einen Stressfragebogen an drei Tagen jeweils vor Abfahrt und bei Ankunft am Arbeitsplatz auszufüllen. Zusätzlich wurden allgemeine körperliche Aktivität, mentale Gesundheit sowie Merkmale des Arbeitsweges wie Distanz, Dauer, Route und Transportmittel erhoben. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass der aktive Arbeitsweg verglichen mit einem passiven, zu einer signifikanten Stressreduktion führte. Darüber hinaus wurden moderierende Einflüsse wie zum Beispiel die Dauer des Arbeitsweges festgestellt. Ein aktiver Arbeitsweg kann folglich einen Beitrag zur Gesundheitsförderung leisten.
... Subjective well-being (SWB) is defined as the degree to which individuals positively evaluate the overall qualities of their lives according to their living criteria [10]. As Friman et al. [11] judgment that EWB is obtained by the frequencies, average intensity, or different duration of positive and negative affect [12][13][14]. ...
... Furthermore, Friman et al. [26] investigated whether satisfaction with daily travel is related to life satisfaction and EWB, and found that satisfaction with the commute is related to travel mode and travel time. Friman et al. [11] addressed the question of how the commute to work changes positive versus negative and active versus passive mood experienced after completion of the commute. Morris et al. [22] studied the relationship between traveler's mood and travel mode and concluded that mood is no worse during travel than on average and travel only has a small total impact on mood. ...
... Travel-related EWB as a specific domain of SWB has attracted relatively little attention and needs further investigation. The affecting factors framework has been constructed including personal characteristics, social development, economics, built environment, travel environment, and so on [10,11,25]. Although published research presents some interesting insights into EWB, the studies are limited and not sufficient to illustrate how changes in travel factors may influence EWB; for example, trip purpose as an important factor has not attracted much attention. ...
Article
Full-text available
Traveler emotional well-being as a specific domain of subjective well-being has attracted attention across the field of transportation. Studies on identifying factors of travel-related emotional well-being can help policy makers to formulate concrete strategies to improve travelers’ experiences and public health. This research used the Maximal Information Coefficient (MIC) to select important factors which have much influence on emotional well-being during travel. American Time Use Survey data collected in 2010, 2012, and 2013 were used in this study and 10 factors have been selected to illustrate the relationship with emotional well-being, including rest, weekly earnings, activity time for well-being, health, self-evaluation of activities, pain medication taken yesterday, travel purpose, travel duration, weekly working hours and age based on MIC values in Descending sort. Among these 10 selected features, 2 factors, travel purpose and travel duration, are related to travel contexts; the other factors are related to personal and social characteristics. It is found that an individual’s physical condition and self-evaluation of activities have much influence on travel-related emotional well-being, while traveling mode and interaction during travel have a relatively small impact on emotional well-being compared to other identified factors. This finding is different from previous research findings. The paper presents traffic strategies related to improving emotional well-being of travelers while traveling based on the findings from this research.
... When perceived stress of commuting is measured immediately after arrival, car commuters reported less commuting stress than train commuters (Wener & Evans, 2011), whereas bicycle commuters reported less commuting stress than car commuters (Brutus, Javadian, & Panaccio, 2017). One study (Friman, Olsson, Ståhl, Ettema, & Gärling, 2017) did not report any differences between different types of commuters with respect to the dimension 'relaxation-stress' (although differences were observed for 'enthusiasm-boredom'). However, altogether, a recent review on the relationship between commuting and well-being showed that active commuting (walking, cycling) seems to be associated with relatively lower levels of perceived commuting stress compared to more physically passive commuting modes, such as using the car or public transport (Chatterjee et al., 2019). ...
... First, much of the evidence is based on data from large surveys without measurements in the free-living environment (LaJeunesse & Rodríguez, 2012;Morris & Hirsch, 2016). This rather unspecific approach reduces the external validity of the results and does not provide insight into the acute psychological stress responses during commuting, for instance due to recall problems (Friman et al., 2017). Secondly, of those studies in which perceived commuting stress was measured immediately upon arrival at work (Brutus et al., 2017;Friman et al., 2017;Wener & Evans, 2011), only one study (Friman et al., 2017) performed baseline measurements (e.g., moods before commuting). ...
... This rather unspecific approach reduces the external validity of the results and does not provide insight into the acute psychological stress responses during commuting, for instance due to recall problems (Friman et al., 2017). Secondly, of those studies in which perceived commuting stress was measured immediately upon arrival at work (Brutus et al., 2017;Friman et al., 2017;Wener & Evans, 2011), only one study (Friman et al., 2017) performed baseline measurements (e.g., moods before commuting). The lack of an appropriate baseline increases the susceptibility to other influences such as previous work stress (Beattie & Griffin, 2014) and sleep quality (Blaxton, Bergeman, Whitehead, Braun, & Payne, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Little is known about the acute psychological stress responses caused by commuting. Evidence for the benefits of active commuting (e.g., walking, cycling) is usually based on studies without measurements in free-living environments and without consideration of daily variations in stress. This study investigated the association between commuting mode (active, passive) and perceived commuting stress, assessed on multiple days immediately after commuting. Methods Adults participating in the cross-sectional ‘Healthy On The way’ (HOTway) study between 2016 and 2017 in Graz, Austria, were included. Participants completed an online survey and responded to statements about perceived stress (demands, tension) on three days before commuting (baseline stress) and after arrival (commuting stress), respectively. Active commuting was defined as cycling and/or walking (passive: car, motorbike, public transport). Results Of 188 participants (93 women, mean age: 28.0 ± 10.0 years) included, 124 were active and 64 were passive commuters. Active commuting was associated with less perceived commuting stress compared to passive commuting (bi = −2.95, 95% CI: −4.97 to −0.92, p = .005), even after controlling for subjective well-being, physical activity, commuting time and other confounding variables. Conclusion Active commuting is related to a small reduction in perceived commuting stress. The results of this study support the promotion of active commuting for population (mental) health but future studies on the causal mechanisms and the role of active commuting in the recovery from previous stressors are needed.
... None of the reviewed studies has directly related the observed effects to feelings during travel. Friman et al. (2017) therefore conducted a study in which feelings before and after a morning commute to work were measured with questionnaires sent to participants' smartphones. The results showed that reported events evoking positive feelings during the trip influenced the change in feelings from less to more positive. ...
... As a consequence, both positive and negative residual feelings are weaker. Friman et al. (2017) found that critical incidents during commutes to work by different modes induce changes in mood remaining after the commute that may have positive or negative effects on subsequent work performance. Negative performance effects due to residual stress after automobile and public transport commutes to and from work have been documented in a US context (Novaco and Gonzales 2009). ...
Article
Limited previous research shows that travel by different modes evokes feelings. Also after-effects due to stress have been observed. Such travel-related feelings are important to consider in transport planning because of their possible consequences for travelers’ emotional well-being. A theoretical framework is proposed that makes quantitative predictions of the impacts of transient feelings (emotional responses) on enduring feelings (current mood) with consequences during and after travel. Positive and negative emotional responses are posited to be evoked by transient critical incidents (e.g. disruptions) and non-transient factors (e.g. noise) during travel. Numerical experiments illustrate the quantitative predictions on current mood during and after travel for both types of evoking factors.
... The (perceived) quality of the trip can affect the ease with which people perform their activity at the destination of that trip. A stressful and/or tiring commute trip, for instance, might negatively impact performance at work and satisfaction with work (Friman et al., 2017;Legrain et al., 2015;Loong et al., 2017), and can therefore reduce the well-being enhancing effect of the work activity. On the other hand, travel time can give travellers the opportunity to mentally prepare for the activity ahead, facilitating the performance of that activity (Jain and Lyons, 2008;Ory and Mokhtarian, 2005). ...
... Repetitive real-time measures of people's experienced emotions before, during (in case of public transport use and walking) and after a trip − i.e. during the activity at the destination − might provide researchers with detailed information on how emotions developed during a trip flatten out afterwards. Smartphone surveys, for instance, could be a useful tool to gather this real-time information (see, for instance, Friman et al., 2017). If the process described in this paper is found to be accurate, this might have important impacts for policy makers. ...
Article
Over the past years a substantial amount of studies has indicated that travel satisfaction is affected by a wide range of elements such as trip duration, travel mode choice and travel-related attitudes. However, what is less explored is that this travel satisfaction is not only an outcome of travel-related preferences and choices, but that travel satisfaction can also be a predictor of travel-related components. In this conceptual paper we tend to fill the gaps in the existing − albeit rather fragmented − literature concerning travel satisfaction. We provide an overview of the elements explaining travel satisfaction, and possible outcomes of travel satisfaction, with a focus on (i) subjective well-being, (ii) travel mode choice, (iii) travel-related attitudes, and (iv) the residential location. Furthermore, we suggest a continuous cyclical process including the four above mentioned elements in which travel satisfaction plays an essential role; a process which can result in the formation of travel habits.
... The (perceived) quality of the trip can affect the ease with which people perform their activity at the destination of that trip. A stressful and/or tiring commute trip, for instance, might negatively impact performance at work and satisfaction with work ( Friman et al., 2017;Legrain et al., 2015;Loong et al., 2017), and can therefore reduce the well-being enhancing effect of the work activity. On the other hand, travel time can give travellers the opportunity to mentally prepare for the activity ahead, facilitating the performance of that activity ( Jain and Lyons, 2008;Ory and Mokhtarian, 2005). ...
... Repetitive real-time measures of people's experienced emotions before, during (in case of public transport use and walking) and after a trip − i.e. during the activity at the destination − might provide researchers with detailed information on how emotions developed during a trip flatten out afterwards. Smartphone surveys, for instance, could be a useful tool to gather this real-time information (see, for instance, Friman et al., 2017). If the process described in this paper is found to be accurate, this might have important impacts for policy makers. ...
... The (perceived) quality of the trip can affect the ease with which people perform their activity at the destination of that trip. A stressful and/or tiring commute trip, for instance, might negatively impact performance at work and satisfaction with work (Friman et al., 2017;Legrain et al., 2015;Loong et al., 2017), and can therefore reduce the well-being enhancing effect of the work activity. On the other hand, travel time can give travellers the opportunity to mentally prepare for the activity ahead, facilitating the performance of that activity (Jain and Lyons, 2008;Ory and Mokhtarian, 2005). ...
... Repetitive real-time measures of people's experienced emotions before, during (in case of public transport use and walking) and after a trip − i.e. during the activity at the destination − might provide researchers with detailed information on how emotions developed during a trip flatten out afterwards. Smartphone surveys, for instance, could be a useful tool to gather this real-time information (see, for instance, Friman et al., 2017). If the process described in this paper is found to be accurate, this might have important impacts for policy makers. ...
Article
Over the past years a substantial amount of studies has indicated that travel satisfaction is affected by a wide range of elements such as trip duration, travel mode choice and travel-related attitudes. However, what is less explored is that this travel satisfaction is not only an outcome of travel-related preferences and choices, but that travel satisfaction can also be a predictor of travel-related components. In this conceptual paper we tend to fill the gaps in the existing − albeit rather fragmented − literature concerning travel satisfaction. We provide an overview of the elements explaining travel satisfaction, and possible outcomes of travel satisfaction, with a focus on (i) subjective well-being, (ii) travel mode choice, (iii) travel-related attitudes, and (iv) the residential location. Furthermore, we suggest a continuous cyclical process including the four above mentioned elements in which travel satisfaction plays an essential role; a process which can result in the formation of travel habits.
... A growing number of studies have found active commuting by walking and bicycling is perceived as more "relaxing and exciting" than commuting by car and public transport, which are perceived as being more "stressful and boring" (Gatersleben and Uzzell, 2007). These positive or negative moods and emotions during the commuting influence moods and emotions during the work (Friman et al., 2017), thereby affecting work performance. Further, recent studies (Choi et al., 2013;Stutzer and Frey, 2008) also found that people with a longer commuting time report systematically lower subjective well-being than those with a shorter commute, and those who bike and walk to work are happier and more satisfied with life than public transport and car commuters (Martin et al., 2014). ...
... Two possible causal mechanisms could explain this finding. The first mechanism is that the emotional responses evoked by commuting could have transitory (e.g. the first hour after commuting) effects on moods at work (Friman et al., 2017), thereby influencing job performance. The second mechanism is that commuting satisfaction could have accumulative and long-term impacts on absenteeism and job performance. ...
Article
This study is the first of its kind to explore the relationship between commuting behavior and employee productivity by drawing theories from multiple disciplines and providing empirical evidence from Australian cities. Relying on survey data collected from three major cities in Australia, this study finds that commuting distance is positively associated with absenteeism. This study also finds a positive association between active commuting (i.e., travel to work by walking or bicycling) and job performance in the middle-aged employees. The structural equation model further explored possible causal pathways from commuting to employee productivity, and the results reveal that commuting mode choices and commuting distance influence absenteeism and job performance through affecting commuting satisfaction and personal health, though commuting distance retains a direct impact on absenteeism after controlling for the indirect effects. In particular, the results suggest that the happy commuters are more productive, and the short-distance and active travel commuters are more likely to be the happy commuters. Overall, these findings support that commuting behaviors of employees influence their productivity at the workplace. Encourage active commuting not only improves the physical health of employees, but may also enhance their job performance, contributing to the economic benefits to employers and society.
... For example, a very positive mood during the morning might "buffer" the negative effects of motorized travel during rush hour. Therefore, future research should obtain at least one measure of mood before traveling, perhaps in the morning, as was accomplished by Friman, Olsson, Ståhl, Ettema, and Gärling (2017). Other assessments of mood could be taken intermittently throughout the day to study how mood relates with several work outcomes, such as productivity and job satisfaction. ...
... A possible solution might be the use of a smartphone application, which can -during a couple of weeks -record satisfaction directly after each trip, accompanied by some questions regarding trip characteristics and attitudes. Examples of these smartphone travel surveys can be found in Sweden (''MyExperience" (Friman, Olsson, Ståhl, Ettema, & Gärling, 2017)) and in the US (in Minnesota: ''SmarTrAC/Daynamica" (Fan et al., 2015; http://daynamica.umn.edu/), and in Virginia (Glasgow, Geller, Le, & Hankey, 2018)). ...
Article
Numerous studies-mainly since 2010-have found that the chosen travel mode is related with how satisfied people are with their performed trips. A consensus has been found in that active travel results in the highest levels of satisfaction, while public transport users are usually least satisfied with their trips. However, evidence of why the use of various modes results in different levels of travel satisfaction is currently lacking. In this conceptual paper, I argue that the effect of travel mode on travel satisfaction might be overestimated, and that it is not so much the travel mode itself that affects satisfaction with travel, but whether the chosen travel mode is consistent with attitudes towards that mode. Furthermore, travel satisfaction might affect travel mode choice and travel attitudes more than vice versa. In this paper a new model is proposed reshaping the links between travel satisfaction, travel attitudes and travel mode choice. I underpin the suggested relationships with travel behaviour literature and psychological theories, draw parallels with (transport-related) residential self-selection, and reflect on the difficulties and possibilities of measuring this model. Finally, I focus on the implications of the proposed model on travel behaviour research.
... This finding is consistent with previous studies on transport and wellbeing (e.g. Friman et al. 2017) where they demonstrate that satisfaction with travel is related to positive and negative emotional responses to critical incidents. ...
Article
Full-text available
There is an ongoing discussion about the applicability of social media data in scientific research. Moreover, little is known about the feasibility to use these data to capture Quality-of-Life (QoL). This study explores the use of social media in QoL research by capturing and mapping people’s perceptions about their life based on geo-located Twitter data. The methodology is based on a mixed-method approach, combining manual coding of the messages, automated classification, and spatial analysis. Bristol is used as a case study, with a dataset containing 1,374,706 geotagged Tweets. Based on the manual coding results, three QoL domains were analysed. Results show the difference between Bristol wards in number and type of QoL perceptions in every domain, spatial distribution of positive and negative perceptions, and differences between the domains. Furthermore, results from this study are compared to the official QoL survey results from Bristol, statistically and spatially. Overall, three main conclusions are underlined. First, to an extent, Twitter data can be used to evaluate QoL. Second, based on people’s perceptions, there is a difference in QoL between neighbourhoods in Bristol. And, third, Twitter messages can be used to complement QoL surveys, but not act as a proxy for traditional survey results. The main contribution of this study is in recognising the potential Twitter data have in QoL research. This potential lies in producing additional knowledge about QoL that can be placed in a planning context and effectively used to improve the decision-making process and enhance quality-of-life of residents.
... An analysis of American Time Use Survey data found that longer commute durations are associated with lower positive affect at work, but no difference in sense of meaning during work (an indicator of eudaimonic wellbeing) (Morris & Zhou, 2018). A study in Sweden asked commuters to report on their smartphones their mood before and directly after their commute and later at the workplace (Friman, Olsson, Ståhl, Ettema, & Gärling, 2017). Analysis of the data showed that longer duration commutes are associated with worsened mood later in the workplace, although not immediately after the commute. ...
Article
Full-text available
This review provides a critical overview of what has been learnt about commuting’s impact on subjective wellbeing (SWB). It is structured around a conceptual model which assumes commuting can affect SWB over three time horizons: (i) during the journey; (ii) immediately after the journey; and (iii) over the longer term. Our assessment of the evidence shows that mood is lower during the commute than other daily activities and stress can be induced by congestion, crowding and unpredictability. People who walk or cycle to work are generally more satisfied with their commute than those who travel by car and especially those who use public transport. Satisfaction decreases with duration of commute, regardless of mode used, and increases when travelling with company. After the journey, evidence shows that the commute experience ‘spills over’ into how people feel and perform at work and home. However, a consistent link between commuting and life satisfaction overall has not been established. The evidence suggests that commuters are generally successful in trading off the drawbacks of longer and more arduous commute journeys against the benefits they bring in relation to overall life satisfaction, but further research is required to understand the decision making involved. The evidence review points to six areas that warrant policy action and research: (i) enhancing the commute experience; (ii) increasing commute satisfaction; (iii) reducing the impacts of long duration commutes; (iv) meeting commuter preferences; (v) recognising flexibility and constraints in commuting routines and (vi) accounting for SWB impacts of commuting in policy making and appraisal.
... A possible solution might be the use of a smartphone application, which can -during a couple of weeks -record satisfaction directly after each trip, accompanied by some questions regarding trip characteristics and attitudes. Examples of these smartphone travel surveys can be found in Sweden (''MyExperience" (Friman, Olsson, Ståhl, Ettema, & Gärling, 2017)) and in the US (in Minnesota: ''SmarTrAC/Daynamica" (Fan et al., 2015; http://daynamica.umn.edu/), and in Virginia (Glasgow, Geller, Le, & Hankey, 2018)). ...
Article
Numerous studies - mainly since 2010 - have found that the chosen travel mode is related with how satisfied people are with their performed trips. A consensus has been found in that active travel results in the highest levels of satisfaction, while public transport users are usually least satisfied with their trips. However, evidence of why the use of various modes results in different levels of travel satisfaction is currently lacking. In this conceptual paper, I argue that the effect of travel mode on travel satisfaction might be overestimated, and that it is not so much the travel mode itself that affects satisfaction with travel, but whether the chosen travel mode is consistent with attitudes towards that mode. Furthermore, travel satisfaction might affect travel mode choice and travel attitudes more than vice versa. In this paper a new model is proposed reshaping the links between travel satisfaction, travel attitudes and travel mode choice. I underpin the suggested relationships with travel behaviour literature and psychological theories, draw parallels with (transport-related) residential self-selection, and reflect on the difficulties and possibilities of measuring this model. Finally, I focus on the implications of the proposed model on travel behaviour research.
... greater reliability and shorter travel and waiting times, will result in less stressful experiences, more rapid progress toward goals, and thus an increased level of subjective wellbeing. These findings have been supported empirically with respect to both life satisfaction and emotional wellbeing (Jakobsson- Bergstad et al., 2011Bergstad et al., , 2012Olsson et al., 2013;Friman, Olsson, Ståhl, Ettema, & Gärling, 2017). However, some researchers are calling for more research before such conclusions are drawn (see, for instance, Mokhtarian & Pendyala, Chapter 2 of this book). ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we provide an introduction to the topic and a brief overview of Quality of Life and Daily Travel. A short background of why it is relevant to study travel and wellbeing, along with definitions and concepts related to quality of life research – such as objective and subjective outcomes, and hedonic and eudaimonic outcomes – will be followed by an overview of the chapters of the book arranged in three parts: theoretical perspectives and conceptualizations, case studies, and future directions. The aim of this book, Quality of Life and Daily Travel, is to compile current knowledge into one edited volume, where several areas of research are integrated – including traffic and transport psychology, transport planning and engineering, transport geography, transport economics, consumer services, and wellbeing research – in order to discuss the various facets of the links between travel and wellbeing. The importance of mobility, accessibility, experiences and emotions for the wellbeing of people will be highlighted.
... Third, repetitive real-time measures of people's emotions before, during and after a tripe.g., a few times during the activity at the destination À might provide researchers with detailed information on how emotions developed during a trip flatten out afterwards. Real-time information À possibly gathered by smartphone surveys (Ettema and Smajic 2015;Friman et al. 2017) À also has the benefit that (potential) memory distortions will be avoided and people will not as much relate or confound trip satisfaction with the liking for the activity at the destination of the trip, as might happen when applying a single retrospective method asking information about travel satisfaction (and activity satisfaction) after the activity episode(s) have taken place. Fourth, although the insights from this study are not only of interest for the city of Ghent (as our rather large data set makes it possible to estimate specific relationships among multiple variables with ample confidence), it might be interesting to conduct a similar study in regions with other mobility cultures, where general attitudes towards certain modes might be different and where certain amenities (e.g., cycling infrastructure) might be lacking. ...
Chapter
Recently, studies have started analysing how people perceive their travel and how satisfied they are with it. This travel satisfaction − i.e., the mood during trips and the evaluation of these trips – can be affected by trip characteristics, such as the used travel mode and trip duration. In this study – analysing leisure trips of 1720 respondents living in the city of Ghent (Belgium) − we do not only look at the effect of trip characteristics on travel satisfaction, but also on the effects of travel-related attitudes and the residential location on travel satisfaction, both singly and each controlling for the other. The latter makes it possible to analyse whether people who live in their preferred neighbourhood based on travel preferences (e.g., car lovers living in suburban-type of neighbourhoods) are more satisfied than people who do not. Furthermore, this chapter also explores possible outcomes of travel satisfaction. It is possible that satisfying trips with a certain travel mode increase the chance of choosing that mode for future trips of the same kind, whether or not indirect through changes in attitudes. Repetitive positively or negatively perceived trips might also affect longer-term well-being, such as life satisfaction, both directly and indirectly through the performance of − and satisfaction with − activities at the destination of the trip. On the other hand, life satisfaction can also influence people’s satisfaction with short-term activity episodes, such as satisfaction with leisure trips and activities.
... Second, we suggest quantitative methodologies, such as (crosslagged) Structural Equations Modelling (SEM), possibly by using (multiple wave) smartphone surveys (e.g., Friman et al., 2017). Longitudinal approaches can help to understand the causal order of the interactions between attitudes and behaviour. ...
Article
The importance of attitudes in the relationship between travel behaviour (TB) and the built environment (BE) has been the subject of debate in the literature for about two decades. In line with the Theory of Planned Behaviour, attitudes-which affect behaviour-are generally assumed to be constant. However, it is plausible that attitudes can change, both directly, or indirectly, through the impact of the built environment on travel behaviour, a process which is referred to as reverse causality (RC). Based on literature from social psychology, this paper provides a conceptual model for the explanation of attitude changes. It also reviews the literature in the area of BE and TB concluding that two explanations dominate: a change in attitudes due to new experiences which can be underpinned by learning theories, and a change in attitudes due to mismatches between attitudes and behaviour which can be explained by cognitive dissonance theories. The literature also suggests a few additional explanations, while we also suggest explanations not provided in travel behaviour literature. Finally, we present an agenda for future research.
... Based on the SCAS (Västfjäll et al. 2002) and thus Russell's (1980) model of core affect, the STS was developed to measure three aspects of hedonic SWB in the travel domain-two affective dimensions and one cognitive dimension, each with three itemsusing nine pairs of adjectives or statements assessed on a seven-point semantic differential scale. Originally tested in Sweden (Andersson and Nässén 2016;Ettema et al. 2011;Friman et al. 2013Friman et al. , 2017Olsson et al. 2012;Suzuki et al. 2014;Taniguchi et al. 2014;Westman et al. 2017), locations where the STS has now been applied include elsewhere in northern Europe (De Vos et al. 2015;Ettema et al. 2013), North America (Singleton 2017;Smith 2017;Zhao and Lee 2013), and China (Ye and Titheridge 2017). Most (but not all) studies examine commute travel by multiple modes. ...
Article
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Studies of the connections between transportation and subjective well-being (SWB) require a clear understanding of the conceptual composition of travel-related SWB as well as psychometric instruments to measure these complex topics. Well-established psychological scales for measuring general SWB—including both hedonic (affective and cognitive) and eudaimonic aspects—are difficult to adapt or have yet to be tested in the travel domain. Existing measures of travel liking and travel satisfaction are somewhat inadequate for these purposes, especially for representing eudaimonia. Using a questionnaire survey of 680 commuters in the Portland, Oregon, region, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses examined responses to a total of 42 items. Results suggested four-factor measurement models of both travel affect (Enjoyment, Attentiveness, Distress, and Fear) and travel eudaimonia (Health, Competence, Autonomy, and Security). Despite some limitations and opportunities for enhancements, these models show promise as ways of measuring affective and eudaimonic SWB in the travel domain for future studies and travel surveys.
... Results from Montreal, Canada showed that cyclists and public transit commuters are less stressed than are car commuters (Brutus, Javadian & Panaccio 2017). Moreover, the Office for National Statistics in the UK revealed a linear relationship between time of commute and negative feelings such as stress and wellness (Friman et al. 2017). ...
Article
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This paper reports on the social, cultural, and demographic factors affecting Kuwaiti commuters. The objectives were to 1) investigate the awareness of Kuwaitis of transportation problems, 2) examine the perceptions of Kuwaitis of daily traffic congestion and how it affects them emotionally and physically, and the main objective 3) study the attitudes of Kuwaitis towards using public buses. An online survey was used to examine these factors, and a sample of five hundred transportation system users was obtained. The primary findings showed significant associations between the use of public transport buses and the user’s nationality, gender, age, education, and income level. Men are 2.6 times more likely to use buses, and non-Kuwaiti residents are 6.4 times more likely to use them. In relation to the perceptions of daily traffic congestion, findings indicate that with increase in travel time, commuters, in general, developed more negative feelings, such as exhaustion and stress. A large proportion of the sample population is aware of current local transportation problems and future transportation projects. The results of this study fill a gap in the knowledge of the socioeconomic and cultural factors that influence the success of sustainable public transportation solutions to the traffic challenges found in Kuwait. This knowledge is also crucial to foreign consultants working on planning and transportation projects in the region. It is recommended that officials use this new knowledge on cultural factors to develop integrated land use and transportation plans of the urban areas in Kuwait and to develop more effective and sustainable transportation demand management policies in support of UN Sustainable Development Goals that Kuwait has signed up to pursue.
... Composite versions of these scales have been applied whereby one item was used for each dimension. In these items, each end-point was labelled with all three adjectives corresponding to the adjectives in the 9item version (see, for example, Friman et al., 2017). ...
Article
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In order to effectively manage transportation systems, and improve the attractiveness of public transport, public authorities, policymakers and researchers need a better understanding of the conditions necessary for improving attractiveness and those that can be considered sufficient. The purpose of this study is to expand the analytical toolbox of transportation research and introduce an analytical approach to identifying and distinguishing between the conditions that are necessary and sufficient for a desired outcome. Specifically, we suggest a complementary approach to combining partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) and necessary condition analysis (NCA) in order to examine which service quality attributes (functionality, information, security/safety, comfort, and cost) are sufficient, and what degree of satisfaction with these attributes is necessary for high overall travel satisfaction. The data consists of subjectively reported experiences from over 900 users of public transportation in four northern European countries. We find that, for high overall travel satisfaction, a minimum level of satisfaction with comfort (equal to 33.1%) is necessary. Furthermore, an increase in satisfaction with comfort, functionality/reliability and cost is sufficient to improve overall travel satisfaction. This means that comfort is both a necessary and a sufficient condition, whereas functionality/reliability and cost are sufficient but non-necessary conditions in this context. We conclude that using this complementary approach can guide public transport managers and researchers in identifying important bottlenecks and establishing priorities for improving service quality, essential knowledge when developing effective strategies for attractive public transport services.
... The results showed that satisfaction was related to both current life satisfaction and emotional well-being as measured by conventional methods. In additional studies (Ettema et al., 2017;Friman et al., 2016) we tested theoretical ideas of how feelings during a commute spill over to activities after the commute (Gärling, 2018). For the purpose of obtaining on-line data, a smartphone application was developed and used in three waves of data collection spread out during a calendar year to capture season and weather effects. ...
... Morris and Zhou (2018) associated longer commute durations with lower positive emotions at work. Friman et al. (2017) found that satisfaction with the trip to work influenced the mood directly after the commute trip but not later in the day. Studies focusing on children found active travel to be associated with a positive mood after arriving at school or during the first school lesson (Stark et al., 2018;Westman et al., 2017). ...
Chapter
Transportation's effects on health and well-being are widely recognized. In the near future, autonomous vehicles (AVs) are expected to revolutionize transportation options and ways of travel. Consequently, the effect of AVs on population health and well-being is a crucial topic of interest for transportation policymaking, one that has received comparatively little attention. This chapter discusses (and anticipates) potential AV impacts on health and well-being. First, we summarize knowledge surrounding effects of transportation on physical health (traffic safety, air and noise pollution, and physical activity) and well-being (travel satisfaction, access to activities, etc.). We then discuss how AVs may affect traveler behaviors, focusing on mode shifts toward private, shared, and/or pooled AVs, and how these shifts may lead to an overall increase in automobile travel, even if not necessarily in person-travel. Finally, we interpret the previous two sections to deduce potential positive, negative, and uncertain health/well-being effects of AVs. We expect benefits from improved safety, well-being, and access to opportunities; disadvantages from reduced physical activity; and uncertain impacts around land use changes and emissions. We conclude by discussing policy implications and research paths forward.
... In [26] it was presented in a study conducted in a US city, an analysis of the difference between personal well-being at the mode of transportation level. In [27] an analysis was performed for three Swedish cities about how emotional well-being is affected by changes in modes of transportation, and the respective travel times. In an extension of the same work, in [28], in the same environment, the authors used retrospective information about personal satisfaction and emotional wellbeing, and this information was analyzed using PLS-SEM. ...
Conference Paper
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In the last decade, a lot of work has been done in order to identify the personality elements that contribute to accident rate or aberrant driving predictors. However, that research is not directly transferable to scenarios of the operation of truck transportation as a professional activity. Moreover, it has not been addressed the incorporation of the study of personal satisfaction as an element of motivation. In the present work, it is made an estimation of the operators' accident proneness in the truck transportation industry as the result of the analysis of the factors around personality and its relationship with the personal search of satisfaction and well-being.
... For example, a very positive mood during the morning might "buffer" the negative effects of motorized travel during rush hour. Therefore, future research should obtain at least one measure of mood before traveling, perhaps in the morning, as was accomplished by Friman, Olsson, Ståhl, Ettema, and Gärling (2017). Other assessments of mood could be taken intermittently throughout the day to study how mood relates with several work outcomes, such as productivity and job satisfaction. ...
... However, travelling with PT can provide an opportunity to undertake other activities during travel (Ettema et al. 2012;Kenyon and Lyons 2007;Malokin et al. 2019;Neutens et al. 2011;Shaw et al. 2019;Tang et al. 2018). Previous studies argued that travelling with public transport was negatively associated with individuals' well-being (Dharmowijoyo et al. 2019;Friman et al. 2017b). However, when undertaking secondary activities (particularly offline socialising) during travel is taken into account, the secondary activities are found to improve individuals' travel experiences (Ettema et al. 2012;Rasouli and Timmermans 2014;Shaw et al. 2019) and daily experiences (Dharmowijoyo et al. 2019). ...
Article
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This paper examines how different types of secondary activities, either offline or online, interact with travellers’ personal, travel, and spatial characteristics associated with the number of engaged secondary activities and commuters’ travel experience during a morning commute while using bus services of Trans Bandung Raya (TBR). By focusing on workers and students as productive groups of society and data collection in 2016, the results of this study found that activities with a high degree of attention and continuity in engagement will lead to a deactivation of other secondary activities during travel. While workers tend to deactivate other activities when they engage with social media or do online and offline socialising, students tend to have more active attention and continuity in engagements when they do online activities, particularly listening to music, engaging in social media, and playing games. Students in Indonesia tend to activate another secondary activities when they study on the bus such as reading a book or studying online using their gadgets. On the other hand, workers tend to undertake more activities while listening to music. Some results opposed with results from Europe and the US that collected the data in 2008–2012. In 2008–2012, the penetration effect might not be as massive as in 2016 and the types of online activites might not be as diverse as in 2016 which may make the results in Europe and the US different from this study. Different contexts among France, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Indonesia may let the results differ as well. In order to shift some potential travellers to use TBR, operators can promote the possibility of TBR as a platform to enhance workers’ travel experiences for working purposes and workers’ and students’ travel experiences for online socialising. However, TBR providers can alter travellers not to perform too many secondary activities during morning commutes in order to avoid people’s neutral experience. Providing more comfort space or facilities in the TBR might increase activities continuity during the trip, create relaxing conditions, and distract intense activity engagement.
Article
Travel and mobility have an impact on creating and maintaining wellbeing. This paper focuses on barriers recognised in wellbeing-related travel by addressing two research questions: 1) Who agree that their wellbeing would increase if they could make more trips? and 2) What are the transport-related barriers identified in making trips important to wellbeing? The analyses are based on a survey conducted in Tampere, Finland in autumn 2020. 484 responses were collected from adults aged 18 and older. The results indicate that having a car and having access to use a car play an important role in wellbeing-related travel. Having a driving licence did not have a similar effect suggesting that driving licence ownership may be more voluntary compared to car ownership or access to car. Many barriers, such as cost of travel, travel time and location of destinations, were identified by those who agree that their wellbeing would increase if they were able to make more trips compared to those who disagreed with the statement. This implies that those who think that their wellbeing could increase with more travel encounter many barriers in travel. It is noted that the survey was planned before the COVID-19 pandemic. During data collection the COVID-19 situation was stable and public transport frequencies were normal. Notwithstanding, given the COVID-19 pandemic, the results may overemphasize importance of car in making trips on wellbeing. Nevertheless, mobility choices and wellbeing are increasingly important and complex issues due to COVID-19.
Article
Previous research has investigated satisfaction with work commutes. We extend this research by investigating whether satisfaction with all daily travel (including work commutes, school, leisure, and shopping trips) is related to life satisfaction and emotional well-being. A random sample of 367 participants was recruited from three urban areas in Sweden (Karlstad, Göteborg, and Stockholm) varying from a small (appr. 90,000 residents) through a medium (appr. 550,000 residents) to a large population size (appr. 925,000 residents). In a questionnaire the participants reported retrospectively their satisfaction with all daily travel, life satisfaction, and emotional well-being. Direct and indirect effects of travel satisfaction on life satisfaction and emotional well-being were analysed with PLS-SEM. Results showed that satisfaction with daily travel directly influences emotional well-being and both directly and indirectly life satisfaction. It is also found that driving and active modes have more positive effects than public transport.
Article
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Many studies have found that both the chosen travel mode and travel duration have a strong effect on travel satisfaction. However, travel mode and duration are often related with each other, as active trips often have shorter durations than trips with motorized modes. As a result, the effect of travel mode choice on travel satisfaction may be attenuated by travel duration. Results from this study, using a sample of 1,430 respondents from Ghent (Belgium), indicate that commute mode and commute duration are strongly related with each other (with active trips having shorter durations than public transport trips), and that they both influence commute satisfaction. However, results from two-way ANOVAs and regression analyses indicate that duration has a stronger effect than travel mode and that the effect of travel mode is mainly moderated by duration. After controlling for duration, we only found a negative effect of car frequency on commute satisfaction. Satisfaction differences between active travelers and public transport users are mainly explained by short active trips and long public transport trips. As a result, policy measures trying to increase travel satisfaction should not focus on a modal shift away from public transport, but on decreasing (perceived) travel time of public transport trips.
Article
In this paper, we argue that the current focus on cycling must not neglect the need to improve public transport services for the large number of people who do not want to or are unable to cycle. An attractive public transport service is currently therefore the most important component of a sustainable transportation system. The question we address is what measures are needed to improve public transport to make people who do not cycle satisfied with the services such that their well-being increases. Based on research studies of satisfaction with public transport, measures at three levels of public transport services (use, access/egress, and overall) are identified and discussed.
Chapter
Several dimensions of commuting influence perceived stress, such as impedance (a measure of distance and time which is impacted by the number of transport nodes), and control over and predictability of commuting. Research into commuting mode and stress has generated mixed results. The case study in this chapter used baseline survey data from a 3-year workplace travel plan intervention. Workplace travel plans aim to promote active and sustainable forms of transport and reduce driving to work. An on-line cross-sectional survey of staff travel behaviour was conducted in September 2011 at Liverpool Hospital in Sydney, Australia. A total of 675 respondents provided data on the items of interest for this analysis (travel behaviour, self-reported stress, occupation type, demographics). Approximately one in six respondents (15%) actively commuted to work (walking 4%, cycling 2% or using public transport 9%). There was a large (15%) difference between active commuters’ (10.1%) and drivers’ (25%) perceptions that the commute to work was more stressful than the rest of their day that remained statistically significant (adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.17–0.73) after adjusting for factors including gender, age, physical activity levels and occupational type (clinical vs non-clinical). These findings support international research which has shown that active travel to work may be less stressful than car commuting.
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Studies on commuting are largely focused on working individuals and much less on students. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, a number of students opted to study in the universities in Metro Manila, which raises the question as to how satisfaction with travel to school has influenced the psychological well-being of students. This non-experimental study made use of Hayes’ mediation analysis to investigate the relationship between 367 students’ satisfaction with travel going to school and students’ psychological well-being as well as the indirect effect of academic stress in that relationship. The result showed that satisfaction with travel to school and academic stress are weakly negatively correlated. On the other hand, satisfaction with travel and psychological well-being are weakly positively related. Those who were dissatisfied with their commute were also found to report lower psychological well-being. The mediation analysis showed that students’ satisfaction with travel to school indirectly affects psychological well-being through academic stress, wherein satisfaction with travel does not directly affect psychological well-being.
Article
The service experience, which comprises cognitive, emotional and sensory assessments, is important to encourage a modal shift from the private vehicle to public transport services use. However, knowledge on the effect of sensory cues, specifically ambient scent, on the consumer experience in olfactory-rich servicescapes, as public transport services, is still limited. This study conducted a field experiment within a Public Bus service, to explore the influence of ambient scent on the relationship between the perceived travel experience and emotions; and between emotions and travel memory, the attitude toward the company’s brand and passengers’ future behavioral intentions. The results show that ambient scent strengthens these relationships. The stronger influences of ambient scent were found on the relationships between travel experience and emotions, emotions and memory, and emotions and passengers’ future behavioral intentions. While adding to the scant knowledge on the topic, the results also suggest that ambient scent, as a marketing tool, should be looked at with closer attention by public transport managers.
Preprint
Several dimensions of commuting influence perceived stress, such as impedance (a measure of distance and time which is impacted by the number of transport nodes), and control over and predictability of commuting. Research into commuting mode and stress has generated mixed results.
Article
Introduction Millions of individuals commute every day in the US. Despite commuting has been shown to have negative consequences for workers, no evidence has been about how commuting is related to feelings in other episodes. We analyzed the relationship between the feelings reported by American workers throughout the day and the time devoted to commuting. Methods We used the Well-Being Module of the American Time Use Survey for the years 2010, 2012, and 2013, and analized the relationship between commuting duration and the feelings reported (e.g,. happiness, sadness, stress, fatigue and pain) in both commuting and non-commuting episodes. Results: We found that more time spent on the daily commute was related to higher levels of fatigue and stress during commuting, while also being associated with higher levels of sadness and fatigue during activities of child care. In particular, we found that a 1% increase in the time devoted to commuting during the episode was related to increases of 12 percent and 13 percent of a standard deviation for stress and fatigue, while a 1% increase in the time devoted to commuting during the day was related to increases of 5 percent and 7 percent of one standard deviation in the levels of sadness and fatigue during child care activities. Conclusions Our results indicated that longer commutes may be related to higher levels of stress and fatigue of workers, which may in turn affect the quality of the time parents devote to caring for their children.
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The outbreak of COVID-19 and preventive measures to limit the spread of the virus has significantly impacted our daily activities. This study aims to investigate the effect of daily activity engagement including travel activity and sociodemographic characteristics on travel satisfaction during COVID-19. This study develops a latent segmentation-based ordered logit (LSOL) model using data from the 2020 COVID-19 Survey for Assessing Travel Impact (COST), for the Kelowna region of British Columbia, Canada. The LSOL model accommodates the ordinal nature of the satisfaction level and captures heterogeneity by allocating individuals into discrete latent segments. The model results suggest that the two-segment LSOL model fits the data best. Segment one is more likely to be younger and older high-income workers; whereas, segment two includes middle-aged lower-income, unemployed individuals. The model results suggest that daily activity engagement and sociodemographic attributes significantly affect travel satisfaction. For example, participation in travel for routine shopping, recreational activity, and household errands has a positive effect on travel satisfaction. The use of transportation modes like bike/walk depicted a higher probability to yield travel satisfaction. The model confirms the existence of significant heterogeneity. For instance, travel for work showed a negative relationship in segment one; whereas, a positive relationship is found in segment two. Access to higher household vehicle yield lower satisfaction in segment one; in contrast, a positive relationship is found in segment two. The findings of this study provide important insights towards maintaining the health and well-being of the population during this and any future pandemic crisis.
Article
This introduction to the special issue on travel, health and well-being is subdivided into three parts. In Section 1 we provide a summary of existing literature analysing how health and well-being are related with transport and travel behaviour. An overview and short descriptions of the studies included in this special issue are given in Section 2. In Section 3 we conclude this editorial by uncovering research gaps and suggesting avenues for further research.
Article
This paper reports on the effects of an e-cycling stimulation program on travel satisfaction in the province of North-Brabant, the Netherlands. The program was designed to stimulate car-commuters to shift to e-bike in daily commuting, earning a monetary incentive for each kilometre e-cycled. With a longitudinal design, this study shows a significant increase in travel satisfaction when switching from car to e-bike. Starting from an average slightly positive satisfaction with car commuting, participants reported an extremely positive expected travel satisfaction by e-bike. Although a bit less than expected, the experienced travel satisfaction with e-cycling was high after a period of a month and even increased in the following period of half a year. Where the participants can be sub-divided into car-only and multi-modal car-commuters, this distinction does not show in the experienced travel satisfaction with e-cycling. Our study indicates that the hedonic treadmill mechanism does not automatically apply to the satisfaction with e-cycling. Multivariate analyses suggest that the increase in the travel satisfaction is affected by self-reported health, car ownership, urbanization degree, whether car use and e-cycling are experienced as strenuous, congestion on the route and the attractiveness of the cycle route.
Article
The relationships between transportation and well-being are of increasing interest to researchers, practitioners, and policymakers. Stakeholders seeking to improve quality of life and traffic safety require valid and reliable ways of gauging the emotional states of travelers. Psychological scales exist for measuring subjective well-being (SWB), but these instruments have rarely been applied to the travel domain. The Satisfaction with Travel Scale (STS) is a nine-item measure of travel-related hedonic SWB, capturing core affect (emotions) and cognitive evaluations of overall satisfaction associated with personal transportation. Although the STS has been used in an increasing number of studies, questions remain regarding its structure and validity. This research utilized a survey of 654 commuters in the Portland, Oregon, area to investigate the measurement properties of a slightly modified version of the STS. Confirmatory factor analysis suggested a three-factor structure—composed of positive deactivation, positive activation, and cognitive evaluation—that matches some previous results and SWB theory; a model with a single second-order factor also fit the data. Tests of measurement invariance across three travel modes (automobile, transit, and walk/bicycle) found that the STS exhibited configural and perhaps weak factorial invariance; non-motorized commuters tended to have more positive scores. Future research can continue to refine the STS items and wordings, test the scale in various geographic and travel contexts, and examine relationships between SWB and travel behavior.
Article
Evacuation mode choice has been researched over the past decade for disaster management and planning, focusing primarily on established modes such as personal automobiles, carpooling, and transit. Recently, however, on-demand ridesourcing has become a viable mode alternative, most notably through the growth of major transportation network companies, such as Uber and Lyft. The availability of this new transportation option is expected to have important implications for adaptive disaster response. The goal of this work is to investigate the influence of internal and external contextual factors on preferred ridesourcing applications during small-scale urban evacuations. A case study was conducted in the three most populous metropolitan areas in the United States. Data were collected using an internet-based stated preference survey, and a discrete choice model was estimated to analyze the 185 responses. Determinants of on-demand ridesourcing for evacuation include internal factors, such as interactions between race, gender, and income, and external contextual factors, such as the evacuation notification source, consequence severity, immediacy, evacuation distance, unfamiliarity of surroundings, and traveling with others. Findings are illustrated through three ridesourcing applications based on specific evacuation needs. Policy recommendations are provided for the design of equitable evacuation services, soft policy communication strategies, and public-private partnerships.
Article
This study explores the gender happiness gap in human mobility using smartphone-collected data from 355 residents in the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. We develop a panel-ordered logit model to estimate how the factors of a trip and person are associated with the happiness change induced by the trip within both male and female participant groups. Trip-induced happiness, defined as the change in the level of happiness at the start of the trip and the end of the trip, is found to be affected by trip- and personal-level factors. We find that the magnitude of impact is different between males and females. For trip-level factors, the top three elements yielding the highest magnitude of impact for females are associated with biking, discretionary trip destinations, and walking. Males are impacted the most by walking, biking, and taking transit, with the highest magnitude of impact associated with biking. The likelihood of gain to loss of happiness is four times for male bikers and two and a half times for female bikers. Leisure destinations and afternoon trips have magnitudes greater than one. Results of both discretionary and mandatory trip origins have the least magnitude of impact for both females and males. For personal-level factors, the magnitude of impact is low for African-American females and not significant for males. In relation to the results of personal-level factors, we caution implementation due to the small number of participants in our data collection process. Our findings offer new insights into potential planning and policy strategies that could improve travel experiences and well-being for both genders.
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This review organizes a variety of phenomena related to emotional self-report. In doing so, the authors offer an accessibility model that specifies the types of factors that contribute to emotional self-reports under different reporting conditions. One important distinction is between emotion, which is episodic, experiential, and contextual, and beliefs about emotion, which are semantic, conceptual, and decontextualized. This distinction is important in understanding the discrepancies that often occur when people are asked to report on feelings they are currently experiencing versus those that they are not currently experiencing. The accessibility model provides an organizing framework for understanding self-reports of emotion and suggests some new directions for research.
Article
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Previous research demonstrates an impact on subjective well-being (SWB) of affect associated with routine performance of out-of-home activities. A primary aim of the present study is to investigate whether satisfaction with daily travel has a positive impact on SWB, either directly or indirectly through facilitating the performance of out-of-home activities. A secondary aim is to determine whether emotional-symbolic or instrumental reasons for car use results in higher satisfaction with daily travel than other travel modes. A survey of a population-based sample of 1,330 Swedish citizens included measures of car access and use, satisfaction with daily travel, satisfaction with performance of out-of-home routine activities, and affective and cognitive SWB. The results confirmed that the effect on affective and cognitive SWB of satisfaction with daily travel is both direct and indirect via satisfaction with performance of activities. Percent weekly car use had a small effect on satisfaction with daily travel and on affective SWB, although fully mediating the effect of satisfaction with performance of the activities. This suggests that car use plays a minor role for satisfaction with daily travel and its effect on SWB. This role may be larger if investigated after a forced reduced car use.
Chapter
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This chapter discusses how travel by different travel modes is related to primarily subjective well-being but also to health or physical well-being. Studies carried out in different geographic contexts consistently show that satisfaction with active travel modes is higher than travel by car and public transport, and that satisfaction with travel is lowest for different forms of public transport. These differences are shown to be explained by a variety of factors, which stem from fundamental differences between the travel modes in terms of the intensity of physical activity, mental involvement in the act of travel itself, exposure to and interaction with the vehicle and the wider travel surroundings, and the degree of control over travel circumstances. Taken together, the overview suggests that active modes are an attractive alternative to car travel. Public transport can be a good alternative to car travel, if requirements of seat availability, accessibility, safety, and cleanliness are met. Regarding the shift from one travel mode to another, some evidence indicates that most car commuters, when switching to public transport, experience lower satisfaction with travel by car. Yet, those who experience public transport more positive than car are likely to keep using it. Other evidence suggests, however, that car commuters’ experience of public transport is better than they anticipate, but that they tend to “forget” this after some time. Switchers from car to active travel on average report higher levels of subjective well-being after the switch. Policies aimed at promoting the use of more sustainable modes should recognize that heterogeneity exists between travelers, and aim at targeting those with positive attitudes toward changing to active modes and public transport. Future research should address the dynamics in experienced travel satisfaction and mode choice.
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By 2025, when most of today's psychology undergraduates will be in their mid-30s, more than 5 billion people on our planet will be using ultra-broadband, sensor-rich smartphones far beyond the abilities of today's iPhones, Androids, and Blackberries. Although smartphones were not designed for psychological research, they can collect vast amounts of ecologically valid data, easily and quickly, from large global samples. If participants download the right "psych apps," smartphones can record where they are, what they are doing, and what they can see and hear and can run interactive surveys, tests, and experiments through touch screens and wireless connections to nearby screens, headsets, biosensors, and other peripherals. This article reviews previous behavioral research using mobile electronic devices, outlines what smartphones can do now and will be able to do in the near future, explains how a smartphone study could work practically given current technology (e.g., in studying ovulatory cycle effects on women's sexuality), discusses some limitations and challenges of smartphone research, and compares smartphones to other research methods. Smartphone research will require new skills in app development and data analysis and will raise tough new ethical issues, but smartphones could transform psychology even more profoundly than PCs and brain imaging did. © The Author(s) 2012.
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In general trips frequently entail several stages varying in mode, duration, and other factors. In some way travelers aggregate their satisfaction with the stages to satisfaction with the whole trip. In this paper we address the question of how this aggregation is made. We use data from a Swedish survey measuring satisfaction with commutes to and from work and with the stages of the commutes. We test several aggregation rules for their goodness of fit to the observations. Our results show that a normatively correct averaging rule that takes into account the relative durations of the stages out-perform heuristic aggregation rules such as the peak-end, summation, and equal-weight averaging rules. We note that this does not exclude that the heuristic aggregation rules apply to other trips than repetitive commute trips.
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Objective To examine whether a relationship exists between active commuting and physical and mental wellbeing. Method In 2009, cross-sectional postal questionnaire data were collected from a sample of working adults (aged 16 and over) in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study. Travel behaviour and physical activity were ascertained using the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ) and a seven-day travel-to-work recall instrument from which weekly time spent in active commuting (walking and cycling) was derived. Physical and mental wellbeing were assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form survey (SF-8). Associations were tested using multivariable linear regression. Results An association was observed between physical wellbeing (PCS-8) score and time spent in active commuting after adjustment for other physical activity (adjusted regression coefficients 0.48, 0.79 and 1.21 for 30–149 min/week, 150–224 min/week and ≥ 225 min/week respectively versus < 30 min/week, p = 0.01 for trend; n = 989). No such relationship was found for mental wellbeing (MCS-8) (p = 0.52). Conclusion Greater time spent actively commuting is associated with higher levels of physical wellbeing. Longitudinal studies should examine the contribution of changing levels of active commuting and other forms of physical activity to overall health and wellbeing.
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Research suggests that for many people happiness is being able to make the routines of everyday life work, such that positive feelings dominate over negative feelings resulting from daily hassles. In line with this, a survey of work commuters in the three largest urban areas of Sweden show that satisfaction with the work commute contributes to overall happiness. It is also found that feelings during the commutes are predominantly positive or neutral. Possible explanatory factors include desirable physical exercise from walking and biking, as well as that short commutes provide a buffer between the work and private spheres. For longer work commutes, social and entertainment activities either increase positive affects or counteract stress and boredom. Satisfaction with being employed in a recession may also spill over to positive experiences of work commutes. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11205-012-0003-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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Factor-analytic evidence has led most psychologists to describe affect as a set of dimensions, such as displeasure, distress, depression, excitement, and so on, with each dimension varying independently of the others. However, there is other evidence that rather than being independent, these affective dimensions are interrelated in a highly systematic fashion. The evidence suggests that these interrelationships can be represented by a spatial model in which affective concepts fall in a circle in the following order: pleasure (0), excitement (45), arousal (90), distress (135), displeasure (180), depression (225), sleepiness (270), and relaxation (315). This model was offered both as a way psychologists can represent the structure of affective experience, as assessed through self-report, and as a representation of the cognitive structure that laymen utilize in conceptualizing affect. Supportive evidence was obtained by scaling 28 emotion-denoting adjectives in 4 different ways: R. T. Ross's (1938) technique for a circular ordering of variables, a multidimensional scaling procedure based on perceived similarity among the terms, a unidimensional scaling on hypothesized pleasure–displeasure and degree-of-arousal dimensions, and a principal-components analysis of 343 Ss' self-reports of their current affective states. (70 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Affect is basic to many if not all psychological phenomena. This article examines 2 of the most fundamental properties of affective experience-valence and arousal-asking how they are related to each other on a moment to moment basis. Over the past century, 6 distinct types of relations have been suggested or implicitly presupposed in the literature. We critically review the available evidence for each proposal and argue that the evidence does not provide a conclusive answer. Next, we use statistical modeling to verify the different proposals in 8 data sets (with Ns ranging from 80 to 1,417) where participants reported their affective experiences in response to experimental stimuli in laboratory settings or as momentary or remembered in natural settings. We formulate 3 key conclusions about the relation between valence and arousal: (a) on average, there is a weak but consistent V-shaped relation of arousal as a function of valence, but (b) there is large variation at the individual level, so that (c) valence and arousal can in principle show a variety of relations depending on person or circumstances. This casts doubt on the existence of a static, lawful relation between valence and arousal. The meaningfulness of the observed individual differences is supported by their personality and cultural correlates. The malleability and individual differences found in the structure of affect must be taken into account when studying affect and its role in other psychological phenomena. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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W. Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well-being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness." A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen as prerequisites of SWB. E. Diener's (1984) review placed greater emphasis on theories that stressed psychological factors. In the current article, the authors review current evidence for Wilson's conclusions and discuss modern theories of SWB that stress dispositional influences, adaptation, goals, and coping strategies. The next steps in the evolution of the field are to comprehend the interaction of psychological factors with life circumstances in producing SWB, to understand the causal pathways leading to happiness, understand the processes underlying adaptation to events, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWB (life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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D. Watson and A. Tellegen (1985) proposed a "consensual" structure of affect based on J. A. Russell's (1980) circumplex. The authors' review of the literature indicates that this 2-factor model captures robust structural properties of self-rated mood. Nevertheless, the evidence also indicates that the circumplex does not fit the data closely and needs to be refined. Most notably, the model's dimensions are not entirely independent; moreover, with the exception of Pleasantness–Unpleasantness, they are not completely bipolar. More generally, the data suggest a model that falls somewhere between classic simple structure and a true circumplex. The authors then examine two of the dimensions imbedded in this structure, which they label Negative Activation (NA) and Positive Activation (PA). The authors argue that PA and NA represent the subjective components of broader biobehavioral systems of approach and withdrawal, respectively. The authors conclude by demonstrating how this framework helps to clarify various affect-related phenomena, including circadian rhythms, sleep, and the mood disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A survey of a random sample of 1,330 Swedish residents assessed the relationships between affect associated with performance of routine out-of-home activities, mood, and judgments of life satisfaction (cognitive subjective wellbeing, CSWB). Regression analyses showed that sociodemographic variables accounted for most variance in CSWB (7%) and least in mood (2%). In agreement with previous research, CSWB increased with income, employment, and cohabiting with a spouse, and had a U-formed relationship with age. Affect associated with routine activities accounted for more variance than the socio-demographic variables in mood (30%) and in CSWB (13%). Mood partially mediated the effect on CSWB of affect associated with the activities. The results suggest that future policy-related research should consider the possibility that community-provided resources that facilitate performance of routine out-of-home activities would increase life satisfaction.
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Immediately following their regular commute to work, participants completed questionnaires regarding state driver stress and anger during that commute. Then, immediately following completion of that work day, they completed a state version of the Workplace Aggression Scale. As state driver stress increased, the frequency of both expressed hostility and obstructionism increased (independently) during that work day, but only among male employees. In contrast, overt aggression during that work day was greatest among males who were higher in physical aggressiveness as a general trait characteristic. The present study highlights the interactive nature of traffic and workplace environments, in that negative experiences in the traffic environment may spill over for some individuals to influence nondriving events.
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In this chapter we suggest that “happiness,” or high subjective wellbeing, is more strongly associated with the frequency and duration of people’s positive feelings, not with the intensity of those feelings. People who rarely or never feel euphoria, for instance, can nonetheless report very high levels of well-being. We hypothesize that there are several reasons that subjective well-being is more strongly associated with the amount of time people feel positive versus negative feelings rather than with the intensity of their positive feelings. Intense positive feelings often have costs, including a tendency to more intense negative feelings in negative situations. Another hypothesis is that it is more difficult to accurately measure the intensity of feelings than their time-course, and this makes the amount of time people feel positive more amenable to study with self-report methods. The intensity of people’s positive emotions should not be ignored, but should be studied in combination with the time-course (frequency and duration) of positive and negative feelings.
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Previous research demonstrates an impact on subjective well-being (SWB) of affect associated with routine performance of out-of-home activities. A primary aim of the present study is to investigate whether satisfaction with daily travel has a positive impact on SWB, either directly or indirectly through facilitating the performance of out-of-home activities. A secondary aim is to determine whether emotional-symbolic or instrumental reasons for car use results in higher satisfaction with daily travel than other travel modes. A survey of a population-based sample of 1,330 Swedish citizens included measures of car access and use, satisfaction with daily travel, satisfaction with performance of out-of-home routine activities, and affective and cognitive SWB. The results confirmed that the effect on affective and cognitive SWB of satisfaction with daily travel is both direct and indirect via satisfaction with performance of activities. Percent weekly car use had a small effect on satisfaction with daily travel and on affective SWB, although fully mediating the effect of satisfaction with performance of the activities. This suggests that car use plays a minor role for satisfaction with daily travel and its effect on SWB. This role may be larger if investigated after a forced reduced car use. KeywordsDaily travel-Car use-Satisfaction-Subjective well-being
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The service encounter frequently is the service from the customer's point of view. Using the critical incident method, the authors collected 700 incidents from customers of airlines, hotels, and restaurants. The incidents were categorized to isolate the particular events and related behaviors of contact employees that cause customers to distinguish very satisfactory service encounters from very dissatisfactory ones. Key implications for managers and researchers are highlighted.
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At the heart of emotion, mood, and any other emotionally charged event are states experienced as simply feeling good or bad, energized or enervated. These states - called core affect - influence reflexes, perception, cognition, and behavior and are influenced by many causes internal and external, but people have no direct access to these causal connections. Core affect can therefore be experienced as free-floating (mood) or can be attributed to some cause (and thereby begin an emotional episode). These basic processes spawn a broad framework that includes perception of the core-affect-altering properties of stimuli, motives, empathy, emotional meta-experience, and affect versus emotion regulation; it accounts for prototypical emotional episodes, such as fear and anger, as core affect attributed to something plus various nonemotional processes.
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For many Americans, commuting to and from work is a time-consuming activity that is often thought of as unpleasant. Some studies have also suggested that commuting’s unpleasantness increases with its duration. Three years of the American Time Use Survey’s Wellbeing Module provided an opportunity to extend our understanding of commuting in a representative sample of 37,088 individuals living in the United States who provided a detailed account of yesterday’s activities and rated the wellbeing associated with a portion of those activities. Commuting episodes were rated high in stress and tiredness and much lower in meaningfulness compared with other activities of the day. However, level of wellbeing was also determined by whether the commute was to work or to home, with tiredness low in the former case and very high in the latter. Longer commutes were weakly associated with increased stress and tiredness. These findings confirm that commuting is a low wellbeing experience and add to our understanding of this common activity.
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Abstract Are longer trips more strenuous or unpleasant than shorter ones? This paper examines this question using data from the American Time Use Survey's well-being module, which queried individuals about the extent to which they felt happiness, pain, sadness, stress, and fatigue during three randomly selected daily activities. Over 22,000 instances of individuals traveling are observed, including their trip duration, mode, purpose, and demographic and geographic information. Each emotion, plus a constructed, composite mood variable, is regressed on trip duration. Overall, the relationship between trip duration and traveler mood is not strong, which is unsurprising given prior findings on the limited impact of activities on mood. However, there is a statistically significant and negative association between trip duration and mood, primarily because of rising stress, fatigue and sadness on long trips. This is particularly true for drivers, while negative emotions do not rise with increasing trip duration for auto passengers. This suggests strain rises as the result of operating the vehicle for long periods, not traveling in an auto per se. Long bicycle trips are more painful than shorter ones, probably due to the physical demands of the mode, and long train trips are associated with less sadness. For commutes, long trips significantly degrade the mood of both drivers and bus riders, in the latter case probably due in part to vehicle crowding and standing. The findings imply that reducing the duration of trips, for example through land use policies that reduce trip distances, or congestion reduction, would have emotional benefits. Policies to promote ridesharing instead of solo driving for long trips may increase traveler mood in the aggregate. Improving bus service or substituting rail for bus for long commute trips may also improve traveler mood.
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Six experiments were reported that investigated individuals' perceptions of positive life events and their preferences for options presenting different combinations of positive event frequency and magnitude. Results revealed that individuals often responded to the average level of positivity and preferred less (versus more) positive events and supported the averaging/summation model of life event integration. Results revealed, for example, that participants felt more positive affect when they were exposed to a highly positive event than a highly positive plus mildly positive one. When the events had similar affective intensities, however, summation effects were obtained-more was better. In demonstrating averaging and summation effects, we delineated situations in which more positive life events can be better (summation effects) and situations in which more can be worse (averaging effects). Results also ruled out several alternative accounts, including the peak-end rule, economic, affective forecasting, and an assimilation/contrast interpretation.
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This article examines whether long journeys to work are negatively associated with commuters' mental health. Fixed-effects models were applied to the panel data on 5,216 participants in the British Household Panel Survey who were working at the time of interview and aged between 16 and 64 years. Mental health status was established using the General Health Questionnaire. Long journeys to work are associated with a higher risk of poor mental health for women but not for men, controlling for a number of demographic and socioeconomic factors. Previous studies have asserted that long journeys to work are a stressful event, which affects men and women as an acute stressor. Our results from the 16-year panel data found that the long-term effect applies only for women. The fact that women with children are most likely to suffer from long commuting suggests that such daily travel behavior is particularly difficult for women.
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The present study provides a transnational comparison of the perceived service satisfaction with public transport in eight European countries. Data was collected from 9,542 respondents in Stockholm, Barcelona, Copenhagen, Geneva, Helsinki, Vienna, Berlin, Manchester, and Oslo. The respondents rated their agreement with 17 attribute-related statements regarding local public transport services. Using factor analysis, this study identifies the four satisfaction dimensions of system, comfort, staff, and safety, which were present in most, but not all of the cities. These findings indicate that there are differences in how public transport is perceived. This needs to be addressed in order to make comparison meaningful. Different explanations for these diverse findings are discussed.
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How do emotions like happiness, pain, stress, sadness and fatigue vary during travel and by travel mode? Understanding the relationship between how we travel and how we feel offers insight into ways of improving existing transportation services, prioritizing investments and theorizing and modeling the costs and benefits of travel. Drawing on the American Time Use Survey’s well-being module, which surveyed over 13,000 respondents about mood during randomly selected activities, we address these questions using pooled ordinary least squares and fixed-effects panel regression. Controlling for demographics and other individual-specific attributes, we find that, contrary to the common perception that travel is an onerous, derived demand, mood is generally no worse during travel than on average. However, compared to other influences, travel has only a small total impact on how we feel. The estimated relationship between mood and mode tends to be weak and often not statistically significant. Nevertheless, we find that bicyclists have the most positive affect. Next happiest are car passengers, and then car drivers, though when controlling for the pleasure typically derived from interacting with others drivers are at least as happy as passengers. Bus and train riders experience the most negative emotions, though a small part of this can be attributed to the fact that transit is disproportionately used for the unloved work trip. Our findings suggest that bicycle use may have benefits beyond the typically cited health and transportation ones, and that improving transit riders’ emotional experience may be as important as improving traditional service features such as headways and travel speeds. Our findings are ambiguous as to whether the joy of driving will limit the appeal of autonomous vehicles.
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Evidence shows that people feel mild positive moods when no strong emotional events are occurring, a phenomenon known as positive mood offset. We offer an evolutionary explanation of this characteristic, showing that it improves fertility, fecundity, and health, and abets other characteristics that were critical to reproductive success. We review research showing that positive mood offset is virtually universal in the nations of the world, even among people who live in extremely difficult circumstances. Positive moods increase the likelihood of the types of adaptive behaviors that likely characterized our Paleolithic ancestors, such as creativity, planning, mating, and sociality. Because of the ubiquity and apparent advantages of positive moods, it is a reasonable hypothesis that humans were selected for positivity offset in our evolutionary past. We outline additional evidence that is needed to help confirm that positive mood offset is an evolutionary adaptation in humans and we explore the research questions that the hypothesis generates.
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The current study assesses the effects of the commuting environment on affective states and hiring decisions. A total of 136 undergraduate females were randomly assigned to one of four conditions based on the length (10 km vs. 30 km) and level of congestion (low vs. high) during a commute. Multivariate analyses of variance indicate that affective states were differentially influenced before and during the commute between the conditions. Even the anticipatory prospect of encountering congestion led to elevations of anxiety. Subjective impedance was also found to act as a partial, and at times full, mediator that contributed to negative emotional states. Hiring decisions for unqualified candidates were determined in part by the commute that a person drove, indicating that commuting can influence subsequent work behavior.
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It was hypothesized that commuting would elevate blood pressure and lower frustration tolerance. This hypothesis was tested by assessing postcommute behavior of 168 paid volunteers in a true experiment whose factors were type of commute (drive vs. ride vs. control), direction of commute (North vs. South), gender (male vs. female), and choice (salient vs. nonsalient). Multivariate analyses of variance indicated that subjects who drove 48 km or rode a bus the same distance evidenced less frustration tolerance than noncommuting control subjects. Commuting also raised pulse and systolic blood pressure. Multivariate analyses of covariance were performed in an effort to identify physiological and emotional responses that might mediate relations between commuting and frustration tolerance. It is concluded that variables other than affect and arousal are responsible for behavioral aftereffects.
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Subjectively experienced wellbeing has recently attracted increased attention in transport and mobility studies. However, these studies are still in their infancy and many of the multifarious links between travel behaviour and wellbeing are still under-examined; most studies only focus on one aspect of this link (i.e., travel satisfaction). In this paper we give an overview of studies concerning travel and wellbeing, focusing on results, methods and gaps in present research. We suggest that travel behaviour affects wellbeing through experiences during (destination-oriented) travel, activity participation enabled by travel, activities during (destination-oriented) travel, trips where travel is the activity, and through potential travel (or motility). The majority of empirical studies to date have been based on hedonic views of wellbeing, where pleasure and satisfaction are seen as the ultimate goal in life. They have paid little attention to eudaimonic views of wellbeing, which emphasise the realization of one’s true potential, although this form of wellbeing can also be influenced by travel behaviour. We also argue that longer-term decisions, such as residential location choices, can affect wellbeing through travel. Travel options differ between different kinds of neighbourhoods, which can result in different levels of (feelings of) freedom and consequently different levels of subjective wellbeing. Since studies at present only show a subset of the travel behaviour-wellbeing interactions, we conclude the paper with an agenda for future research.
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The service encounter frequently is the service from the customer's point of view. Using the critical incident method, the authors collected 700 incidents from customers of airlines, hotels, and restaurants. The incidents were categorized to isolate the particular events and related behaviors of contact employees that cause customers to distinguish very satisfactory service encounters from very dissatisfactory ones. Key implications for managers and researchers are highlighted.
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The “Peak–End rule” which averages only the most extreme (Peak) and the final (End) impressions, is often a better predictor of overall evaluations of experiences than average impressions. We investigate the similarity between the evaluations of experiences based on Peak–End and average impressions. We show that the use of the Peak–End rule in cross-experience comparisons can be compatible with preferences for experiences that are better on average. Two conditions are shown to make rankings of experiences similar regardless of the aggregation rule: (i) the individual heterogeneity in the perception of stimuli, and (ii) the persistence in impressions. We describe their effects theoretically, and obtain empirical estimates using data from previous research. Higher estimates are shown to increase correlational measures of association between the Peak–End and average impressions. The high association per se is shown to be not only a theoretical possibility, but an empirical fact.
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Myers and Diener (1995) asked “Who is happy?” but examined the question of who is more and who is less happy In fact, most people report a positive level of subjective well-being (SWB), and say that they are satisfied with domains such as marriage, work, and leisure People in disadvantaged groups on average report positive well-being, and measurement methods in addition to self-report indicate that most people's affect is primarily pleasant Cross-national data suggest that there is a positive level of SWB throughout the world, with the possible exception of very poor societies In 86% of the 43 nations for which nationally representative samples are available the mean SWB response was above neutral Several hypotheses to explain the positive levels of SWB are discussed
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Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of various factors on retrospective pain evaluation. The factors examined in Experiment 1 were the rate and pattern of change, the intensity (particularly the final intensity), and the duration of the painful experience. Experiment 2 manipulated these factors and, in addition, examined the effect of continuous (on-line) ratings on the overall retrospective evaluation. The two experiments utilized different pain modalities, heat in the first and mechanical pressure in the second. In addition, all subjects in Experiment 1 experienced stimuli with the same physical magnitude, while in Experiment 2 stimuli were individually tailored to make them subjectively equivalent. In both experiments, subjects were presented with a series of painful stimuli and evaluated the intensity of each stimulus immediately upon its termination. The stimuli themselves were composed of multiple intensity levels that differentially changed over time (Intensity-Patterns). Subjects' on-line ratings in Experiment 2 closely mirrored the physical patterns of the intensities. The main conclusion from both experiments is that the retrospective evaluations of painful experiences are influenced primarily by a combination of the final pain intensity and the intensity trend during the latter half of the experience. In addition, results indicated that duration has little impact on retrospective evaluations for stimuli of relatively constant intensity. However, when the stimulus intensity changes over time, duration does play a role. Finally, the task of continuously reporting the stimulus intensity had a moderating impact on the retrospective evaluations.
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The effects of morning, rush hour commuting were examined in a quasi-experimental field study involving government-employed commuters (single and carpool drivers). Commuting stress was measured as a response to variations in how difficult it was for commuters to move from home to work. The mediation of these effects by two sources of control in the commuting situation also were assessed. Control was operationalized as control over the internal environment of the car (single versus carpool driver) and choice over routes taken to get to work. Among commuters with a high impedance route, driving to work was associated with significant increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreases in behavioral performance. The stress of commuting under high impedance conditions was reduced for single drivers relative to carpoolers. Under similar conditions of high impedance, however, having the option to select more than one route to get to work seemed to be more stressful than having only one route. The practical implications of these results are discussed.
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Subjective well-being (SWB) that includes individuals’ cognitive and affective evaluations of life in general is proposed to be a more appropriate measure capturing the benefits individuals derive from travel improvements. We develop and test a measure of travel-related SWB, the nine item self-report satisfaction with travel scale (STS). In a survey of 155 undergraduates, STS, mood ratings, and ratings of SWB were collected for three hypothetical weekdays differing in travel mode, travel time, access to bus stops, and daily activity agenda. The results showed that STS is reliable and differentiates between changes in travel conditions. STS, mood, and to some extent SWB were shown to be affected by travel mode (bus vs. car), travel time, access to bus stops, and the number of activities in the daily agenda.Research highlights► We develop and test a measure of travel-related SWB, the nine item self-report satisfaction with travel scale (STS). ► The results showed that STS is reliable and differentiates between changes in travel conditions.
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This article shows how the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany have made bicycling a safe, convenient and practical way to get around their cities. The analysis relies on national aggregate data as well as case studies of large and small cities in each country. The key to achieving high levels of cycling appears to be the provision of separate cycling facilities along heavily travelled roads and at intersections, combined with traffic calming of most residential neighbourhoods. Extensive cycling rights of way in the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany are complemented by ample bike parking, full integration with public transport, comprehensive traffic education and training of both cyclists and motor-ists, and a wide range of promotional events intended to generate enthusiasm and wide public support for cycling. In addition to their many pro-bike policies and programmes, the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany make driving expensive as well as inconvenient in central cities through a host of taxes and restrictions on car ownership, use and parking. Moreover, strict land-use policies foster compact, mixed-use developments that generate shorter and thus more bikeable trips. It is the coordinated implementation of this multi-faceted, mutually reinforcing set of policies that best explains the success of these three countries in promoting cycling. For comparison, the article portrays the marginal status of cycling in the UK and the USA, where only about 1% of trips are by bike.
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As an alternative to using the concepts of emotion, fear, anger, and the like as scientific tools, this article advocates an approach based on the concepts of core affect and psychological construction, expanding the domain of inquiry beyond “emotion”. Core affect is a neurophysiological state that underlies simply feeling good or bad, drowsy or energised. Psychological construction is not one process but an umbrella term for the various processes that produce: (a) a particular emotional episode's “components” (such as facial movement, vocal tone, peripheral nervous system change, appraisal, attribution, behaviour, subjective experience, and emotion regulation); (b) associations among the components; and (c) the categorisation of the pattern of components as a specific emotion.
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Seven types of evidence are reviewed that indicate that high subjective well-being (such as life satisfaction, absence of negative emotions, optimism, and positive emotions) causes better health and longevity. For example, prospective longitudinal studies of normal populations provide evidence that various types of subjective well-being such as positive affect predict health and longevity, controlling for health and socioeconomic status at baseline. Combined with experimental human and animal research, as well as naturalistic studies of changes of subjective well-being and physiological processes over time, the case that subjective well-being influences health and longevity in healthy populations is compelling. However, the claim that subjective well-being lengthens the lives of those with certain diseases such as cancer remains controversial. Positive feelings predict longevity and health beyond negative feelings. However, intensely aroused or manic positive affect may be detrimental to health. Issues such as causality, effect size, types of subjective well-being, and statistical controls are discussed.
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Subjective well-being (SWB) is an important indicator of quality oflife. SWB can be conceptualized as a momentary state (e.g., mood) aswell as a relatively stable trait (e.g., life satisfaction). Thevalidity of self-reported trait aspects of SWB has been questioned byexperimental studies showing that SWB judgments seem to be stronglycontext dependent. Particularly, momentary mood seems to have a stronginfluence on global SWB judgments. To explore the ecological validity ofthese conclusions a non-experimental longitudinal self-reportstudy with three occasions of measurement was conducted(N = 249). The associations between momentarymood ratings and global judgments of SWB (life satisfaction,satisfaction with life domains, frequency and intensity of emotions) aswell as personality ratings (self-esteem, optimism, neuroticism,extraversion) were analyzed in a multistate-multitrait-multiconstructmodel. This model takes (a) measurement error, (b) occasion-specificdeviations, and (c) stable interindividual differences into account. Itis shown that the variability in global SWB judgments and personalityratings is relatively small and much smaller than the variability inmood. Furthermore, the occasion-specific associations between moodstates, on the one hand, and global SWB and personality ratings, on theother hand, are relatively small and inconsistent. All global SWB andpersonality variables are more strongly related to mood on the traitlevel than on the occasion-specific deviation level. Therefore, incontrast to experimental studies, occasion-specific mood effects do notseem to be inherently important in ecological measurement settings.
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This research project took advantage of the implementation of a major mass transit improvement by New Jersey Transit which provided a "one-seat ride" into New York City for many commuters who previously had to transfer in Hoboken in order to take Port Authority Trans Hudson (PATH) trains into New York City. The creation of this new service provided a natural experiment in which some riders switched to the new route, while others continued to use their previous route. We studied psychological and psychophysiological responses to these commuting options, using a quasi-experimental, pre-post change, field research design. We found that riders on this new line had lower levels of stress, as multiply measured, than they had earlier, before the advent of this new train, or than did other riders currently using the Hoboken-PATH option. The stress effects seemed to be mediated by the time of the trip – that is, the reduced trip time of the new, direct service seemed to be a primary factor in the reduced stress to riders. Predictability of the trip was also inversely correlated with stress, but did not distinguish between the commuter groups. These results were largely replicated with a student group who rode the same lines acting as simulated commuters.
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This paper studies the test–retest reliability of a standard self-reported life satisfaction measure and of affect measures collected from a diary method. The sample consists of 229 women who were interviewed on Thursdays, two weeks apart, in Spring 2005. The correlation of net affect (i.e., duration-weighted positive feelings less negative feelings) measured two weeks apart is .64, which is slightly higher than the correlation of life satisfaction (r = .59). Correlations between income, net affect and life satisfaction are presented, and adjusted for attenuation bias due to measurement error. Life satisfaction is found to correlate much more strongly with income than does net affect. Components of affect that are more person-specific are found to have a higher test–retest reliability than components of affect that are more specific to the particular situation. While reliability figures for subjective well-being measures are lower than those typically found for education, income and many other microeconomic variables, they are probably sufficiently high to support much of the research that is currently being undertaken on subjective well-being, particularly in studies where group means are compared (e.g., across activities or demographic groups).
A stated-preference study was conducted to investigate user satisfaction with public transport services. A convenience sample of 95 public transport users participated. The results of a previous large-scale survey were replicated in showing that overall satisfaction is related to satisfaction with treatment by employee, reliability of service, simplicity of information, and design. It was further shown that the total frequency of negative critical incidents affected overall satisfaction whereas the frequencies of different types of negative critical incidents selectively affected attribute-specific satisfaction. In both cases relative rather than absolute frequency was important.