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Quality of training specialist as a competitive advantage of the university: study guide

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Abstract

The work presents the theoretical and methodological analysis and the author's vision of problems of specialist training quality in higher education, focuses on the assessment of the quality of training, discusses the problems of quality management of educational institutions, as well as the main approaches to improving the quality of specialist. At the end of each paragraph there are the key issues that enable you to consolidate the material.
I.I.Frolova, L.N.Bulanova, L.M.Khamitova
QUALITY OF TRAINING
SPECIALIST AS A COMPETITIVE
ADVANTAGE OF THE UNIVERSITY
Kursk - 2017
UDC 378.126
LBC 74.58
F91
F 91 Frolova I.I., Bulanova L.N., Khamitova L.M.
Quality of training specialist as a competitive advantage of the
university: study guide/ Frolova I.I., Bulanova L.N., Khamitova
L.M., - Kursk: LtD “Universitetskaya kniga”, 2017. – 114 p.
ISBN 978-5-9500275-9-8
The work presents the theoretical and methodological analysis
and the author's vision of problems of specialist training quality in
higher education, focuses on the assessment of the quality of training,
discusses the problems of quality management of educational
institutions, as well as the main approaches to improving the quality of
specialist. At the end of each paragraph there are the key issues that
enable you to consolidate the material.
ISBN978-5-9500275-9-8
UDC 378.126
LBC 74.58
Kursk: LtD “Universitetskaya kniga”, 2017
Frolova I.I., Bulanova L.N., Khamitova L.M., 2017
QUALITY OF TRAINING SPECIALIST AS A COMPETITIVE
ADVANTAGE OF THE UNIVERSITY
3
CONTENT
INTRODUCTION .............................................................................. 4
CHAPTER 1 THE QUALITY OF TRAINING AS THE
PROBLEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION ......................................... 6
1.1. THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF THE
DEFINITION OF QUALITY ..................................................... 6
1.2 CONCEPT OF QUALITY TRAINING SPECIALIST IN
HIGHER EDUCATION ........................................................... 14
CHAPTER 2 QUALITY MANAGEMENT AS AN ESSENTIAL
PART OF TRAINING A COMPETITIVE SPECIALIST AT
HIGH SCHOOL ............................................................................... 31
2.1. QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF SPECIALISTS’ TRAINING
................................... ............................. ............................. ...... 31
2.2. THE ANALYSIS OF MANAGEMENT APPROACHES TO
SPECIALISTS’ TRAINING QUALITY IN NATIONAL AND
FOREIGN EXPERIENCE ........................................................ 44
GLOSSARY ..................................... ................................................. 69
REFERENCES ............................................................................... 109
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ADVANTAGE OF THE UNIVERSITY
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INTRODUCTION
Innovative phase of development of the modern society is
characterized by the fact that there is currently increased attention to
knowledge, particularly as they manifest themselves in the form of a
direct productive force. Therefore, it is logical and a problem of
increase of efficiency and dramatic expansion of demand for high-
quality educational technology.
The quality of education in modern conditions is one of the most
important characteristics that define the competitiveness not only
educational institutions, but also national educational systems in
General. It is the task of ensuring the quality of education takes a
central place in educational reforms, addressing both the goal and the
criterion measure of success of interventions.
The commercialization of professional education is more
oriented to the demand of the entrant, and not on the demand of the
economy. This creates a classic effect of overproduction on a number
of specialties. In this regard, one of the main tasks of quality
management of higher education is to eliminate this mismatch
between the activities of the higher school and needs practice.
Main world tendencies in the field of quality assurance are as
follows:
– development of common criteria and standards of quality
assurance of education of European countries in the framework of the
Bologna process;
– creation, development and harmonization of national systems
QUALITY OF TRAINING SPECIALIST AS A COMPETITIVE
ADVANTAGE OF THE UNIVERSITY
5
of accreditation of educational programs of European countries;
– development and implementation of quality systems of
educational institutions;
– design of quality management systems of educational process
on the principles of quality management, etc.
The multiplicity of pedagogical ideas and proposed solutions to
the problem of ensuring the required quality of education indicate that
among researchers, scientists, teachers, organizers of the pedagogical
process, heads of educational institutions while there is no single
approach in understanding what should be considered quality
education and what factors, conditions, measures and ways to provide
the required quality of training.
The work presents the theoretical and methodological analysis
and the author's vision of problems of specialist training quality in
higher education, focuses on the assessment of the quality of training,
discusses the problems of quality management of educational
institutions, as well as the main approaches to improving the quality of
specialist training in Soviet and foreign experience. At the end of each
paragraph there are the key issues that enable you to consolidate the
material.
The authors are grateful to readers for their critical comments
and suggestions to email address: fii@mail.ru.
QUALITY OF TRAINING SPECIALIST AS A COMPETITIVE
ADVANTAGE OF THE UNIVERSITY
6
CHAPTER 1 THE QUALITY OF TRAINING AS THE
PROBLEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION
1.1. THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF THE
DEFINITION OF QUALITY
The study of bibliographic sources has shown that already in ancient
time’s eminent thinkers and educators understand the importance of
achieving a certain level of quality in training and education of the younger
generation. For example, the ancient Greek thinkers Plato, Aristotle in his
writings on philosophy has formulated specific requirements for the
education and upbringing of the person. In his essay "On the education of
speaker," the Roman philosopher, teacher of M. F. Quintilian said that to
achieve the desired result in the training and education specialist teacher
must correctly choose the means of study and abide by certain rules[ 17].
Many outstanding teachers were unanimous in the view that the basis of
the quality of education is a serious teacher-training, lesson in teaching and
upbringing, pedagogical and experimentation. The quality of education
related to teacher understanding of the results of their work, as well as the
study of the experience of others. So, J. A. Comenius, I. G. Pestalozzi
compared commander, architect, gardener, and sculptor. They emphasized
that success in teaching is ensured by appropriate methods, which allows
«complying with all disclosure methods in cognitive abilities and applying
them according to circumstances."
Close attention to quality issues in the pedagogical activities is paid
well-known Soviet professors: V. Y. Stoyunin, K. D. Ushinsky, K. P.
QUALITY OF TRAINING SPECIALIST AS A COMPETITIVE
ADVANTAGE OF THE UNIVERSITY
7
Yanovsky, etc. According to K. D. Ushinsky, the quality of education
is provided by the pedagogical skills of teachers and independent
cognitive activity of students: "One of the pedagogical practices
without the theory – the same as quackery in medicine." V. Y.
Stoyunin, by contrast, emphasized that the quality of education is not
determined by the success of the students. He believed that teaching
activity should be subordinated to the universal idea of human
development [31].
Quality – complex and universal category, which has a lot of
features and different aspects. V. M. Mishin said the main aspects of
quality, depending on the purpose of use will include: philosophical,
social, technical, economic and legal [32].
From a philosophical perspective, the quality of a substantial
certainty of the object, thus becoming a specific and differs from other
object. However, the quality unites many of the objects in a set, that
is, makes them homogeneous. The category of quality expresses the
appropriate level of understanding the objective reality. At the initial
stage of the research object is any separate property, which is
understood as a way of expressing the specific quality of an object
relative to other objects with which it can interact. In further quality
gains a lot of properties. Since every object is interconnected with
other things, it can have countless properties. As for products, the
quality cannot be reduced merely to individual properties; it must
express the complete characteristic of functional unity of essential
properties of this object. Thus, the philosophical approach quality is
defined along with what is objectively relatively stable, internally a
QUALITY OF TRAINING SPECIALIST AS A COMPETITIVE
ADVANTAGE OF THE UNIVERSITY
8
specific entity object.
The social aspect of quality related to the attitudes of the subjects
and/or societies to the object under study, for example, with the
perception and attitude of certain consumers to appropriate products
or services. The quality can RAS be considered as a category, meets
the laws of supply and demand, depending on the level of culture,
income, consumers, etc.
The technical aspect of quality is due to quantitative and qualitative
changes of the object of study. The object of study is the technical
patterns in educational institutes and the manifestation of the physical,
electro-mechanical and other properties of objects of the same
purpose.
From the economic perspective quality is seen as the result of
consumption or value of the object. Needs in the quality of an object is
varied, so the quality is evaluated by consumers differently. So, from
an economic point of view it is important to know how well the
quality meets the requirements, otherwise not all high quality is good,
that is, between the technical and economic understanding of quality
is a contradiction, which is dialectic and imposes additional
interconnection of production and consumption of objects. Many
researchers recommend considering together technical and economic
aspects of quality, considering that important when assessing the level
of quality.
The legal aspect of quality relates to the generation of normative-
technical documents, procedure of development, adoption,
implementation and enforcement, as well as its accounting. From a
QUALITY OF TRAINING SPECIALIST AS A COMPETITIVE
ADVANTAGE OF THE UNIVERSITY
9
legal point of view, the quality is a set of object properties of because
the requirements of scientific and technical documentation.
One of the first works in which was disclosed concepts, but
terminology is the core of the problem of education quality, was
prepared at the Research center of quality problems of specialists
training, "the new quality of higher education in modern Russia:
conceptual and programmatic approach. The initial quality level is
understood as a "complex philosophical, systemic, economic and
social category available through the system definitions that reflect the
unity of the system-structural and value-pragmatic aspects" [16.].
Speaking about the quality of education, some authors believe that
the quality of education is a multicomponent system, the main
structural elements of which are: quality of teaching staff; quality of
educational programs; quality of students; quality management
training for the management as a single entity [1].
The quality of education as a social system pony toils compliance
with neither education requirements social nor mom (standards). This
is a very broad definition that requires clarification. Speaking about
the educational system, we noted that "the quality of an education
system reflects the quality of the educational process: quality of
education, upbringing and education in a narrow sense" [18].
V. P. Panasyuk gave a detailed analysis presented in the literature
points of view on quality as a philosophical category, and showed the
dynamics of penetration into the essence of quality in the writings of
Aristotle, Immanuel Kant [25]. The author states that each of them has
made in this category are something different. So, for Aristotle in the
QUALITY OF TRAINING SPECIALIST AS A COMPETITIVE
ADVANTAGE OF THE UNIVERSITY
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theory of the quality attribute is characterized by its sensible. It is
interesting that Aristotle in his theory of quality has revealed many
properties of which he speaks modern philosophers are consistency,
hierarchy, structure and dynamics. In the teachings of I. Kant, who
introduced the concept of "thing in itself" and "thing for us," for the
first time was allocated what is now called internal and external
quality of the object [15]. The main achievement teachings about the
law of transition of quantity into quality, the formulation of the
concept of action as unity of quality and internal quantity. In the
philosophy of Karl Marx the main link is the doctrine of the three
births quality: the first born – natural, material and structural qualities;
the second kind is a functional quality; the third sort – the system of
quality.
The first kind is the quality (subject-matter) represents and is
formed in the process of interaction of the object with the physical
environment, with natural conditions. Functional quality of objects
and processes characterizes their relations in system "man-
technology", "people-person" and reflects the main functions of the
object. The third sort of quality – system-social – characterizes the
interaction of the object with the social and economic environment,
and socio-economic conditions.
German society for quality gives the following definition: quality is
the totality of features and characteristics of products or processes,
which determine the degree of their suitability for the use, intended
[33].
According to Joseph Guyrana, a leading American specialist,
QUALITY OF TRAINING SPECIALIST AS A COMPETITIVE
ADVANTAGE OF THE UNIVERSITY
11
quality is fitness to use. The main elements of this concept are:
the availability of goods for purchase, reliability and
maintainability;
consumer perception of the project (design) of goods;
the degree to which a product conforms to
design/specifications;
Armand Feigenbaum defines quality as the decision on the
consumer, not the engineer or the marketer. Quality is based on the
user interaction with the product and is measured in accordance with
his requirements. Requirements can be explicitly or implicitly
expressed, conscious or unconscious, objective or subjective. The
perception of quality is constantly changing in the competitive market
[9.].
The quality is represented both as a set of properties, and as a
complex property that is adequate to this totality. A. I. Subetto
formalized its contents through the system the following postulates
[27]: quality of the object (system, process) at the same time
independent and does not depend on the external environment. In
accordance with this object or process is a contradictory unity of the
external ("dependent") and internal ("independent") qualities.
More preferred and modern concepts of quality in relation to
products and services it is possible to recognize the following
wording: the quality – defined set of properties of the products or
services that are potentially or actually able to meet the required needs
of all stakeholders when used by-value, including disposal or
destruction.
QUALITY OF TRAINING SPECIALIST AS A COMPETITIVE
ADVANTAGE OF THE UNIVERSITY
12
The quality of education is a system category, which reflects the
different levels of the problem. In higher professional education
quality can be considered at different levels:
- the quality of the educational system of the country;
the quality of the regional educational system;
quality branch of the educational system;
the quality of the education system of the University.
A number of researchers [20] distinguish yet another level – up system-
high school education. But in the total quality system of education the
higher education system in any case is a subsystem within a hierarchy of
interacting quality systems: national, interregional, regional and closely
linked with all other hierarchical levels, including the European level (the
Bologna process).
Recourse to the category of quality of education at the present time
is not accidental. Full the quality of education can only be achieved as
we move to integrated learning models in the framework of a personal
paradigm of education. The integral model of education assumes that
the quality of education in its result aspect is provided not only
educational content, but also the personality of the teacher, his
personality.
The quality of education can be most productive research-rejoice in
the conceptual, theoretical and systemic-methodological aspects.
In the conceptual cut is the primary understanding of the quality of
education as object of study, actuality-they had an idea, revealing his
certainty, systemic and interdisciplinary nature, and leading to the
formation of the holistic scientific framework.
QUALITY OF TRAINING SPECIALIST AS A COMPETITIVE
ADVANTAGE OF THE UNIVERSITY
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In the theoretical cut quality is a "rolling meeting" reflection of the
essential characteristics and parameters of education quality, its
Genesis, object, structure, classification types, etc.
In the systematic-methodological slice is translated to the
conceptual and theoretical knowledge in normative, applied, practice-
oriented knowledge, in which the quality of education of the "thing in
itself" becomes "thing for us" and on educational practice.
T. A. Strokova defines education quality as "the totality of
optimally matching its most important characteristics, reflecting the
levels achieved quantitative and qualitative results of the organization
and implementation of the educational process, created the conditions
for it, meeting the requirements of the state and society and meet
educational requests of students"[ 30] . The author focuses not only on
the productive side of education, but also on the process and
conditions for obtaining this result.
Thus, the quality of higher education is a balanced interaction of all
aspects of higher education-which aims, requirements, needs, norms
and standards. To the definition of quality in higher education requires
a multi-pronged approach. To obtain a quality education should be the
quality of the requirements (goals, standards and norms) and the
required quality of the resources (educational programs, human
resources, contingent of entrants, logistics, Finance, etc.) and quality
conditions (investment and education).
Questions:
1. What is the quality?
2. Define the term "quality education".
QUALITY OF TRAINING SPECIALIST AS A COMPETITIVE
ADVANTAGE OF THE UNIVERSITY
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3. Give the definition of quality with a philosophical position.
4. Describe the social aspect of quality.
5. What is the technical aspect of quality?
6. How can you describe the term “quality” from the economic
perspective?
7. What aspects can be investigated by studying the quality of
education?
8. What are the specifics of the quality of education as a social
system?
1.2 CONCEPT OF QUALITY TRAINING
SPECIALIST IN HIGHER EDUCATION
The modern stage of society development is characterized by
dynamic changes in the governmental requirements for training of
graduates in the labour market. For the employer it is necessary not
only high intellectual level of the young specialist, but his potential as
a professional in defined-Noah field. The education system, in
accordance with article 8 of Law is "a set of interacting successive
educational programs and state educational standards of various levels
and orientation, of a network of implementing educational institutions
irrespective of their organizational-legal forms, types and kinds; the
education authorities and their subordinated institutions and
organizations"[40].
Education is the process and the results of these processes,
presented in the form of a specific set of knowledge, skills, and
QUALITY OF TRAINING SPECIALIST AS A COMPETITIVE
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15
abilities, cultural and moral attitudes that are acquired by the person.
With regard to higher education are the processes and activities of
universities aimed at training specialists in one area or another through
the transfer of students to a certain set of theoretical and practical
knowledge necessary to implement a successful professional.
The quality of training is the main criterion in selecting students and
educational institutions. It is the result of the functioning of
educational system and its dynamic interaction with the environment.
The quality of training young specialists is defined as the
qualification of the graduates the requirements of the workplace,
ensuring the requirements of state educational standard.
In the process of professional training it is necessary to build and
implement a cycle of qualities at each stage of the formation of
competencies (for each of the study subjects from the curriculum):
the formation of target setting in the form of the competence
model;
input control (evaluation of the current level) the competence of
each student;
the construction of individual (group) learning paths;
the implementation of the selected learning paths for each student
(learning process);
output control (assess progress) level of competence in the
process of testing (certification);
evaluation of customer satisfaction;
determination of need and implementation of corrective actions
QUALITY OF TRAINING SPECIALIST AS A COMPETITIVE
ADVANTAGE OF THE UNIVERSITY
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relating to the competence of the student, the goals and criteria of
assessment of competence, as well as programs and organization of
the learning process.
Higher education in the XXI century is characterized by a number
of peculiarities and requires certain modifications of the contents and
organization of the learning process. Changes and innovations are an
integral part of progress. For example, technical innovations entail
changes to processes and mechanism to manage them, as well as
changes in training.
Education of the population, the scale and traditions of the
education system in Russia provides its competitiveness in the face of
declining defense power, rising raw material being in the economy,
the backlog of technological and information development. The
cluster "education – science – culture" allows our country to remain
among the advanced countries of the world.
Many authors note that the leading role in the national educational
system plays a high school, act-ting as a factor of improving the
quality of human resources, the development of other levels of
education and enhancing the innovative capacities of companies. So,
Zhurakovsky V. drew attention to the fact that universities play an
increasingly important role in the development of modern Humanities
and industrial technologies, the implementation of scientifically
substantiated technical and socio-cultural projects.
The potential of the Russian higher school allowed her to survive in
a difficult time of reforms of 90-ies of the last century and move from
Crises period of "survival" to the stage of constructive modernization.
QUALITY OF TRAINING SPECIALIST AS A COMPETITIVE
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The government of the Russian Federation approved priority
directions of development of the educational system of the Russian
Federation in which the Central place is "increase the quality of
vocational education", "development of a modern system of
continuous professional education" and "increasing the investment
attractiveness of the sphere of education". To achieve these goals, we
formed complex of measures on improvement of the content and
technologies of education, structure of educational system,
organizational and financial mechanisms and legislative base of
education and strengthening links between education, production and
the labour market.
Prerequisites for successful modernization of the Russian higher
education are:
a high level of development of pedagogical science the formation
of psycho-pedagogical community, its interaction with representatives
of related Sciences, humanistic character and the practical orientation
of Russian educational thinking, focused on ensuring the unity of
education and training, the fruitfulness of many Russian educational
traditions;
the development of scientific research in higher education,
successful methodology research training, the presence of the tested
forms of integration of educational and scientific processes;
the presence of Russian universities with numerous successful
innovation content, methodological and organizational nature, as well
as fundamental possibility of their spread with the help of state
programs and the system of advanced training of managers and
QUALITY OF TRAINING SPECIALIST AS A COMPETITIVE
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teachers of universities.
However, there is a need to address several key issues related to the
modernization of higher education in Russia, including:
lack of flexibility of educational programs about the real needs of
the labour market, the lack of development of active forms of
learning, which complicates the formation of the necessary
competencies of graduates to solve practical tasks in the sphere of
professional activity;
the incompatibility of the structure of educational institutions and
the range of specialties to the requirements of the economy and social
sphere, departmental dissociation of universities;
aborted effective systems to control quality of training and its
evaluation;
reduction of the level of qualification of the teaching staff, the
outflow of promising young staff abroad and in other areas, "aging" of
teacher housing;
insufficient providing universities with modern educational-
laboratory and scientific equipment;
administrative restrictions in the academic and financial-economic
activities, hindering the formation of effective management in higher
education, strategic planning and development of higher educational
institutions, etc.
The Concept of modernization of Russian education, adopted the
government of the Russian Federation in 2001 indicated wife policies
with no consistency.
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To date the dominant principle of training of specialists with higher
education is the training in narrow specializations, at the same time,
the RF Law "On education" regulates the ability of multi-level
training in various areas in the system "bachelor – master". So, V. S.
Suvorov notes that the tiered system allows you to be more responsive
to the needs of the economy and social sphere, as well as the interests
of the individual.
From a practical point of view, of great interest is the quality of
higher education (training). When considering the concept of "quality
of education" should take account of a number of points. According to
the ISO standards (ISO) 9000 series, quality to understand the extent
to which the properties of the object (product, service, process) some
of the requirements (regulations, standards) [41].
This standard in Russia is not valid.
The current version 2015 gives the following definition in
paragraph 2.2.1: "the organization focused on quality, promotes
culture, reflected in the behavior, attitude, actions, and processes that
create value through the implementation of the needs and expectations
of customers and other relevant stakeholders. The quality of the
products and services of the organization depends on the ability to
satisfy consumers and intended or unintended impact on relevant
stakeholders. The quality of products and services includes not only
the implementation functions in accordance with the purpose and their
characteristics, but also perceived value and benefit for the consumer.
[43]
The process of training and its results (in the form of the planned
QUALITY OF TRAINING SPECIALIST AS A COMPETITIVE
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targets) exist in draft form and implemented in the real work of
teachers, leaders and students of the process. This process, in turn,
depends on the conditions in which it is implemented: motivation,
personnel, information, legal, material-technical, financial,
scientifically-methodical, and organizational. The result of the project,
the actual process and conditions will result – in the person of the
graduate of educational institution.
The concept of "quality of graduates" is interpreted as "a certain
level of knowledge and skills, mental, physical and moral
development achieved by the graduates of educational institutions in
accordance with the planned objectives of training and education». It
includes "a certain level of mental, physical and moral development of
graduates." At the same time, it is unclear by whom and how specifies
the level, for example, moral or physical development
In a number of publications, the quality of education is considered as an
important indicator of the success of higher education institutions, a set of
essential properties and characteristics of educational outcomes that can
meet the needs of students, society and customers. This approach for
quality assurance of education may limit its assessment indicators such as
"degree of satisfaction" of students, their parents and employers.
For example, the quality of education is defined as the inter-relation of
result and time spent on its achievement of efforts and resources:
pedagogical, technical, informational, economic, material, etc. the Authors
draw attention to the fact that education is recognized in the case of the
EU-whether the results meet the set objectives and predicted in the zone of
potential of development of the learner. Thus emphasizes the importance
QUALITY OF TRAINING SPECIALIST AS A COMPETITIVE
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of assessing what price achieved this result, what were the costs. It is
desirable that the highest possible result was achieved with a minimum
expenditure of effort, time, etc[34].
The decision of problems of quality of education at various
interrelated levels: conceptual-methodological, theoretical and
applied. Thus, the conceptual-methodological study of the problem of
education quality is carried out by experts of the Research center of
problems of quality of preparation of specialists: N.Selezneva, A. I.
Subetto, etc. They did an analysis of the quality of education as the
object of study, opened its multidisciplinary and multilevel nature,
studied as well as the impact of ideas, revealing the quality as a socio-
pedagogical system.
Researchers have identified the scientific and pedagogical basis of
achieving the required quality of education, put forward the idea that
in a new model of sustainable human development priority
development of human qualities, qualities of educational systems and
the quality of public intelligence becomes a social law.
Methodological studies of education quality by N.. Selezneva , A. I.
Subetto are considered the diversity of approach to this pedagogical
problem. Researchers are investigating the quality of education as a
multidimensional problem and a complex category, property category,
system structure, evaluation, quantity, efficiency, control etc.
The theoretical basis for the development of the essential
characteristics and parameters of education quality, its Genesis,
structure, object, classification of types, levels of quality education is
carried out mainly at the level of doctoral theses or in monographic
QUALITY OF TRAINING SPECIALIST AS A COMPETITIVE
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studies (Z. D. Zhukovskaya , A. I. Ivlieva , V. P. Panasyuk ).
Practice-oriented and applied research mainly is aimed at
identifying ways and means to introduce into educational practice the
fundamental ideas, development of proposals for comprehensive
assurance and quality management of education, management of
educational monitoring, applications of modern technologies and
criteria for assessing the quality of training. (D. Sh. Matros, N. N.
Melnikov , D. M. Polev, etc.).
Analyzing existing in didactics approaches to the problem of quality
of pedagogical phenomena, it is necessary to allocate system approach
to knowledge quality as one of the areas of analysis (T. M.
Davydenko, V. V. Kraevskij, I. Y. Lerner , M. I. Makhmutov, M. N.
Skatkin, T. I. Shamova, etc.) [19]. In their study, V. P. Panasyuk notes
the following: in modern conditions of humanization and
humanitarization of education " the dominant consideration is not so
much the quality of knowledge, as the quality of education in the unity
of its two sides (and the resulting procedural)». The authors point out
the need to understand the quality of education to focus not only on
the quality of knowledge and quality of personality, her education, but
also on the quality of the educational process. This allows you to
focus on the procedural aspects and additional features to ensure the
proper quality of education at the University.
According to S. E. Shishov and V. A. Kalney, the quality of
education is a kind of social category, the definition susuu the status
and effectiveness of the process of education in the society, it meets
the needs and expectations of society (different social groups) in the
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ADVANTAGE OF THE UNIVERSITY
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development of the formation of civil, consumer and professional
competencies of the individual as "the degree of satisfaction of the
expectations of different stakeholders of education from providing
educational institution educational services .
P. I. Tretyakov, T. I. Shamova interpret the quality of education as
purposeful, designed, resourced educational process of interaction
between managing and guided subsystems to achieve quality result
(norms, standards) .
P. N. Savastinuk defines education quality as "the degree-stump to
meet the expectations of different stakeholders of education provided
by the educational institution services."
V. P. Panasiuk examines the quality of education as a properties that
determine the ability to meet social needs in the formation and
development of personality in the aspects of training, education,
social, mental and physical properties".
V. N. Zverev defines quality education as "a system of indicators
(or standards) of knowledge, abilities, skills, norms of values and
emotional relationship to the world and to each other", that is
understand as a result of the activities of the educational institution,
pronounced in a certain way (model) graduate. T. D. Makarova, the
quality of education considers the level of compliance expected
results. Therefore, the quality can be seen as a set of parameters, how
the result conforms to the standards and expectations of all
stakeholders.
A generalized analysis of approaches to definition of quality
education revealed the basis for their classification (see table 1).
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Table1
Analysis of approaches to definition of quality of education
Approaches Base
Pedagogical Level of education and training
Integrated External examination (material resources,
personnel, programs, forms and methods of
work and other indicators)
Methodological The ratio of operational results with the
desired goals
Procedure Assessment of the educational process
Psychological The level of development of cognitive
processes and the degree of manifestation of
mental structures of the individual
Learner-centered Personal development of the learner
Multivariable Evaluation of educational institutions on the
basis of internal parameters
The intuitive-empirical The experience and intuition of the person
Formal reporting The level of achievement of learners
The result Evaluation of results of educational activity
of educational institutions
Qualimetric The measurement of parameters in the
parameters
Integrated Introduction categories bearing integrated
(competence, literacy, education)
Social The degree of satisfaction of individual and
social consumer
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As the table shows, the overall "quality of education" is considered
from positions of various levels. On the one hand, from the position of
subjects of educational process taking into account the hierarchy of
socially important characteristics, parameters. On the other hand, from
the perspective of the educational institution (provider), providing a
range of services adequate to the requirements of state educational
standards, the needs of the individual and society (consumers).
For getting a really quality education should be the quality of the
requirements (objectives, Stan-the standards and norms) and the
required quality of the resources (educational programs, human
resources, logistics, Finance, etc.) and quality conditions (investment
and education). If co-observation of these two aspects of quality
important the quality of the educational process (scientific and
educational activities, management, educational technology, etc.)
directly implementing (providing) training. And finally, another
element of the quality of education is the quality of the results of the
University activity (current and final student learning outcomes, the
characteristics of career growth of graduates, etc.).
One of the principles of European standards in the framework of the
Bologna process is the fact that the University itself demonstrates the
quality of education. There is a tendency for greater development and
dissemination processes of self-evaluation, self-regulation and self-
quality.
The quality system of education at the University includes certain
subsystems: the quality of the educational system (educational
environment), quality of training, quality of education of graduates,
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etc. At each level the quality of education has its own characteristics,
content and structure.
The quality of education in high school is considered by the author
as a symbiosis of quality of educational process and quality of result.
A procedural aspect of higher education involves the totality of
aspects of:
quality of implementation of state educational standards and
programmers of higher professional education;
quality of University management and its structural divisions;
quality potential accepted to University students;
quality of the training objectives;
quality of the content of education;
quality of the teaching staff;
quality used educational technologies;
quality resource support for the functioning and development of
the University (financial, educational, informational, personnel,
research, etc.).
"The resulting" component of the University system of education
quality includes [29]:
quality of the provided educational services;
quality of education of graduates;
quality specialist;
quality of scientific production, etc.
Training of specialists should be viewed as an integrated socio-
pedagogical process designed in a specific educational system in the
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form of theoretical, normative and technological models.
The solutions to the problem of improving the quality of training
have been studied by many scientists and teachers-practitioners. So,
for example, two interpretations of the concept "quality" is a
philosophical and productive. From a philosophical point of view as
universal and objective characteristics of the object in the totality of
its properties. The quality reflects the substantial certainty of the
object, which is the same, not different. From the industrial point of
view, the quality – set of properties and a measure of the usefulness of
the product, causing its ability to satisfy both public and personal
needs. The scientist said that the most important is the production
interpretation, which allows distinguishing two aspects of product
quality: it has certain properties; consideration of their value from the
perspective of consumers, not producers.
In modern conditions of the rapidly developing global market and
the emergence of new technologies large requirements in the target
language are to the competitiveness of a specialist – graduate. From
the point of view of M. A. Valiullina, D. K. Shigapov [36],
competitive specialist is a specialist, able to achieve goals in different
and rapidly changing educational situations due to the possession of
the methods of solving a large class of professional tasks. Given the
specificity of the Russian market, which is a feature of frequent
changes in both external and internal conditions, we can state that the
competitiveness of a specialist is a condition of its survival and the
factors influencing mobility.
Currently, in the preparation of competitive specialists in the higher
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school there are problems. S. N. Shirobokov focuses on a number of
contradictions between:
need for the introduction of efficient diagnostic methods of
quality assessment of specialist training in higher education
institution, and the insufficiency of scientific and methodical support
of the current and final control of the quality assessment;
knowledge of the orientation of the content of training and
personal development of future specialist;
the traditional approach to assessing the quality of training and
the evolving market of educational services;
requirements for specialist labour market, and the willingness of
teachers to the training of competitive specialist graduate;
the current system of assessing the level of training and
orientation of students for an adequate assessment of their
professional qualities
In the preparation of highly qualified, competitive price, good
quality-language specialist’s stakeholders are the government, society,
students and the very highest educational institution which provides
this training. It is therefore necessary to examine and take into account
the demands and interests of all these parties. The main customer of
the training is the state that determines your requirements to the
contents and organization of training in the state educational standard
of higher professional education. Due to the fact that the content of
education is implemented by teachers, and it is associated with
occupational competence and their level of thinking and perception,
we can assume that the content of education, which learns future
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professionals, can be subjective nature. The content of professional
education are fixed in the standard and working programs of
disciplines, textbooks and teaching materials, is the basis for
interaction of all participants of the educational process.
Thus, the quality of educational process in higher education can be an
integral property that determines the ability of educational systems to meet
both existing and future needs of society and the state in training highly
qualified specialists.
Training becomes possible as a result of implementation of the
organizational model of professional training, created on the basis of
existing improved bathtub model of curriculum, where much attention
should be given to the formation of cognitive independence of future
specialists.
The training specialist develops and accounted for is professional
commitment, the formation of which is influenced by such factors as
availability of human, economic and political knowledge; socio-
psychological competence and communicative competence, including
practical skills too competently and clearly express their thoughts, convey
information, to listen and hear the partner and provide feedback, etc.
Questions:
1. What does the quality of training include?
2. What aspects of quality can be identified in the procedural side of
higher professional education?
3. What are the main approaches to the definition of the quality of
education?
4. What determines the quality of a young specialist?
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5. What needs to be done at each stage of formation of competence in
training?
6. What are the conditions for successful modernization of the Russian
higher education?
7. Describe the problems associated with the modernization of higher
education.
8. Give the definition "Quality of education".
9. What resources are necessary for quality education?
10. What are the main challenges in the preparation of competitive
specialists in higher education?
11. What are the specifics of the quality of the educational process?
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CHAPTER 2 QUALITY MANAGEMENT AS AN ESSENTIAL
PART OF TRAINING A COMPETITIVE SPECIALIST AT
HIGH SCHOOL
2.1. QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF SPECIALISTS’ TRAINING
The solution of any major problem is impossible without effective
management, which involves focusing attention and effort on the main
direction. All experience and potential of science, technology, industry,
employees’ knowledge and ability to work should be aimed at solving
urgent problems, i.e. improving the quality and, henceforth, creating
competitive products and services. In modern conditions it enables to
improve the quality management, which is inseparably connected with
increasing efficiency of the entire production [22].
There are two main trends in the interpretation of “quality management”
notion. Some authors consider the quality management in the context of
social management, which stands for management in different social
systems (A. Bermus, V. Bordovskiy, I. Iazykova, E. Yakovlev and others)
[5; 6; 37; 38].
G. Bordovskiy and A. Nesterov determine the quality management of the
educational process as a focused, complex and coordinated activity of
managers, teachers and trainees aimed at creating impact on the educational
process to ensure full correspondence of the graduates to the norms
established by educational standards and qualification requirements [4].
On the other hand, the education quality management is understood as
creating products of management activities, which represent the conditions
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of the educational process and reflect the interaction between goals and
results, although they are defined operationally and predicted in the zone of
trainees’ potential development [3].
Quality management is to be considered as a focused process of
coordinated effects on the management objects to establish, secure and
support the necessary level of its quality, the latter satisfying the demands
of consumers and society on the whole. As a result, the process should be
treated as a set of interrelated activities transforming inputs and outputs.
The following definition is more universal and applicable to the
characteristics of quality management in terms of market conditions and
mixed economy, as compared to the definition given in ISO 9000-2001, i.e.
a part of quality management focused on realization of quality requirements
[42]. The last stated definition turns out to be more suitable fro quality
control. Standard 2001 has lost its force. Process approach in the current
standard GOST R ISO 9001-2015 used "in the development,
implementation and improvement of the effectiveness of the quality
management system to enhance customer satisfaction by meeting their
requirements. Understanding and managing interrelated processes as a
system contributes to effectiveness and efficiency of the organization in the
achievement of planned results. This approach allows the organization to
manage the relationships and interdependencies between the processes of
the system, so that the overall performance of the organization can be
improved. The process approach involves the systematic identification and
management processes and their interaction so that to achieve the desired
results in accordance with the policy in the area of quality and strategic
direction of the organization."
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Quality management system represents the activities to establish, provide
and support quality standards through creating, operating and consuming a
particular product [27]. Total quality management implies that all units of a
university organization are engaged in quality monitoring.
According to functional approach basic elements of a management
system are planning, organization, motivation and control.
The investigation of a planning function in the area of educational
management system comprises the analysis of plans validity, their
operation dates and available resources. The reasons of non-compliance
with a define plan deserve special consideration. It can arise from the basic
data fault in planning, incorrect planning method, inefficient process of
planning survey, groundless planning indicators, incompetence during plan
performance, etc.
The review of the “organization” element includes studying the
conformity of current university organization environment to its set tasks,
analyzing all actual responsibilities, evaluating workplace standards and
existence of overlapping.
Reviewing of the “motivation” element includes analysis of mental and
financial methods of motivation, employee turnover estimates, average
monthly salary figures, level of employees’ satisfaction with the provided
working conditions and their career prospects.
Reviewing of the “control” element contains control method analysis,
monitoring mechanism evaluation and disclosure of deviations from set-up
parameters, schedule, plans etc.
Management system analysis calls for a thorough survey of forecasting
and planning processes. In these conditions it is important that fullness,
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reliability and accuracy of source data, forecasting and planning tool
propriety should be verified and efficiency of rate development should be
controlled.
Application of a system approach in the management area demands
special scientific, organizational, technological and educational training.
Of great significance nowadays is a neoclassical paradigm of quality
based on the concept of TQM (Total Quality Management) and covering
elements of systemic, cybernetic and informational paradigms. This
concept is created by such outstanding authors as W. Deming, D. Jurena, K.
Isikava [10], O. Crosby, G. Taguti [39], A. Feigenbaum [9], W. Shewhart
and some others.
The purpose of education is inevitably changing with the development of
pedagogical science and practice. TQM is a new approach to the
management of higher education institution, the latter being focused on
quality. The approach is based on participation of all members of the
organization (personnel in all departments and at all levels) and aimed at
achieving long-term success through the satisfaction of the consumers’
(customers’) requirements and taking benefits by the members of the
organization and society.
Modern development of the theory and practice of education quality
management is focused on the rejection of the traditional approach, where
the management of educational process was carried out according to the
final result estimates.
The modern approach focuses on the creation of a universal education
quality management system, providing regulation of the process on the
basis of its assessment by deliberately established criteria for all the
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components of the process as well as factors influencing its final outcome.
This is a totally new approach.
Peculiarities of education quality management are considered by V.
Maksimova, B. Panasyuk, and others. V. Maksimova believes that quality
management is an indirect control through stimulating and regulating the
creative and executive activity, the administrative staff, teachers, students
and their parents, the organization of their activities as well as taking
management decisions and monitoring their implementation [21].
The works by V. Belobragin, A. Glichev, V. Nikitin [24], V. Filoncheva,
V. Panasyuk and V. Shilenko consider international experience, define
ways of creating and implementing national systems of education quality
management and their principles, classify the kinds, investigate and adapt
terminological apparatus.
V. Belobragin considers quality management as a purposeful coordinated
process of influence on objects, tools, labor instruments, integrated systems;
group and individual employees, which ensures the achievement of the
highest social quality and its relative steadiness [2]. The main features of
work quality control are the following:
- the process of influence;
- the presence of objects for influence, such as tools and labor
instruments as well as all processes, the whole staff and individual
employees;
- purposefulness, the goal, ensuring the achievement of the highest social
quality and its relative steadiness.
Some researchers pay special attention to coordinated quality
management process of specialists’ preparation, including the choice of
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quality indicators, content, forms, methods and means of training,
organizational, technical and other aspects of management relying upon the
international standards ISO 9000 and techniques of total quality
management (TQM), which serve the basis for European and Russian
models in the field of quality.
Currently Russian higher education institutions apply three main models
of quality management for training specialists:
- the evaluation method of quality management to estimate activities of
the University;
- the concept based on the principles of total quality management
(TQM);
- the approach based on the requirements of the international quality
standard ISO 9000:2000.
The development of the concept of total quality management (TQM)
allows apprehending the role of quality corporate culture, i.e. each
employee of an educational institution should have a clear understanding of
the quality management essence, his duties and responsibilities as well as
his role in the quality management system. For instance, when developing a
quality management model for training managers in the tourism and
hospitality industries we should take into account:
- research and development of the methodological foundations of quality
management;
- planning of education quality in the framework of the standardization
process by way of establishing educational standards;
- legitimization of conducting the standardization in the field of
education;
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- development and application of procedures (appropriate technologies
and means to ensure their implementation) to monitor compliance and
assess achievement of educational standards;
- performance of monitoring the quality of the conditions, process and
outcomes of learning as feedback of the education quality management
system.
- creation of organizational structures to monitor compliance and assess
achievement of educational standards;
- assurance of a flexible respond of the educational standards the system
to social changes, etc.
There are eight major principles of international quality standards ISO
9000 applicable to the quality management of education at the University.
1. Customer focus (organization focused on customer), where
organizations depend on their customers and therefore should be aware of
current and future customer needs, meet the requirements and try to exceed
customers’ expectations. A customer can be any person interested in this or
that education service (a student himself, his parents, government,
employer etc.)
Customer’s satisfaction with the quality of the provided services can be
judged by the results the organization achieved when meeting the interests
of external users:
- indicators displaying perception of the University service quality on the
part of a consumer;
- indicators reflecting performance of the University to increase customer
satisfaction.
- indicators showing society's perception of the institution;
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- indicators outlining the performance of the organization to improve the
society’s satisfaction.
The degree of impact on society is determined through the results
achieved by the University in respect of meeting society’s interests at local,
national and global levels.
2. The leadership of the head involves the way they determine the
significance of their institution, work out development strategy, promote its
implementation; reinforce all values necessary to achieve long-term
success; the way they get involved in activities ensuring the development
and implementation of the quality management system of their educational
institution.
The framework covers four areas:
- the heads define the mission, the development strategy and values,
demonstrate an excellent example of devotion to the goal (senior
management serves a standard of behavior). They establish common goals,
directions and internal environment of the institution. They create the
favourable surroundings where people can become fully involved in
achieving their common goals;
- the heads are responsible for development, implementation and
continuous improvement of the management system;
- the heads are involved in working with customers, partners and
representatives of society (various events, seminars aimed at molding
positive image of the University etc.);
- the heads motivate, encourage and support their staff (the employee’s
positive action and initiative should not be neglected). Management
underlines all precautionary measures to prevent deviations.
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3. The involvement of staff and students gives the opportunity to use
their abilities for the benefit of the institution. Special attention is given to
the way the institution manages its staff, develops and uses its knowledge
and capacities at the individual and group levels; plans activities in order to
implement its policies and strategies.
The criterion covers the following areas:
- planning, managing and improving work with personnel;
- defining, developing and supporting the knowledge and competence of
the staff;
- involving the personnel in activity aimed at implementing the policies
and strategies of the institution and its functions;
- communication of the staff;
- encouraging and motivating the staff.
One of the indicators is the satisfaction of the teaching staff. The contents
of the criterion are represented by the results achieved by the University in
satisfying its staff. The criterion includes the following two components:
indicators to demonstrate teachers’ opinion of their work; indicators to
display actions and measures of the University to improve employees’
satisfaction. The head should clearly assign and explain all the tasks them.
The staff should be aware of their common goals and strive to achieve
them.
4. A process approach means that a desired result is achieved more
efficiently when resources and activities are managed as a process. The
criterion covers five areas of activity:
- systematic design and management processes;
- processes of improvement through innovations in order to meet the
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requirements of consumers and other concerned parties;
- design and development of services based on customers' expectations;
- the provision and subsequent maintenance of services;
- management and improvement of relationships with consumers.
5. System approach to management is establishing, understanding and
managing a system of interrelated processes contributing to the
effectiveness and efficiency of the organization.
Quality is the main task of all employees.
In managing the teaching staff the head of the institution should:
- support workers’ willingness to get education;
- the organize training system within the institution;
- promote supplementary education;
- control their working conditions;
- organize certification of workplaces;
- improve the system of salary;
- provide equal attention to all groups of employees;
- identify and assist in problem solving;
- raise trust through personal contacts;
- show the employees’ personal significance;
- develop the systems of recognition.
6. Continuous improvement of the organization performance. All
employees should do their best to fit in with the customers’ requirements
and keep to the following principles:
- securing the consumer’s wishes of as a measure of quality.
- continuous improvement of all operational processes.
- constant use of new technologies and methods of quality assurance.
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- engineering quality (i.e. the development of services based on
consumers’ requirements).
- thorough accounting and analysis of costs for services.
- continuous staff training.
7. Making decisions based on facts. Effective solutions rely upon logical
and intuitive analysis of data and information. Only having a good deal of
reliable information the head can make quality management decisions and
sort out all problems. When taking management decisions it is necessary to
consider and analyze actual data in dynamics at least for the last 3 years.
8. Mutually beneficial relations with a supplier. The work is carried out
in all areas: cooperation with schools (especially the profile ones), colleges
(attracting potential students), companies etc.
The principles of educational services can be used to determine the
policy of a higher educational institution quality and strategic planning.
When developing quality policies the European Foundation for quality
management can come in handy.
In the new version of the standard 9001-2015 the following quality
management principles are offered:
1. Orientation [focus] on the consumer
2. Leadership
3. Employee engagement
4. Process approach
5. Improvement
6. Make a decision based on facts
7. Management of the relationship.
Professional education should be up-to-date and have a distinct picture of
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a professional, his life, his purpose in the world, his role in society, culture
and production sphere; social and political order for his education.
The concept of “quality assurance” widely used in theory and practice is
characterized as part of quality management focused on providing
confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled. It is a process of
development and implementation of collectively planned and systematic
activities necessary to create this confidence. A set of actions for quality
assurance should cover activities for the development, production and use
of products that meet certain quality requirements at all stages of production
activities creating consumer confidence in the manufacturer.
The level of quality is sure to be one of the most important categories of
quality management. In accordance with the national standardized
definition the quality level is a relative characteristics based on the
comparison of indicators for the quality of products, services, process and
operation with an appropriate set of core indicators.
As far as education sphere is concerned, we should say that nowadays
there is a sharp increase in demand for high qualified professional workers
worldwide. The required quality of training can be achieved only with the
help of a high quality educational process and favourable conditions of a
university system. M. Koroleva and N. Romankova underline a significant
role of a department in training students for a particular specialty (direction)
[13].
The faculty plays a special role in the University educational system,
providing the conditions and processes to meet the needs in raising the level
of professional knowledge of students and employers (in the formation and
improvement of human resources).
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The objective of the education quality management can be successfully
achieved only through the use of system, activity-based and practice-
oriented approaches.
Thus, quality management of specialists' training is an essential condition
of development and quality assurance. It is a strategic direction in the
development of the University meeting modern trends of professional
education development and focusing on teachers and students as the main
subjects of the educational process.
Questions:
1. What is the quality of education?
2. Describe the quality management as a process.
3. Describe the process approach from the point of view of ISO.
4. List the elements of a quality management system.
5. Describe the functional approach to quality management.
6. What does the study of the function of planning in management
include?
7. What does study of the function of the organization in quality
management include?
8. What does the study of the function of motivation in quality
management include?
9. What does the study of control functions in quality management
include?
10. What model of quality management of specialists training is used in
Russia?
11. What is the principle of quality management?
12. What is the difference of the principles of the quality management
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standards ISO 9001-2001 and 9001-2015?
13. What is the level of quality?
14. What is the role of the Department in specialist training?
2.2. THE ANALYSIS OF MANAGEMENT APPROACHES TO
SPECIALISTS’ TRAINING QUALITY IN NATIONAL AND
FOREIGN EXPERIENCE
One of the most important conditions for creating a management system
for specialists’ training quality is recognition of the Russian education
traditions and studying the experience of other countries.
The research results of foreign scientists [11] describing the factors of
“good school” are especially noteworthy. The main factor influencing the
quality is good teaching. Additionally, of great importance are such factors
as educative process transparence, a variety of teaching methods, the
formation of clear and precise expectations, team spirit and tolerance to all
participants of the educational process. The researchers note self-reflection
of schools, which have their own concept of further education and team
skills upgrading.
In managing the education quality some authors [12] consider the quality
management models of education. Evaluation and self-rating standards are
developed for higher schools. Measures for developing the standard of the
education quality and creating a quality management system are also
discussed in foreign literature. Nowadays there is a fierce dispute about
what is a successful education. Researchers consider teaching methods in
the context of quality management and emphasize the need for new forms
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of educating and examining. Much attention is given to changing the role of
a student and his place in the development of education quality. The
success of graduates in the labor market is a measure of the education
quality.
Today the quality of future specialists training determines the future of
the state and society. That is why developed countries pay close attention to
issues of quality, continuity and mobility of education. For example,
European countries have reflected these trends in the materials of the
Bologna process.
Approach to the management of the education quality offered by a group
of researchers under M. Potashkin is widely spread in national pedagogical
science. Two types of management: management by process and
performance management are analyzed in their multi-authored monograph
and teacher edition. The first type of management is more focused on the
process, which regulates the teachers’ activity to achieve the goals. In this
case the number of procedural measures is more important than the quality
of the process. The second type, i.e. performance management, focuses on
management directing all the processes to achieve good results, are to be
determined in advance. In the real world these types of management don’t
exist in a pure form. They are combined in particular variations, since
processes and results are intertwined and inseparable.
In education quality management theory a group of researchers under M.
Potashkin considers management as a gradual process relying upon an
appropriate organizational structure and management mechanism and
carrying out certain functions. Solution of the education quality
management problem requires creation of special organized structures for
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which quality control is dominant and self-valuable.
The organizational structure of education quality management reflects
the static process, emphasizes the elements of the structure, their powers
and relations with other elements of the management system. However, to
put organizational structure into operation the authors offer an appropriate
mechanism for quality management education. The algorithm includes the
following management procedures:
- collecting information from potential social clients.
- formulating social order.
- identifying the most preferred university mission.
- correlating the chosen mission with available resources of territorial
education system and adjusting the chosen practices and education results
to the circumstances.
- selecting management type: process or results-oriented.
- selecting educational paradigm.
- selecting educational practice type (or the dominant type).
- determining parameters that will be used to evaluate the education
results, graduate image (characterized in these parameters), and the
minimum values of these parameters.
- developing and implementing diagnostic methods of student’s
personality in the parameters given above.
- predicting student’s education objectives (results) in accordance with
the parameters of the selected education practice.
- correlating targeted results with the available education mode of
university life.
- identifying factors which help to get a new quality of education, training
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and implementing a university development program.
- comparing education findings with targeted goals and consequently
evaluating education quality. If the results do not correspond to the forecast,
the following sequence of steps should be performed.
- formulating problem on the basis of divergence between planned and
existing results.
- clarifying weakness of the educational process, which cause problems
with results.
- clarifying problem with conditions (scientific, methodical, personnel,
financial, material, legal, motivation, time) which caused problems in the
educational process.
- clarifying problem of the university management system which caused
problems with conditions and processes.
One of the works devoted to the problem of creating a quality education
system is the work of researchers from St. Petersburg. It seeks to develop
the conceptual basis of the quality of education system construction relying
on the theory and experience of quality management in manufacturing and
services. First of all, it is about the breaking of basic requirements of the
international ISO quality standards in the field of education.
This work is valuable for its idea that the educational sphere differs from
the production sphere in a number of features:
- Consumers of educational services (students) as well as producers of
services (engineering and teaching staff, administrative personnel) are
active participants in the educational activity. Their activity, motivation and
efforts influence the quality of the process and the results of educational
operations.
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- The subjective satisfaction of students with the quality of the education
is not the only criterion for its evaluation.
- Objective verification of graduate training quality is carried out only at
the workplace, rather than at the institution. It imposes tougher
requirements for systems to control knowledge, skills and students’
personal qualities.
- Requirements for humanization, individualization of learning,
willingness to realize learners’ personal creativity make it impossible to
fully implement the program-oriented approach to training and learning
education. The process of providing educational services can not be fully
technologized, so quality control is always connected with the unaccounted
factors. In this sense, the management of the education quality will always
be partly uncontrolled.
The paper notes that education quality finds its refraction in an
educational process. Educational process is defined as the totality of its
major characteristics in general, the characteristics of the parties, links and
elements in their optimal combination, which provide the effective
fulfillment of education tasks, training and personality development of the
future specialist. The educational process quality is decomposed into two
major components: the procedure and the result, that is, the quality of the
educational process is a system of two major subsystems - subsystems of
the education process quality and subsystem of result quality of this
process.
The paper importance is in considering specifics of the quality system
projecting and its implementation in an educational institution. In current
conditions the Russian university seeks for ways to build a quality system
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that on the one hand meets the requirements of ISO standards and on the
other hand maintains a positive experience in education quality
management of national education system.
According to ISO requirements, the main point of the quality system
projecting and implementing is to ensure that the quality policy with the
aims and objectives of quality, commitment to consumers on the quality of
services based on their needs and requirements are documented at all stages
of educational process and at all structural levels of the educational system.
The quality system is considered as a means providing conformity of
production to the established demands. In the educational system it means
that the quality system provides the level of graduates’ training quality
which will meet the needs of the students, their parents, employers and
society.
P. Anisimov and V. Sosonko focused on the study of three large blocks
of education quality management problems [1]. The first block concerns the
analysis of education quality concept; the second one is dedicated to the
study of problems of education quality management organization at the
federal level; the third block covers quality control issues at the level of
specialist training school.
As for the education quality, the authors are sure that the education
quality is a multi-component system with its main structural elements being
the quality of the teaching staff; quality of educational programs; quality of
students; quality of education institution management.
The basic features of the labor quality management is the impact process;
the presence of an impact object such as items, tools and instruments of
labor, as well as all processes, all staff and individual workers;
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purposefulness; coordination, the aim of which is to provide the highest
public quality; the relative stability of quality. The main feature of the
quality management is focused and coordinated effects on objects, which
aims at attaining higher quality under current conditions.
The basis for solving the problem of quality management education in
high school is the projecting and implementing the educational process
quality system. The purpose of this system is to combine and integrate
institutional, methodological, scientific, human, administrative and other
efforts and resources as well as to include all the structures of the institution
to the quality management based on scientific principles, taking into
account the varied factors and conditions in order to achieve high quality of
operation and excellent results of education that meets the relevant
standards. In other words, the system of educational process quality in
higher education is designed to combine all the resources of the institution
in order to achieve high-quality of the institution functioning and education
results on the whole.
One of the main results of education is the scholarship of graduates, their
compliance with the established standards of training and a growing
demand in the employment market. In addition, there are other resulting
characteristics of the education quality at the level of the educational
institution. In particular they are personal achievements of students and
teachers, the results of improving the educational process and the institution
as a whole; the level of influence the educational institutions has on other
educational systems, the level of cooperation with other educational
institutions, with the labor market, with society; execution of plans,
activities and educational institution development programs.
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V. Panasiuk defines quality management as the methods and activities of
an operational nature used to fulfill the requirements for quality [26].
Quality management implies an active influence on the process and its
adjustment to obtain exactable results. Summing up, if quality assurance is
a number of required planned and systematically implemented activities in
terms of the quality system, then the quality management represents
methods and activities of an operational nature.
At the level of the institution the main functions of the educational
process quality management are planning, organization, management and
control. It is interesting to note that under modern conditions planning calls
for combination of operational and strategic management, where the
institution management pays special attention to the environment, the
peculiarities of its interaction to ensure the development of the institution,
taking into account the prospects of region, city, nearby enterprises
development.
In market economy strategic management becomes important since
market mechanisms presuppose the existence of quite a few competing
educational institutions at the same educational market. To ensure the
demand for educational services, educational institution cannot take into
consideration only their internal resources and rely on self-sufficiency. In
this case it is essential to know and have a clear picture of the situation and
make use of what is happening outside in the social, political, economic and
other spheres of society. Moreover, it is necessary to study the requirements
of the labor market and needs of the population in educational services, not
in general but in a particular region, city, town and village.
With education globalization, expansion of interrelations throughout the
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world of great importance is the question of education quality control in
developed countries. Quality management in developed countries is to
fulfill two main functions: quality assurance and quality control. The first
function stands for creating the conditions essential to provide high-quality
training services: the creation of the regulatory framework; the existence of
clear learning objectives; availability of skills standards and national
(regional) requirements based on competencies; availability of appropriate
educational programs and training materials; availability of qualified
teachers; the creation of system to collect and analyze information; focus on
the best samples of quality in national practice area.
Quality control function involves the assessment of the learning process
and its results, which need the existence of evaluation indicators (criteria) of
educational institutions, assessment and certification of students skills;
accreditation and licensing of education structures, which provide training
services; control of the learning process; self-assessment of teaching
organizations.
In the USA these issues are closely connected with the problems of
accreditation. It is a specific form of controlling the education quality,
which enables to take into account the views of all parties and combine
public and state forms of control.
The procedure of evaluating the quality of American education can
include:
- accreditation of educational institution as a whole (institutional
accreditation);
- accreditation of professional education programs (specialized
accreditation);
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- rating;
- the system of objective (test) assessment of knowledge and abilities of
students.
Institutional accreditation provides a generalized assessment as to
compliance of the institution with particular indicators (criterion).
The specialized accreditation procedure focuses only on the learning
process aspect:
-basic knowledge;
- specialized knowledge;
- practical skills;
- special skills (design);
- the use of computers.
The entire American educational system gives priority to identifying the
best talented pupils, with search, upbringing and support to talented pupils
being its fundamental principle. The procedure for the diagnosis of
students’ personal achievement in the structure of the USA national
education quality assessment system comprises 3 stages:
The first stage implies testing knowledge and abilities of pupils of
secondary schools, the results of which are taken into account upon moving
onto the next stage of education. At the second stage the testing is carried
out to identify an objective assessment of knowledge quality at educational
institutions on the whole and at the individual level in particular. The third
stage represents certification followed by the licensing procedure.
Certification has the form of a qualified test (or testing) of professional
competence and professional suitability after graduation.
The testing procedure is not connected with the selection procedure. The
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main functions of testing are to help in the study; improve the teaching
process; determine the policy in education system; carry out counseling.
The education system makes use of group tests.
The tests allows to select and determine the place. Selection tests
(screening) are used when admitting to college and hiring for work.
Determination of the place is different from the selection because the aim of
this procedure is not screening, but the distribution of students according to
their abilities and capabilities in order to get effective learning.
Accreditation process in the USA is voluntary, where as for many
Western European countries it is obligatory.
Despite the differences caused by the operation of their own education
models, the carried our investigation discovered general trends of education
development in the United States, Germany, England, where the procedure
of personnel training is a part of the education quality assurance.
The change in the attitude of the educational process participants to the
role and importance which the assessment has in evaluating the education
quality is sure to be one of the most important general trends of this
process.
Prospects of the assessment development lie in the fact that there is a
shift of a focus from the competence of the head in his work with the
personnel designed for the improvement of the educational process to the
development of the institution, which allows for an optimum combination
of all kinds of activities to ensuring the required quality of education
services for students and the public. The concept should:
- reflect the institution development strategy and its goals;
- promote a positive attitude with all the participants of the evaluation
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process through a positive feeling of satisfaction;
- correspond to a clear description of the functional responsibilities of the
officials within the office;
- take into account factors affecting the environment;
- have a broad informational rationale based on the principle of equality
of all components;
- not depend on political or party preferences;
- be aimed at identifying the individual needs of self-improvement and
development;
- exclude subjectivity of the observer and be valid;
- be formed by a system of indicators with their accurate details revealing
professional and meaningful activities and evaluated qualities of the
personality characteristics of people under assessment;
- be developed by all participants of the evaluation process.
The next trend concerning staff training for the labor market is a transfer
(through delegation) management solutions and technical support to
organizations, when joint management is realized by employers and trade
unions. There are several more reasons for the increased involvement of
employers into vocational education and training.
1. Underfunded public education institutions are not able to prepare the
necessary number of workers possessing basic vocational skills. Thus,
employers have to get engaged in training directly or finance it.
2. The industry is not satisfied with the quality of education in public
education institutions and are forced to provide technical assistance to these
institutions or get involved into the initial professional training.
3. Increasing competition forces entrepreneurs to pay more serious
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attention to staff training, to initiate the development of professional
standards and finance sectorial vocational education and training.
In some countries professional standards developed by recognized
national councils of vocational education and training, were the basis for
training and planning documentation used by both public and private
producers of educational services. It should be stressed that the approach to
the formation of standards in Western countries differs from Russian. In
these countries a leading role is played by professional standards which are
applied to a graduate by branch, an employer and a specific area of his
labour activity. Educational standards and training in vocational education
system is built just on these requirements to the skills.
Vocational education in Germany differs in developed relations with the
social partners who initiate updating of existing standards and developing
of new ones.
The development of standards involves employers, unions, federal and
local governments, chambers, educational institutions and relevant research
structures. Training on new professions begins after the official testing of
standards. Typically, the cycle lasts for about 5 years. However, it can be
reduced, if necessary.
Vocational education training standards include:
- pedagogical aspect;
- social protection of young people;
- assurance of education and training quality;
- system-base component;
- ensuring mobility and continuity in the labor market.
In the most general form vocational education and training standards are
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aimed at developing students' ability to plan, implement and manage their
own professional activity and also participate in continuous learning in
order to maintain their professional competence and mobility.
The standards provide for:
- professional knowledge and skills (skills related to specific employment
sphere);
- key skills (communication and analytical skills, ability to work in a
team, to cope with unexpected situations);
- ability providing employment opportunities (capacity to negotiate).
All work is coordinated by the Federal Institute for Vocational Education
issues, which after relevant recommendation of the federal government
approves a new regulation on training (standard), the distinguishing features
of which are:
- a special focus on developing the ability to solve problems;
- taking into account technological progress and knowledge
management;
- accent on activity;
- orientation to the customer (consumer);
- flexibility;
- close link of learning with practical demand;
- integration of professional and continuous learning.
The development of vocational training standards in the USA began later
than in the European countries. 1994 was marked for the formation of the
National Council responsible for skills standards. Technological changes,
restructuring and reduction of production, increased global competition led
to serious changes in the USA economy.
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Having studied the problems of the development of professional
standards in the United States, we can come to the conclusion that:
- at the heart of the development of skills standards is a requirement to
increase the economic efficiency of the sectors and mobility in the labor
market to improve the welfare of its citizens;
- the development of standards include participants of different
categories, i.e. employers, trade unions, representatives of the education
sector and local community etc.;
- standards are not compulsory; their adoption is due to purely economic
factors.
National professional standards of the UK define what needs are to be
achieved.
The standards are used to develop the content of training and define the
subject of assessment. The standards, which have been subjected to
evaluation, form the qualifications, in other words a diploma or certificate
testifying the standard evaluation.
National professional qualification is similar to the examination
requirements, being not binding to the course of study and focusing on the
evaluation process rather than learning. It is part of a national system of
vocational qualifications, which implements the result-oriented standards.
On developing basic provisions of vocational education and training we
can come to the conclusion that the vocational education and training
standard consists of two parts: results and processes. Final results of labor
sphere are correlated with the results of the vocational education and
training standard. The analysis of current trends in the development of
occupations, qualifications and training requirements points out their
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constant and rapid change. In this context their forecasting is increasingly
important.
In a situation of a rapid technological development and breakthrough
information technology growth the economy and labor market require a
quick response to these changes through the internal flexibility and
adaptability of the system.
In this regard forecasts of demand for skills (qualifications) become
especially significant.
It is necessary to carry out the maximum amount of research in this area
and introduce tools of control and mechanisms to inform the education
system about the data. Doubtless, it will minimize the gap between the
existing and the required skills.
Focused efforts on generating forecasts of demand for skills have led to
the emergence of complex technologies and approaches to move from
traditional quantitative forecasting methods to qualitative methods of trends
research, providing a faster response to changes in the labor market in the
form of development variations and systems study.
In Germany these questions are decided by the Federal Institute for
Vocational Education and the Institute for Labour Market and Occupational
Research at the trilateral Federal Employment Institute and a number of
regional and branch structures.
In France the macroeconomic projections are the responsibilities of the
Joint Working Bureau of economic prospects and at the regional and
sectoral levels all the corresponding work is carried out by the Monitoring
Committee.
The increasing relevance is given to qualifications obtained on the
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accomplishment of complex services and consultations and, henceforth,
social and communication skills.
European Union countries have already taken some vital steps in this
direction, and their experience can certainly do a world of good for Russia
in search for optimal solutions in a variety of socio-economic and
organizational-administrative contexts. Although the forecasting can not
solve all problems, and clearly answer the question of how to harmonize
labor sphere and education since training is only one way to meet the needs
of the enterprise, and the purpose of education is treated much broader.
Common tasks set by national systems of education quality assessment
are as follows:
- increased attention of state authorities to the issues of quality and
development of education;
- the use of qualitative and quantitative indicators when realizing cross-
industry comparisons of education quality;
- the creation of structures which are responsible for attestation of
educational institutions and independent from the educational authorities;
- the use of formalized procedures of education quality assessment;
- increasing the responsibility of educational institutions to ensure the
quality of training.
Nowadays the problem of agreement between the education system and
the labor market should be the subject of a serious concern in Russia. Under
the circumstances vocational education system is not able to track changes
in professional activities, and for now its only task is to ensure the
development of the basic professional qualifications.
The quality of vocational education will be achieved only with the
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leading role of public authorities where they will be able to integrate and
synthesize information on employment and training issues with the help of
united efforts of federal and regional authorities, labor and employment
agencies, vocational training institutions, chambers of commerce and social
partners.
In England, the function test of graduate's skills and qualification is
separated from the learning process and transferred to the social
autonomous agencies. Bodies, which assign qualifications, are independent
from both the educational institutions and the government.
Each test of knowledge and work skills should be realized by an
appraiser who is competent in the examination methodology and the
profession for which the qualification is awarded.
A thorough consideration of the material allows for some detailed
conclusions:
- Russia has not developed a unified system of approaches for labor
market analysis in terms of changes in the requirements for skills and
qualifications, taking into account macroeconomic indicators and
expectations of citizens and workers.
- The solution of this problem can be achieved only through an integrated
consideration of the interests of all involved parties and internal features of
the vocational education system.
- Studying the international experience and realizing comparative
analysis are essential in order to develop our own system of forecasting the
needs in skills and qualifications for the benefit of the vocational education
system.
Objective criterions for assessing the quality of education abroad, having
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been carefully developed and analyzed, can be partly transferred to all
educational systems on the whole.
- When developing objective assessment criterion and evaluation
standards much attention should be paid to the object of evaluation,
distinguishing institutional assessment or accreditation (it is an object of a
certain type of institution) and specialized assessment (evaluation object is
the content side of the learning process).
- Changing the status of the institution, that is, the change of its traditional
structure requires constructing a criteria model of its function, which allows
assessing the possible impacts and their costs as well as taking into account
the requirements for alternatives selection.
- The problem of the development of criterion for evaluating the quality
of education and evaluation standards requires the involvement of all
members of the educational community, which enables them to give a
relevant value and eliminate inconsistencies causing incomparable results.
- The most important instrument to ensure the quality of education is the
introduction of self-assessment procedure to the practice of educational
institutions functions.
- Self-assessment should be based on careful selection of the actual
information, not on value judgments, which are the prerogative of the
external evaluation given by independent experts.
- The process of external evaluation is focused on the essential aspects of
the education systems functioning, when an assessment is based on the
basic working standards, when aesthetic principles of the evaluation
committees are clearly formulated, the professionalism of its members is
assured.
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- Pre-developed and sound system sets the manufacturability of
educational process, ensuring the achievement of the expected results and
helps to determine the value of the goals.
The above analysis of the domestic and foreign researchers’ approaches
on the formation of an effective education quality management system can
serve a basis for designing and implementing a modern model that meets
the current and future requirements of consumers of educational services of
the institution.
When developing a model of quality management we can rely upon the
following statements:
- The quality management system of vocational education is a complex
organizational and pedagogical structure based on the principle of duality of
organization and management, which determines two complementary
subsystems - a quality assurance subsystem in accordance with the State
Educational Standards and quality development subsystem in accordance
with updating labor market requirements, needs of students, parents and
society.
- The system reflects the duality principle in the quality management of
vocational education since it possesses two modes, i.e. operation and
development modes. Operation Mode is aimed at implementing regulatory
purposes and the effective use of existing potential in the educational
system, ensuring the quality of the educational and professional
environment and educational outcomes. Development mode involves not
only the implementation of the regulations, but also marketing and personal
goals, increasing educational potential and its effectiveness through the
development of innovations, as well as improving the quality of the
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educational environment and educational outcomes.
Herarchical model of the quality management of vocational education is
based on two groups of principles - traditional and innovative. The first
group includes the principles of integrity, optimality, flexibility, democracy,
fairness and openness.
The second group consists of the innovative principles of quality
management of vocational education arisen by modern conditions of the
institution operation; principle on team; principle of quality possession,
principle of duality.
The first principle (through management) suggests the need for quality
management at all stages of the life cycle of specialist training - from
vocational guidance to employment and adaptation to the production.
The following three principles are derived from E. Deming’s concept and
discover such basic requirements as: all participants of the educational
process from the head to the student are considered as a team; objectives,
content, methods and used techniques should correspond to the idea of
continuous quality improvement and be treated as institutions attribute;
education quality management should rely upon the latest scientific data,
avoiding soundless appeals and excessive formalization.
No limit character is the main feature of the requirements to the
educational process within the framework of quality systems development.
Unlike Educational Standards characteristics of the educational process in
the quality system describe the desired or actual level of services provided
by the educational institution. It is noteworthy that the requirements within
the quality system development are more dynamic than the state standards.
If Educational Standards provide for the opportunity to diagnose basic
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parameters, the quality system does not deny the presence of features which
sometimes are concealed from consumers. But it is desirable that the
characteristics should be suitable for evaluation by the institution and at
least partially by the customer.
The concept of the educational process quality in its modern sense
involves a wide range of characteristics, ranging from the substantive
content of curricula and programs, professionalism and teachers’ skills to
logistics and interior of the classrooms. Integrated quality assessment
includes a lot of other things such as convenience of schedules, availability
of funds and timely execution of administrative procedures etc.
The education quality management system is a multi-level system, which
consists of five hierarchical levels, each of which is a subsystem of quality:
the level of educational institution; the level of educational program
(faculty, Department); the level subjects (chair); the level of individual
disciplines (a teacher) and the level of a student.
The selected subsystems of the quality needs hierarchical control with the
implementation of all managerial functions. Each level includes the concept
of "quality management"; the subject, object, goal, principles and
management tools. The quality management system of vocational
education in high school may be based on the multiparadigm approach
combining different methodologies. It takes into account the need for the
providing such basic approaches as system, competence, qualimetric,
marketing, synergistic, multi-dimensional, system-dynamic, student-
centered approaches.
The researchers choose the methodological approaches relying upon one
main criterion, i.e. acceptance and orientation on such paradigms as the
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system of scientific knowledge about pedagogical sciences development.
The quality of the educational process implies the quality of the
educational plans and programs, the quality of staff and scientific potential,
the quality of students, the quality of learning tools and pedagogical
techniques used in the educational process.
The quality of education is determined by the control system, which
involves a pedagogical and administrative control. In this case the control
provides: - management functions (planning, organizational, leadership,
teaching); - feedback (teacher-student); - the level of readiness for the
learning process (teacher and student).
V. Podobed reveals the model of education management that involves
the development process as a set of interrelated changes, coordinated in a
unified whole to ensure the transfer of an object to a qualitatively different
state [28]. Thus, systemic management is based on the idea of integrity and
development, the idea of priority management.
The main factors influencing the time and the implementation of a
quality system of training include:
- attitude of the educational institution heads to the problem of
specialists’ preparation quality;
- the level of development of units to take up creation of quality system
in the educational space;
- the formation level of structure of the educational institution
management aimed at providing high-quality education;
- the state of the educational process at the University;
- traditions in the field of quality management of specialists ' training in
this educational institution;
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- the competence level of all participants engaged in organizing the
quality system;
- the availability and readiness of certified experts for the system of
specialists’ preparation quality;
- the involvement of educational institutions into other systems and
programs related to improving the level and quality of training.
Thus, the analysis of the experience of higher professional education
abroad has led to the conclusion that the competitiveness of graduates is
achieved through the quality of their knowledge, abilities and skills;
interaction with employers; orientation of educational content and teaching
methods on the formation of students’ personal qualities. Practical
orientation of education means increasing the requirements to professional
education.
Questions:
1. What steps can you call in the management of the quality of
education?
2. What is quality system?
3. What is system design?
4. What are the main functions of quality management of educational
process?
5. What are features of strategic management of the quality of education?
6. Describe the procedure for assessing the quality of American
education.
7. What does the quality of the educational process mean?
8. What factors influence the implementation of quality systems training
specialist?
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9. Describe the foreign experience of quality management.
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GLOSSARY
Acquisition engineeringпроектно-техническое обеспечение.
Проектное и материально-техническое обеспечение проекта на
всех стадияхпроектирования, обоснования проектных
решений, снабжения, производственной деятельности,
наладочных работ и приемочных испытаний.
Acquisition life cycle жизненный цикл закупок (обеспечения
заказами, поставками). Состоит, как правило, из пяти фаз — 1)
концепция, 2) обоснование и опытные образцы, 3) техническое
проектирование и развитие, 4) производство и 5) собственно
поставка.
Acquisition manager управляющий по закупкам,
обеспечению (заказам). Менеджер, несущий ответственность за
заказ и приобретение оборудования, материально-технических
ресурсов и услуг по проекту.
Activity работа (проекта). Проект представлен как
совокупность взаимосвязанных работ, которые обычно имеют
планируемую (ожидаемую) продолжительность, планируемую
стоимость и планируемые потребности в ресурсах.
Activity, durationпродолжительность работы.
Activity, finish (date)окончание работы, срок окончания
работы.
Activity, completedзаконченная работа сетевого графика
проекта (имеется фактическая дата окончания).
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Activity, criticalкритическая работа. Работа, выполнение
которой нельзя отложить без изменения общей
продолжительности или даты окончания проекта. Работа,
принадлежащая критическому пути.
Activity, dummyмнимая, фиктивная работа. Используется в
сетевой модели для обозначения логической зависимости между
реальными работами.
Activity, floatingсвободная работа, имеющая резерв
времени.
Activity, interfaceсвязывающая работа. Работа,
связывающая узел одной подсети с узлом другой.
Activity, leadпредваряющая (вспомогательная) работа.
Работа, связанная с подготовкой, поставкой материалов или
оборудования, утверждением документов, или подобная работа,
выполняемая «вне площадки». Ее исполнение требуется до
начала последующей (основной).
Activity, predecessorпредшествующая работа. Работа, от
которой зависит выполнение данной работы, технологически
(логически) предшествующая ей. Логическая связь работ
означает зависимость начала (окончания) работы от начала
(окончания) логически связанной с ней работы.
Activity, successorследующая работа. Работа, которая
зависит от выполнения данной работы, технологически
(логически) следующая за данной. Данная работа при этом
называется предшествующей ей.
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Actual cost of work performedфактические затраты по
выполненным работам (проекта) и связанные с выполнением
работ косвенные затраты.
Actual start dateфактическая дата начала работы.
Administrative managementадминистративное управление
(администрирование проекта) включает: использование
современных средств и приемов управления проектами для
предоставления их руководителям административных услуг в
области планирования, составления графиков, отслеживания хода
исполнения и отчетности; организации взаимопомощи и
наилучшего использования ресурсов проекта; предоставление
руководителям проектов и компаний компактной информации,
обеспечивающей возможность контроля за проектами, ресурсами
и приоритетами.
Appraisal экспертная оценка. В проектном анализе
экспертная оценка проекта с целью определения его
приемлемости в соответствии с принятыми критериями. Функция
управления проектом, обеспечивающая оценки и экспертизу
принимаемых решений по основным ключевым этапам
(milestone) проекта, а также результатов планирования (planning),
контроля (control), изменений по проекту (project change),
составления бюджета (budgeting), анализа затрат-выгод (cost-
benefit analysis), процессов закупок и поставок (procurement and
logistics evaluation) по проекту и заключения контрактов (contract
award).
Appraisal reportдоклад об инвестиционных возможностях.
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Arrowдуга (стрелка). 1) графическое изображение работы
(работадуга, событиевершина). «Хвост» стрелки означает
начало работы, остриеокончание. См. event-oriented diagram,
arrow diagramming method; 2) графическое изображение
логической зависимости между работами (работавершина,
логическая связьдуга). Дуга направлена от предшествующей к
последующей работе.
Arrow diagramming methodметод сетевого моделирования
(работадуга).
As — built schedule, as — performed schedule график
выполнения (буквально — «как построено», «как выполнено»).
Окончательный (исполнительный) график (законченного)
проекта, где указаны фактические даты выполнения работ.
Authority-responsibility matrixматрица распределения
власти и ответственности участников проекта. См.
accountability/responsibility matrix.
Bar chartлинейный график работ по проекту, в котором
работы или другие элементы проекта размещаются
последовательно сверху вниз, временной период (даты)
показывается сверху и продолжительности работ выступают как
соответствующие временной шкале (датам) горизонтальные
линии. Такой график также называется графиком или
диаграммой Гантта (Gantt’s chart).
Baseline concept концепция базовых, основополагающих
планов, которая предусматривает создание базового
первоначального плана, включающего технические,
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технологические, стоимостные, календарные, ресурсные
параметры во взаимосвязи и с учетом определенных резервов и
риска. В процессе реализации проекта на его различных этапах
производится мониторинг планов с целью проверки соответствия
хода выполнения установленному набору параметров и коридору
допустимых отклонений в рамках резервов.
Baseline scheduleбазовый календарный план проекта.
Benefit/cost ratio (В/С ratio)соотношение выгод и затрат.
Дисконтированный показатель ценности проекта, определяемый
как отношение текущей стоимости потока выгод от проекта к
текущей стоимости потока затрат за весь период жизни проекта
(т.е. времени от начала процесса капиталовложений до окончания
эксплуатации созданного объекта). Проект считается
приемлемым, если при коэффициенте дисконтирования, равном
альтернативной стоимости капитала, соотношение выгод и затрат
больше единицы. Для взаимонезависимых проектов может
использоваться как инструмент ранжирования (чем выше
соотношение, тем предпочтительнее инвестиции в данный
проект).
Break-even analysisанализ безубыточности. Метод анализа
окупаемости капитальных вложенийчисла лет, за которые
суммарные доходы станут равны первоначальным инвестициям.
Результат представляется в форме графика, на котором
определяется точка безубыточности (break-even point), в которой
полученный доход в точности покрывает затраты. На графике
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слева от точки безубыточности находится убыточная область, а
справаприбыльная.
Budgetбюджет, смета. Реестр ожидаемых доходов по
проекту с распределением этих доходов по статьям
осуществляемых и прогнозируемых затрат на определенный
период времени.
Budget at completionокончательная смета (проекта).
Budget costsбюджет затрат, издержек по проекту, в котором
постатейно перечислены запланированные расходы.
Budget estimateоценка бюджета, бюджетные
предположения. Одна из стадий бюджетного процесса проекта
(budgeting). Расчет стоимости на ранних стадиях проекта,
опирающийся на проекты-аналоги, стандарты, нормы и
«удельные» цены на труд, материалы и оборудование;
используются для получения одобрения проекта.
Budgetary controlбюджетный контроль, управление
бюджетом проекта.
Budgetary planбюджетный план. План, содержащий как
сам бюджет проекта, так и распределение ответственности и
полномочий среди участников проекта.
Budgeted cost of work performed сметная стоимость
выполненных работ. Суммарная оценка стоимостей
выполненных работ (включая накладные расходы), законченных
в течение заданного периода времени (обычно контрольной даты
по проекту). В строительствеаналог фактически
выполненного объема строительно-монтажных работ.
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Budgeting (cost budgeting)составление бюджета,
бюджетирование, разработка смет расходов по проекту. Функция
формирования первоначального бюджета (baseline budget)
проекта, контроля его выполнения (budget control), внесения
изменений в бюджет (budget change), подведения итогов по
этапам осуществления проекта и пр. На основе сметы (estimate) и
календарного плана (schedule) составляется бюджет проекта
(project budget) и осуществляются учет, отчетность и оценка
деятельности заказчика (customer) и подрядчика (conrtactor).
Сметная стоимость (cost estimate) должна не только покрывать
расходы (costs), но и обеспечивать получение определенной
прибыли (earning, income). Сопоставление сметной стоимости
работ и фактических затратоснова для выявления источников
прибыли и причин убыточной работы. Смета дает только прогноз
конечной стоимости проекта, так как его окончательная
стоимость (final costs) станет известна после завершения, когда
финансирование проекта будет закончено.
Cashденежные средства. Средства в виде наличных денег и
сумм на текущих счетах в банках, которые могут быть изъяты без
каких-либо условий, т.е. обладают такой же степенью
ликвидности, как и наличные деньги. К эквивалентам наличности
часто относят также высоколиквидные ценные бумаги,
выпущенные на срок до трех месяцев.
Cash flowпоток денежных средств (поступление и расход).
Концепция финансового управления, представляющая все
результаты финансовых операций по проекту в виде двух
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встречных потоков денег, «втекающих» в кассу и «вытекающих»
из нее. Разница между этими потоками составляет чистый
денежный поток, или кассовый баланс (net cash flow), который
может быть либо положительным, либо отрицательным. План
движения наличности (cash flow projection) (или наличный
бюджет (cash budget)) устанавливает все ожидаемые в данном
периоде платежи и поступления.
Cash flow analysisанализ потоков денежных средств.
Оценка совокупного движения денежных средств по проекту для
сопоставления притоков и оттков денежных средств.
Cash inflowsвходящие потоки денежных средств (по
проекту).
Cash outflowsоттоки денежных средств, исходящие потоки
наличности.
Change изменение. Изменение (увеличение, уменьшение)
характеристик элементов проекта. Пересмотр базового плана
проекта. Одна из основных подсистем управления проектами,
реализуемая на всех стадиях его жизненного цикла.
Подразумевает документально оформленные и утвержденные
изменения.
Change in scopeизменения в масштабах и сфере
деятельности проекта. Изменения в видах деятельности, рабочих
планах, календарных графиках на стадии определения
возможностей проекта.
Change managementуправление изменениями. Под
управлением изменениями понимается процесс прогнозирования
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и планирования будущих изменений, регистрация всех
потенциальных изменений (в содержании проекта,
спецификации, стоимости, сетевом графике и т.д.) для детального
изучения, оценки последствий, одобрения или отклонения, а
также организация мониторинга и координации исполнителей,
реализующих изменения в проекте.
Close-outзавершение, окончание, закрытие проекта,
контракта. Фаза жизненного цикла проекта, контракта.
Commissioning сдача проекта (заказчику), сдача объекта в
эксплуатацию.
Communicationкоммуникация. Процесс обмена
информацией в процессе реализации проекта.
Concept developmentразработка концепции проекта.
Начальный период его жизненного цикла. Включает анализ
альтернатив, оценки вариантов затрат, календарных ограничений,
возможностей материально-технического обеспечения и пр.
Conceptual project planningконцептуальное планирование
проекта. Процесс разработки основной содержательной
документации по проекту, технических требований, оценок,
укрупненных календарных планов, процедур контроля и
управления.
Conceptual schedule — концептуальный график. Укрупненный
график, составленный для концептуальной фазы проекта.
Condensed networkсжатая сетевая модель. Как правило,
имеется в виду сетевой график, включающий небольшое число
обобщенных событий, находящихся в последовательной связи
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друг с другом. Используется для общего контроля хода работ по
проекту.
Conditions of certaintyусловия определенности.
Характеристика среды проекта, параметры которой полностью
определены или могут быть рассчитаны.
Conditions of uncertainty условия неопределенности.
Ситуация при реализации проекта, в которой возникновение
определенных обстоятельств оценивается вероятностно.
Configuration (baseline) controlконфигурационный
контроль (проекта). Система процедур контроля соответствия
фактического содержания и объемов работ проекта по сравнению
с первоначально запланированными.
Construction строительство (как процесс), сооружение (как
результат).
Construction managementуправление строительством.
Деятельность по управлению сооружением определенных
объектов, предусматривающая координацию, организацию,
руководство, обеспечение, собственно строительство и сдачу в
эксплуатацию объекта строительства, описываемая в терминах
качества, календарного планирования, сметных расчетов и пр.
Contractдоговор, соглашение, контракт. Юридическое
соглашение между двумя или более сторонами, заключенное в
соответствии с положениями закона, согласно которому одна
сторона или несколько сторон получают право на совершение
некоторых действий или запрещение третьим лицам совершать
какие-либо действия.
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Contract administrationадминистрирование контракта.
Мониторинг и контроль выполнения условий и предмета
контракта, хода работ по контракту, осуществление платежей,
изменение позиций контракта в случае необходимости в течение
всего срока действия контракта.
Contract and procurement managementуправление
контрактами и обеспечением (закупками и поставками
материально-технических ресурсов и услуг) проекта. Одна из
подсистем управления проектами, ориентированная на
заключение контрактов, закупки и поставки требуемых для
проекта ресурсов, включая трудовые ресурсы, машины,
оборудование, материалы, а также разнообразных услуг.
Contract award заключение контракта.
Contract close-outзакрытие (завершение) контракта.
Деятельность по окончанию контракта, удостоверяющая, что
подрядчик выполнил все обязательства по контракту.
Contract for buildingстроительный подряд, подрядный
договор.
Contract guaranteeгарантии по контракту. Юридически
оформленное обязательство выполнить работу со стороны
подрядчика.
Contract guarantee insuranceстрахование гарантии
выполнения контракта.
Contract negotiationsпереговоры о заключении контракта.
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Contract phaseконтрактная фаза проекта. Фаза (стадия)
заключения контрактов на проектирование, закупки и поставки
ресурсов и услуг, подрядные работы и пр.
Control charts контрольные графики. Графическое
изображение результатов в определенные моменты времени
(контрольные точки) сравнительно с запланированными
показателями по проекту.
Cost цена, стоимость, себестоимость, затраты, расходы,
издержки.
Cost and schedule controlконтроль расходов и календарного
плана по проекту.
Cost benefit analysisанализ «затратывыгоды», анализ
затрат, результатов, эффективности. Экономический анализ
проектных результатов и соответствующих затрат. Основным в
анализе является сопоставление и определение отношения
текущей прибыли к текущей стоимости затрат. Проекты с
большей величиной этого отношения (>1) рассматриваются как
успешные. Соответственно проекты с величиной отношения - 1
считаются слишком затратным, чтобы рассматриваться как
успешные.
Cost effectiveness analysisанализ эффективности затрат.
Cost effectiveness budgetбюджетная эффективность
проекта.
Cost effectiveness commerceкоммерческая эффективность
проекта.
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Cost effectiveness economic экономическая эффективность
проекта.
Cost estimation resource method ресурсный метод
определения стоимости строительства.
Cost estimation basic compensation method — базисно-
компенсационный метод определения стоимости строительства.
Cost estimation index resource methodресурсно-индексный
метод определения стоимости строительства.
Critical pathкритический путь. Последовательность
взаимосвязанных критических работ, определяющих общую
продолжительность проекта. Путь в сетевой модели,
продолжительность которого равна критической. Работы,
лежащие на критическом пути, называются критическими
работами. Как правило, критические работы составляют
небольшую часть всех работ сети, но именно они определяют
продолжительность выполнения комплекса в целом.
Critical path method (CPM)метод критического пути.
Устанавливает последовательности событий и работ проекта,
которая является наиболее критической с точки зрения времени,
т.е. наиболее длинную последовательность работ по проекту.
Data dateдата разделения данныхтекущая дата.
Календарная дата, отделяющая фактические (ретроспективные)
данные от плановых дат по проекту.
Data managementуправление информационным
обеспечением проекта. Подсистема управления проектом,
контролирующая информационные процессы с целью
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обеспечения проекта достоверной, достаточной и своевременной
информацией.
Decision решение. Способ, образ экономических,
организационных действий в рамках проекта, выбранный в
результате анализа вариантов (альтернатив) в условиях
ограниченных ресурсов и в соответствии с поставленными
целями.
Decision makerлицо, принимающее решение.
Decision makingпроцесс принятия решений.
Decision support systemсистема поддержки решений.
Соединение комплекса программных средств, имитационных,
статистических и аналитических моделей процессов и работ по
проекту для подготовки решений по его реализации.
Decision treeдерево решений. Диаграмма, на которой
представлены различные возможные действия, вытекающие из
принятого решения, и последующие решения, которые придется
принимать в результате этих действий. Состоит из ряда уровней,
на каждом из которых линиями, выходящими из точек,
обозначающих решения, представлены возможные действия.
Decision under certaintyпринятие решений в условиях
определенности.
Decisions under risk принятие решений в условиях риска.
Принятие решений с учетом вероятностей наступления рисковых
событий.
Decisions under uncertaintyпринятие решений в условиях
неопределенности.
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Deliveryпоставка, доставка материально-технических
ресурсов, продукции и товаров.
Design of the projectпроектно-сметная документация
(ПСД), разработка проектно-сметной документации.
Developmentразвитие, рост, разработка, строительство,
хозяйственное освоение, опытно-конструкторская работа,
подготовка к эксплуатации, подготовительные работы.
Earnings доход, прибыль; зарплата.
Environment окружение, окружающая среда проекта.
Совокупность внутренних и внешних факторов, которые
способствуют или мешают достижению целей проекта.
Estimate смета, оценка, предварительный расчет. Документ
(проекта или контракта), содержащий обоснование и расчет
стоимости проекта, обычно на основе обьемов работ проекта,
требуемых ресурсов и цен. После согласования с заказчиком,
руководством и т.п. смета становится бюджетом (budget).
Estimate at completionокончательная смета, сметная
стоимость, общие затраты (издержки) проекта в целом, стадии,
группы работ, объема работ.
Estimate value (estimated value, cost estimate)сметная
стоимость проекта. На основе сметной стоимости определяется
договорная цена, являющаяся основой для подрядных торгов и
при окончательном ее согласованииосновой для заключения
контракта.
Estimated costпредположительная стоимость; смета,
сметные предположения. Ожидаемая стоимость проекта, которая
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включает стандартные расходы в расчете на предполагаемые
процессы, работы, операции.
Estimated final costокончательная сметная стоимость
(проекта).
Event событие. В сетевом планировании и управлении
проектапромежуточный или окончательный результат одной
или нескольких работ, необходимых для того, чтобы можно было
начать одну или несколько других работ.
Event oriented diagramсетевая модель «события
вершины» («работыдуги») (буквальнодиаграмма,
ориентированная на события).
Feasibility study технико-экономическое обоснование,
анализ выполнимости (буквальноизучение осуществимости).
Этап проекта, а также соответствующий документ,
формулирующий цели проекта, доказывающий необходимость и
возможность их достижения, обосновывающий выбор концепции
проекта и его основных показателей, определяющий объем
требуемых инвестиций и обоснование их эффективности.
Float запас, резерв (по времени) для работы проекта.
Gantt’s chartдиаграмма Гантта. Графическое изображение
графика работ в масштабе времени. То же, что и линейный
график (bar chart).
Goal цель, задача, заданный уровень, требуемый показатель.
В управлении проектами имеется в виду такое ключевое событие,
которое, состоявшись, ведет к выполнению одной из основных
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целей, запланированных на этапе разработки плана реализации
проекта.
Graph, relevance tree дерево целей, схема, показывающая
членение общих (генеральных) целей проекта на подцели,
последнихна подцели следующего уровня и т.д.
Human resource, personnelчеловеческие ресурсы, персонал,
кадры, личный состав.
Implementation phaseфаза осуществления, реализации
(проекта).
Internal rate of return (IRR) внутренняя ставка (норма)
доходности инвестиций. Дисконтированный показатель
прибыльности, показатель ценности проекта. Процент возврата,
который обеспечивается на всю совокупность вкладываемых в
проект ресурсов (инвестиционные и эксплуатационные затраты).
Технически представляет собой ставку дисконтирования, при
которой достигается безубыточность проекта, т.е. чистая
стоимость затрат равна чистой стоимости поступлений.
Коэффициент дисконтирования, при котором доход от
инвестицийчистый дисконтированный доход (net present value
— NPV) — равен нулю. Один из основных показателей
эффективности инвестиций.
Job работа, задание, рабочий процесс. Совокупность задач
(заданий), являющихся единичной рабочей операцией в составе
работ проекта.
Link связь, зависимость. Зависимость между работами
проекта, определяемая условиями технологии и организации
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работ: следующая работа (см. predecessor activity) не может
начаться (окончиться) ранее чем через некоторое время после
начала (окончания) предшествующей работы.
Logisticsлогистика. В управлении проектамисистема
поставок материально-технических ресурсов и обеспечения
услуг. В широком смыслеуправление материально-
техническим обеспечением, движением товарно-материальных
запасов, информационными потоками, логистической цепью
применительно к производственным, управляющим
автоматизированным системам.
Managerial functionsуправленческие функции.
Master networkглавная сетевая модель. Укрупненная
сетевая модель для перспективного планирования и/или для
верхних уровней управления работами по проекту.
Master phasing scheduleосновной (главный) фазовый
календарный план. Агрегированный календарный план проекта,
включающий ключевые точки (события) по всем временным
фазам реализации проекта.
Milestone ключевое событие, «веха», контрольная точка.
Важнейшие события проекта, используемые для контроля общего
хода осуществления проекта.
Milestone scheduleпоэтапный график, в котором указаны
только ключевые события.
Mission миссия проекта. Глобальная цель проекта, четко
выраженная причина его существования, представляет его
миссию.
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Negotiation переговоры, ведение переговоров.
Net benefit/investment ratioотношение чистых выгод к
инвестиционным затратам. Дисконтированный показатель
ценности проекта, равный отношению чистой текущей стоимости
потока выгод от проекта к текущей стоимости инвестиций. Если
это отношение больше единицы, то проект считается
приемлемым.
Net present value (NPV)чистая приведенная, текущая
стоимость (в отечественных утвержденных документах
чистый дисконтированный доход). Дисконтированный
показатель ценности проекта определяется как сумма
дисконтированных значений нетто-по- ступлений (поступлений
за вычетом затрат), получаемых в каждом году в течение срока
жизни проекта.
Networkсеть, сетевая модель. Ориентированный конечный
связный граф (graph) без контуров, имеющий начальную точку
источник») и конечную точкусток»).
Network diagramсетевая диаграмма, сетевая модель,
сетевой график. Изображение сетевой модели в графическом
виде.
Network system of planning and controllсетевое
планирование и управление (СПУ). Система, применяемая в
строительстве, в управлении крупными научно-техническими
разработками, проектами и другими комплексами работ;
основана на использовании ЭВМ и сетевых графиков (network).
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Objective цель. Предопределенный результат, на
достижение которого направлен проектисходный пункт
концепции проекта.
Organizational structureорганизационная структура
(оргструктура). Структура объекта управления (проекта, системы
управления проектом), построенная с учетом требований
наилучшего функционирования всей системы.
Pathпуть (в графе, сети), определяется как линейная
последовательность взаимосвязанных работ в сетевой модели
проекта или его стадии.
Path, criticalкритический путь. Центральное понятие
сетевых методов (network), сетевого планирования и управления,
применяемых в управлении проектами непрерывная
последовательность работ (activity) и событий (event) от
начального до конечного события, требующая наибольшего
времени (в некоторых системахнаибольших затрат) для ее
выполнения.
Planningпланирование, проектирование.
Planning and control techniquesметодология планирования
и контроля проекта. Методы определения и руководства
включают: разработку структуры работ по проекту (work
breakdown structures (WBS)); составление сетевых графиков и
календарных планов по проекту (precedence diagrams, PERT
network plans); методы критического пути (critical path method
(CPM)); методы оценки решений, методологию анализа сетевых
моделей (network analysis), использующую статистические
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оценки и имитационное моделирование (simulation), балансовые
методы и пр.
Planning and scheduling планирование и составление
календарных графиков по проекту. Процесс, в котором цели
проекта (project goals, objectives) преобразуются в дерево целей
(objectives tree), представляющее собой графы, схемы,
показывающие, как генеральная цель проекта разбивается на
подцели следующего уровня. На базе дерева целей строится
соответствующее целям дерево решений (desi-cions tree).
Project life cycle (PLC) phasesфазы жизненного цикла
проекта.
PLC, acquisition phase, procurement phaseфаза
обеспечения (приобретения, заказов) проекта. Основные подфазы
концепция, обоснование и опытные образцы, техническое
проектирование и развитие, производство и собственно поставка.
PLC, close-out phase, completion phaseзавершение проекта.
Завершающая фаза проекта, составление окончательной
отчетности по проекту, проведение заключительной ревизии и
составление документации, отражающей проект в состоянии
«сразу после завершения», приемка проекта заказчиком.
PLC, concept phaseконцептуальная фаза (проекта).
Начальная фаза из последовательных фаз в цикле реализации
проекта как целого. На этой фазе формулируются цели проекта
(см. objectives), производится анализ и выбор основных путей
реализации проекта, производится обоснование его
осуществимости.
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PLC, contracts phase контрактная фаза проекта. Фаза
проекта, осуществляемая после технико-экономического
обоснования (fea- sibslity phase) по проекту, иногда включается в
состав фазы закупок и поставок (procurement and logistics).
PLC, demonstration and validation phase фаза
опробирования и оценки решений (технико-экономическое
обоснование) по проекту, следующая за концептуальной фазой и
предшествующая фазе проектно-конструкторских проработок
(проектирования в общепринятом смысле).
PLC, deployment phaseфаза пробной (опытной)
эксплуатации проекта, которая следует за фазой производства
(строительства) и предшествует фазе завершения (сдачи) проекта.
PLC, design phaseпроектирование. Процесс разработки
проектных решений, начиная от бизнес-идеи и заканчивая ее
воплощением, реализацией в виде комплекта документации,
технологии, интеллектуального продукта.
PLC, development phase, execution phase, implementation
phaseфаза реализации проекта. Одна из последовательных
фаз в жизненном цикле осуществления проекта, следующая за
фазой прединвестиционной (концептуальные проработки и
обоснование инвестиций) и фазой разработки проектно-
конструкторской документации (проектирования в классическом
понимании).
PLC, divestment phaseфаза завершения, ликвидации,
сворачивания проекта. Последняя фаза жизненного цикла
проекта. Включает выход организаций из работ по проекту,
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демонтаж оборудования, перебазировку рабочей силы и
технологических ресурсов на новые проекты. Переход к
концептуальной фазе нового проекта. См. также PLC, completion
phase, PLC, close-out phase.
PLC, feasibility phaseфаза (этап) обоснования
осуществимости проекта.
PLC, full scale engineering development phaseфаза полной
проектно-технической разработки. Период, во время которого
проектируются, разрабатываются, тестируются и оцениваются
проект и его принципиальные элементы, необходимые для его
обеспечения.
PLC, identification phaseидентификация. Выявление
потребностей в проектах. Фаза проектного цикла, на которой
происходит первоначальное выявление возможных объектов
приложения капитала с целью развития инфраструктуры,
разработки месторождений природных ресурсов, удовлетворения
нужд населения и т.п.
PLC, initiation phaseпринятие, введение, начало. В
управлении проектаминачало первой фазы жизненного цикла
проекта, иногда обозначение первой фазы жизненного цикла
проектафазы предконцептуальных переговоров.
PLC, operation phaseфаза эксплуатации, период
эксплуатации. Фаза следующая за завершением проекта,
использование его результатов. Иногда включается в жизненный
цикл проекта к качестве фазы.
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PLC, pre-feasibility phaseпредварительное изучение
целесообразности (проекта), краткое технико-экономическое
обоснование. Фаза жизненного цикла проекта.
PLC, pre-investment phaseпрединвестиционная фаза.
Иногда выделяемая стадия проектного цикла, включающая
идентификацию, разработку и экспертную оценку проекта, т.е.
этапы, предшествующие началу реального процесса
капиталовложений.
PLC, pre-operating phaseподготовка производства. Иногда
выделяемая фаза проекта между окончанием строительства
предприятия и началом производства, необходимая для
формирования и обучения контингента будущих работников,
закупки материалов и комплектующих и т.д.
PLC, preliminary engineering and design phase
предварительные проектно-конструкторские разработки. Фаза
(подфаза, этап) управления проектами, следующая за фазой
(этапом) оценок осуществимости (feasibility appraisal) проекта
(технико-экономическим обоснованием). Включает более
детальное, чем на этапе обоснования, конфигурирование и
проектирование.
PLC, preparation phaseподготовка разработки проекта.
Фаза (подфаза) проектного цикла, на которой происходит анализ
альтернатив и выбор проектных решений по всем аспектам,
необходимым для обоснования целесообразности и
жизнеспособности проекта.
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PLC, project start-upпуск объекта проекта. Начальный
период эксплуатации, в продолжение которого объект выводится
на приемлемый уровень производительности и качества.
PLC, termination phaseфаза завершения проекта.
Заключительная фаза в продолжение цикла осуществления
проекта. Одно из названий завершающей фазы, наряду с другими
(см. dose-out phase, complition phase).
PLC, validation phaseфаза (этап) проверки, приемки
проекта. Период тестирования и приемки проекта, включая
усовершенствования проекта посредством обширных
аналитических разработок, развития оборудования, тестов и
оценок с целью определения набора вариантов и обеспечения
базиса для выработки решений по доработке проекта в случае
необходимости.
Project management (PM)управление проектом, система
ориентированная на осуществление проекта по фазам
жизненного цикла (project life cycle, phase) для достижения
запланированных целей (objectives, goals) и результатов (outcome,
product or end results of project).
PM, change managementуправление изменениями.
PM, communications managementуправление
коммуникациями по проекту.
PM, cost managementуправление стоимостью, расходами,
затратами по проекту.
PM, human resource managementуправление
человеческими ресурсами, командой проекта.
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PM, information managementинформационная система
управления проектом. Система предоставления, оценки,
переработки, мониторинга, анализа информации,
информационных потоков в течение жизненного цикла проекта.
PM, integration managementинтеграционное
(координационное) управление проектом. Подсистема
управления проектом, ориентированная на мониторинг и
координацию элементов проекта, с тем чтобы обеспечить его
целостность.
PM, procurement managementуправление закупками,
материально-техническим обеспечением проекта.
PM, quality managementуправление качеством проекта.
PM, resource managementуправление ресурсами проекта,
как правило трудовыми и материально-техническими.
PM, risk managementуправление рисками проекта.
PM, scope managementуправление содержанием (объемами
работ) проекта.
PM, supply managementуправление поставками. Иногда
выделяется в качестве самостоятельной подсистемы наряду с
procurement management (см.). Включает: планирование поставок
(logistics planning); организацию бухгалтерского учета
(accounting); доставку (delivery), приемку (acceptance) и хранение
(storage) товара; учет (accounting, calculation) и контроль (control)
доставки.
PM, time managementуправление временными
параметрами проекта.
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Project management function (PMF) функции управления
проектами.
PMF, accountingбухгалтерский учет по проекту.
PMF, administrationадминистрирование проекта.
PMF, analysisанализ. Включает задачи исследования и
оценки процессов, осуществляемых в рамках работ по проекту.
Является основой подготовки решений и контроля хода работ по
проекту.
PMF, appraisal — экспертиза проектных решений.
PMF, budgetingсоставление и сопровождение бюджета
проекта.
PMF, controlконтроль проекта.
PMF, desicion makingпринятие решений по проекту.
PMF, evaluationоценка, аттестация. Функция оценки
принимаемых решений по проекту.
PMF, monitoringмониторинг проекта.
PMF, organizationорганизация осуществления проекта.
PMF, planningпланирование проекта.
PMF, reportingотчетность по проекту.
PMF, validation — обоснование, проверка, приемка.
Precedence diagram method (PDM)метод предшествования.
Способ построения сетевой модели, в которой работы
изображаются узлами (вершинами), а зависимости между ними
дугами (arrow).
Precedence relationshipотношение предшествования.
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Preceeding diagramсетевая модель «работы-вершины»
(буквальнодиаграмма предшествования. В сетях типа
«работы-вершины» работы (activity) представлены в виде узлов,
вершин (node), связанных логическими зависимостями
предшествованияпоследования.
Procurement приобретение, закупка, снабжение, получение,
материальное обеспечение.
Procurement and supplyзакупки и поставки, материально-
техническое обеспечение проекта.
Procurement contract negotiationsконтрактные переговоры
по закупкам (поставкам).
Procurement cost considerations рассмотрение стоимости
закупки.
Procurement performance evaluationоценка выполнения
закупок по проекту.
Procurement relationship with contract work breakdown
structureвзаимосвязь закупок (обеспечения) по проекту со
структурой работ по контрактам и стадиям проекта.
Procurement source evaluationоценка источников закупок.
Procurement source selectionвыбор источников закупок.
Procurement strategy стратегия закупок по проекту.
Procurement supplier valuationпроверка (оценка)
поставщиков для закупок по проекту.
Procurement technical considerationsрассмотрение
технической компетентности поставщиков на этапе закупок
(обеспечения проекта).
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Product (end result, outcome)конечный продукт или
конечный результат (по проекту). Воплощение основной цели
проекта, это может быть: определенная продукция (product),
система (system), например комплекс компьютерных программ
(software), научная разработка (research), новый технологический
процесс (technological process), строительный объект
(construction) и т.д.
Profitability index (PI)индекс доходности, рентабельности.
Оценивается отношением суммы дисконтированных значений
нетто- поступлений (discounted net cash flow), получаемых в
каждом году в течение жизненного цикла проекта, к
дисконтированной сумме капиталовложений (discounted sum of
investment) в проект за тот же период. Определяет, по сути,
уровень доходности на единицу вложеннных средств.
Project analysisпроектный анализ. Методологическая
система анализа проектов как взаимосвязанных процессов
вложения ресурсов и получения результатов. В систему
проектного анализа входят:
Project budgetбюджет проекта.
Project changeизменения по проекту.
Project change control and coordinationконтроль и
координация изменений по проекту.
Project change evaluation and analysisоценка и анализ
последствий изменений проекта.
Project change forecasting — прогнозирование изменений по
проекту.
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Project conceptформулировка целей проекта и выбор пути
его реализации.
Project data verificationпроверка данных по проекту.
Project documentationпроектная документация.
Project durationпродолжительность проекта.
Project financing — проектное финансирование.
Project financing, formформы проектного финансирования.
Project institutionsорганизации, участвующие в проекте.
Project investment cost — инвестиционные затраты по проекту.
Project investment loanesинвестиционные заимствования,
кредиты по проекту.
Project management softwareпрограммное (компьютерное)
обеспечение управление проектом.
Project management teamкоманда управления проектом.
Группа (подразделение), состоящая из менеджера проекта и
персонала, осуществляющего управление проектом.
Project management, organization breakdown structure (OBS)
организационная структура исполнителей. Строится на базе
разбивки проекта на пакеты работ (work package) и построения
структуры работ проекта (work breakdown structure (WBS)).
Организационная структура проекта объединяет работы по
проекту и их исполнителей путем распределения ответственности
по уровням и объемам в соответствии с разбивкой работ.
Project management, work breakdown structure (WBS)
декомпозиция (разбиение) работ, структура работ проекта.
Структура работ проекта (WBS) должна быть интегрирована с
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организационной структурой проекта (OBS), что позволяет
наделить участников проекта ответственностью (responsibility) за
выполнение конкретных технических заданий (task) и создать
простую систему отслеживания (monitoring) хода реализации
проекта.
Project master planмастер-план проекта.
Основополагающий совокупный план проекта, включающий
календарные планы, сметы, объемы работ и содержательное их
описание, требуемые ресурсы, координационные планы работы
участников проекта, прочие необходимые документы, <