Book

The Piper Model: Personalised Interventions Promoting Emotional Resilience in Children with Social, Emotional and Mental Health Needs

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Abstract

This book is intended to be both a practical evidence-based tool and an awareness-raising resource for teachers, teaching assistants, mentors and all adults who work with children and young people who present as ‘extremely challenging’ in the school context. In every school there are a small number of pupils, less than five percent, who take up more than fifty percent of the staff’s time. This book provides school staff with an approach to personalised interventions that enable those children or young people to build life-long resilience skills.
... Secondly, students who previously would have been motivated to return to their regular classes appear to prefer to remain in the time-out class, which, with a 'stable' population of special needs students, provides an 'alternative' classroom rather than a time-out classroom. Our project aims at helping students in time-out classes to return to regular classes with the help of the PIPER model (Piper, 2017). ...
... • Lehrerfragebogen über das Verhalten von Kindern und Jugendlichen (TRF; Döpfner, Berner & Lehmkuhl, 1994), measuring student behaviour from teachers' perspective. • Weekly Tracking Sheet´s (Piper, 2017). ...
... • Staff Comments (Piper, 2017). ...
Conference Paper
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With the closure of special schools in Austria, increasing numbers of students with special educational needs (SEN) are being integrated into mainstream schools. Soon after arriving in the regular school system, many of these students are placed in ‘time out’ classes. The original purpose of ‘time out’ classes was to provide regular students with support for temporary problems and to prepare them for a successful return to their classrooms. Mixing the student populations integrating from special schools with students who have temporary problems in fully participating in their regular mainstream school classrooms has resulted in two contending issues: Firstly, there is an extensive range of needs for the classteacher in the ‘time-out’ class to understand and meet. Secondly, students who previously would have been motivated to return to their regular classes appear to prefer to remain in the ‘time-out’ class, which, with a ‘stable’ population of special needs students, provides an ‘alternative’ classroom rather than a ‘time-out’ classroom. Our project aims at helping students in ‘time-out’ classes to return to regular classes with the help of the PIPER model (Piper, 2017). The PIPER Model - Personalised Interventions Promoting Emotional Resilience, is a training programme for teachers that aims at enhancing self-regulating and self-control competencies of students, who are “extremely challenging” in the school context (Piper, 2017).
Chapter
Die LehrerInnenfort- und LehrerInnenweiterbildung nimmt – als dritte Phase der LehrerInnenbildung – eine wichtige Rolle im Rahmen der Professionalisierung ein. Ihr fällt dabei unter anderem deshalb eine besondere Rolle zu, da die Entwicklung von Expertise ein mehrjähriger Prozess ist, der sich bis weit in die Phase des Berufslebens hinein erstreckt. Lehrkräfte können annähernd vier Jahrzehnte im Berufsleben stehen – im Vergleich mit der Ausbildungsphase eine lange Zeit, die sie theoretisch mit (Fort-)Bildung verbringen können. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden zunächst die Begriffe Fort- und Weiterbildung (für Lehrpersonen) geklärt und anschließend deren Rahmenbedingungen erörtert. Ein weiterer Teil widmet sich den empirischen Befunden, die in Österreich zur Nutzung und zur Wirkung vorliegen. Abschließend werden zukünftige Handlungsfelder und Herausforderungen für das System der LehrerInnenfortbildung in Österreich skizziert
Book
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Die inter- und multidisziplinäre Beschaffenheit der empirischen Bildungsforschung verweist auf Vernetzungen und Berührungspunkte von Theoriepositionen und Forschungserkenntnissen. Zentral ist die Betrachtung von personalen und sozialen Lernprozessen über die Lebensspanne. Aus kritisch-konstruktiver Perspektive kommen Wissensbestände und Lernorte, die ungleich zugänglich bzw. mit Barrieren versehen sind, in den Blick. Die daraus resultierenden Bildungswirklichkeiten müssen reflexiv erforscht und gestaltet werden, um zur Demokratisierung von Wissen und Bildung beizutragen. Gegenwärtige, sich dynamisch verändernde Gesellschaften mit einem Anspruch auf Inklusion, Teilhabe und Mitbestimmung benötigen für die Erreichung dieser Ziele umfassendes Wissen über die Gestaltung und Sicherung der Qualität von Bildungsprozessen und Lernumgebungen. Diese Publikation stellt Theoriebezüge und aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse vor.
Article
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There is a sometimes a mismatch between the public outcry and sympathy for the adversities children and young people experience, concerns about deteriorating mental health, and what happens in schools when children present with challenging behaviours. This review and discussion paper builds a case for actively promoting protective factors when behaviour is challenging, so that school experiences do not mirror or embed negative life experiences for vulnerable pupils, in effect handing them a 'double whammy'. The first section provides information on diverse adversities that children in the UK may be experiencing and the impact of these on mental health, learning and behaviour. The second summarises research on resilience and the protective factors that counter the impact of adversity, especially within the school context. The third explores a range of paradigms in addressing challenging behaviours and ways in which these might provide opportunities for enhancing resilience. Throughout the paper the role of the educational psychologist is addressed, looking at what is already being done to support vulnerable young people, their teachers and families. The final section considers how this role might be expanded to incorporate promotion of a pro-active, universal, wellbeing framework in education for both mental health and behaviour.
Article
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This is the Guest Editorial for a special issue of 'Educational and Child Psychology' on mental health and wellbeing in schools, edited by Anne Greig, Tommy MacKay, Sue Roffey & Antony Williams
Article
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There is now a strong body of evidence (e.g. Hattie, 2009; Roorda et al., 2011) that confirms the value of positive teacher-student relationships for learning and behaviour. The quality of relationships in a school, however, also impacts on teacher wellbeing and their ability to cope well with the many and varied stresses that are the hallmarks of the profession. Teacher attrition is a major concern in the Western world - how teachers feel makes a difference to their ability to respond effectively to the challenges they face. This article explores issues of social capital within the learning environment and how this impacts on all stakeholders within an ecological framework. It examines how teacher resilience might be enhanced by specific actions that promote positive feelings of belonging, respect, value, and trust. The article examines international research on these issues, including a specific qualitative study in six schools in Australia. Findings are confirmed and illustrated by an online survey on student wellbeing.
Article
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One of the major developments of the second year of human life is the emergence of the ability to pretend. A child's knowledge of a real situation is apparently contradicted and distorted by pretense. If, as generally assumed, the child is just beginning to construct a system for internally representing such knowledge, why is this system of representation not undermined by its use in both comprehending and producing pretense? In this article I present a theoretical analysis of the representational mechanism underlying this ability. This mechanism extends the power of the infant's existing capacity for (primary) representation, creating a capacity for metarepresentation. It is this, developing toward the end of infancy, that underlies the child's new abilities to pretend and to understand pretense in others. There is a striking isomorphism between the three fundamental forms of pretend play and three crucial logical properties of mental state expressions in language. This isomorphism points to a common underlying form of internal representation that is here called metarepresentation. A performance model, the decoupler, is outlined embodying ideas about how an infant might compute the complex function postulated to underlie pretend play. This model also reveals pretense as an early manifestation of the ability to understand mental states. Aspects of later preschool development, both normal and abnormal, are discussed in the light of the new model. This theory begins the task of characterizing the specific innate basis of our commonsense "theory of mind.".
Book
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Research guided by attachment theory as formulated by Bowlby and Ainsworth is branching out in exciting new directions. The 12 chapters collected together in this Monograph present theoretical and methodological tools that will facilitate further research on attachment across the life span, across generations, and across cultures. The Monograph is divided into 4 parts. Part 1 provides the theoretical framework, emphasizing the ethological and the psychoanalytic roots of attachment theory. Part 2 is concerned with translating theory into measurement (presenting the Attachment Q-sort and the Adult Attachment Interview that raised attachment research to the level of representation). Part 3 chapters examine short-term and long-term adaptations to nonmaternal care. Part 4 is devoted to cross-national research on attachment in infancy (Germany, Japan, and Israel).
Article
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The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood. A convergence of evidence from neurobiology and epidemiology . Anda R.F., Felitti V.J., Bremner J.D., Walker J.D., Whitfield C., Perry B.D., Dube S.R. & Giles W.H. ( 2005 ) European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience , ePub, posted online 29 November 2005 . Background Childhood maltreatment has been linked to a variety of changes in brain structure and function and stress–responsive neurobiological systems. Epidemiological studies have documented the impact of childhood maltreatment on health and emotional well-being. Methods After a brief review of the neurobiology of childhood trauma, we use the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study as an epidemiological ‘case example’ of the convergence between epidemiological and neurobiological evidence of the effects of childhood trauma. The ACE Study included 17 337 adult HMO (Health Maintenance Organization) members and assessed eight adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) including abuse, witnessing domestic violence, and serious household dysfunction. We used the number of ACEs (ACE score) as a measure of cumulative childhood stress and hypothesized a ‘dose–response’ relationship of the ACE score to 18 selected outcomes and to the total number of these outcomes (comorbidity). Results Based upon logistic regression analysis, the risk of every outcome in the affective, somatic, substance abuse, memory, sexual, and aggression-related domains increased in a graded fashion as the ACE score increased (P < 0.001). The mean number of comorbid outcomes tripled across the range of the ACE score. Conclusions The graded relationship of the ACE score to 18 different outcomes in multiple domains theoretically parallels the cumulative exposure of the developing brain to the stress response with resulting impairment in multiple brain structures and functions.
Article
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The central goal of the present study was to examine how a child's emotion regulation ability may moderate the relations between teaching styles and anxiety in childhood. Participants were 33 children (21 males, 12 females; mean age 7.5 years, standard deviation = 0.42), their mothers and teachers. Children completed the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire - Revised to assess their emotion regulation, mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist to assess their child's anxiety and teachers completed the Teaching Styles Inventory to assess various teaching styles. Results indicated different patterns of associations between teaching styles and anxiety for well-regulated versus dysregulated children. For example, it was found that children who are better able to regulate their emotions are better at coping with the potentially stressful context brought on by the expert teaching style than those children lower in regulation abilities. Preliminary evidence suggested that different teaching styles might be associated with different outcomes among children with differing regulatory characteristics. Results are discussed using the goodness-of-fit model.
Article
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The authors propose a model of the prosocial classroom that highlights the importance of teachers’ social and emotional competence (SEC) and well-being in the development and maintenance of supportive teacher–student relationships, effective classroom management, and successful social and emotional learning program implementation. This model proposes that these factors contribute to creating a classroom climate that is more conducive to learning and that promotes positive developmental outcomes among students. Furthermore, this article reviews current research suggesting a relationship between SEC and teacher burnout and reviews intervention efforts to support teachers’ SEC through stress reduction and mindfulness programs. Finally, the authors propose a research agenda to address the potential efficacy of intervention strategies designed to promote teacher SEC and improved learning outcomes for students.
Article
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The purpose of this study is to examine if attachment styles predict emotional intelligence (intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, stress management, and general mood). Participants of the study consisted of 463 (272 females, 191 males) undergraduate students selected randomly from different faculties of Selcuk University. Regression and correlation analyses were used for data analysis. Results indicate that there is a significant positive correlation between the secure attachment style and all subscales of emotional intelligence abilities. Results also indicate that attachment styles significantly explain emotional intelligence and secure attachment style predict all sub-dimensions of emotional intelligence. (Contains 7 tables.)
Article
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Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE) is a professional development program designed to reduce stress and improve teachers' performance. Two pilot studies examined program feasibility and attractiveness and preliminaryevidenceofefficacy.� Study�1�involvededuca- tors from a high-poverty urban setting (n = 31). Study 2 in- volved student teachers and 10 of their mentors working in a suburban/semi-rural setting (n = 43) (treatment and control groups).�Whileurbaneducatorsshowedsignificantpre-post� improvements in mindfulness and time urgency, the other sampledidnot,�suggestingthatCAREmaybemoreeffica - cious in supporting teachers working in high-risk settings.
Article
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Child sexual abuse is considered a modifiable risk factor for mental disorders across the life course. However the long-term consequences of other forms of child maltreatment have not yet been systematically examined. The aim of this study was to summarise the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes. A systematic review was conducted using the Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 26 June 2012. Published cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies that examined non-sexual child maltreatment as a risk factor for loss of health were included. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Out of 285 articles assessed for eligibility, 124 studies satisfied the pre-determined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect and depressive disorders (physical abuse [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54; 95% CI 1.16-2.04], emotional abuse [OR = 3.06; 95% CI 2.43-3.85], and neglect [OR = 2.11; 95% CI 1.61-2.77]); drug use (physical abuse [OR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.67-2.20], emotional abuse [OR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.11-1.79], and neglect [OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.21-1.54]); suicide attempts (physical abuse [OR = 3.40; 95% CI 2.17-5.32], emotional abuse [OR = 3.37; 95% CI 2.44-4.67], and neglect [OR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.13-3.37]); and sexually transmitted infections and risky sexual behaviour (physical abuse [OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.50-2.10], emotional abuse [OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.49-2.04], and neglect [OR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.39-1.78]). Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria. While suggestive evidence exists for a relationship between maltreatment and chronic diseases and lifestyle risk factors, more research is required to confirm these relationships. This overview of the evidence suggests a causal relationship between non-sexual child maltreatment and a range of mental disorders, drug use, suicide attempts, sexually transmitted infections, and risky sexual behaviour. All forms of child maltreatment should be considered important risks to health with a sizeable impact on major contributors to the burden of disease in all parts of the world. The awareness of the serious long-term consequences of child maltreatment should encourage better identification of those at risk and the development of effective interventions to protect children from violence. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Article
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Studies of childhood abuse and neglect haveimportant lessons for considerations of natureand nurture. While each child has uniquegenetic potentials, both human and animalstudies point to important needs that everychild has, and severe long-term consequencesfor brain function if those needs are not met. The effects of the childhood environment,favorable or unfavorable, interact with all theprocesses of neurodevelopment (neurogenesis,migration, differentiation, apoptosis,arborization, synaptogenesis, synapticsculpting, and myelination). The time coursesof all these neural processes are reviewed herealong with statements of core principles forboth genetic and environmental influences onall of these processes. Evidence is presentedthat development of synaptic pathways tends tobe a ``use it or lose it'' proposition.Abuse studies from the author's laboratory,studies of children in orphanages who lackedemotional contact, and a large number of animaldeprivation and enrichment studies point to theneed for children and young nonhuman mammals tohave both stable emotional attachments with andtouch from primary adult caregivers, andspontaneous interactions with peers. If theseconnections are lacking, brain development bothof caring behavior and cognitive capacities isdamaged in a lasting fashion.These effects of experience on the brainimply that effects of modern technology can bepositive but need to be monitored. Whiletechnology has raised opportunities forchildren to become economically secure andliterate, more recent inadvertent impacts oftechnology have spawned declines in extendedfamilies, family meals, and spontaneous peerinteractions. The latter changes have deprivedmany children of experiences that promotepositive growth of the cognitive and caringpotentials of their developing brains.
Article
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Childhood abuse is associated with later psychopathology, including conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, anxiety and depression as well as a heightened risk of health and social problems. However, the neurobiological mechanisms by which childhood adversity increases vulnerability to psychopathology remain poorly understood. There is likely to be a complex interaction between environmental experiences (such as abuse) and individual differences in risk versus protective genes, which influences the neurobiological circuitry underpinning psychological and emotional development. Neuroendocrine studies indicate an association between early adversity and atypical development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response, which may predispose to psychiatric vulnerability in adulthood. Brain imaging research in children and adults is providing evidence of several structural and functional brain differences associated with early adversity. Structural differences have been reported in the corpus callosum, cerebellum and prefrontal cortex. Functional differences have been reported in regions implicated in emotional and behavioural regulation, including the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex. These differences at the neurobiological level may represent adaptations to early experiences of heightened stress that lead to an increased risk of psychopathology. We also consider the clinical implications of future neurobiological and genetic research.
Article
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The European Union Dataprev project reviewed work on mental health in four areas, parenting, schools, the workplace and older people. The schools workpackage carried out a systematic review of reviews of work on mental health in schools from which it identified evidence-based interventions and programmes and extracted the general principles from evidence-based work. A systematic search of the literature uncovered 52 systematic reviews and meta-analyses of mental health in schools. The interventions identified by the reviews had a wide range of beneficial effects on children, families and communities and on a range of mental health, social, emotional and educational outcomes. The effect sizes associated with most interventions were generally small to moderate in statistical terms, but large in terms of real-world impacts. The effects associated with interventions were variable and their effectiveness could not always be relied on. The characteristics of more effective interventions included: teaching skills, focusing on positive mental health; balancing universal and targeted approaches; starting early with the youngest children and continuing with older ones; operating for a lengthy period of time and embedding work within a multi-modal/whole-school approach which included such features as changes to the curriculum including teaching skills and linking with academic learning, improving school ethos, teacher education, liaison with parents, parenting education, community involvement and coordinated work with outside agencies. Interventions were only effective if they were completely and accurately implemented: this applied particularly to whole-school interventions which could be ineffective if not implemented with clarity, intensity and fidelity. The implications for policy and practice around mental health in schools are discussed, including the suggestion of some rebalancing of priorities and emphases.
Article
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The primary objectives of this study were: (i) to evaluate the capacity of a well- validated anxiety prevention and emotional resiliency program (FRIENDS) to reduce psychological distress in young culturally diverse migrants of non-English speaking background (NESB), and (ii) to determine whether any change in psychological symptoms and emotional resilience would be maintained over time. Three hundred and twenty-four students differentiated by cultural origin (former- Yugoslavian, Chinese, and mixed-ethnic) and educational level (elementary and high school), were recruited from different Australian states and allocated to either an intervention or wait-list condition. All students completed standardized measures of self-esteem, internalizing symptoms, and future outlook both before and after a 10-week FRIENDS intervention or wait period. One hundred and thirty-nine participants from Queensland were also assessed six months following completion of the FRIENDS program to determine its long-term effects. Consistent with previous trials involving culturally diverse populations, NESB participants who underwent FRIENDS training exhibited significantly greater self- esteem, fewer internalizing symptoms, and a less pessimistic future outlook than wait-list participants at both post- and six months follow-up assessment intervals. This study provides empirical evidence for the utility of the FRIENDS program as a resource for therapists and schools working with young culturally diverse migrant populations. Yes Yes
Article
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To examine the relationship between child maltreatment and cognitive development in extremely low birth weight infants, adjusting for perinatal and parental risk factors. A total of 352 infants with birth weight of <1000 g were followed prospectively for 4 years. The data were analyzed with regard to perinatal and parental risk factors and referrals for suspected child maltreatment to government agencies. Perinatal risk factors included birth weight, gestation, gender, periventricular hemorrhage, ventricular dilation, home oxygen requirement, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Parental risk factors included maternal age, race, marital status, education, and hospital insurance status. Cognitive z scores were calculated at 1, 2, and 4 years, and head circumference z scores were calculated at birth, 2 years, and 4 years. Fifteen percent of infants were referred to child protective services for suspected child maltreatment. The adjusted general cognitive index at 4 years was significantly reduced in infants who were referred for neglect (-17.6; 95% confidence interval: -3.3, -31.9). Infants whose neglect was substantiated had a progressive decline in their cognitive function over time (cognitive z scores: -0.97, -1.37, and -2.05 standard deviations at 1, 2, and 4 years, respectively), compared with non-neglected infants (z scores: -0.04 to -0.36). They had a significantly smaller head circumference at 2 and 4 years but not at birth (adjusted z score at 4 years: -0.812; 95% confidence interval: -0.167, -1.458). Perinatal risk factors and physical disability were not related to maltreatment referral; only parental factors were independent predictors. Childhood neglect is associated significantly with delayed cognitive development and head growth. Addressing risk factors antenatally and in early childhood may improve outcomes.
Article
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In a recent national survey, the prevalence of psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents in Great Britain was more than 9%.1 Parents and doctors commonly think that these disorders are transient, but longitudinal studies show otherwise.2 We followed up children from the national survey to examine persistence in a large sample of children in Britain.1
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This study used data from 6 sites and 3 countries to examine the developmental course of physical aggression in childhood and to analyze its linkage to violent and nonviolent offending outcomes in adolescence. The results indicate that among boys there is continuity in problem behavior from childhood to adolescence and that such continuity is especially acute when early problem behavior takes the form of physical aggression. Chronic physical aggression during the elementary school years specifically increases the risk for continued physical violence as well as other nonviolent forms of delinquency during adolescence. However, this conclusion is reserved primarily for boys, because the results indicate no clear linkage between childhood physical aggression and adolescent offending among female samples despite notable similarities across male and female samples in the developmental course of physical aggression in childhood.
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Empathy is an essential part of normal social functioning, yet there are precious few instruments for measuring individual differences in this domain. In this article we review psychological theories of empathy and its measurement. Previous instruments that purport to measure this have not always focused purely on empathy. We report a new self-report questionnaire, the Empathy Quotient (EQ), for use with adults of normal intelligence. It contains 40 empathy items and 20 filler/control items. On each empathy item a person can score 2, 1, or 0, so the EQ has a maximum score of 80 and a minimum of zero. In Study 1 we employed the EQ with n = 90 adults (65 males, 25 females) with Asperger Syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA), who are reported clinically to have difficulties in empathy. The adults with AS/HFA scored significantly lower on the EQ than n = 90 (65 males, 25 females) age-matched controls. Of the adults with AS/HFA, 81% scored equal to or fewer than 30 points out of 80, compared with only 12% of controls. In Study 2 we carried out a study of n = 197 adults from a general population, to test for previously reported sex differences (female superiority) in empathy. This confirmed that women scored significantly higher than men. The EQ reveals both a sex difference in empathy in the general population and an empathy deficit in AS/HFA.
Article
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To evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of the FRIENDS programme. Uncontrolled before and after assessment of the FRIENDS programme, a 10 session cognitive behaviour therapy programme. A total of 213 children aged 9-10 years from six primary schools were studied. Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, Culture Free Self-Esteem Questionnaire, qualitative assessment of acceptability. End of programme data from 197 children (92.5% of eligible sample) showed significantly lower rates of anxiety (t = 2.95, df = 384) and significantly improved levels of self-esteem (t = 3.13, df = 386). Significant improvements were obtained in over half of those children with the most severe emotional problems. A total of 190 children (89.2%) completed a qualitative assessment of acceptability: 154 (81%) thought it was fun, 147 (77.4%) would recommend it to a friend; 137 (72.8%) thought they had learned new skills, and 78 (41.1%) had helped someone else with their new skills. The FRIENDS programme appears to be an efficacious and acceptable way to promote emotional resilience (reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem) in primary school aged children, consistent with previous studies in Australia. Further controlled studies are needed to assess natural history of anxiety and self-esteem and whether benefits are maintained over time.
Article
Teaching is considered a high stress profession, being associated with negative outcomes such as burnout. This is worrying given the links between teacher wellbeing and pupil academic performance and wellbeing. There appears to be little existing literature that focuses on the factors that support and maintain teacher wellbeing, and thus identifies a gap in the evidence base that this study aims to address. A strengths-based method, within an ecological framework, was employed to explore teacher wellbeing. Phase 1 of the study involved teachers from five primary schools from the same local authority completing the Glasgow Motivational and Wellbeing Profile to establish an overall wellbeing profile for each school. The school with the most positive wellbeing profile was selected for Phase 2, in which six teachers were invited to take part in a focus group to explore the factors that foster and support teacher wellbeing. Themes generated from the results included the importance of relationships, collaboration and the need for realistic perceptions of teaching, amongst others. Limitations, areas for future research, and implications for educational psychology practice are discussed in accordance with the findings. Results generated from the study, it is hoped, will inform future practice and policy development in order to meet teacher wellbeing needs more effectively.
Book
Behaviour issues in general, and ADHD in particular, is always a high priority in schools. Teachers are constantly searching for practical guidance on how to manage learners who find it difficult to concentrate and stay on task for any length of time, sometimes presenting challenging behaviour in the classroom and disrupting learning for other students. Fintan O’Regan provides a user-friendly resource for busy teachers, showing them how to offer practical and effective strategies and models of good practice to practitioners, and signposting further sources of information. Chapters in this essential book cover topics such as: How can we manage ADHD behaviour? How can we help non-traditional learners access the curriculum? Working with parents of children with ADHD Making transitions less problematic Exploring other options for managing ADHD. The role of medication and how/when it can help. Written by one of the UK’s leading experts on the topic, SENCOs, teachers, behaviour management staff and senior leaders will find invaluable, practical and up-to-date information and advice on ADHD and will be able to use the resources provided as a continuing professional development tool with colleagues in all phases.
Chapter
This chapter is based on our experience in developing North Carolina’s statewide program for the Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication handicapped CHildren (Division TEACCH). It is the only statewide program, mandated by state law to provide service, research, and multidisciplinary training in behalf of autism and related developmental disorders. As both the oldest and only comprehensive university program of this kind, it provides a unique source of clinical and research data to discuss the broader issue of behavioral treatment models.
Book
Decisions made by practitioners to protect and promote the welfare of infants suffering, or likely to suffer, significant harm are extremely difficult and will have long-term consequences for their life chances. It is therefore important to know how such decisions are made, and whether they can be improved. This prospective study explored the decision-making process that influenced the life pathways and developmental progress of a sample of very young children who were identified as suffering, or likely to suffer, significant harm before their first birthdays and were then followed until they were three.
Article
Research reveals that inducing empathy for a member of a stigmatized group can improve attitudes toward the group as a whole. But do these more positive attitudes translate into action on behalf of the group? Results of an experiment suggested an affirmative answer to this question. Undergraduates first listened to an interview with a convicted heroin addict and dealer; they were then given a chance to recommend allocation of Student Senate funds to an agency to help drug addicts. (The agency would not help the addict whose interview they heard.) Participants induced to feel empathy for the addict allocated more funds to the agency. Replicating past results, these participants also reported more positive attitudes toward people addicted to hard drugs. In addition, an experimental condition in which participants were induced to feel empathy for a fictional addict marginally increased action on behalf of, and more positive attitudes toward, drug addicts.
Article
Intervening effectively with youths at risk from early deprivation, family dysfunction, poverty, abuse, and other factors is a major concern for educational and social service policymakers. Current research suggests that a majority of at‐risk youths do not experience drastic outcomes, but many exhibit protective factors that buffer them from negative consequences. Longitudinal studies from Hawaii, the continental United States, and Great Britain have identified several personality, familial, and environmental variables that promote resiliency in youths at risk. This article discusses these variables and provides counselors with an assessment technique and strategies to promote a salutogenesis perspective.
Article
It is my thesis in this paper that we should re-examine and re-evaluate that very special way of being with another person which has been called empathic. I believe we tend to give too little consideration to an element which is extremely important both for the understanding of personality dynamics and for effecting changes in personality and behavior. It is one of the most delicate and powerful ways we have of using ourselves. In spite of all that has been said and written on this topic, it is a way of being which is rarely seen in full bloom in a relationship. I will start with my own somewhat faltering history in relation to this topic. Personal Vacillations Very early in my work as a therapist I discovered that simply listening to my client, very attentively, was an important way of being helpful. So when I was in doubt as to what I should do, in some active way, I listened. It seemed surprising to me that such a passive kind of interaction could be so useful. A little later a social worker, who had a background of Rankian training, helped me to learn that the most effective approach was to listen for the feelings, the emotions whose patterns could be discerned through the client's words. I believe she was the one who suggested that the best response was to "reflect" these feelings back to the client-- "reflect" becoming in time a word which made me cringe. But at that time it improved my work as therapist, and I was grateful. Then came my transition to a full-time university position where, with the help of students, I was at last able to scrounge equipment for recording our interviews. I cannot exaggerate the excitement of our learnings as we clustered about the machine which enabled us to listen to ourselves, playing over and over some puzzling point at which the interview clearly went wrong, or those moments in which the client moved significantly forward. (I still regard this as the one best way of learning to improve oneself as a therapist.) Among many lessons from these recordings, we came to realize that listening to feelings and "reflecting" them was a vastly complex process. We discovered that we could pinpoint the therapist response which caused a fruitful flow of significant expression to become superficial and unprofitable. Likewise we were able to spot the remark which turned a client's dull and desultory talk into a focused selfexploration. In such a context of learning it became quite natural to lay more stress upon the content of the therapist response than upon the empathic quality of the listening. To this extent we became heavily conscious of the techniques which the counselor or therapist was using. We became expert in analyzing, in very minute detail, the ebb and flow of the process in each interview, and
Article
Managers in 281 schools of all types in 20 LEAs in England completed a survey about teacher absence and its causes. This paper reports reasons for teachers' long-term absences in those schools, examining the link between age and ability to report for work. Head teachers' views on the impact of school stress on teacher attendance are also explored. For schools educating children between the ages of 3 and 13 (excluding secondary schools), the main reasons for teacher sickness absence, whether brief or long-term, are reported. These are considered in the context of what is known about stressful working conditions and their effects on both mental and physical health.
Article
Bob Spalding, Senior Lecturer in the Department of Education, University of Liverpool, outlines the nature of a holistically oriented therapeutic intervention (‘Quiet Place’) developed in some mainstream primary schools on Merseyside. It offers a focus for a variety of therapeutic interventions, as well as an environment conducive to a sense of well-being and relaxation. An evaluation of the first cohort of children to complete the programme is analysed in comparison with a control group, and the key factors in the success of the provision are identified.
Recent developments in cognitive neuroscience and neurobiology emphasise the interface between our emotions, our feelings and our ability to interact appropriately in social situations. The neural basis of social cognition is subject to intensive research in both humans and non-human primates, research that is providing exciting, provocative and yet consistent findings. Centre stage is the role of efferent and afferent connectivity between the amygdala and neocortical brain regions, now believed to be critical for the processing of social information. Recent research suggests that a sub-cortical neural pathway, routed through the amygdala, may turn out to be a key player in the mystery of why humans are so prone to disorders of social cognition. This pathway responds to direct eye contact, one of many classes of potential threat. In humans, arousal evoked by this exquisitely social stimulus is modulated and controlled by a variety of specific cortical regions. Neural circuits that evolved for the purpose of fear detection in other's faces, an essentially threatening stimulus, are now associated with the acquisition of social skills and appropriate responsiveness in social encounters.
Article
Child neglect is a difficult and complex area of practice for social workers and other childcare professionals. To work effectively, practitioners need a good grasp of relevant literature and research – a point underlined by the moves to incorporate ‘research mindedness’ and ‘research literacy’ into social work education, training and practice. This paper aims to contribute to the debate around research literacy by looking in more detail at the research and knowledge base informing work with neglected children and their families, and considering the ways in which this can be applied in practice. In the first part of the paper, we provide a critical overview of the main aspects of research knowledge, summarizing ‘what we know’ currently about child neglect. Next, we look at some of the difficulties associated with this body of knowledge and at some of its limitations. Having noted these concerns, however, we go on to suggest ways in which the research evidence can be used in mainstream social work. We draw out some of the consequences for work with children and with their parents as well as considering the implications for social workers and their agencies.
Article
This paper investigates the relationship between cognitive and affective empathy and bullying. A bullying questionnaire was completed by 376 males and 344 females aged about 15 in Hertfordshire. Low affective empathy was significantly related to bullying for females, but not for males. However, for both males and females low affective empathy was related to frequent vs. occasional bullying. Low total empathy was related to violent bullying by males and to indirect bullying by females. Cognitive empathy was not significantly related to any type of bullying by males or females. Aggr. Behav. 32:540–550. 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
To assess long-lasting effects of childhood trauma on the functional outcome of adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Ninety-nine stable patients with schizophrenia followed in an outpatient program at a public university hospital in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, were investigated for childhood traumatic experiences by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and for functional impairment by the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO/DAS). The schizophrenia diagnosis was assessed by ICD-10 and DSM-IV criteria according to the Operational Criteria Checklist for Psychotic Illness (OPCRIT). Childhood trauma in general was associated with increased disability in adulthood, reflected by impaired Overall Behavior (p=.023) and Global Evaluation (p=.032). Analysis of specific traumatic domains revealed that increased childhood physical neglect was associated with functional impairment in Overall Behavior (p<.000), Social Role Performance (p=.037) and Global Evaluation (p=.014). Higher emotional abuse was associated with impaired Overall Behavior (p=.026), and higher emotional neglect with poor Global Evaluation (p=.047). Additionally, earlier onset of illness was associated with lower level of functioning evidenced by impairment in Overall Behavior (p=.042). Linear regression using WHO/DAS sections (Overall Behavior, Social Role Performance and Global Evaluation) as dependent variables and CTQ subscales indicated that only physical neglect had an effect on adult functionality. Childhood trauma was associated with functional and social impairment in adult patients with schizophrenia. Specific types of abuse and neglect, such as physical neglect and emotional abuse and neglect, influenced disability, and the most robust association was physical neglect. Studies involving more patients, with normal controls and additional measurements of biological liability, should be conducted to confirm this association and to increase the understanding of gene-environment relationship in schizophrenia and pathways to disability. Further investigation is warranted to clarify the association between childhood trauma and disability in schizophrenia, as well as to develop standardized instruments for the assessment of trauma and earlier detection of risk along with education of patients and families about adequate care, in an effort to reduce the incidence of disability in schizophrenia.
Article
In previous tests of the lowest level of a "theory of mind" (i.e. first-order belief attribution), 80% of autistic children were found to be impaired relative to a non-autistic mentally-handicapped control group. The present study examines the 20% of autistic children who have a theory of mind at the lowest level, and tests their ability to use a theory of mind at higher levels (i.e. second-order belief attribution). This autistic subgroup, in comparison to Down's Syndrome and normal control groups, was found to be severely impaired at the higher level. Autism is discussed as a possible case of specific developmental delay.
Article
A rating of parental concern was added to the Behaviour Checklist (BCL), which was then used as part of a Health Visitor administered routine developmental assessment of 1170, 3-year-old children. The overall prevalence of behaviour problems using a cut-off score of 10 was 10%, with 66% of parents having one or more concerns about their child. There were no sex differences. Parents of only children had more concerns on 6 of the 19 items even though their children behaved no differently from those with siblings. The usefulness of the BCL as a routine screening measure and the need to identify and address parental concerns at an early stage is discussed.
Article
A novel behavioural screening questionnaire, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), was administered along with Rutter questionnaires to parents and teachers of 403 children drawn from dental and psychiatric clinics. Scores derived from the SDQ and Rutter questionnaires were highly correlated; parent-teacher correlations for the two sets of measures were comparable or favoured the SDQ. The two sets of measures did not differ in their ability to discriminate between psychiatric and dental clinic attenders. These preliminary findings suggest that the SDQ functions as well as the Rutter questionnaires while offering the following additional advantages: a focus on strengths as well as difficulties; better coverage of inattention, peer relationships, and prosocial behaviour; a shorter format; and a single form suitable for both parents and teachers, perhaps thereby increasing parent-teacher correlations.
Article
The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which childhood abuse and neglect increase a person's risk for subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to determine whether the relationship to PTSD persists despite controls for family, individual, and lifestyle characteristics associated with both childhood victimization and PTSD. Victims of substantiated child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971 in a Midwestern metropolitan county area were matched on the basis of age, race, sex, and approximate family socioeconomic class with a group of nonabused and nonneglected children and followed prospectively into young adulthood. Subjects (N = 1,196) were located and administered a 2-hour interview that included the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule to assess PTSD. Childhood victimization was associated with increased risk for lifetime and current PTSD. Slightly more than a third of the childhood victims of sexual abuse (37.5%), 32.7% of those physically abused, and 30.6% of victims of childhood neglect met DSM-III-R criteria for lifetime PTSD. The relationship between childhood victimization and number of PTSD symptoms persisted despite the introduction of covariates associated with risk for both. Victims of child abuse (sexual and physical) and neglect are at increased risk for developing PTSD, but childhood victimization is not a sufficient condition. Family, individual, and lifestyle variables also place individuals at risk and contribute to the symptoms of PTSD.
Article
This article highlights the manner in which child neglect, the most common form of maltreatment, affects children's development. The review is organized according to three developmental periods (i.e., infancy/preschool, school-aged and younger adolescents, and older adolescents and adults) and major developmental processes (cognitive, social-emotional, and behavioral). Although the focus is on specific and unique effects of various forms of child neglect, particular attention is paid to studies that allow comparisons of neglect and abuse that clarify their similarities and differences. Past as well as very recent findings converge on the conclusion that child neglect can have severe, deleterious short- and long-term effects on children's cognitive, socio-emotional, and behavioral development. Consistent with attachment and related theories, neglect occurring early in life is particularly detrimental to subsequent development. Moreover, neglect is associated with effects that are, in many areas, unique from physical abuse, especially throughout childhood and early adolescence. Relative to physically abused children, neglected children have more severe cognitive and academic deficits, social withdrawal and limited peer interactions, and internalizing (as opposed to externalizing) problems. The current review offers further support for the long-standing conclusion that child neglect poses a significant challenge to children's development and well-being. Limitations with regard to the state of the knowledge are discussed and directions for future research are outlined.
Article
Little is known about lifetime prevalence or age of onset of DSM-IV disorders. To estimate lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the recently completed National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Nationally representative face-to-face household survey conducted between February 2001 and April 2003 using the fully structured World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Nine thousand two hundred eighty-two English-speaking respondents aged 18 years and older. Lifetime DSM-IV anxiety, mood, impulse-control, and substance use disorders. Lifetime prevalence estimates are as follows: anxiety disorders, 28.8%; mood disorders, 20.8%; impulse-control disorders, 24.8%; substance use disorders, 14.6%; any disorder, 46.4%. Median age of onset is much earlier for anxiety (11 years) and impulse-control (11 years) disorders than for substance use (20 years) and mood (30 years) disorders. Half of all lifetime cases start by age 14 years and three fourths by age 24 years. Later onsets are mostly of comorbid conditions, with estimated lifetime risk of any disorder at age 75 years (50.8%) only slightly higher than observed lifetime prevalence (46.4%). Lifetime prevalence estimates are higher in recent cohorts than in earlier cohorts and have fairly stable intercohort differences across the life course that vary in substantively plausible ways among sociodemographic subgroups. About half of Americans will meet the criteria for a DSM-IV disorder sometime in their life, with first onset usually in childhood or adolescence. Interventions aimed at prevention or early treatment need to focus on youth.