Effect of Entrepreneurship Education on
Personality Traits among Technical and
Vocational Education and Training Students
Intention in Kenya
Corresponding Author: David M. Kahando, Affiliation The Technical University Of Kenya
Contact Email: davidkahando@gmail.Com, Cellphone: 0722342637
Esther N. Mungai, The Technical University Of Kenya
Tirus Muya Maina, Murang’a University Of Technology
Charity Mweru Maina, The Technical University Of Kenya
Background of the study
•Entrepreneurship is increasingly being acknowledged as a key driver of economic
growth across National economies.
•Entrepreneurship education is instrumental in increasing positive attitude towards
entrepreneurship among the youth (Potter 2008).
•Entrepreneurship through entrepreneurship education programmes stimulates
economic development and employment generation (Bwisa, 2011 and Mitra,
•Why pay more attention to entrepreneurship?
•Create self-employment to universities and tertiary graduates
•Promote growth rate in the country,
•In Kenya recommended that entrepreneurship education and training be taught in all
universities and technical training institutions to facilitate Self-employment
•However TVET and university graduates remain a major concern, since only a small
percentage actually become entrepreneurs after graduation (Brijlal, 2011 & Nteere et
•larger number of graduates from both universities and TVET institutions seek paid
employment as opposed to venturing into self- employment (Kilemi, 2002;
•Given the persistent unemployment problem among the Kenyan youth, the
government re-emphasized the need for TVET Institutions to incorporate
entrepreneurship education as a core unit in TVET education curricular.
The government efforts in promoting entrepreneurship:
•one stop shop citizen service (Huduma Centres)
•Youth Enterprise Development Fund (YEDF),
•Women Enterprise Development Fund (WEDF),
•Uwezo Funds (UF),
•and Kazi Kwa Vijana initiative
•Youth Empowerment Centres (YEC)
Statement of the Problem
over 3 million youth are among the unemployed (KNBS, 2015).
Economic Survey, (2016) observes that only 28 percent of 30,000 who graduated from both universities and TVET institutions were
absorbed into formal employment.
•Despite the government’s effort to address the youth unemployment problems through self-employment, more
of those who graduate continue to prefer formal employment(Mungai and Kobonyo, 2014).
•The focus on students within TVET institutions is therefore important given the tailored nature of the
curriculum to produce graduates who are more likely to prefer self-employment career options
Objective of the study
•Determine the relationship between Entrepreneurship Education on
Personality Traits among TVET Students towards Self-Employment
Intention in Kenya
Personality Trait Theory and Self-Employment Intentions
•The traits theories rely on the assumption that entrepreneurs possess
certain traits that distinguish them from others.
•Personality traits on Self-employment intention are: need for achievement;
locus of control, and risk taking propensity (Phan et al., 2002).
•Luethje and Franke (2003); Obschonka et al. (2010) assert that personal
traits have a strong effect on self-employment and are important predictors
of Self-employment intention.
Personality traits on Self-employment intention
•Risk propensity: is a personality trait involving the willingness to pursue
decisions or courses of action involving uncertainty regarding success or
failure outcomes (Jackson, 1994; Baron, 2007; Markman & Baron, 2003).
•Need for achievement: is a personality trait of an individuals who strive to
achieve gravitate toward situations in which they can attain results through
their own efforts (McClelland, 1985)
•Locus of control: It is understood to be the amount of control a person
perceives himself/herself to have over situations (Rotter (1966, 1975).
•A person's "locus," (Latin for "place" or "location") is conceptualized as
internal or external.
•A quantitative research design, cross-sectional survey was used.
•The study adopted the positivism paradigm Research which assumes that a useful research is based on
theory, hypotheses and quantitative data (Ridenour & Newman 2008).
•The quantitative approach involves data collection and the analysis of numerical data (Veal, 2005).
•The study was carried out in 41 public TVET institutions distributed in all regions in Kenya. TVET
institutions are geographically, distributed over five regions in Kenya, namely; Coast Region, Mt Kenya
Region, North Rift Region, Nairobi Region, and Western Region (MOHEST, 2000)
•Due to the large spectrum of courses offered in TVET institutions, the study focused on diploma finalist
students in the field of engineering in their last term October- December, 2016 comprised of building
construction, civil, electrical and electronic, mechanical and automobile.
•The probability sampling (Kombo & Tromp, 2006) and the sampling unit for the
study was finalist engineering students.
Sampling Technique and Sample Size
•The first stage of multi-stage sampling Nassiuma’s, formula was used to select the 10
institutions from the entire region
•The second stage Stratified random sampling was used to select the proportionate
sample unit from each region,
•The third stage was used select specific sample unit and the name of institution.
•The Final stage was used to select the sample of the respondents from each sampled
Data Collection and Procedures
•The study employed designed survey instruments for the research to collect
primary data from the respondents.
•The main data collection instrument used was a self-administered questionnaire
to the respondents
•The primary data was collected from diploma finalist students in the field of
engineering between October and November 2016 from public TVET institutions
Test of Reliability and Validity
•The reliability of the instrument was tested using Cronbach's Alpha
coefficient which is used to assess the internal consistency or homogeneity
among the research instrument items, Garson (2009)
•The average results for the questionnaire constructs obtained a Cronbach's
Alpha coefficient of 0.76.
•Validity of the research questionnaires, the researcher used face validity
where a panel of experts and the supervisors gave their input and confirmed
that the instrument met the criterion.
•Pilot survey was conducted in one of TVET Institution in the month of
September 2016. The Institution was randomly sampled.
Data Analysis and Processing
•Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics was used.
H1:Entrepreneurship education has a significant effect on the relationship between personality trait and students’ self-
•Linear Regression analysis model:
•Y= + 1x1+ 2x2 + єα β β
•Y = self-employment intentions
•a ` = Y intercept (the value of Y when X is equal to Zero)
•1 = The co-efficient of the independent variable(Entrepreneurship education) β
•2 `` = The co-efficient of the independent variable(personality trait ) β
•X1-2``````= The values of the independent variable
•Є= Error Term
•The regression analysis, on personality traits indicated a positive
significant relationship with self-employment intention at P<0.005 and
influence self-employment intention by 40.6%.
•However entrepreneurship education was not significant at P>0.005
therefore doesn’t influence self-employment intention.