ArticlePDF Available Vol 6, Issue 07, 2017.
Tripathi et al. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
I. P. Tripathi*, Poonam Chaudhary and Poonam Pandey
Faculty of Science and Environment Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramoday Viswavidhalay
Chitrakoot, Satna, MP.
Mallotus philippensis is one of the endangered medicinally important
plants used in indigenous system of medicine for cultivation prospects.
It is an important medicinal shrub of Ayurvedic system; whole parts of
the plants are rich in secondary metabolites. Various parts of the plant
are used in the treatment of skin problem, bronchitis, abdominal
disease, jaundice, malaria, antifungal, tape-worm, eye-disease, cancer,
diabetes, diarrhea, urinogenital infection etc. It also possesses various
pharmacological activities like anti-oxidant, Antimicrobial Activity,
Antifilarial Activity, Anti-LeukaemicActivity, Antitumor Activity,
anti-HIV Activity, Anti-tuberculosis Activity Hepatoprotective
Activity. This review underlines the miracle activities of the Mallotus
India has a rich bio diversity of medicinal and Aromatic plants and holds a unique place in
the world in the traditional system of medicine.[1] Indigenous medicinal plants are great
importance to the health of individuals and to communities. The medicinal activity of the
plants may be due to the presence of bio-active chemical constituents such as flavanoids,
tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids and glycosides.[2]
In Ayurveda different types of medicinal preparations are used to external and internal
ailments by utilizing special parts of medicinal plants such as the leaves, seed, stem bark,
flowers, roots etc.[3]
The genus Mallotus comprises of about 150 species in the world and about 20 species alone
have been reported in india.[4] Mallotus philippensis locally known as kamala is a large
World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
SJIF Impact Factor 7.523
Volume 6, Issue 7, 678-687. Review Article ISSN 2277 7105
*Corresponding Author
I. P. Tripathi
Faculty of Science and
Environment Mahatma
Gandhi Chitrakoot
Gramoday Viswavidhalay
Chitrakoot, Satna, MP.
Article Received on
05 May 2017,
Revised on 25 May 2017,
Accepted on 15 June 2017
DOI: 10.20959/wjpr20177-8816 Vol 6, Issue 07, 2017.
Tripathi et al. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
woody multipurpose medicinal tree belongs to family Euphorbiaceae consisting of herbs,
shrubs and trees. The bark of Mallotus philippensis has been used for typhoid and
meningitis.[5] The gland and the hairs of the fruits are used in the treatment of intestinal
worms and also as a purgative. Its oil is used in dermal problems and non healing wounds.[6]
The leaves are used externally for different types of skin infections and infected wounds.[7]
The glands/hairs of the fruit mixed with coconut oil is used to dress wounds and burns and
the oil of Mallotus philippensis cleanses chronic infected wounds. In dermatiles especially of
oozing type, Mallotus philippensis is considered to be a valuable remedy.[8]
(1) (2)
Fig 1: Overview of Mallotus philippensis
Fig 2: Mature fruits of Mallotus
Scientific Classification
Vernacular Names
Kamala, Sindur, Rohini and Kambhal
Monkey-face tree
Kapli, Kungumam, Kurangumanjanatti
Kapli, Kunkuma, Sinduri,Chendiramu
Gangai, Puddum, and Lochan
Kapila, Kampillaka Vol 6, Issue 07, 2017.
Tripathi et al. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Mallotus philippensis has a widespread natural distribution, from the western Himalayas,
through India, Sri Lanka, to southern China and throughout Malesia to Australia. Sometimes
it is gregarious but more usually mixed with other species, both in forests and open
scrubland. Kamala tree is common in evergreen forest, especially in secondary forest, and
sometimes even dominant in the undergrowth. Kamala tree withstands considerable shade; it
is frost-hardy and resistant to drought.[9]
Biophysical limits
Temperature- 16-28 0C
Annual rainfall 800-2000 mm
Soil- It grows mostly in every soil types, including in fertile soi, limestone and rocky
Trees are small to medium sized monoecious in nature, upto 25m tall and with a bole up to 50
cm in diameter, but usually much less in number. Slash turning deep red, branchlets are
reddish brown glandular.
Leaves are alternate and simple, more or less leathery, ovate to lanceolate, cuneate to rounded
with two glands at base. Leaves are mostly acute or acuminate at apex, conspicuously 3-
nerved, hairy and reddish glandular beneath, petiole size 1-4 cm long, puberulous and
reddish-brown in color.
Flowers are small unisexual. Male flower in terminal and axillary position, 2-10cm long,
solitary or fascided paniculates spikes, each flower are with numerous stamens small; each
flower with stellate hairy, 3 called ovary with 3-papillose stigmas.
fruit is a depressed-globose; 3-lobed capsule; 5,7mm and 10mm; stelate; puberulous; with
aboundant orange or reddish glandular granules; 3-seeded. Vol 6, Issue 07, 2017.
Tripathi et al. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Seeds are subglobose and black in color and 4 mm across.[11]
In this genus, Mallotus philippensis flowers mature from March to April and fruits mature in
July-August. Mallotus philippensis has extra floral nectarines attracting ants.[12]
Traditional Uses
According to Ayurveda, leaves are bitter, cooling and appetizer. All parts of plant like glands
and hairs from the capsules or fruits are used as heating, purgative, anthelmintic, vulnerary,
detergent, maturant, carminative and alexiteric. It is also useful in treatment of bronchitis,
abdominal disease, and spleen enlargement and if taken with milk or curd (yoghurt). It can be
quite useful for expelling tapeworms. Kamala is also used as an oral contraceptive. The
powder and a few other parts of kamala are also used in external applications to promote the
healing of ulcers and wounds. They are used to treat parasitic affections of the skin like
scabies, ringworm and herpes.[13]
Phytochemical constituents
Fruits contain Rottlerin (reddish yellow resin) 47.80% fixed oil 5.83-24% mallotoxin,
kamalin, Oleic lauric, myristic, palmitic acid, stearic acid, crotoxigenin, rhammoside, octa
casanol, iso rottlerin, rottlerin, homorottlerin tannins, citric acid and oxalic acid.[14,15]
Stem bark
The chemical constituents like betulin, friedelin, kamaladiol-3-acetate, lipeol, tannic acid, 3-
hydroxy-D-A-friedoolean-3-en-2-one, -hydroxy-D-A-friedooleanan-3-one and -
hydroxy-D-A-friedooleanan-2-one, were reported from the stem bark.[16,17,18,19]
The seed contains a Fixed oil, camul oil and a bitter glucosidal, Betulin-3 acetate lupeol
acetate, berginin acetylaleuritote acid, sitosterol, bergenin, rottlerin resin, solid hydroxy acid,
kamlonenic acid, linoleic, Oleic, lauric, myristic, palmitic acid, stearic acid, crotoxigenin,
rhamnoside, coroghcignin, octa cosanol, iso rottlerin, rottlerin, homorottlerin, tannins, citric
and oxalic acidp.[20] Vol 6, Issue 07, 2017.
Tripathi et al. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Common Adulterants
Glandular hair powder of Mallotus philippensis is commonly adulterated with Annato dye
(Bixa orellana Linn.), ferric oxide, brick dust and ferruginous sand. Casearia tomentosa (stem
bark powder), Carthamus tinctorius (flower powder), Ficus benghalensis (fruit powder) and
Flmingia macrophylla (hairs of fruits) are also reported to be used as adulterant or substitute
of kampillaka.[21]
Pharmacological Activities
Antioxidant activity and Antiradical Activity
Several extracts from Mallotus philippensis fruits and bark were prepared and evaluated for
their total antioxidant activity (TAA), antiradical activity against DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-
picrylhydrazyl radical) and reducing power. The total phenolics and tannin contents in
extracts were determined. The extract of the bark showed the strongest antiradical activity
and reduction power; its TAA was 5.27 mmol Trolox equivalents/g. The TAA of other
extracts ranged from 0.05 to 1.79 mmol Trolox equivalents/g extract. The content of total
phenolics in the bark extract was 541mg/g.[22,23]
Antimicrobial Activity
The antimicrobial activity of hexane, chloroform and ethanol leaf extract showed significant
activity against the human pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae causing brain
abscesses, pneumonia and septic arthritis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
causing urinary tract infections and septicaemia, Salmonella typhi causing typhoid fever,
Vibrio species causing diarrheal infections and the fungus Candida albicans. The
antimicrobial activity of the hexane, chloroform and ethanolic stem extract showed
concentrationdependent activity against all the tested bacteria with the zone of inhibition
ranged from 1226mm at various concentrations. But only the ethanol extract showed
antimicrobial activity against the fungi A. flavus and C. albicans with the zone of inhibition
ranged from 1622mm at various concentrations.[24]
Antifilarial Activity
The effect of aqueous and alcoholic leave extracts of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) was
studied on the spontaneous movements of the whole worm and nerve-muscle (n.m.)
preparation of Setaria cervi and on the survival of microfilariae in vitro. Both the extracts
result in inhibition of spontaneous motility of whole worm and them n.m. preparation of S. Vol 6, Issue 07, 2017.
Tripathi et al. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
cervi characterized by initial stimulation followed by depression in amplitude. The tone and
rate of contractions remained visibly unaffected. Aqueous extract at higher concentration
showed immediate reduction in tone. The concentration required to inhibit the movements of
n.m. preparation was 1/5th for aqueous and 1/11th for alcoholic extract compared to that for
the whole worm, suggesting a cuticular permeability barrier. The stimulatory response of
acetylcholine was blocked by aqueous extract on whole worm movements. On the
microfilariae the LC50 and LC90 were 18 and 20 ng/mL for aqueous and 12 and 15 ng/mL
for alcoholic extracts, respectively.[25]
The root extract of Mallotus philippensis was tested on human promyelocytic leukemia HL-
60 cell proliferation, cell cycle regulators, and apoptosis in order to investigate its
antileukemic effect. Hexane fraction showed promising toxicity against p53-deficient HL-60
cells (IC50 1.5mg dry roots equivalent/mL medium) after 72h and, interestingly, inhibition of
cell proliferation was preceded by the upregulation of the protooncogenes Cdc25A and cyclin
D1 within 24 hours suggesting its antileukemic effect in HL-60 cells. After isolation and
identification by GC-MS, polyphenols were the main compounds of the hexane extract that
inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis.[26]
Anti-HIV Activity
Four phloroglucinol derivatives, named mallotophenone (5-methylene-bis-2,6-dihydroxy3-
methyl-4-methoxyacetophenone), mallotochromene (8acetyl-5,7-dihydroxy-6-(3-acetyl-2,4-
dihydroxy-5-methyl-6methoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethylchromene), mallotojaponin (3-
(3,3(dimethylallyl) S-(3(acetyl-2,4-dihydroxy-5-methyl6-methoxybenzyl)-
phloracetophenone) and mallotolerin (3(3-methyl-2-hydroxybut-3-enyl)-5-(3-acetyl-2,4-
dihydroxy5-methyl-6-methoxybenzyl)- phloraceto-phenone) were tested for their ability to
inhibit the activity of human immunodeficiency virus- (HIV-) reverse transcriptase. The
mode of inhibition of mallotojaponin was found to be competitive with respect to the
template primer, (rA)n (dT)1218, and noncompetitive with respect to the triphosphate
substrate, dTTP. The Ki value of mallotojaponin for HIV-reverse transcriptase was
determined to be 6.1𝜇M.[27]
Antitumor Activity
Four known friedelane-type triterpenoids, friedelin, 3-hydroxy-D:A-friedoolean-3-en-2one,
2𝛽-hydroxy-D:A-friedooleanan-3-one, and 3𝛼-hydroxy-D:A-friedooleanan-2-one, and two Vol 6, Issue 07, 2017.
Tripathi et al. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
known lupanetype triterpenoids, lupeol and betulin, were isolated from the stem bark of
Mallotus philippensis and were tested for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early
antigen (EBV-EA)activationinducedby12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). The
inhibitory effect of compounds 2 (IC50 = 292mol ratio/32pmol/TPA) and 4 (IC50 = 288) was
stronger than those of the other compounds tested and the positive control, curcumin (IC50 =
343). Compound 3𝛼hydroxy-D:A-friedooleanan-2-one strongly inhibited mouse skin tumor
promotion in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis model.[28]
Anti-tuberculosis Activity
Organic extract of Mallotus plant which yields five compounds after bioassay directed
fractionation. The most active compound against Mycobacterium tuberculosis was 8-
cinnamoyl5, 7-dihydroxy-2, 2-dimethyl- 6-geranylchromene for which the name
mallotophilippen-F is suggested. The second compound 8-cinnamoyl-2,2- dimethyl-7-
hydroxy-5-methoxychromene was isolated from a natural source for the first time, while the
remaining three compounds, rottlerin, isoallorottlerin, or isorottlerin and the so-called red
compound, 8-cinnamoyl-5,7-dihydroxy-2, 2, 6-trimethylchromene, had been already isolated
from this plant. Isolated compounds were identified by 2D-NMR and C-13 NMR.[29]
Anti-Inflammatory and Immunoregulatory Activity
Chalcones derivatives from the fruits of Mallotus philippensis and mallotophilippens C, D,
and E inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) gene
expression by a murine macrophage-like cell line(RAW264.7) which was activated by
lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and recombinant mouse interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Further
investigations suggest the downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 gene, interleukin-6 gene, and
interleukin-1b gene expression. The above results show that these chalcones have good anti-
inflammatory and immune-regulatory effects.[30]
Hepatoprotective Activity
Methanolic extract of Mallotus philippensis leaves decreases the CCl4-induce delevation in
biochemical parameters (SGOT, SGPT, SALP, direct bilirubin, total bilirubin and MDA) on
pretreatment at doses100200mg/kg and also reversed the functional and antioxidant
parameters. This study suggests that leave extract was effective in functional improvement of
hepatocytes. Histopathological studies also suggest the hepatoprotective activity of plant.[31] Vol 6, Issue 07, 2017.
Tripathi et al. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
In conclusion, this review confirms the great potential of Mallotus philippensis. This plant
has an immense medicinal and economic use in different system of medicine in India as well
as throughout the world. Along with this medicinal importance, this plant is used against
human pathogens including anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant, antiradical, protein
inhibition, hepatoprotactive, anti-HIV activity and many more. This review underlines the
interest to continue the study of this genus of the Euphorbiaceae family.
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... Despite recent advancement in pharmacological science, we have limited information about the validation of traditional medicinal usage of this tree. Though, previous review articles have attempted to document and analyse information about the species, complete and updated information about the progress and gaps in the field is still lacking (10)(11)(12)(13). Therefore, the present review article aims to answer the following questions: 1) How many biological activities from this plant have been tested and validated so far? 2) What are the different active phytochemicals that have been isolated and characterised from this particular species? ...
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Kamala tree (Mallotus philippensis) is traditionally used by different ethnic groups to treat a variety of diseases and health ailments. However, these traditional uses need to be scientifically investigated and validated in order to develop drugs from this tree. Therefore, the present article is aimed to review the scientifically validated knowledge on the pharmacology and phytochemistry of the tree. To accomplish this, we extensively surveyed the available databases like Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, NCBI including PubMed and PubChem, etc. by using keywords ‘Mallotus philippensis’, ‘Mallotus phillippinensis’ and ‘Mallotus philippinensis’. Our results indicated that the tree possesses more than 50 different types of important phytochemicals of natural origin. The wide array of phytochemicals possesses fascinating biological activities like anthelmintic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-cancerous, anti-tuberculosis, anti-parasitic, analgesic, anti-urolithiatic and anti-viral activities. Thus, pharmacological activities and isolation of active phytochemicals make the tree a promising candidate for drug discovery. However, pharmacological activities such as antibacterial and anti-oxidant activities are often tested with crude extracts and in vitro rudimentary methods that can be sometimes misleading and non-specific. Thus, more sophisticated techniques may be applied for the isolation of active chemicals and elucidating their mechanism of actions.
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The slow delayed rectifier potassium current (I Ks ) is formed by the KCNQ1 (K v 7.1) channel, an ion channel bearing four α‐subunits and modulating KCNE1 β‐subunits. I Ks is central in the repolarization of the cardiac action potential. Loss of function mutation reducing ventricular cardiac I Ks cause the long‐QT syndrome (LQTS), a disorder that predisposes patients to arrhythmia and sudden death. Current therapy for LQTS is inadequate. Rottlerin, a natural product of the kamala tree, activates I Ks and has the potential to provide a new strategy for rational drug therapy. In this study, we show that simple modifications such as penta‐acetylation or penta‐methylation of rottlerin blunts activation activity. A total synthetic approach was used for the preparation of side chain modified derivatives, that slowed down KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel deactivation to different degrees. A binding hypothesis of rottlerin is provided, which opens the path for improved I Ks activators as novel therapeutics for the treatment of LQTS.
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Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. is a well known medicinal plant of Asia and Australia. Various compounds from different aerial parts of the plant have been reported possessing potent pharmacological, antiviral, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. We were interested to determine the effects of some root extracts from M. philippensis on human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell proliferation, cell cycle regulators and apoptosis in order to investigate its anti-leukemic potential. Root extract of M. philippensis was initially extracted in organic solvents, hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. The hexane extract showed highest toxicity against p53-deficient HL-60 cells (IC50 1.5 mg dry roots equivalent/ml medium) after 72 h and interestingly, inhibition of cell proliferation was preceded by the upregulation of the proto-oncogenes Cdc25A and cyclin D1 within 24 h. The hexane extract induced 18% apoptosis after 48 h of treatment. Chemical composition of the hexane extract was analyzed by GC-MS and the 90% fragments were matched with polyphenolic compounds. The present study confirms that the hexane fraction of M. philippensis root extract possesses anti-leukemic activity in HL-60 cells. The polyphenols were the main compounds of the hexane extract that inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis.
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Phenolic compounds were extracted from Mallotus philippinensis bark using methanol. Six fractions (I–VI) were separated from the extract on a Sephadex LH-20 column using ethanol and acetone-water as the mobile phases and were evaluated for their total antioxidant activity, antiradical activity against DPPH• (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical), and reducing power. The total phenolics and tannin contents in the fractions were determined. The content of total phenolics in the fractions ranged from 54 mg/g (fraction I) to 927 mg/g (fraction VI). Condensed tannins were detected in fractions II–VI. Total antioxidant activity (TAA) of phenolic fractions of Mallotus philipinensis bark extract ranged from 0.58 mmol Trolox/g (fraction I) to 6.82 mmol Trolox/g (fraction IV). Fraction IV also showed the strongest antiradical activity against DPPH• and reducing power. Several phenolic constituents in the fractions were detected by RP-HPLC using a gradient solvent system with UV-DAD detection.
An ethnomedicinal plant, Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg., var. philippensis was analyzed for chemical composition and antimicrobial activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of various extracts of the stem revealed the presence of various classes of compounds such as amino acids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, gum, oil & resins, proteins, phenolic groups, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed the presence of ten compounds in ethanol extract. Bioassay of antimicrobial activity of hexane, chloroform and ethanol leaf extract showed significant activity against the human pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae causing brain abscesses, pneumonia and septic arthritis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing urinary tract infections and septicaemia, Salmonella typhi causing typhoid fever, Vibrio species causing diarrheal infections and the fungus Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activity of the hexane, chloroform and ethanolic stem extract showed concentration-dependent activity against all the tested bacteria with the zone of inhibition ranged from 12-26mm at various concentrations. But only the ethanol extract showed antimicrobial activity against the fungi A. flavus and C. albicans with the zone of inhibition ranged from 16-22mm at various concentrations.
The first olean-18-ene triterpene oxidized at C-22 has been isolated from the stem bark of Mallotus philippinensis along with friedelin. Its structure was elucidated as 3β-acetoxy-22β-hydroxyolean-18-ene.