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The Seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum as a Potential Functional Ingredient in Chicken Nutrition

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Open Access
Research Article
Bonos et al., J Oceanogr Mar Res 2016, 4:1
DOI: 10.4172/2572-3103.1000140
Journal of
Oceanography and Marine Research
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ISSN: 2572-3103
Volume 4 • Issue 1 • 1000140
J Oceanogr Mar Res, an open access journal
ISSN: 2572-3103
*Corresponding author: Efterpi Christaki, Laboratory of Nutrition, School of
Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece, Tel:
+302310999973; Fax: +302310999984; E-mail: efchris@vet.auth.gr
Received January 22, 2016; Accepted February 29, 2016; Published March 09,
2016
Citation: Bonos E, Kargopoulos A, Nikolakakis I, Florou-Paneri P, Christaki E
(2016) The Seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum as a Potential Functional Ingredient in
Chicken Nutrition. J Oceanogr Mar Res 4: 140. doi: 10.4172/2572-3103.1000140
Copyright: © 2016 Bonos E, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and
source are credited.
The Seaweed
Ascophyllum nodosum
as a Potential Functional Ingredient
in Chicken Nutrition
Eleftherios Bonos1, Anastasios Kargopoulos1, Ioannis Nikolakakis1, Panagiota Florou-Paneri2 and Efterpi Christaki2*
1School of Agriculture Technology, Food Technology and Nutrition, Department of Agricultural Technology, Technological Education Institute of Western Macedonia, Terma
Kontopoulou, 53100 Florina, Greece
2School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Keywords: Ascophyllum nodosum; Broilers; Performance; Meat fatty
acid prole; Meat oxidative stability
Introduction
During mankind’s history, the marine environment has been a
unlimited source of diverse valuable food and feed ingredients [1].
Marine animals and plants have been used traditionally as main or
supplementary dietary ingredients for humans and their domesticated
animals [2].
Nowadays, research interest on algae (macroalgae or seaweeds, as
well as microalgae and cyanobacteria) has been renewed, because they
are considered to be promising resources of functional ingredients in
the development of novel products [1,3,4]. e reason is that consumers
are increasingly interested in the possible benets of functional foods,
since this trend is in relation to nutritional genomics (nutrigenomics
and nutrigenetics) of functional foods and aims to utilize their health-
promoting or disease preventing properties [5,6]. Functional foods can
be produced by the addition of new ingredients or modication of the
quantities of existing ingredients [7,8]. Algae due to the their abundant
availability in the aquatic ecosystem have the potential to become
excellent sources of essential nutrients and new high biological value
compounds, with health benets, such as antioxidants, unsaturated
fatty acids, vitamins and pigments.
One important novel marine ingredient is Ascophyllum nodosum,
edible seaweed belonging to the brown algae (Phaeophyceae) [9]. A.
nodosum is naturally found in the northern Atlantic Ocean from the
north-western coasts of Europe to the north-eastern coasts of North
America [10]. It has a high content of total polysaccharides (42-70%
of dry weight) [11], such as alginic acid, fucoidan, laminarin and
mannitol [11,12]. Many of the A. nodosum polysaccharides can reach
the lower gastrointestinal tract largely undigested and they can act as a
substrate of bacterial fermentation, acting as prebiotic compounds and
benecially modifying the gut microora [9,13]. A. nodosum protein
which content varies between 3-15% and has dierent structure and
activities from those found in terrestrial plants [9]. In addition, A.
nodosum has lipid content about 2-7% (of dry weight), with sucient
amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are important of the
heart health [9,14]. A. nodosum is alternative source of vitamins (A, C,
D and E), minerals (Ca, P, Na and K) [15], and contains polyphenols
such as phlorotannins (up to 15% of dry weight) with antioxidant and
antimicrobial eects [11], as well pigments such as chlorophyll and
fucoxanthine with antioxidant capacity [16].
e inclusion of A. nodosum in animal diets might be a simple and
convenient method to introduce its benecial bioactive ingredients in
the meat, milk, or eggs, due to the strong demand of the consumers
for natural eco-friendly and renewable products. ere are recent
studies on A. nodosum (meals and extracts) [1], which is examined in
the diets of ruminants [9,17,18] and monogastric animals such as pigs
[19] and poultry [13]. Possible benets of dietary A. nodosum are the
Abstract
The marine environment is a source of many valuable food and feed ingredients such as seaweeds or macroalgae.
In recent years, consumers’ demands have increased the research on the production of functional foods, especially
through the inclusion of bioactive ingredients in the animal feeds. One candidate ingredient is Ascophyllum nodosum,
a brown seaweed, containing polysaccharides, proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, pigments and antioxidants.
Aim of this study was to examine the effects of dietary A. nodosum supplementation on broiler chicken performance
parameters, meat fatty acid composition and meat resistance to oxidation during refrigerated storage. One hundred
sixty 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to four treatment groups with four replications of ten birds
each. Birds were housed in oor pens with litter and were offered appropriate commercial diets with the addition of 0 g/
kg (Control), 5 g/kg (Asc-5), 10 g/kg (Asc-10) or 20 g/kg (Asc-20) dried A. nodosum. There was no difference (P > 0.05)
in the average body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio of the birds between the four treatment groups
until the end of the experiment (42 of age). In addition, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio did not differ (P >
0.05) between the four groups. No signicant differences (P > 0.05) were noted for total saturated, monounsaturated
and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the breast or the thigh meat, although some individual polyunsaturated fatty acids
were modied. Lipid oxidation determined as thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) on air packed skinless
breast and thigh samples stored at 4°C for 5 days, did not differ (P > 0.05) between the four groups. Dietary A. nodosum
could be utilized in chicken diets up to 2%, without any adverse effects on performance, meat fatty acid prole and lipid
oxidation. Additional investigation is needed in order to evaluate the possible benets of A. nodosum as a potential
functional ingredient in chicken nutrition.
Citation: Bonos E, Kargopoulos A, Nikolakakis I, Florou-Paneri P, Christaki E (2016) The Seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum as a Potential Functional
Ingredient in Chicken Nutrition. J Oceanogr Mar Res 4: 140. doi: 10.4172/2572-3103.1000140
Page 2 of 5
Volume 4 • Issue 1 • 1000140
J Oceanogr Mar Res, an open access journal
ISSN: 2572-3103
improvement of animal health and performance, as well as the quality
of the animal products. Review of available literature has revealed
that the information on the eect of A. nodosum supplementation in
chicken diets is very limited, while the evaluation of the lipid oxidation
and the prole of fatty acids in chicken meat are missing. For this
reason this study was conducted to examine the eect of dietary A.
nodosum on the growth performance and some parameters of meat
quality of broiler chickens.
Materials and Method
e experiment was carried out at the School of Agriculture
Technology, Food Technology and Nutrition, Department of
Agricultural Technology, Technological Educational Institution of
Western Macedonia, Florina, Greece.
For this experiment, one hundred sixty 1-day-old chicken broilers
as hatched were assigned randomly to four treatment groups with
four replications of ten birds, of equivalent average body weight. Each
replication was housed for a period of 42 day, in oor cages with litter.
Conventional breeding and management procedures were applied
throughout the trial period, according to the principles of the Greek
Directorate General of Veterinary Services for the care of animals in
experimentation.
e birds of the Control group were fed with maize and soybean
meal commercial diets: starter (1–14 days), grower (15–28 days) and
nisher (29–42 days), based on the guidelines of NRC [20]. e birds
of groups Asc-5, Asc-10 and Asc-20 were oered the same feeds with
extra addition of dried A. nodosum at 5 g/kg, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg,
respectively.
Ingredient composition and the proximate chemical analysis -
dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude ber and ash [21] of the
three diets is presented in (Table 1). Calcium, total phosphorus,
lysine, methionine plus cystine and metabolisable energy content were
calculated from the composition of the feed ingredients, based on
Novus [22] and NRC [20] recommendations.
Feed consumption and mortality were recorded on daily basis and
all birds were individually weighted at weekly intervals. At the end
of the feeding trial, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were
calculated.
At day 42, two birds from each replication (1 male, 1 female) were
randomly selected, and were slaughtered under commercial conditions.
Skinless breast (m. pectoralis supercialis) and thigh (m. biceps femoris)
samples were prepared for the determination of lipid oxidation during
refrigerated storage at 4°C for ve days. Skinless samples were used
as they are more homogenous than muscles with their skin on and
they represent the type of poultry meat that is preferentially consumed
in Europe [23]. Samples were vacuum packaged and placed at -45°C
pending analysis. Prior to analyses, the stored samples were thawed at
4°C overnight.
e fatty acid composition of the samples was determined by
gas chromatography. Fatty acids methyl esters were obtained from
the frozen samples using the protocol described by O’Fallon et al.
[24]. en, the separation and quantication of the methyl esters
was carried out with a gas chromatographic system (TraceGC model
K07332, ermoFinnigan, ermoQuest, Milan, Italy) equipped
with a ame ionization detector, a model CSW 1.7 chromatography
station (CSW, DataApex Ltd, Prague, Czech Republic) and a fused
silica capillary column, 30 m × 0.25 mm i.d., coated with cyanopropyl
polysiloxane (phase type SP-2380) with a lm thickness of 0.20 μm
(Supelco, Bellefonte, PA, USA). Fatty acids were quantied by peak
area measurement and the results are expressed as percentage (%) of
the total peak areas for all quantied acids.
Determination of the lipid oxidation of the samples was performed
using a modied version of the method of Vyncke [25], as described
by Kasapidou et al. [26]. e previously frozen samples were placed in
plastic trays, overwrapped with transparent air-permeable polyethylene
(cling) lm as usual for retail sales and stored in a refrigerated cabinet
at 4°C for 5 days. On the second and the h refrigeration day, for
each sample breast muscles (m. pectoralis supercialis) and thigh
muscles (m. biceps femoris) were separated from the bones and skin,
were trimmed of external / adjacent fat and connective tissue and
blended in a food processor. Subsamples (5 g) were homogenized in
25 ml of 7.5% trichloroacetic acid (w/v) containing 0.1% (w/v) of both
n-propyl gallate and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt,
using a Polytron (Kinematica AG, Littau, Switzerland model PT-MR
3000). Samples were le for approximately 15 to 20 min to allow the
extraction of the thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), the
resulting slurry was ltered, and 5 ml of the ltrate was mixed with
5 ml of 0.02 M thiobarbituric acid. A blank sample containing 5 ml
of the trichloroacetic acid solution and 5ml of the thiobarbituric acid
solution was prepared. All samples were le in the dark overnight and
on the following day absorbance were read at 532 nm against the blank
sample using an UV–VIS spectrophotometer (U-2800 Double Beam
Spectrophotometer, Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan). TBARS were calculated
using 1,1,3,3 tetraethoxypropane (5-20 nM) as standard and expressed
as mg of malondialdehyde (MDA) per kg muscle. Each sample was
Diets
Starter Grower Finisher
Ingredients (g/kg) 1 d – 14 d 15 d – 28 d 29 d – 42 d
Maize 505.5 560 637.3
Soybean meal 339 342 283
Herring meal 46.5 - -
Soybean oil 68 63 52
Dicalcium phosphate 15.8 20 21
Sodium bicarbonate 12.1 8 0.7
Methionine 3.5 1 -
Salt 6.6 3 3
Vitamin and mineral premix *3 3 3
Total 1000 1000 1000
Chemical analysis
Dry matter 931.6 906.1 907.7
Crude protein 261.5 182.1 181.9
Crude bre 32.4 36.6 35.3
Crude fat 65.6 63.3 31.5
Ash 63 42.2 45.2
Calculated analysis
Metabolisable energy (MJ/kg) 13.3 13.3 13.3
Lysine 12.6 10.3 8.9
Methionine + Cystine 10.5 7.2 5.7
Ca 9.9 7.3 7
P (total) 8 8 8
* Supplying per kg feed: vit. A 13,000 IU, vit. D3 5,000 IU, vit. E 30, vit. K 3 mg,
thiamin 1 mg, riboavin 5 mg, pyridoxine 3 mg, vit. B12 0.02 mg, niacin 10 mg,
pantothenic acid 15 mg, folic acid 0.8 mg, biotin 0.05, vit. C 10 mg, choline chloride
480 mg, Zn 100 mg, Mn 120 mg, Fe 20 mg, Cu 15 mg, Co 0.2 mg, I 1 mg, Se 0.4
mg
Table 1: Ingredients and chemical analysis of the experimental diets.
Citation: Bonos E, Kargopoulos A, Nikolakakis I, Florou-Paneri P, Christaki E (2016) The Seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum as a Potential Functional
Ingredient in Chicken Nutrition. J Oceanogr Mar Res 4: 140. doi: 10.4172/2572-3103.1000140
Page 3 of 5
Volume 4 • Issue 1 • 1000140
J Oceanogr Mar Res, an open access journal
ISSN: 2572-3103
expert taste panellists. Dierent values for the detection of rancidity
in sensory evaluation tests have been reported: Melton [37] and
Fernandez et al. [38] reported that oxidized avours were detectable
at TBARS numbers in the range of 1.0 or 2.0 mg malondialdehyde /
kg tissue in chicken. Furthermore, O’Neil et al. [39] stated that TBARS
value higher than 0.8 mg/kg meat can considered as an indication of
perceptible rancidity in poultry meat.
Conclusion
Dietary supplementation of A. nodosum at levels up to 20 g/kg feed
in chicken diets did not aect the performance parameters and the
analysed in duplicate and the average value of the measurements was
used.
e statistical analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS Statistics
20 statistical package (SPSS Inc., Chigaco, IL, USA). Each individual
replication (cage) was regarded as the experimental unit. e one-way
analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed, using the groups as
xed factors. Post-hoc analysis was undertaken using Tukey’s test at
P < 0.050 [27]. e homogeneity of the measurements was examined
with Levene’s test [28].
Results and Discussion
e eect of A. nodosum supplementation in broiler performance
parameters are presented in (Table 2). Bird live weight did not dier (P
> 0.05) in the middle (21 d) and the end (42 d) of the trial. Moreover,
feed conversion ratio and mortality did not dier (P > 0.05) between
the groups. Other researchers [13] that examined the dietary use of
dried A. nodosum reported that inclusion levels from 0.5% to 3.0%
increased the body weight, as well as the feed consumption, compared
to the control group. In another trial [29] that examined A. nodosum
extract supplementation in broilers’ water (1 ml and 2 ml per 5 L of
water), it was found that it increased body weight at day 45, compared
to the control treatment group. It is possible that these contradictory
results can be explained by the dierent basal feeds, housing conditions
and production systems employed in the dierent trials. It has been
hypothesized that A. nodosum compounds can act as prebiotics
comparable to inulin [1], benecially modifying the gut microora and
improving animal health and performance [9,13,29], especially under
stressful or unhygienic housing conditions.
(Tables 3 and 4) present the eect of dietary A. nodosum on
chicken breast and thigh meat fatty acid prole respectively. It was
found that Asc-20 group had signicantly (P = 0.001) higher amounts
of gamma-linolenic fatty acid (C18:3n6), compared to the control
group in chicken breast meat. Also, Asc-20 group had signicantly (P
= 0.019) lower eicosenoic fatty acid (C20:1n9), compared to the control
group in chicken thigh meat. No signicant dierences (P > 0.05) were
noticed for total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated
fatty acids in the breast or the thigh meat. ese ndings cannot be
compared with other research of broilers, since similar reports have
not been found in recently published literature, to the best of our
knowledge. Dierent fat sources in broiler diets directly aect the total
amount and the percentages of individual fatty acids in the meat and
the subcutaneous fat, thus it is possible to increase the polyunsaturated
fatty acids percentage through dietary means [30,31]. Due to the fact
that polyunsaturated fatty acids cannot be synthesized by humans, they
should be included in their daily diet [32]. Diets in western societies are
oen decient for these fatty acids and their consumption can protect
from numerous chronic diseases [32-34].
Figure 1 presents the eect of A. nodosum supplementation
on chicken breast meat lipid oxidation aer two and ve days of
refrigerated storage. Moreover, Figure 2 shows the eect of A. nodosum
supplementation on chicken thigh meat lipid oxidation aer two and
ve days of refrigerated storage. e four groups did not dier (P >
0.05) on any the measured TBARS values. Lipid oxidation increased
as the refrigeration period was extended in both examined muscles,
as expected. e increased TBARS values in thigh muscles compared
to the breast muscles, can be attributed to the high haem iron and
myoglobin contents of these muscles [35,36]. Lipid oxidation was far
below the reported threshold values for the detection of rancidity by
Control Asc-5 Asc-10 Asc-20 SEM P
Live weight at 21 d (kg) 0.774 0.773 0.76 0.755 0.008 N.S.
Final live weight at 42
d (kg) 2.458 2.517 2.401 2.335 0.036 N.S.
Feed conversion ratio 2.07 2.027 2.066 2.174 0.019 N.S.
Mortality (%) 2.5 0 2.5 2.5 1.083 N.S.
Control: 0 g A. nodosum / kg feed; Asc-5: 5 g A. nodosum / kg feed; Asc-10: 10 g
A. nodosum / kg feed; Asc-20: 20 g A. nodosum / kg feed.
N.S. = Not Signicant (P > 0.05)
Table 2: Effect of dietary A. nodosum on broiler performance parameters.
Fatty acid Controls Asc-5 Asc-10 Asc-20 SEM P
C12:0 0.021 0.036 0.027 0.029 0.002 N.S.
C14:0 0.336 0.286 0.319 0.338 0.01 N.S.
C14:1 0.032 0.039 0.039 0.056 0.003 N.S.
C16:0 16.708 15.763 16.445 16.331 0.202 N.S.
C16:1 1.588 1.803 1.752 2.211 0.106 N.S.
C18:0 9.184 8.647 8.183 7.31 0.327 N.S.
C18:1n9t 0.324 0.219 0.212 0.34 0.046 N.S.
C18:1n9c 26.948 28.075 28.313 29.178 0.616 N.S.
C18:2n6t 0.044 0.044 0.038 0.046 0.002 N.S.
C18:2n6c 26.412 26.716 29.878 29.6 0.737 N.S.
C18:3n6 0.160 a0.203 ab 0.269 b0.266 b0.01 0.001
C20:0 0.204 0.182 0.167 0.172 0.006 N.S.
C18:3n3 1.72 1.724 2.133 2.164 0.106 N.S.
C20:1n9 0.257 0.285 0.275 0.258 0.01 N.S.
C21:0 0.022 0.043 0.034 0.063 0.006 N.S.
C20:2 0.601 0.565 0.565 0.466 0.042 N.S.
C20:3n3 0.838 0.824 0.555 0.691 0.06 N.S.
C20:4n6 5.573 5.792 4.217 3.788 0.454 N.S.
C22:1n9 0.035 0.037 0.02 0.017 0.006 N.S.
C20:5n3
EPA 0.232 0.279 0.18 0.192 0.019 N.S.
C24:0 1.237 1.357 0.995 0.902 0.105 N.S.
C22:5n3
DPA 0.874 0.917 0.713 0.599 0.073 N.S.
C22:6n3
DHA 0.859 0.922 0.674 0.641 0.078 N.S.
Σ SFA 28.418 27.002 26.663 25.588 0.499 N.S.
Σ MUFA 29.775 31.094 31.049 32.512 0.638 N.S.
Σ PUFA 37.314 37.984 39.223 38.451 0.391 N.S.
Control: 0 g A. nodosum / kg feed; Asc-5: 5 g A. nodosum / kg feed; Asc-10: 10 g
A. nodosum / kg feed; Asc-20: 20 g A. nodosum / kg feed. Values in rows with no
common superscript differ signicantly (P < 0.05). N.S. = Not Signicant (P > 0.05).
EPA: Eicosapentaenoic F.A.; DPA: Docosapentaenoic F.A.; DHA: Docosahexaenoic
F.A.
SFA: Saturated F.A.; MUFA: Monounsaturated F.A.; PUFA: Polyunsaturated F.A.
Table 3: Effect of dietary A. nodosum on breast meat fatty acid composition (% of
total fatty acids).
Citation: Bonos E, Kargopoulos A, Nikolakakis I, Florou-Paneri P, Christaki E (2016) The Seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum as a Potential Functional
Ingredient in Chicken Nutrition. J Oceanogr Mar Res 4: 140. doi: 10.4172/2572-3103.1000140
Page 4 of 5
Volume 4 • Issue 1 • 1000140
J Oceanogr Mar Res, an open access journal
ISSN: 2572-3103
oxidative stability of their meat. e total saturated, monounsaturated
and polyunsaturated fatty acids were not signicantly aected,
although meat breast and thigh fatty acid prole was modied for some
individual polyunsaturated fatty acids. Additional research would be
recommended to examine all the possible benets of the seaweed A.
nodosum as a natural innovative ingredient in poultry nutrition.
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Fatty acid Controls Asc-5 Asc-10 Asc-20 SEM P
C12:0 0.021 0.015 0.028 0.034 0.005 N.S.
C14:0 0.347 0.322 0.354 0.368 0.011 N.S.
C14:1 0.047 0.057 0.051 0.06 0.003 N.S.
C16:0 17.229 16.912 17.53 17.417 0.178 N.S.
C16:1 1.938 1.751 1.5 1.869 0.104 N.S.
C18:0 8.117 8.988 9.49 8.614 0.347 N.S.
C18:1n9t 0.323 0.241 0.299 0.275 0.038 N.S.
C18:1n9c 29.24 25.135 23.895 25.848 0.721 N.S.
C18:2n6t 0.048 0.045 0.062 0.049 0.004 N.S.
C18:2n6c 28.928 27.704 28.188 28.563 0.642 N.S.
C18:3n6 0.248 0.237 0.248 0.251 0.008 N.S.
C20:0 0.147 0.116 0.108 0.122 0.007 N.S.
C18:3n3 2.004 1.571 1.528 1.718 0.111 N.S.
C20:1n9 0.287 b0.213 ab 0.214 ab 0.181 a 0.011 0.019
C21:0 0.057 0.031 0.04 0.029 0.007 N.S.
C20:2 0.523 0.595 0.781 0.555 0.044 N.S.
C20:3n3 0.729 0.989 1.016 0.902 0.066 N.S.
C20:4n6 3.515 5.781 5.367 4.724 0.41 N.S.
C22:1n9 0.01 0.02 0.015 0.005 0.003 N.S.
C20:5n3
EPA 0.126 0.225 0.163 0.22 0.016 N.S.
C24:0 0.795 1.218 1.28 1.08 0.091 N.S.
C22:5n3
DPA 0.633 0.961 0.976 0.797 0.074 N.S.
C22:6n3
DHA 0.692 1.019 0.952 0.887 0.085 N.S.
Σ SFA 27.159 28.196 29.393 28.259 0.558 N.S.
Σ MUFA 32.242 28.07 26.632 28.861 0.753 N.S.
Σ PUFA 37.447 39.126 39.281 38.667 0.348 N.S.
Control: 0 g A. nodosum / kg feed; Asc-5: 5 g A. nodosum / kg feed; Asc-10: 10 g
A. nodosum / kg feed; Asc-20: 20 g A. nodosum / kg feed. Values in rows with no
common superscript differ signicantly (P < 0.05). N.S. = Not Signicant (P > 0.05).
EPA: Eicosapentaenoic F.A.; DPA: Docosapentaenoic F.A.; DHA: Docosahexaenoic
F.A.
SFA: Saturated F.A.; MUFA: Monounsaturated F.A.; PUFA: Polyunsaturated F.A.
Table 4: Effect of dietary A. nodosum on thigh meat fatty acid composition (% of
total fatty acids).
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
2 5
TBARS (mg malonaldehyde/kg muscle)
Refrigeraon day
Contro
l
Asc-5
Asc-10
Asc-20
No signicant differences were found (P > 0.05)
Figure 1: Effect of dietary A. nodosum on breast muscle lipid oxidation (TBARS,
mg malonaldehyde / kg muscle ± SD) after 2 and 5 days of refrigeration.
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
2 5
TBARS (mg malonaldehyde/kg muscle)
Refrigeraon day
Contro
l
Asc-5
Asc-10
Asc-20
No signicant differences were found (P > 0.05)
Figure 2: Effect of dietary A. nodosum on thigh muscle lipid oxidation (TBARS,
mg malonaldehyde / kg muscle ± SD) after 2 and 5 days of refrigeration.
Citation: Bonos E, Kargopoulos A, Nikolakakis I, Florou-Paneri P, Christaki E (2016) The Seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum as a Potential Functional
Ingredient in Chicken Nutrition. J Oceanogr Mar Res 4: 140. doi: 10.4172/2572-3103.1000140
Page 5 of 5
Volume 4 • Issue 1 • 1000140
J Oceanogr Mar Res, an open access journal
ISSN: 2572-3103
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